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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 12-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» “Comments on ‘Polarimetric Characterization of Ultrawideband Propagation Channels’”
Abstract:
Autors: Xiong, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4119 - 4119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 'Intelligent' in-vehicle intelligent transport systems: Limiting behavioural adaptation through adaptive design
Abstract:
Most would agree that the use of in-vehicle intelligent transport systems (ITS) can lead to changes in driver behaviour that were not necessarily intended by the system's designers. This collection of unintended behavioural changes is often referred to as behavioural adaptation (BA). While it is unlikely that designers of in-vehicle ITS will be able to accurately predict every possible manifestation of BA to a given system, it is argued herein that they may nonetheless be able to minimise the potential for 'negative' BA, increase system usability and, consequently, user acceptance, by applying principles of intercultural adaptability and adaptive interface design during the design phase.
Autors: Rudin-Brown, C.M.;
Appeared in: IET Intelligent Transport Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 4, issue:4, pages: 252 - 261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-GHz Monolithically Integrated Hybrid Mode-Locked InP Laser
Abstract:
This letter demonstrates a 1-GHz hybrid mode-locked monolithic semiconductor laser fabricated on indium phosphide. Its operating regimes are explored and optical pulses as short as 36 ps were measured. The linear cavity is 41 mm long with integrated active quantum well and passive waveguide structures. To our knowledge, this is the lowest reported repetition rate for a monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser. We further describe optimization steps of the saturable absorber reverse bias, driving RF frequency, and the semiconductor optical amplifier gain current for minimal output pulsewidth.
Autors: Cheung, S.;Baek, J.-H.;Scott, R. P.;Fontaine, N. K.;Soares, F. M.;Zhou, X.;Baney, D. M.;Yoo, S. J. B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 22, issue:24, pages: 1793 - 1795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gbit/s Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulator and Demodulator for 120-GHz-Band Wireless Links
Abstract:
This paper presents a 120-GHz-band 10-Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulator and demodulator. To reduce system complexity, the modulator employs direct modulation, and the demodulator uses differentially coherent detection. We fabricated the modulator monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) and demodulator MMIC with 0.1- -gate InP HEMTs. The test element of the modulator had a static error-vector magnitude of 10%. We mounted the modulator and demodulator MMICs in separate modules. The size of the modules was . The main lobe in the spectrum of 10-Gbit/s QPSK signals ranged from 123 to 133 GHz. The bit error rate for 10-Gbit/s pseudorandom binary sequence data was smaller than 10 at a received power of .
Autors: Takahashi, H.;Kosugi, T.;Hirata, A.;Murata, K.;Kukutsu, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4072 - 4078
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10/350- Crowbar Pulse Current System
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel crowbar system of 10/350- pulse current. The crowbar pulse current system includes a crowbar pulse current waveform forming circuit, a controlling unit, and a measuring unit. The crowbar pulse current circuit consists of a main air triggered switch, a triggered vacuum switch (TVS) which is used as the crowbar switch, and two trigger signal generators. A kind of TVS is designed and fabricated. Its triggering characteristics are tested, and experimental results show that, compared with other reported similar switches, the TVS has excellent characteristics such as wide operating voltage scope from 1.3 to 120 kV, short discharging delay time with maximum delay time at 400 ns, and its jitter at 10 ns. Based on the TVS, the crowbar 10/350- pulse current circuit and its controlling circuit are designed. With a 36- storage capacitor and a 6- waveform forming inductance , a 10/350- pulse current waveform with a maximum of 150 kA can be generated.
Autors: Yao, X.;Chen, J.;Sun, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 38, issue:12, pages: 3419 - 3424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 GHz Parametric CMOS Frequency Doubler
Abstract:
A parametric MOS varactor-based integrated frequency doubler is reported. The circuit is implemented in 130 nm CMOS but uses a conservative 0.35 m gate length and produces an output between 94 and 108 GHz with a minimum measured conversion loss of 14.5 dB and a maximum output power of 7.5 dBm. Slow-wave transmission line filters are employed to reduce circuit loss and the area required by the chip.
Autors: Zhao, Z.;Bousquet, J.-F.;Magierowski, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 20, issue:12, pages: 690 - 692
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 18-GHz 3.65-W/mm Enhancement-Mode AlGaN/GaN HFET Using Fluorine Plasma Ion Implantation
Abstract:
Enhancement-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN heterojunction field effect transistors (HFETs) with a nominal gate length of 0.35 are fabricated on a SiC substrate by fluorine plasma ion implantation without the use of gate recess. The threshold voltage is measured to be 0.2 V by linear extrapolation from the transfer characteristics. The E-mode device exhibits a saturation drain current density of 735 mA/mm at a gate bias of 4 V, a peak transconductance of 269 mS/mm, a current-gain cutoff frequency of 39 GHz, and a maximum oscillation frequency of 91 GHz. At 18 GHz, the fabricated E-mode device exhibits a maximum output power density of 3.65 W/mm, a linear gain of 11.6 dB, and a peak power-added efficiency of 42%. This is the first report of the large-signal performance of AlGaN/GaN E-mode HFETs in the Ku-band.
Autors: Feng, Z. H.;Zhou, R.;Xie, S. Y.;Yin, J. Y.;Fang, J. X.;Liu, B.;Zhou, W.;Chen, K. J.;Cai, S. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 31, issue:12, pages: 1386 - 1388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2010 to 2020 - Looking Forward
Abstract:
Our top long-term strategic objective is to establish a relationship with every related professional worldwide—millions of them.
Autors: Isaak, James D.;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 43, issue:12, pages: 11 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2010: When Mobile Robots Reached the Tipping Point [News and Views]
Abstract:
Autors: Dietsch, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 8 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2011 IEEE Topical Meeting on Biomedical Radio and Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems
Abstract:
The IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems (BioWireleSS) will premier in sunny Phoenix, Arizona, at the Renaissance Glendale Hotel 16¿¿¿20 January. This two-day topical conference will be a vital part of the IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, featuring the latest developments in wireless biomedical technologies, networks, and sensing systems.
Autors: Mahfouz, M.R.;Bashirullah, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 11, issue:7, pages: 22 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2012 Isn't the End of the World
Abstract:
The IPv4 system doesn't disappear in 2012 nor does the Internet suddenly stop working. Rather, it can't easily expand without the implementation of IPv6 in the networks and edge devices comprising the Internet.One can imagine the use of proxy devices that could act as application-layer gateways to help such devices reach IPv6-only servers, but there are various drawbacks to this kind of design (including some difficulty with end-to-end cryptography for confidentiality).
Autors: Cerf, V.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 96 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 21st Century Green Power Rises from Early ElectricRailway—Part 2 [History]
Abstract:
The Albany and Hudson Railway and Power Company opened its electric railroad on 22 November 1900. The railway derived its 600-V dc power from a unique combination of steam and hydroelectric generation delivered from a dam and power station on Kinderhook Creek at Stuyvesant Falls, New York. The railroad company also built a steam plant integral to the hydroelectric plant to generate supplemental electric power. The Stuyvesant Falls power plant has come a long way since its debut in 1900. It has weathered major changes in transportation and survived two World Wars, the Great Depression, and the Blackout of 1965. It withstood the discovery and realization of nuclear power and is about to enjoy the renaissance of renewable green energy. In 2011, when it has been reconnected to the grid, "the little plant that could" will have found its renewed place in history. Having spanned three centuries, once again the Stuyvesant Falls hydroelectric plant will light up the night sky.
Autors: Besha, J.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 7 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 22-pJ/bit Energy-Efficient 2.4-GHz Implantable OOK Transmitter for Wireless Biotelemetry Systems: In Vitro Experiments Using Rat Skin-Mimic
Abstract:
A wireless biotelemetry system operates in vivo, which requires low power consumption for long-lasting operation, high output power for long transferable distance, and high throughput for incorporating many recording electrodes and transmitting raw brain signals. An implantable 2.4-GHz on–off keying (OOK) transmitter with high throughput and high energy efficiency for wireless biotelemetry systems has been designed in a 0.18- m CMOS process. To balance power consumption and output power, a complementary voltage-controlled oscillator for the proposed transmitter is employed. Power consumption of the transmitter is reduced by switching the oscillator on and off to generate an OOK modulated signal. The transient delay for the transmitter is derived and applied to implement a high throughput transmitter. Rat skin-mimic emulating the implant environment such as electrical properties of the skin is used to measure the proposed transmitter in vitro. To transmit 136 Mb/s of OOK data, the transmitter consumes 3 mW of dc power and generates an output power of 14 dBm. The transmitter achieves energy efficiency of 22 pJ/bit with an associated bit error rate of without using an error correction scheme.
Autors: Jung, J.;Zhu, S.;Liu, P.;Chen, Y.-J. E.;Heo, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4102 - 4111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3–5 GHz UWB Impulse Radio Transmitter and Receiver MMIC Optimized for Long Range Precision Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, an ultra wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR) transmitter and receiver monolithic microwave integrate circuit (MMIC) for precision localization sensor network is presented. Longer range is achieved with low power consumption at the transmitter by fully exploiting FCC's peak power constraint efficiently. The transmitter and receiver MMIC are fabricated on a commercial low cost 2 GaAs HBT process. The transmitter MMIC peak power output is 20 dBm with power consumption of 0.8 mW at 1 MHz pulse repetitive rate. The receiver MMIC uses non-coherent detection and has a 44 dB front-end conversion gain. The receiver MMIC is cascaded with a 500 MHz baseband amplifier to achieve input tangential signal sensitivity (TSS) of . Equivalent time sampling using analogue to digital converters running at around a few MHz is utilized for precise time of arrival ranging with low cost components. Two dimensional wireless localization network utilizing time difference of arrival (TDOA) is constructed and test results covering an 80 90 area show position error variance of less than 10 cm. Ranging at 200 m is demonstrated with range error variance of better than 15 cm.
Autors: Xia, J.;Law, C. L.;Zhou, Y.;Koh, K. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4040 - 4051
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Thin-Wire FDTD Approach for Resistively Loaded Cylindrical Antennas Fed by Coaxial Lines
Abstract:
For the efficient finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis of electrically thin and resistively loaded cylindrical antennas, the 2-D cylindrical thin-wire approach with circular symmetry is extended to the 3-D Cartesian FDTD with non-cubic cells for asymmetric cases. The axial geometry of the antenna is represented as a set of piecewise-linear lumped resistors. And the near fields around the antenna and the coaxial feed aperture are approximated to the quasi-static fields with the cylindrical behavior. From the cylindrical-to-Cartesian coordinate transformation of the quasi-static fields and the contour-path integration along FDTD unit cells in the vicinity of the antenna and its feed, the 3-D Cartesian FDTD equations are derived. These equations may correspond to a full coarse-grid FDTD approach with the equivalent corrections. For some numerical examples, the proposed approach provides comparable accuracy to the reference data with fine-grid resolution. Effects of the cell size and the resistive loading profile are investigated numerically.
Autors: Hyun, S.-Y.;Kim, S.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4095 - 4099
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D without four eyes
Abstract:
Beautifully animated figures seem to be leaping out of the game player I'm holding. Planes and cars are swooping toward me so convincingly that I'm actually flinching. The graphics are detailed; the colors are natural. I've never had a better 3-D experience, and here's the best part: This handheld, multidimensional marvel, a prototype from 3M, doesn't require me to wear those clunky, chunky 3-D eyeglasses.
Autors: Harris, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 47, issue:12, pages: 50 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-Dimensional Coupled Neutronic and Thermal-Hydraulic Calculations for a Compact Core Combining MCNPX and CFX
Abstract:
The neutronic Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the thermal-hydraulic CFD code CFX have been coupled to satisfy the increasing demand for 3-dimensional results with high spatial resolution in nuclear reactor physics. In a first step, results for an evolute shaped fuel plate of a symmetric compact core and an attached cooling channel in the fuel element of FRM II were regarded.
Autors: Breitkreutz, H.;Rohrmoser, A.;Petry, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:6, pages: 3667 - 3671
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Integral Imaging Using Sparse Sensors With Unknown Positions
Abstract:
In this paper, the 3D integral imaging method is extended to situations where the sensor positions in the image pick up stage are unknown. Conventional integral imaging systems require a priori knowledge of sensor positions in the image capture stage which can be difficult to measure in synthetic aperture or randomly distributed sensors modes. In the proposed method, only the relative position of two sensors is needed whereas all other sensors positions are unknown. We combine image correspondences extraction, camera perspective model, two view geometry and computational integral imaging 3D reconstruction techniques to overcome this limitation in integral imaging systems. The image reconstruction quality of the system with unknown sensor positions is compared with conventional integral imaging with known sensor positions. We also demonstrate how the proposed method may be used to improve the image reconstruction quality even in situations where the sensor positions recorded are subject to measurement errors .
Autors: Xiao, X.;DaneshPanah, M.;Cho, M.;Javidi, B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 6, issue:12, pages: 614 - 619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers
Abstract:
Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100 ?m are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25 wt. % polycaprolactone or poly-L-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the biopolymer films. It is found that the best pattern transfer for the polycaprolactone films is achieved just below the melting point at 60 C. For the poly-L-lactide films the best pattern transfer is achieved at 120 C.
Autors: Johan, Nagstrup , Stephan, Keller , Kristoffer, Almdal , Anja, Boisen
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Dec 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3DUI 2010 Contest Grand Prize Winners
Abstract:
The 2010 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces ran the symposium's first 3DUI Grand Prize, a contest for innovative, practical solutions to classic 3DUI problems. The authors describe the rationale for the first contest and give an analysis of all submissions. Each category's winners also discuss their solutions.
Autors: Figueroa, P.;Kitamura, Y.;Kuntz, S.;Vanacken, L.;Maesen, S.;De Weyer, T.;Notelaers, S.;Octavia, J.R.;Beznosyk, A.;Coninx, K.;Bacim, F.;Kopper, R.;Leal, A.;Tao Ni;Bowman, D.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 30, issue:6, pages: 86 - 96, c3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes
Abstract:
Wafer diameters for microelectronics fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) are increasing to 200 MHz or higher. Already for 300 mm tools, there is evidence that wave behavior (i.e., propagation, constructive, and destructive interference) affects the uniformity of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring nontraditional tool designs. This is particularly important in dual frequency (DF) CCP tools in which there are potential interactions between frequencies. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar plasma properties in a 450 mm DF-CCP reactor, incorporating a full-wave solution of Maxwell’s equations, are discussed. As in 300 mm DF-CCP reactors, the electron density collapses toward the center of the reactor with increasing high frequency (HF), however, with more pronounced finite wavelength effects. Graded conductivity electrodes with multilayer of dielectrics are computationally demonstrated as a possible means to suppress wave effects thereby increasing plasma uniformity. Segmentation of the HF electrode also improves the plasma uniformity by making the electrical distance between the feeds and the sheath edges as uniform as possible.
Autors: Yang, Yang;Kushner, Mark J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 108, issue:11, pages: 113306 - 113306-11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 513 Mbit/s Visible Light Communications Link Based on DMT-Modulation of a White LED
Abstract:
We report a visible-light wireless point-to-point communication link operating at 513 Mbit/s gross transmission rate (net Mbit/s). The bit-error ratio of the uncoded data was smaller than for an illumination level of lx. The link was based on a commercial thin-film high-power phosphorescent white LED, an avalanche photo diode, and off-line signal processing of discrete multitone signals. Quadrature-amplitude modulation, bit- and power-loading, as well as symmetrical clipping were successfully employed in pushing the gross transmission rate beyond 500 Mbit/s. Adaptation of the clipping level increased the data rate only by 2%, while simulations predicted an enhancement of 20%. Obstacles towards higher data rates as well as potential remedies are discussed. We predicted that data rates of over 1 Gbit/s can be achieved with the same setup and under the same experimental conditions if these obstacles are overcome.
Autors: Vucic, J.;Kottke, C.;Nerreter, S.;Langer, K.-D.;Walewski, J. W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 28, issue:24, pages: 3512 - 3518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz Wireless: Up Close and Personal
Abstract:
The millimeter-wave band, especially the unlicensed spectrum at the 60 GHz carrier frequency, is at the spectral frontier of high-bandwidth commercial wireless communication systems. Compared with microwave band communication, spectrum at 60 GHz is plentiful (frequencies of 57¿¿¿64 GHz are available in North America and Korea, 59¿¿¿66 GHz in Europe and Japan [1], [2]), but attenuation is more severe (20 dB larger free space path loss due to the order of magnitude increase in carrier frequency, 5¿¿¿30 dB/km due to atmospheric conditions [3], and higher loss in common building materials [4]). These characteristics make 60 GHz communication most suitable for close-range applications of gigabit wireless data transfer.
Autors: Daniels, R.C.;Murdock, J.N.;Rappaport, T.S.;Heath, R.W., Jr.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 11, issue:7, pages: 44 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 years since "kpb wcy xz" became more informative than "I love you"
Abstract:
We have attempted to give a gentle overview of the concept of information theory, proposed by Claude E Shannon in 1948. Though the idea of "informative message" as per Shannon's theory is counterintuitive, on closer inspection, it is found to be not so. We have demonstrated the application of information content and information entropy on a couple of types of symbol sequences. Primarily, such analysis provides us with limits of compression possible on the sequences. However, wider scope has also evolved in analyzing sequences, especially biosequences like DNA, RNA and amino acids, to derive informational signatures in the sequences to classify them or to detect hidden features.
Autors: Nair, A.S.;Arun, K.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 692-nW Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) on a 0.13- m CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a very low power/area design for the advanced encryption standard (AES) based on an 8-bit data path. The average measured core power on a 0.13- m CMOS using a 100-kHz clock and a core voltage of 0.75 V is 692 nW. The core area is 21 000 and the latency is 356 cycles. This design further challenges the low-resource end of the design space and is the first reported submicrowatt design for the AES; it has significant power–latency–area performance improvements over the previous state-of-the-art application-specific IC (ASIC) implementations.
Autors: Good, T.;Benaissa, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 18, issue:12, pages: 1753 - 1757
Publisher: IEEE
 
» K+-Na+ ion-exchanged sodium magnesium aluminum germanate glass waveguide amplifier operating in the first telecommunications window
Abstract:
Potassium-sodium (K+-Na+) ion-exchanged multimode channel waveguide amplifiers have been fabricated based on Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped sodium magnesium aluminum germanate (NMAG) glass substrates. The normalized optical and relative gain coefficients of a 2.20 cm long device were identified to be 3.65 dB/cm and 1.58 dB/cm, respectively, at a signal wavelength of 810 nm under 457 mW 980 nm laser diode excitation. These are the highest values reported, and the results indicate that Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped NMAG glasses are an attractive material for optical amplification in the first telecommunications window.
Autors: Yang, Dianlai;Zhang, Jie;Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun;Lin, Hai;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 108, issue:11, pages: 116101 - 116101-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» XeF2-induced removal of SiO2 near Si surfaces at 300 K: An unexpected proximity effect.
Abstract:
XeF2 interaction with SiO2/Si stacks has been investigated to understand the role of Si in proximity of SiO2 during XeF2 exposures of Si/SiO2 stacks. In situ Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, using a custom-made reaction cell compatible with high XeF2 pressures, reveals that, while pure SiO2 is not etched by XeF2, the oxide in SiO2/Si stacks is effectively removed when XeF2 has access to the silicon, i.e., when the Si in close proximity to the oxide is etched. Thick oxides (∼1–2 μm) are removed if sample edges are accessible, while thinner oxides (50–100 nm) are removed without requiring edge access. This unexpected SiO2 removal is found to be due to the formation of reactive fluorine species (XeF and F) evolved by the reaction of XeF2 with Si, which can, subsequently, etch SiO2. Calculations based on density functional theory provide critical insight into the underlying energetics and reaction pathways controlling XeF2 etching of both Si and SiO2.
Autors: Veyan, J.-F.;Halls, M. D.;Rangan, S.;Aureau, D.;Yan, X.-M.;Chabal, Y. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 108, issue:11, pages: 114914 - 114914-11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Based RRAM Using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) With 1- RESET Current
Abstract:
-based RRAM devices were fabricated using atomic layer deposition under 100 and 300 deposition temperatures, respectively, and their resistance-switching behaviors were investigated. Both devices show unipolar switching if the top electrode (TE) is made of Ti/Al, whereas the bipolar phenomenon is observed when TE is pure aluminum. Devices fabricated at higher temperature give better uniformity and higher resistance ratio. Ultralow RESET current was obtained, together with adequate voltage margin.
Autors: Wu, Y.;Lee, B.;Wong, H-S.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 31, issue:12, pages: 1449 - 1451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors With an of 50 and a Subthreshold Swing of 86 mV/dec Using Gate Oxide
Abstract:
Vertical tunneling field-effect transistors are demonstrated with a high on-current of 50 (in comparison to reported values) and a minimum subthreshold swing (SS) of 86 mV/dec using atomic-layer-deposited gate oxide. The tunneling diodes exhibit the gate-bias-dependent Esaki diode behavior with a negative differential resistance under the forward diode bias at various temperatures, which confirms that the conduction mechanism is, indeed, band-to-band tunneling. The effects of equivalent oxide thickness scaling and various temperatures on the on-current and the SS are also investigated.
Autors: Zhao, H.;Chen, Y.;Wang, Y.;Zhou, F.;Xue, F.;Lee, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 31, issue:12, pages: 1392 - 1394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduction for Removal Using Wet-Type Plasma Reactor
Abstract:
The fundamental characteristics of flue gas cleaning for using a wet-type plasma reactor are evaluated, with attention being laid on concentrations of nitrate and ammonium ions in the liquid. The wet-type plasma reactor of the wire–cylinder configuration driven by a square-wave high voltage was used. A thin liquid film was maintained on the inner wall of the reactor. In this reactor, a discharge plasma oxidizes NO to , and is dissolved into the liquid as . Continuous absorption of nitrogen oxides induces saturation and acidification of the liquid, therefore inhibiting further absorption. The effect of the addition of ammonium ions into the liquid film on the enhancement of removal has been experimentally confirmed. In that case, the addition of was effective for NO oxidation, as well as absorption into the liquid, resulting in the increase of and concentrations in the liquid. With the presence of ions in the liquid exposed to the discharge plasma, a reduction of $ hbox{NO}_{3}^{-}$- - to takes place. The reduction of nitrate ions to ammonia raises the solution pH and ensures continuous absorption. These results suggest the possibility of the continuous operation of the wet-type plasma reactor for removal without excess acidification of the absorbing water. The process that is responsible for the reduction of nitrate ions into ammonium ions is of an electrochemical nature.
Autors: Thagard, S. M.;Kinoshita, Y.;Ikeda, H.;Takashima, K.;Katsura, S.;Mizuno, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 2165 - 2171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -DCSK-Based Chaotic Communications in MIMO Multipath Channels With No Channel State Information
Abstract:
We consider chaotic digital communications in multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) wireless multipath fading channels. In particular, we focus on systems that employ -ary differential chaos shift keying ( -DCSK). We consider two transceiver schemes, both of which require no channel state information at either the transmitter or the receiver. The first one employs a distinct chaotic sequence at each transmit antenna to spread the same data symbol and transmits omnidirectionally. At each receive antenna, the corresponding differential detection statistic is formed, and these statistics are then combined with equal gain for symbol detection. The second scheme employs a single chaotic spreading sequence and makes use of adaptive transmit and receive beamforming. The beamformers are updated by using a simple stochastic gradient method that is based on the received signal power and a finite-rate feedback strategy. Simulation results show that both schemes can effectively exploit the spatial diversity of the underlying MIMO system, and the adaptive beamforming scheme significantly outperforms the omnidirectional transmission.
Autors: Wang, S.;Wang, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:12, pages: 1001 - 1005
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Channel Asymmetric Entropy-Constrained Multiple-Description Lattice Vector Quantization
Abstract:
This paper is about the design and analysis of an index-assignment (IA)-based multiple-description coding scheme for the -channel asymmetric case. We use entropy constrained lattice vector quantization and restrict attention to simple reconstruction functions, which are given by the inverse IA function when all descriptions are received or otherwise by a weighted average of the received descriptions. We consider smooth sources with finite differential entropy rate and MSE fidelity criterion. As in previous designs, our construction is based on nested lattices which are combined through a single IA function. The results are exact under high-resolution conditions and asymptotically as the nesting ratios of the lattices approach infinity. For any , the design is asymptotically optimal within the class of IA-based schemes. Moreover, in the case of two descriptions and finite lattice vector dimensions greater than one, the performance is strictly better than that of existing designs. In the case of three descriptions, we show that in the limit of large lattice vector dimensions, points on the inner bound of Pradhan can be achieved. Furthermore, for three descriptions and finite lattice vector dimensions, we show that the IA-based approach yields, in the symmetric case, a smaller rate loss than the recently proposed source-splitting approach.
Autors: Ostergaard, J.;Heusdens, R.;Jensen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 56, issue:12, pages: 6354 - 6375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Based RRAM Using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) With 1- RESET Current
Abstract:
Al2O3-based RRAM devices were fabricated using atomic layer deposition under 100°C and 300°C deposition temperatures, respectively, and their resistance-switching behaviors were investigated. Both devices show unipolar switching if the top electrode (TE) is made of Ti/Al, whereas the bipolar phenomenon is observed when TE is pure aluminum. Devices fabricated at higher temperature give better uniformity and higher resistance ratio. Ultralow RESET current (~1 μA) was obtained, together with adequate voltage margin.
Autors: Yi Wu;Byoungil Lee;Wong, H.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 31, issue:12, pages: 1449 - 1451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -DCSK-Based Chaotic Communications in MIMO Multipath Channels With No Channel State Information
Abstract:
We consider chaotic digital communications in multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) wireless multipath fading channels. In particular, we focus on systems that employ -ary differential chaos shift keying ( -DCSK). We consider two transceiver schemes, both of which require no channel state information at either the transmitter or the receiver. The first one employs a distinct chaotic sequence at each transmit antenna to spread the same data symbol and transmits omnidirectionally. At each receive antenna, the corresponding differential detection statistic is formed, and these statistics are then combined with equal gain for symbol detection. The second scheme employs a single chaotic spreading sequence and makes use of adaptive transmit and receive beamforming. The beamformers are updated by using a simple stochastic gradient method that is based on the received signal power and a finite-rate feedback strategy. Simulation results show that both schemes can effectively exploit the spatial diversity of the underlying MIMO system, and the adaptive beamforming scheme significantly outperforms the omnidirectional transmission.
Autors: Wang, S.;Wang, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:12, pages: 1001 - 1005
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.45-V 300-MHz 10T Flowthrough SRAM With Expanded write/ read Stability and Speed-Area-Wise Array for Sub-0.5-V Chips
Abstract:
Capable of only solving the read-stability issue, many 8T–10T static RAM (SRAM) cells require extra write-assist circuits to achieve low supply voltage operation. This brief proposes a novel 10T SRAM cell and a hybrid-divided-block array to enhance the read-and-write stability while achieving a higher operating speed with a smaller area overhead for sub-0.5 V applications. A 16-Kb 128-row 10T flowthrough SRAM macro is fabricated using a 90-nm bulk-CMOS process. The 10T cell area is only 1.7 times the size of a 6T cell. The measured VDDmin for the 10T 16-Kb macro is 240 mV. The proposed 16-Kb macro can achieve 300-MHz random access operation at 0.45 V for a 0.5 V system platform.
Autors: Chang, M-F.;Chen, Y-C.;Chen, C-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:12, pages: 980 - 985
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 GHz ADPLL With a 1.25 ps Minimum-Resolution Sub-Exponent TDC in 0.18 m CMOS
Abstract:
An all-digital PLL for wireline applications is designed with a sub-exponent TDC which adaptively scales its resolution according to input time difference. By cascading 2 time amplifiers, the TDC efficiently generates the exponent-only information for fractional time difference. To improve linearity in a wide input range, a replica-based self-calibration scheme is applied to the time amplifier. The TDC, implemented in a 0.18 CMOS, shows the minimum resolution of 1.25 ps with a total conversion range of 2.5 ns, the maximum operating frequency of 250 MHz, and power consumption of 1.8 mW at 60 MHz. The measured rms jitter of PLL was 5.03 ps at 960 MHz.
Autors: Lee, S.-K.;Seo, Y.-H.;Park, H.-J.;Sim, J.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2874 - 2881
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.0V power supply, 9.3GB/s write speed, Single-Cell Self-Boost program scheme for high performance ferroelectric NAND flash SSD
Abstract:
Research highlights:? A Single-Cell Self-Boost program scheme for 1.0 V power supply Ferroelectric (Fe-) NAND flash memories. ? Well suppressed program disturb below 1.0 V power supply. ? 86% power reduction from the conventional floating gate NAND. ? 9.3 GB/s Fe-NAND solid-state drive write throughput.

Autors: A Single-Cell Self-Boost (SCSB) program scheme is proposed to achieve a 1.0V power supply operation in Ferroelectric (Fe-) NAND flash memories. The proposed SCSB scheme only self-boosts the channel voltage of the cell to which the program voltage VPG
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Dec 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 1.2-V 10- W NPN-Based Temperature Sensor in 65-nm CMOS With an Inaccuracy of 0.2 C (3 ) From 70 C to 125 C
Abstract:
An NPN-based temperature sensor with digital output has been realized in a 65-nm CMOS process. It achieves a batch-calibrated inaccuracy of (3 ) and a trimmed inaccuracy of (3 ) over the temperature range from to 125 . This performance is obtained by the use of NPN transistors as sensing elements, the use of dynamic techniques, i.e., correlated double sampling and dynamic element matching, and a single room-temperature trim. The sensor draws 8.3 from a 1.2-V supply and occupies an area of 0.1 .
Autors: Sebastiano, F.;Breems, L. J.;Makinwa, K. A. A.;Drago, S.;Leenaerts, D. M. W.;Nauta, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2591 - 2601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10- High-Voltage Nanosecond Pulse Generator
Abstract:
Devices used for biological experiments on cell cultures can present a low impedance. In this paper, a numerical and experimental characterization of a high-voltage, nanosecond-pulse, 10- generator is proposed. The generator makes use of a combination of microstrip-line technology and laser-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches that operate in the linear regime. A standard electroporation cuvette is used to load the generator. SPICE and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) models of the whole setup (i.e., the generator and the cuvette) are developed. Numerical characterization is performed comparing SPICE analysis and FDTD simulations. Experimental characterization on a built prototype is carried out by means of a wideband frequency voltage sensor. A good level of consistency is obtained between the numerical and the experimental voltage intensities measured across the cuvette electrodes.
Autors: Merla, C.;El Amari, S.;Kenaan, M.;Liberti, M.;Apollonio, F.;Arnaud-Cormos, D.;Couderc, V.;Leveque, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4079 - 4085
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10- High-Voltage Nanosecond Pulse Generator
Abstract:
Devices used for biological experiments on cell cultures can present a low impedance. In this paper, a numerical and experimental characterization of a high-voltage, nanosecond-pulse, 10- generator is proposed. The generator makes use of a combination of microstrip-line technology and laser-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches that operate in the linear regime. A standard electroporation cuvette is used to load the generator. SPICE and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) models of the whole setup (i.e., the generator and the cuvette) are developed. Numerical characterization is performed comparing SPICE analysis and FDTD simulations. Experimental characterization on a built prototype is carried out by means of a wideband frequency voltage sensor. A good level of consistency is obtained between the numerical and the experimental voltage intensities measured across the cuvette electrodes.
Autors: Merla, C.;El Amari, S.;Kenaan, M.;Liberti, M.;Apollonio, F.;Arnaud-Cormos, D.;Couderc, V.;Leveque, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 58, issue:12, pages: 4079 - 4085
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b 50-MS/s 820- W SAR ADC With On-Chip Digital Calibration
Abstract:
This 10-b 50-MSamples/s SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features on-chip digital calibration techniques, comparator offset cancellation, a capacitor digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) linearity calibration, and internal clock control to compensate for PVT variations. A split-CDAC reduces the exponential increase in the number of unit capacitors needed and enables the input load capacitance to be as small as the noise restriction. The prototype fabricated in 65 nm 1P7M complementary metal–oxide semiconductor with MIM capacitor achieves 56.6 dB SNDR at 50-MSamples/s, 25-MHz input frequency and consumes 820 W from a 1.0-V supply, including the digital calibration circuits. The figure of merit was 29.7 fJ/conversion-step under the Nyquist condition. The ADC occupied an active area of 0.039 mm .
Autors: Yoshioka, M.;Ishikawa, K.;Takayama, T.;Tsukamoto, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 4, issue:6, pages: 410 - 416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b 50-MS/s 820- W SAR ADC With On-Chip Digital Calibration
Abstract:
This 10-b 50-MSamples/s SAR analog-to-digital converter (ADC) features on-chip digital calibration techniques, comparator offset cancellation, a capacitor digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) linearity calibration, and internal clock control to compensate for PVT variations. A split-CDAC reduces the exponential increase in the number of unit capacitors needed and enables the input load capacitance to be as small as the kT/C noise restriction. The prototype fabricated in 65 nm 1P7M complementary metal-oxide semiconductor with MIM capacitor achieves 56.6 dB SNDR at 50-MSamples/s, 25-MHz input frequency and consumes 820 μW from a 1.0-V supply, including the digital calibration circuits. The figure of merit was 29.7 fJ/conversion-step under the Nyquist condition. The ADC occupied an active area of 0.039 mm2 .
Autors: Yoshioka, M.;Ishikawa, K.;Takayama, T.;Tsukamoto, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 4, issue:6, pages: 410 - 416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-Gb/s Inductorless Transimpedance Amplifier
Abstract:
A new technique to design an inductorless transimpedance amplifier (TIA) is introduced. This technique uses similar TIAs in parallel configuration to boost the overall bandwidth while keeping the transimpedance gain constant. Using this method, we design and implement a 10-Gb/s inductorless TIA with an active area of only 0.06 and a differential transimpedance gain of 62 in a digital 0.13- CMOS process. There is good agreement among the theory, simulation, and experimental results.
Autors: Momeni, O.;Hashemi, H.;Afshari, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:12, pages: 926 - 930
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-MHz Signal Bandwidth Cartesian Loop Transmitter Capable of Off-Chip PA Linearization
Abstract:
This paper presents a wide signal bandwidth Cartesian loop transmitter (CLT) IC for off-chip PA linearization. The CLT can linearize a 10 MHz bandwidth signal by using a feedforward technique to avoid instability caused by a time delay of an RF path. The transmitter is fabricated in 0.13 m CMOS technology. ACLR is improved from 30.2 dB to 38.4 dB and EVM is improved from 5.9% to 1.6% by using the feedback loop when 10 MHz OFDM signal is applied. The fabricated IC also realizes automatic phase and amplitude calibration by using on-chip amplitude and phase difference detector and external controller and result storage. The controller and result storage are realized by the FPGA. The calibration can be finished in 14 sec.
Autors: Ishihara, H.;Hosoya, M.;Otaka, S.;Watanabe, O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2785 - 2793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12.3-mW 12.5-Gb/s Complete Transceiver in 65-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
A 12.3-mW 12.5-Gb/s complete transceiver based on the 65-nm standard digital CMOS process was developed. The chip includes a clock-and-data-recovery (CDR) device, a multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX), and a global clock-distribution network. To reduce power consumption, a low-swing voltage-mode driver with pulse-current boosting and an LC resonant-clock distribution with distributed on-chip inductors are used in the transmitter, while a symbol-rate phase detector (SPD) using a three-stage sense amplifier and phase-rotating phase-locked loop (PLL) with variable delay are used in the receiver. The transceiver operates at a bit error rate (BER) of 10 or less through a 20-cm test board with total attenuation of while consuming power of 0.98 mW/(Gb/s) per transceiver.
Autors: Fukuda, K.;Yamashita, H.;Ono, G.;Nemoto, R.;Suzuki, E.;Masuda, N.;Takemoto, T.;Yuki, F.;Saito, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2838 - 2849
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 14.6 ps Resolution, 50 ns Input-Range Cyclic Time-to-Digital Converter Using Fractional Difference Conversion Method
Abstract:
This paper presents a time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a fractional difference conversion scheme. Two delay-locked loops (DLLs) provide negative feedbacks to stabilize the delays against process and ambient variations. In addition, by adopting the principles of cyclic Vernier delay line, the resolution is improved while dynamic range is significantly increased. The proposed TDC architecture is competitive in terms of resolution and power compared to the other DLL/PLL stabilized TDCs. The TDC designed and fabricated in 0.18 CMOS process achieves a 14.6 ps resolution as well as a 50 ns dynamic range, while consuming 6.4 mW power.
Autors: Xing, N.;Woo, J.-K.;Shin, W.-Y.;Lee, H.;Kim, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 57, issue:12, pages: 3064 - 3072
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16-Bit 100 to 160 MS/s SiGe BiCMOS Pipelined ADC With 100 dBFS SFDR
Abstract:
This paper describes a 16-bit analog-to-digital converter designed in a complementary SiGe BiCMOS SOI process. The high-performance complementary BJTs lead to a switched-current approach to the signal processing. Although it uses a fairly traditional four-stage pipeline architecture, several techniques are incorporated to achieve 16 bits of distortion performance at a sample rate of up to 160 MHz. For improved high input frequency linearity we describe a track and hold with a sampling instant modulation scheme. For stability of the current-mode DAC over signal swing and temperature we describe a scheme to increase the output impedance of the first sub-DAC. At a sample clock frequency of 122 MHz, prototype silicon exhibits a spurious-free dynamic range of 100 dBc through the first two Nyquist zones and a signal-to noise ratio of 77 dB. With a 160 MHz sampling clock, the measured SFDR is better than 90 dBc and the SNR is better than 74.5 dB. The ADC dissipates 1.6 W from 5 V and 3.3 V supplies.
Autors: Payne, R.;Corsi, M.;Smith, D.;Hsieh, T.-L.;Kaylor, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2613 - 2622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16-bit 250-MS/s IF Sampling Pipelined ADC With Background Calibration
Abstract:
This paper describes a 16-bit 250 MS/s ADC fabricated on a 0.18 BiCMOS process. The ADC has an integrated input buffer with a new linearization technique that improves its distortion by 5–10 dB and lowers its power consumption by 70% relative to the state of the art. It demonstrates a new background calibration technique to correct the residue amplifier (RA) gain errors and lower its power consumption. This summing node sampling (SNS) calibration technique is based on sampling the summing-node voltage of the residue amplifier and using it with the corresponding residue to estimate the amplifier open loop gain. The ADC achieves an SNDR of 76.5 dB and consumes 850 mW from a 1.8 V supply, while the input buffer consumes 150 mW from a 3 V supply. Up to 125 MS/s, the SFDR is greater than 100 dB for input frequencies up to 100 MHz and 90 dB up to 300 MHz input frequency. At 250 MS/s, the SFDR is greater than 95 dB up to 100 MHz and 85 dB up to 300 MHz.
Autors: Ali, A. M. A.;Morgan, A.;Dillon, C.;Patterson, G.;Puckett, S.;Bhoraskar, P.;Dinc, H.;Hensley, M.;Stop, R.;Bardsley, S.;Lattimore, D.;Bray, J.;Speir, C.;Sneed, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 45, issue:12, pages: 2602 - 2612
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2- m BiCMOS Rectifier-Free AC–DC Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Charger IC
Abstract:
A fundamental problem that miniaturized systems, such as biomedical implants, face is limited space for storing energy, which translates to short operational life. Harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, which is virtually a boundless source at these scales, can overcome this restriction, if losses in the system are sufficiently low. To that end, the 2- m bi-complementary metal–oxide semiconductor switched-inductor piezoelectric harvester prototype evaluated and presented in this paper eliminates the restrictions associated with a rectifier to produce and channel 30 W from a periodic 72- W piezoelectric source into a battery directly. In doing so, the circuit also increases the system's electrical damping force to draw more power and energy from the transducer, effectively increasing its mechanical-electrical efficiency by up to 78%. The system also harnesses up to 659 nJ from nonperiodic mechanical vibrations, which are more prevalent in the environment, with 6.1 1.5% to 8.8 6.9% of end-to-end mechanical-electrical efficiency.
Autors: Kwon, D.;Rincon-Mora, G. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 4, issue:6, pages: 400 - 409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2- m BiCMOS Rectifier-Free AC–DC Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Charger IC
Abstract:
A fundamental problem that miniaturized systems, such as biomedical implants, face is limited space for storing energy, which translates to short operational life. Harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, which is virtually a boundless source at these scales, can overcome this restriction, if losses in the system are sufficiently low. To that end, the 2-μm bi-complementary metal-oxide semiconductor switched-inductor piezoelectric harvester prototype evaluated and presented in this paper eliminates the restrictions associated with a rectifier to produce and channel 30 μW from a periodic 72- μW piezoelectric source into a battery directly. In doing so, the circuit also increases the system's electrical damping force to draw more power and energy from the transducer, effectively increasing its mechanical-electrical efficiency by up to 78%. The system also harnesses up to 659 nJ from nonperiodic mechanical vibrations, which are more prevalent in the environment, with 6.1±1.5% to 8.8±6.9% of end-to-end mechanical-electrical efficiency.
Autors: Dongwon Kwon;Rincon-Mora, G.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Dec 2010, volume: 4, issue:6, pages: 400 - 409
Publisher: IEEE
 

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