Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 11-2017 sorted by title, page: 6

» Deep Metric Learning for Visual Understanding: An Overview of Recent Advances
Abstract:
Metric learning aims to learn a distance function to measure the similarity of samples, which plays an important role in many visual understanding applications. Generally, the optimal similarity functions for different visual understanding tasks are task specific because the distributions for data used in different tasks are usually different. It is generally believed that learning a metric from training data can obtain more encouraging performances than handcrafted metrics [1]-[3], e.g., the Euclidean and cosine distances. A variety of metric learning methods have been proposed in the literature [2]-[5], and many of them have been successfully employed in visual understanding tasks such as face recognition [6], [7], image classification [2], [3], visual search [8], [9], visual tracking [10], [11], person reidentification [12], cross-modal matching [13], image set classification [14], and image-based geolocalization [15]-[17].
Autors: Jiwen Lu;Junlin Hu;Jie Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 76 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Multimetric Learning for Shape-Based 3D Model Retrieval
Abstract:
Recently, feature-learning-based 3D shape retrieval methods have been receiving more and more attention in the 3D shape analysis community. In these methods, the hand-crafted metrics or the learned linear metrics are usually used to compute the distances between shape features. Since there are complex geometric structural variations with 3D shapes, the single hand-crafted metric or learned linear metric cannot characterize the manifold, where 3D shapes lie well. In this paper, by exploring the nonlinearity of the deep neural network and the complementarity among multiple shape features, we propose a novel deep multimetric network for 3D shape retrieval. The developed multimetric network minimizes a discriminative loss function that, for each type of shape feature, the outputs of the network from the same class are encouraged to be as similar as possible and the outputs from different classes are encouraged to be as dissimilar as possible. Meanwhile, the Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion is employed to enforce the outputs of different types of shape features to be as complementary as possible. Furthermore, the weights of the learned multiple distance metrics can be adaptively determined in our developed deep metric network. The weighted distance metric is then used as the similarity for shape retrieval. We conduct experiments with the proposed method on the four benchmark shape datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain better performance than the learned deep single metric and outperform the state-of-the-art 3D shape retrieval methods.
Autors: Jin Xie;Guoxian Dai;Yi Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 19, issue:11, pages: 2463 - 2474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Multimodal Learning: A Survey on Recent Advances and Trends
Abstract:
The success of deep learning has been a catalyst to solving increasingly complex machine-learning problems, which often involve multiple data modalities. We review recent advances in deep multimodal learning and highlight the state-of the art, as well as gaps and challenges in this active research field. We first classify deep multimodal learning architectures and then discuss methods to fuse learned multimodal representations in deep-learning architectures. We highlight two areas of research–regularization strategies and methods that learn or optimize multimodal fusion structures–as exciting areas for future work.
Autors: Dhanesh Ramachandram;Graham W. Taylor;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 96 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Reinforcement Learning: A Brief Survey
Abstract:
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) is poised to revolutionize the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and represents a step toward building autonomous systems with a higherlevel understanding of the visual world. Currently, deep learning is enabling reinforcement learning (RL) to scale to problems that were previously intractable, such as learning to play video games directly from pixels. DRL algorithms are also applied to robotics, allowing control policies for robots to be learned directly from camera inputs in the real world. In this survey, we begin with an introduction to the general field of RL, then progress to the main streams of value-based and policy-based methods. Our survey will cover central algorithms in deep RL, including the deep Q-network (DQN), trust region policy optimization (TRPO), and asynchronous advantage actor critic. In parallel, we highlight the unique advantages of deep neural networks, focusing on visual understanding via RL. To conclude, we describe several current areas of research within the field.
Autors: Kai Arulkumaran;Marc Peter Deisenroth;Miles Brundage;Anil Anthony Bharath;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 26 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep-Depletion Mode Boron-Doped Monocrystalline Diamond Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:
A p-type deep-depletion mode monocrystalline diamond MOSFET is demonstrated, with a 190-nm-thick controllable channel. Such a device offers new opportunities for a better optimization of the bulk doping versus designed breakdown voltage and the resulting figure of merit. Diamond MOSFETs with Boron doping of and using 20-nm ALD deposited Al2O3 as the gate oxide show promising IV characteristics, with a clear ON and OFF state operation. The MOSFETs have a normally-ON operation with typical threshold voltages of V and a ON-state drain current of /mm at V and V, at room temperature. A high hole mobility (1000±200 cm2/()) has been evaluated. Just before the experimental voltage breakdown at 200 V, the gate leakage is still below 0.6 nA/mm at room temperature and the peak electric field in diamond at the gate edge is simulated at 4 MV/cm. Beyond this experimental proof of concept, these combined values show the high potential of deep-depletion mode Boron doped diamond MOSFETs.
Autors: Thanh-Toan Pham;Julien Pernot;Gaetan Perez;David Eon;Etienne Gheeraert;Nicolas Rouger;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 38, issue:11, pages: 1571 - 1574
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep-Learning Systems for Domain Adaptation in Computer Vision: Learning Transferable Feature Representations
Abstract:
Domain adaptation algorithms address the issue of transferring learning across computational models to adapt them to data from different distributions. In recent years, research in domain adaptation has been making great progress owing to the advancements in deep learning. Deep neural networks have demonstrated unrivaled success across multiple computer vision applications, including transfer learning and domain adaptation. This article outlines the latest research in domain adaptation using deep neural networks. It begins with an introduction to the concept of knowledge transfer in machine learning and the different paradigms of transfer learning. It provides a brief survey of nondeep-learning techniques and organizes the rapidly growing research in domain adaptation based on deep learning. It also highlights some drawbacks with the current state of research in this area and offers directions for future research.
Autors: Hemanth Venkateswara;Shayok Chakraborty;Sethuraman Panchanathan;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 117 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep-Reinforcement-Learning-Based Optimization for Cache-Enabled Opportunistic Interference Alignment Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Both caching and interference alignment (IA) are promising techniques for next-generation wireless networks. Nevertheless, most of the existing works on cache-enabled IA wireless networks assume that the channel is invariant, which is unrealistic considering the time-varying nature of practical wireless environments. In this paper, we consider realistic time-varying channels. Specifically, the channel is formulated as a finite-state Markov channel (FSMC). The complexity of the system is very high when we consider realistic FSMC models. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel deep reinforcement learning approach, which is an advanced reinforcement learning algorithm that uses a deep network to approximate the value-action function. We use Google TensorFlow to implement deep reinforcement learning in this paper to obtain the optimal IA user selection policy in cache-enabled opportunistic IA wireless networks. Simulation results are presented to show that the performance of cache-enabled opportunistic IA networks in terms of the network's sum rate and energy efficiency can be significantly improved by using the proposed approach.
Autors: Ying He;Zheng Zhang;F. Richard Yu;Nan Zhao;Hongxi Yin;Victor C. M. Leung;Yanhua Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10433 - 10445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DeepSleepNet: A Model for Automatic Sleep Stage Scoring Based on Raw Single-Channel EEG
Abstract:
This paper proposes a deep learning model, named DeepSleepNet, for automatic sleep stage scoring based on raw single-channel EEG. Most of the existing methods rely on hand-engineered features, which require prior knowledge of sleep analysis. Only a few of them encode the temporal information, such as transition rules, which is important for identifying the next sleep stages, into the extracted features. In the proposed model, we utilize convolutional neural networks to extract time-invariant features, and bidirectional-long short-term memory to learn transition rules among sleep stages automatically from EEG epochs. We implement a two-step training algorithm to train our model efficiently. We evaluated our model using different single-channel EEGs (F4-EOG (left), Fpz-Cz, and Pz-Oz) from two public sleep data sets, that have different properties (e.g., sampling rate) and scoring standards (AASM and R&K). The results showed that our model achieved similar overall accuracy and macro F1-score (MASS: 86.2%−81.7, Sleep-EDF: 82.0%−76.9) compared with the state-of-the-art methods (MASS: 85.9%−80.5, Sleep-EDF: 78.9%−73.7) on both data sets. This demonstrated that, without changing the model architecture and the training algorithm, our model could automatically learn features for sleep stage scoring from different raw single-channel EEGs from different data sets without utilizing any hand-engineered features.
Autors: Akara Supratak;Hao Dong;Chao Wu;Yike Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 1998 - 2008
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Defect Modes Control in Coupled Magnonic Crystals
Abstract:
We report on the theoretical study of magnetostatic surface wave propagation through the two side-coupled 1-D magnonic crystals (MCs) with broken translational symmetry. Using the transfer matrix method, we obtained transmission and reflection coefficients. Existence of two defect modes in such four-port planar structure was shown. We consider the possibility of controlling the position of defect modes by changing coupling between MCs. Comparison between investigated structure with coupled defect-free magnonic crystals was provided.
Autors: Anna Yu. Sharaevskaya;Evgenii N. Beginin;Yurii P. Sharaevskii;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Defectivity and Yield Impact From the AMC Inside the FOUP in Advanced Technologies
Abstract:
Historically, much attention has been given to the unit processes and the integration of those unit processes to improve product yield. Less attention has been given to the wafer mini environment, either during processing or post processing. This paper contains a detailed discussion on how particles and airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) from the wafer mini environment interact and produce undesired effects on the wafer which in turn cause devices to fail. Sources of wafer environmental contamination are the processes themselves, ambient environment, outgassing from wafers, and front open unified pod (FOUP) contamination. Establishing a strategy that reduces contamination inside the FOUP mini environment will decrease defect variability and thus increase yield. In manufacturing ecosystem, changing the FOUP or moving the wafers faster or purging with nitrogen to reduce the impact from mini environment is not always an option. Alternative to having a stop gap, it is desired to understand the AMCs and thus exploring sustainable solutions to minimize them below certain thresholds that would cause impact on wafer. NH3-based contamination, extensively discussed in this paper, is observed to cause wafer defects. Thus, explicit knowledge of AMC type is critical, as the most optimized methodology to control various AMCs might not always be the same. Three primary variables that greatly impact this strategy are FOUP contamination mitigation, FOUP material, FOUP metrology, and cleaning method.
Autors: John Barker;Stephen Miner;Wei Zhao;Jong Soo Kim;Joshua Moore;Eswar Ramanathan;Sara Case;Stephanie Waite;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 434 - 439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deferred Warping
Abstract:
Deferred warping is a novel approach for real-time deformation of 3D objects attached to an animated or manipulated surface. The target application is virtual prototyping of garments, where 2D pattern modeling is combined with 3D garment simulation, allowing for an immediate validation of the design. This technique can directly handle complex topology changes within a surface. The authors demonstrate a fast implementation in the vertex shading stage, allowing the use of highly decorated surfaces with millions of triangles in real time.
Autors: Martin Knuth;Jan Bender;Michael Goesele;Arjan Kuijper;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 37, issue:6, pages: 76 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay Optimal Scheduling for ARQ-Aided Power-Constrained Packet Transmission Over Multi-State Fading Channels
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the delay optimal scheduling policy for a multi-state wireless fading channel, by taking bursty packet arrivals and automatic repeat request-based packet transmission into account. In our system, the average delay each packet experiences includes the time it waits in the queue and the time it may take to retransmit due to packet delivery failure. To reduce the average delay, we propose a joint channel-aware and queue-aware stochastic scheduling policy to determine whether and with which probability the source should transmit based on channel and buffer states, subject to an average power constraint at the transmitter. To find the optimal scheduling probabilities, we formulate a non-linear power-constrained delay minimization problem with the aid of controlled Markov decision processes. The optimization problem is then converted into an equivalent linear programming problem by introducing new variables from the steady-state probabilities of the underlying Markov chain and transmission probabilities. By analyzing its property, we derive the structure of the optimal solution, and exploit it to obtain the optimal probabilities analytically. It is found that the optimal scheduling policy has a double threshold structure, and can significantly reduce the average delay.
Autors: Juan Liu;Wei Chen;Khaled B. Letaief;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 7123 - 7137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demagnetizing Field Effect on the Detection Range of a Galfenol-Based Magnetic Field Sensor
Abstract:
This paper investigates the new developments of a class of magnetic field sensors based on the integration of Iron–Gallium magnetostrictive alloys (Galfenol) and fiber Bragg gratings used to detect the magneto-induced mechanical strain. This kind of sensor has the advantage of being able to work also in harsh environments, but on the other hand cannot detect fields beyond 10 kA/m, because of the magnetic softness of the active material. A simple solution consists in the exploitation of the demagnetizing field experienced by the ferromagnetic alloy by effect of its magnetization, generated by the application of the external magnetic field. Since the demagnetizing field effect depends only on geometrical parameters, the use of samples with different aspect ratios allows us to check how the shape of the active material can be used as a control parameter of the sensor detection range.
Autors: Valerio Apicella;Michele Arturo Caponero;Cesidio Cianfarani;Daniele Davino;Andrea Polimadei;Ciro Visone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstration of 3-D SRAM Cell by 3-D Monolithic Integration of InGaAs n-FinFETs on FDSOI CMOS With Interlayer Contacts
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time, 3-D Monolithic integration of short-channel replacement metal gate InGaAs n-FinFETs on fully-depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS, with TiN/W interlayer contacts. Top layer InGaAs nFETs feature raised source–drain and bottom layer CMOS has Si raised source–drain for nFETs, SiGe raised source–drain for pFETS, implants, silicide, and TiN/W plug contacts. Scaled gate length () of 15 nm is achieved on bottom layer Si n- and pFETs, while the top layer InGaAs n-FinFETs are scaled to of 25 nm. A densely integrated 3-D 6T-static random access memory circuit with planar InGaAs nFETs stacked on Si pFETs is demonstrated by taking advantage of the interlayer contacts. This yields significant area reduction when compared with 2-D layouts.
Autors: Veeresh Deshpande;H. Hahn;E. O’Connor;Y. Baumgartner;D. Caimi;M. Sousa;H. Boutry;J. Widiez;L. Brévard;C. Le Royer;M. Vinet;J. Fompeyrine;L. Czornomaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4503 - 4509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstration of Polarization-Insensitive Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector With Si Compensation Layer
Abstract:
Polarization sensitivity is an intrinsic characteristic of the superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD). It is caused by the periodical meander structure of the SNSPD, and may severely limit the scope of the SNSPD's applications. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a SNSPD with much reduced polarization sensitivity, based on a previously published theoretical result that involves high refractive index compensation materials. Using a home-built broadband automatic measurement system, the device detection efficiencies of the fabricated SNSPD have been measured for wavelengths ranging from 1200 to 1700 nm. The measurement results show that the polarization sensitivity of the fabricated device is greatly reduced, with the device detection efficiencies at 1550 nm being 61% and 56% for cases of parallel and perpendicular polarizations, respectively. The measurement results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
Autors: Ruiying Xu;Fan Zheng;Defeng Qin;Xiachao Yan;Guanghao Zhu;Lin Kang;Labao Zhang;Xiaoqing Jia;Xuecou Tu;Biaobing Jin;Weiwei Xu;Jian Chen;Peiheng Wu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 35, issue:21, pages: 4707 - 4713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dependency Analysis of Accuracy Estimates in k-Fold Cross Validation
Abstract:
A standard procedure for evaluating the performance of classification algorithms is k-fold cross validation. Since the training sets for any pair of iterations in k-fold cross validation are overlapping when the number of folds is larger than two, the resulting accuracy estimates are considered to be dependent. In this paper, the overlapping of training sets is shown to be irrelevant in determining whether two fold accuracies are dependent or not. Then a statistical method is proposed to test the appropriateness of assuming independence for the accuracy estimates in k-fold cross validation. This method is applied on 20 data sets, and the experimental results suggest that it is generally appropriate to assume that the fold accuracies are independent. The cross validation of non-overlapping training sets can make fold accuracies to be dependent. However, this dependence almost has no impact on estimating the sample variance of fold accuracies, and hence they can generally be assumed to be independent.
Autors: Tzu-Tsung Wong;Nai-Yu Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 29, issue:11, pages: 2417 - 2427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Depolarized Backscattering of Rough Surface by AIEM Model
Abstract:
This paper presents a new expression for multiple scattering by including the upward and downward propagation waves in the medium 1 and medium 2. Unlike the single scattering, the multiple scattering accounts for the interactions, up to second order, among all the spectral components of surface roughness spectrum. Though the derivation is mathematically intricate, but yet manageable, the final expression is compact and easy for numerical implementation, which only involves a series of two-dimensional integration. Some of special cases in depolarized backscattering are also derived and compared with known analytical model to partly validate the update AIEM model. Then, extensive comparisons with numerical simulations and field measurements are conducted to illustrate the model accuracy.
Autors: Ying Yang;Kun-Shan Chen;Leung Tsang;Liu Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 10, issue:11, pages: 4740 - 4752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of a Double-Layer Magnetic Circuit Structure for High-Force Density Hybrid Fuel Injector
Abstract:
This paper proposes the design and analysis of a double-layer magnetic circuit structure for a high-force density hybrid fuel injector. In general, fuel injector models have disadvantages such as a significant leakage flux and magnetic saturation; therefore, a finite-element method is used to detail the model design and reduce the leakage flux from the electromagnet pole to the lead pipe. This change can help improve the fuel injector performance. In addition, a permanent magnet (PM) is inserted to increase the force density. Moreover, the no-load performance and demagnetization characteristic of the injector are analyzed according to the injector’s working environment. The optimized hybrid fuel injector model with a PM shows substantially improved performance compared to a conventional design.
Autors: Huai-Cong Liu;Sooyoung Cho;Hyun-Seok Hong;Ju Lee;Ho-Joon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of a New HTS Electromagnetic Screw
Abstract:
The high-temperature superconductor (HTS) machines are more attractive due to the advantages of high power density and efficiency. This paper introduces a new HTS electromagnetic screw (HTS-EMS) that is developed for artificial heart. Two helical-shaped slots are introduced to the translator; the key to the HTS-EMS is that the HTS coils carrying dc currents are placed in the helical-shaped slots. The permanent-magnet array is placed in the rotor. Due to the high current density of the HTS coil, the power density of the HTS-EMS can be improved effectively. The electromagnetic performance of the HTS-EMS is analyzed, including the flux, thrust force, as well as torque. The proposed HTS-EMS is evaluated compared with the existing magnetic screw using time-stepping finite-element method, verifying the advantages of the proposed structure.
Autors: Zhijian Ling;Wenxiang Zhao;Jinghua Ji;Jihong Zhu;Jingfeng Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of a Novel Lightweight Translator Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Oceanic Wave Energy Conversion
Abstract:
At present, most of the linear generators contain a heavy translator for converting wave power from the ocean into electrical power. As the translator is connected to the buoy, the buoy dynamic performance is reduced by the large mass and, as a result, low velocity of the translator would degrade the electricity generation of the linear generator. This problem has been minimized by the new design in this paper, where the translator is clipped off at first and split into two separate portions to minimize its weight. The secondary stator is magnetically coupled with a special m-shaped main stator which is used to flow the necessary magnetic flux. The weight of the proposed translator is 21.82% lower than that of conventional one and 49.1% by using a recently available permanent magnet with higher specifications. The finite-element method is applied in ANSYS simulation environment for the analysis and comparison between the proposed and conventional designs. Different parameters of the conventional and the proposed linear generator have been discussed in this paper. The simulation results show that the proposed design can generate the same amount of electricity as the existing one with almost half of the translator size. According to the mathematical model, it is understood that the dynamics of the translator would be higher for its lower mass and vice versa. Therefore, minimizing the translator size would result in decrease of mass, which increases the dynamics of the buoy connected to the translator.
Autors: O. Farrok;M. R. Islam;M. R. I. Sheikh;Y. G. Guo;J. G. Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of a Spoke-Type Hybrid Permanent Magnet Motor for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new spoke-type hybrid permanent magnet brushless (H-PMBL) motor for potential applications in electric vehicles, where the high-energy rare-earth PM and the cost-effective ferrite-PM are combined. In order to realize low-cost design and improve the operating points of the rare-earth PM and the ferrite-PM, the proposed motor is designed based on the calculation of PM cost and analysis on the operating points. Moreover, to fairly estimate electromagnetic performances of the H-PMBL motor, a conventional spoke-type non-rare-earth ferrite-PMBL motor with the same overall dimensions is also analyzed and compared using the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the H-PMBL motor cannot only retain low PM cost, but also exhibit better flux-weakening ability and enhanced demagnetization withstand capability.
Autors: Xiaoyong Zhu;Xue Wang;Chao Zhang;Lin Wang;Wenye Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of BICM-ID for Two-Way Relay Channels With Physical-Layer Network Coding
Abstract:
This paper proposes a general iterative demapping–decoding approach for two-way relay (TWR) communications with physical-layer network coding, where the relay node performs decode-and-forward. The bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation is considered. The iterative decoding, namely the BICM-ID for TWR channels, is introduced. Based on a joint trellis, BICM-ID estimates the end nodes’ coded bits, leading to an estimation of the transmitted symbol pair probability, which is crucial for achieving iterative decoding gains in bit error rate (BER). The end nodes’ constellation design criterion is proposed to optimize the BICM-ID performance over the TWR fading channel. The EXtrinsic Information Transfer analysis is also performed, showing the iterative system's convergence behavior and providing information on code design. Our simulation results show the proposed BICM-ID scheme can achieve significant performance gains, yielding an asymptotic tendency of approaching the cut-set BER performance limit.
Autors: Zichao Sun;Li Chen;Xiaojun Yuan;Yushan Yakufu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10170 - 10182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of Electromagnetic Gears With Variable Gear Ratios
Abstract:
In this paper, the electromagnetic gear (EMG) with variable gear ratios has been proposed. With proper excitation of dc field windings, various pole pairs or gear ratios can be obtained, while its transmitting torque can be also adjusted in response to different applications. Hence, the proposed EMG takes definite advantage over the recently developed magnetic variable gear in terms of gear-changing controllability and torque capability. Meanwhile, with the field-modulated topology, the proposed EMG enjoys the merit of overloading protection compared with the conventional mechanical variable gear. Both steady-state and transient performances are simulated, which well verifies the validity of the proposed EMG.
Autors: Libing Cao;K. T. Chau;Christopher H. T. Lee;Wenlong Li;Hua Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Application of the Distributed Ionospheric Coherent Scatter Radar
Abstract:
In this letter, a newly designed distributed coherent scatter radar for localization of ionospheric irregularities is presented. It is composed of a detection network that can detect ionospheric irregularities with the help of a time synchronization module. To achieve a fairly narrow beam with high directive gain, an antenna array is used in this transmitter module. The frequency band is from high frequency (HF) to very HF to detect irregularities at different scales. In addition, the radar uses a universal serial bus to reduce its size, which allows it to be easily moved to different areas. An iterative ray tracing method is also applied to localize the ionospheric irregularities. The results indicate that the radar can effectively track ionospheric irregularity in 3-D space.
Autors: Lei Qiao;Gang Chen;Jin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 14, issue:11, pages: 2042 - 2046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Experimental Implementation of a Low Frequency Pulsed Magnetic Field Generator
Abstract:
Pulsed magnetic field generation is a critical aspect of all nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In this paper, a novel design for a low field, low frequency (less than 5 MHz), pulsed magnetic field generation circuit suited for unilateral NMR applications is presented. A pulsed sinusoidal current is generated at an inductive load connected to an FET-based switch. The inductive load resonates at a frequency of approximately 2 MHz, which is also the precession frequency of protons in an external magnetic flux density of 500 G. The designed circuit can be tuned to operate at resonant frequencies of other chemical species as well. In this paper, the design parameters and operation of the prototype pulsed field generator will be discussed.
Autors: Neelam Prabhu Gaunkar;Jayaprakash Selvaraj;Leif Bauer;Mani Mina;Robert Weber;David Jiles;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Experimental Validation of a Stable Two-Stage Estimator for Automotive Sideslip Angle and Tire Parameters
Abstract:
This paper proposes and experimentally validates a two-stage approach for coupled lateral vehicle state and tire model estimation. In a first stage, an extended Kalman filter is employed which provides vehicle slip angles and lateral tire forces from commercial low-cost vehicle sensors. The obtained estimates are exploited in the second stage, where a (quasi-static) tire model is fitted to this data. A major issue in this estimation process is the typical instability of these estimators for situations with (prolonged) straight driving. This issue is traced back to a lack of local observability. The use of a variable model covariance is introduced as a practical method to obtain a stable estimator, irrespective of the unobservability. The developed methodology has a low computational load and the Kalman estimator is able to run in real time, whereas the tire model parameter fitting is cheap enough to run online. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally and provides reliable results in variable driving conditions.
Autors: Frank Naets;Sebastiaan van Aalst;Boulaid Boulkroune;Norddin El Ghouti;Wim Desmet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 9727 - 9742
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Fabrication of a High-Power Air-Coupled Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Array With Concentric Annular Cells
Abstract:
One shortcoming of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for commercial use is the weak output power relative to traditional ultrasonic transducers. Recently, we reported an annular CMUT cell with an improved transmit efficiency over a conventional circular cell in air. Extending this paper, we designed and fabricated a nine-element concentric CMUT array to enhance the transmit power and offer depth focusing. The proposed 200-kHz array has an aperture diameter of 2.13 cm and a fill factor of 81%. A pillar-free etching process was developed to create the deep large-area cavities of the proposed wafer-bonded CMUT. The fabricated device was characterized for the static and dynamic performance using a profilometer and a laser Doppler vibrometer, respectively. The average maximum plate dynamic displacements of the CMUT driven by 20-Vpp ac excitation voltage at dc biases of 100 and 150 V were measured to be 1.28 and , respectively. Accordingly, the surface output power densities were calculated to be 0.40 and 0.96 KW/m2. We investigated the crosstalk between neighboring cells and the plate-cracking phenomenon, and provided relative suggestions for improvement. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of the concentric annular-cell CMUT array design for air-coupled applications.
Autors: Shuai Na;Zhou Zheng;Albert I-Hsiang Chen;Lawrence L. P. Wong;Zhenhao Li;John T. W. Yeow;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4636 - 4643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Implementation of Ferroresonant Transformer for LED Driver Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and implementation of the 60-Hz ferroresonant transformer (FRT) for the light emitting diode (LED) street lamp to achieve high-frequency (HF) noise attenuation and ac-line voltage clamping. The HF transformer (HFT) used in the LED driver system for the outdoor LED street lamps cannot effectively suppress the surge current to avoid damage to the LED street lamp. However, instead of the HFT, the low-frequency transformer (LFT) can be applied to protect the LED street lamps from the surge current. The LFT has a higher turns number, which provides larger leakage inductances and parasitic capacitances that effectively suppress and shunt the surge current. With the magnetic shunt, a 60-Hz FRT is proposed to effectively regulate the ac-line voltage to not overstress the LED street lamp systems as compared with the conventional LFT. When the ac-line voltage is higher than the rated voltage, the additional magnetic flux generated from the primary-side winding flows through the magnetic shunt but not the secondary-side winding. The rated output voltage of the secondary side can be sustained to achieve ac-line voltage clamping. A prototype of the LED street lamp with a 60-Hz FRT has been designed and implemented to verify the feasibility of the HF noise attenuation and ac-line voltage clamping.
Autors: Ray-Lee Lin;Chia-Hao Tsai;Nian-Ci Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 5978 - 5987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Investigation of Dielectric Engineered Dopant Segregated Schottky Barrier MOSFET With NiSi Source/Drain
Abstract:
In this paper, to solve an important issue of low ON-state current in the nickel silicide (NiSi) metal source/drain Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET (SBMOS), we have reported a novel dielectric engineered (DE) dopant segregated (DS) SBMOS structure using gate dielectric engineering. In a proposed device, we employ two different gate dielectric materials. The high-k gate dielectric is used at the source side and low-k gate dielectric at the drain side. Beneath the high-k gate dielectric, electron accumulation increases due to large gate dielectric capacitance density. As a result, reduction in depletion of source side dopant segregation layer further decreases the SB tunneling width for the electron injection. Consequently, improvement in ON-state current () is obtained. In addition, the low-k gate dielectric and drain side dopant segregation layer increases the effective SB height and tunneling width for the hole injection. Thus, the OFF-state current () is suppressed. The optimization of proposed device has been performed by modulating the length of high-k and the low-k gate dielectric. In addition, we have compared the performance of the proposed device in terms of ON to OFF current ratio , subthreshold swing (SS), transconductance , transconductance generation factor , cut-off frequency , and gain-bandwidth product $({f}_{ {A}})$ to the SBMOS, DS SBMOS, and DS SBMOS with the full high-k gate dielectric. Moreover, we have proposed the possible process flow for the DE DS SBMOS fabrication.
Autors: Sumit Kale;Pravin N. Kondekar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4400 - 4407
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Investigation on Bioinverter and Bioring-Oscillator for Dielectrically Modulated Biosensing Applications
Abstract:
In this work, an inverter-based biomolecule detection strategy has been introduced for dielectrically modulated biosensing applications that show a clear output logic-state transition after conjugation. Subsequently, a bioring-oscillator has been realized based on such bioinverters, where biomolecules can be detected from the oscillation frequency amplification with conjugation. To optimize the detection efficiency, a dielectrically modulated fringing field effect transistor based transducer has been incorporated as the pull-up/pull-down elements of such bioinverter. The underlying physics of such structure has been investigated and subsequent electrical response has been estimated for various biomolecule sample specifications. This work explores different bioinverter configurations, and subsequently the suitable choice of bioinverter has been indicated for charged and charge-neutral biomolecule detection. Similar studies have been performed for bioring oscillator, and the roles of supply voltage scaling and oscillator stage enhancement have been investigated in this context.
Autors: Sayan Kanungo;Sabir Ali Mondal;Sanatan Chattopadhyay;Hafizur Rahaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 974 - 981
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Optimization of Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machines With Magnetic Shunting Rotor for Electric Vehicle Traction Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid excitation synchronous machine (HESM) with magnetic shunting rotor is designed for electric vehicle traction applications with consideration of electromagnetic performance and mechanical strength. The HESM with magnetic shunting rotor is a topology of brushless HESM with extended magnetic bridge to embed field windings. The rotor core extends along the axial direction and the increase of rotor length is inevitable, which reduces torque density. In order to improve torque density, the excitation structure is optimized by built-in field windings and the HESM with one-end built-in field windings is presented. To improve the flux regulation capability and decrease the magnet consumption further, the HESM with dual-end built-in field windings is proposed and investigated. The comparative study of the performances of the original HESM and the HESMs with one/dual-end built-in field windings is carried out by three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). An original HESM prototype and a permanent magnet synchronous machine prototype have been developed and the experimental results, which agree well with the FE-predicted results, confirm the advantages of HESM and the validity of FEM used in predictions in this paper.
Autors: Ye Liu;Zhuoran Zhang;Xiaoxiang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 5252 - 5261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Optimization of Piezoelectric MEMS Vibration Energy Harvesters Based on Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
Low-power electronic applications are normally powered by batteries, which have to deal with stringent lifetime and size constraints. To enhance operational autonomy, energy harvesting from ambient vibration by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has been identified as a vivid solution to this universal problem. This paper proposes an automated design and optimization methodology with minimum human efforts for MEMS-based piezoelectric energy harvesters. The analytic equations for estimating the harvested voltage by the unimorph piezoelectric energy harvesters are presented with their accuracy validated by using the finite element method (FEM) simulation and prototype measurement. Thanks to their high accuracy, we use these analytic equations as fitness functions of genetic algorithm (GA), an evolutionary computation method for optimization problems by mimicking biological evolution. Our experimental results show that the GA is capable of optimizing multiple physical parameters of piezoelectric energy harvesters to considerably enhance the output voltage. This harvesting efficiency improvement is also desirably coupled with physical size reduction as preferred for the MEMS design process. To demonstrate capability of the proposed optimization method, we have also included a commercial optimization product (i.e., COMSOL optimization module) in our comparison study. The experiments show that our proposed GA-based optimization methodology offers higher effectiveness in the magnitude improvement of harvested voltage along with less runtime compared with the other optimization approaches. Furthermore, the effects of geometry optimization on mechanical and electrical properties (e.g., resonant frequency, stiffness, and internal impedance) are also studied and an effective solution to producing maximum power from unimorph piezoelectric harvesters is proposed.
Autors: Seyedfakhreddin Nabavi;Lihong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7372 - 7382
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance Analysis of a Differentially Spatial Modulated Chaos Shift Keying Modulation System
Abstract:
In this brief, a new differentially spatial modulated chaos shift keying modulation communication system is proposed, in which the transceiver has not accessed channel state information. In the transmitter, the symbol can be mapped into the dependently selected antenna by the differential matrix in each interval. Meanwhile, in the receiver, the maximum received signal is used to retrieve the block of transmitted bits by the maximum likelihood estimation. By employing the spatial modulation, the proposed scheme offers a higher spectrum efficiency and the energy efficiency compared to the conventional multiple-input multiple-output differential chaos shift keying system. Lastly, the theoretical upper bounds on the average bit error probability, analyzed and derived, are in good agreement with the simulation results.
Autors: Wei Hu;Lin Wang;Georges Kaddoum;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 1302 - 1306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance Analysis of a Self-Start Radial Flux-Hysteresis Interior Permanent Magnet Motor
Abstract:
A self-start interior permanent magnet (IPM) motor can be a potential replacement of the conventional induction motor because of its high torque density, smaller size, higher efficiency, and power factor. Traditional self-start IPM motors are equipped with cage windings in the rotor for providing the starting as well as the damping torque. Cage-quipped IPM motors have limited starting and synchronization capabilities. This paper introduces a novel self-start radial flux (RF) hysteresis IPM motor. The rotor of the hysteresis IPM motor has a cylindrical hysteresis ring made of semi-hard magnetic material. High energy density Nd–B–Fe magnets are buried inside the rotor hysteresis ring. The ring is supported by a laminated steel sleeve, allowing the flux to travel radially inside the hysteresis ring. In this paper, the design and performance analysis of a 3-phase 4-pole 1-HP RF-hysteresis IPM motor is carried out using finite-element analysis. The performance of the designed RF-hysteresis IPM motor is compared with similar 1-HP circumferential flux type hysteresis and cage-equipped IPM motors. Based on analysis and simulation, the RF-hysteresis IPM motor demonstrates higher starting and synchronization capabilities than conventional self-start IPM motors.
Autors: S. F. Rabbi;P. Zhou;M. A. Rahman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance of a High- $Q$ Narrow Bandwidth Bandpass Filter in Empty Substrate Integrated Coaxial Line at $K_{u}$ -Band
Abstract:
This letter presents the design and performance of a planar narrow bandwidth bandpass filter with high quality factor. The structure is composed of an empty substrate integrated coaxial line with the center conductor suspended in air. The component dimensions have been calculated by means of classical microwave filter design theory. The filter has been manufactured using standard printed circuit board fabrication processes. A measured insertion loss of 1.59 dB, 2.93% fractional bandwidth, and a -factor of 1505 have been obtained at 15 GHz. A -factor comparison with other substrate and empty substrate integrated technologies shows the advantages of the solution considered in this letter. The proposed filter proves to be suitable for the implementation of integrated microwave or millimeter-wave subsystems with severe restrictions, i.e., low in-band losses, very narrow bandpass responses, low frequency dispersion, high out-of-band rejection, and low manufacturing cost.
Autors: Alejandro L. Borja;Angel Belenguer;Hector Esteban;Vicente E. Boria;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 977 - 979
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Simulation of Intermediate Band Solar Cell With Ultradense Type-II Multilayer Ge/Si Quantum Dot Superlattice
Abstract:
We studied the miniband dependence on the structural parameters and shape in type-II multilayer germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) solar cell. A maximum tunable range of ground-state energy is 19% by tuning layer distance down to 0.5 nm, whereas 24.5% is achieved by adjusting the horizontal dot-to-dot spacing down to 0.3 nm. The reduction of effective bandgap is severe for cylindrical QDs than ellipsoidal and conical QDs in the ultradense QDSL, thus leading to a relatively lower conversion efficiency. On average, the thickness of QD shows a negative correlation to conversion efficiency. We observed a high conversion efficiency of 27.22% in a bilayer conical QDSL under an AM1.5 spectral irradiance and one sun illumination.
Autors: Yi-Chia Tsai;Ming-Yi Lee;Yiming Li;Seiji Samukawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4547 - 4553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Consideration on Converged Rx SAW Duplexer Module for Multiband RF Front End
Abstract:
This paper presents the design consideration on a converged Rx surface acoustic wave (SAW) duplexer module for integrated RF front end. Two different matching-circuit and notch-circuit configurations were examined with importance placed on electrical characteristics (insertion loss and isolation of duplexer) and simplification of module, respectively. From circuit simulations and examinations, we verified that a simplified design was best in terms of both characteristics and space in the case of a finite inductor’s Q. We also fabricate a quad-band converged Rx module (Band I + II, V + VIII) using an SAW duplexer and verified that its electrical characteristics agree well with our simulation results.
Autors: Masafumi Iwaki;Tabito Tanaka;Masanori Ueda;Yoshio Satoh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 4629 - 4635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Criteria in Sizing Phase-Change RF Switches
Abstract:
This paper presents design criteria for four-terminal phase-change (PC) RF switches as a function of their dimensions, (heater width, RF gap, and barrier thickness), materials, and connection topology. Reducing heater width is shown to reduce switch actuation power, with this reduction ultimately being limited by the maximum allowed heater current density, as set by projected reliability. Narrower RF gaps are shown to increase switch cut-off frequency , because they decrease on-state resistance more than they increase off-state capacitance. The balance of this increased versus the estimated reduction in power handling as the RF gap shrinks is quantified. Barrier layers of AlN thicker than 200 nm are shown to be sufficient to electrically decouple the switch from the heater trace. Coupling to heater pads can also be significant unless pad sizes are reduced as in a monolithically integrated switch. Finally, it is demonstrated that division of the switch into multiple parallel segments is a viable approach for lowering the heater actuation voltage for CMOS integration. A 12.5% increase in (~1.5 fF) was observed and 35% increase in actuation power at temperature was needed in a two-segment parallel switch, as compared to a single segment switch.
Autors: Gregory Slovin;Min Xu;Rahul Singh;T. E. Schlesinger;Jeyanandh Paramesh;James A. Bain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 4531 - 4540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of 3-Times Magnetizer and Rotor of Spoke-Type PMSM Considering Post-Assembly Magnetization
Abstract:
Unlike the existing bar-type permanent magnets, it is difficult to magnetize the ferrite spoke-type permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), because the permanent magnet is placed deep inside the shaft. In order to magnetize permanent magnet, a high magnetic field intensity is required. However, the high magnetic field intensity may cause demagnetization of surrounding permanent magnets. It has a bad effect on the magnetization of the permanent magnet and the performance of the spoke-type PMSM. In this paper, we proposed magnetizer models for magnetization of spoke-type 10 pole rotor and the inter-pole winding to reduce the demagnetization of surrounding permanent magnets. Finally, the optimally designed model was manufactured and the performance of the magnetizer was verified.
Autors: Hyun-Soo Seol;Tae-Chul Jeong;Hyun-Woo Jun;Ju Lee;Dong-Woo Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a New Electromagnetic Brake for Actuator Locking Mechanism in Aerospace Vehcile
Abstract:
Electromagnetic (EM) brakes are gaining importance in aerospace vehicles for various critical applications. In guided missiles, they are primarily used for locking the actuator when the missile is in carriage either by road or by air such that the position of the actuator is not changed when servo is in the off condition. In this paper, a new EM brake is designed which is more energy efficient and reliable compared to a conventional solenoid operated brake. The nonlinear magnetic analysis is carried out on the brake, and the hardware is realized and tested. The test results are promising and this topology can be adapted for aerospace and other critical applications.
Autors: B. V. Ravi Kumar;K. Sivakumar;Y. Srinivas Rao;S. Karunanidhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a New Enhanced Torque In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor With Divided Teeth for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper presents a new switched reluctance motor (SRM) with wide speed range for the application of electric vehicles. It has an in-wheel structure for direct drive and multiple teeth per stator pole to enhance output torque. Also, the number of rotor poles is more than that of stator teeth. A 6/16 three-phase in-wheel SRM with the concepts of multi-teeth per stator pole and more rotor poles than stator teeth has been proposed for analysis. The torque performance of the topology with multi-teeth per stator pole is proven by theoretical analysis. Moreover, a new design formula is introduced for a novel combination of stator and rotor poles. The parameters of the motor are optimized by genetic algorithm method for the maximum torque output. Then the torque performance is computed by finite-element method (FEM) and compared with its counterparts, including three-phase 6/8 and 6/10 SRMs. The FEM results exhibit higher torque density for the proposed topology.
Autors: Jingwei Zhu;Ka Wai Eric Cheng;Xiangdang Xue;Yu Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Novel Consequent-Pole Transverse-Flux Machine With Improved Permanent Magnet Utilization
Abstract:
Severe leakage flux is a long-existed drawback in the transverse-flux permanent magnet machines (TFPMs), which results in a low permanent magnet (PM) utilization rate and prominent cogging torque in TFPMs. Aiming to solve this problem, this paper presents a novel consequent-pole transverse-flux machine (CP-TFM). The key is to artificially shift the upper and lower salient-pole rotors with a half-pole pitch and connect them with a ring-shaped core. Therefore, a complementary magnetic circuit is constructed to reduce the flux leakage between the adjacent poles as well as improve the PM utilization rate. To verify the feasibility of design, a 3-D finite-element model is established and its electromagnetic performance is evaluated. With the same peripheral dimension and copper loss, a quantitative comparison is carried out between the proposed CP-TFM and conventional TFPM. Finite-element simulation results reveal that compared to its contrast, the proposed solution can almost double the PM utilization ratio and effectively reduce the cogging torque.
Autors: Xing Zhao;Shuangxia Niu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Scanning Seebeck Coefficient Apparatus: A Tool for Testing Inhomogeneities in Thermoelectric Materials
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a simple, 2-D Seebeck coefficient measurement system for scanning thermoelectric samples at several points over its surface. The measuring setup has been tested with a homogeneous constantan (Cu55Ni45 alloy) foil in a temperature range from room temperature to 35 °C. Results show good agreement with the literature reported data with an error less than 7%. In order to test the inhomogeneities detection capability of the system, the sample surface was intentionally modified with a rectangular layer made of nickel-based ink and the system was able to detect this defect. With this setup, temperature measurement is not used directly for the Seebeck coefficient evaluation of the sample, although temperature readings are necessary for calculation of mean Seebeck coefficients of thermocouples used and for determination of mean sample temperature. The system uses a heater and a heat sink to minimize the heat flux through the scanning probe, reducing in this way the measurement error. The developed Seebeck coeffiecient scanning method allows automated measurements in a maximum region of 15 mm × 5 mm with 1-mm steps. The statistical analysis of the Seebeck coefficient through a maximum number of 75 recorded data points can be useful in the detection of inhomogeneities and defective regions along the sample.
Autors: Luis Felipe Ramírez-García;Oscar Luis Arnache-Olmos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 3007 - 3011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Distributed Protograph LDPC Codes for Multi-Relay Coded-Cooperative Networks
Abstract:
This paper studies protograph low-density parity-check coded cooperation (CC) schemes for two-hop multi-relay systems with relays over Nakagami- quasi-static fading (QSF) channels. We propose two CC schemes, namely schemes I and II, with different maximum code rates to satisfy different transmission requirements. We further design a family of distributed rate-compatible root-protograph (RCRP) codes to achieve full diversity in CC-based multi-relay QSF channels. In particular, our RCRP codes with sub-codewords can realize full diversity in scheme I, and our RCRP codes with two sub-codewords can achieve full diversity in scheme II with a maximum-ratio combiner. In addition, we estimate the asymptotic word error rate and bit error rate of our RCRP codes using a generalized protograph extrinsic information transfer algorithm, which is able to characterize the error performance of finite-length codewords accurately. Analysis and simulation show that our RCRP codes can achieve outage-limit-approaching performance in both multi-relay CC architectures. This makes the RCRP coding framework extremely attractive for multi-relay cooperative communication applications with slow-varying fading.
Autors: Yi Fang;Soung Chang Liew;Taotao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 7235 - 7251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of LDPC Codes for Unequal ISI Channels
Abstract:
In this paper, we design an irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes for unequal inter-symbol interference channels based on the modified extrinsic information transfer chart. During transmission, each LDPC codeword will be divided and transmitted to the different channels. The aim of this scheme is to avoid transmitting the whole codeword in a high error rate channel. The simulation results show that the proposed code optimized for both PR1 and PR2 channels can achieve a 0.2 coding gain over the codes designed specifically for each individual channel. When this simple code is applied to a perpendicular channel with these two targets, the coding gains of the proposed code is about 0.08 dB at the frame error rate of .
Autors: Watid Phakphisut;Pornchai Supnithi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Low-Power DSP-Free Coherent Receivers for Data Center Links
Abstract:
Coherent detection offers high spectral efficiency and receiver sensitivity, but digital signal processing (DSP)-based coherent receivers may be prohibitively power hungry for data centers even when optimized for short-reach applications, where fiber propagation impairments are less severe. We propose and evaluate low-power DSP-free homodyne coherent receiver architectures for dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) for inter- and intradata center links. We propose a novel optical polarization demultiplexing technique, for DP-QPSK and higher-order modulation formats, with three cascaded phase shifters driven by marker tone detection circuitry. We consider carrier recovery based on either optical or electrical phase-locked loops (PLLs). We propose a novel multiplier-free phase detector based on XOR gates, which exhibits less than 0.5 dB power penalty relative to a conventional Costas loop phase detector. We also study the relative performance of homodyne DP-differential QPSK, for which carrier phase recovery is unnecessary. Our proposed DSP-free architectures exhibit ~1 dB power penalty at small chromatic dispersion compared to their DSP-based counterparts. We estimate conservatively that the high-speed analog electronics of an electrical PLL-based coherent receiver consume nearly 4 W for 200 Gbit/s DP-QPSK, assuming a 90-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process.
Autors: Jose Krause Perin;Anujit Shastri;Joseph M. Kahn;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 35, issue:21, pages: 4650 - 4662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Plug-In Electric Vehicle's Frequency-Droop Controller for Primary Frequency Control and Performance Assessment
Abstract:
This paper describes a novel strategy to design the frequency-droop controller of plug in electric vehicles (PEVs) for primary frequency control (PFC). To be able to properly compare the frequency response of control system with and without PEVs, the design is done to guarantee the same stability margin for both systems in the worst case scenario. To identify the worst case, sensitivity analyses are conducted on a large set of system parameters performing eigenvalue analysis and bode plots. Three main contributions are included in this work: 1) we demonstrate that PEVs using the well-design droop controller significantly improve the PFC response while successfully preserving the frequency stability, 2) since the fast response of PEVs may cause to mask the governor-turbine response in conventional units, a novel control scheme is developed to replace some portion of PEV's reserve after a certain time by the reserve of conventional units during PFC, and 3) a method is proposed to evaluate the positive economic impact of PEV's participation in PFC. For the latter, the system PFC cost savings mainly through the avoidance of under frequency load shedding by PEVs are calculated. A large-scale power system and an islanded network are evaluated and compared through dynamic simulations, which illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed methodologies.
Autors: Seyedmahdi Izadkhast;Pablo Garcia-Gonzalez;Pablo Frías;Pavol Bauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4241 - 4254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Position Estimation Strategy of Sensorless Interior PMSM at Standstill Using Minimum Voltage Vector Injection Method
Abstract:
This paper presents a new initial rotor position estimation method for an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor. The proposed method includes two steps. First, the minimum voltage vectors are injected to estimate the rotor position. Second, in order to identify the magnet polarity accurately, two opposite voltage pulses are injected on the estimated d-axis. In the proposed method, no filter is needed to draw the high frequency current signal for position estimation and no low-pass filter is required in the current control loop for extracting the fundamental current component for field-oriented control. The fast and reliable feature of this proposed method allows starting the motor with 100% load torque. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified experimentally and the maximum position estimation error is around 6 electrical degrees.
Autors: Xuan Wu;Shoudao Huang;Xiao Liu;Kaiyuan Lu;Jian Gao;Jian Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Reliable SoCs With BIST Hardware and Machine Learning
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel framework is presented for designing lifetime-reliable SoCs with self-adaptation capability against aging-induced degradation. The proposed flow utilizes the existing logic built-in-self-test (LBIST) hardware, and software implemented machine learning predictor to activate appropriate countermeasures to remedy the wear out in the field. Using an innovative method, we convert ATPG-generated transition delay test patterns into LBIST patterns to activate high-usage critical/near-critical paths in-field, and the corresponding responses are utilized in developing the predictor. A gate-overlap and path-delay-aware algorithm selects the optimum set of patterns. The area and test time overhead for the framework are very low. We implemented our proposed flow on SoC benchmark designs, and the results demonstrated its efficacy.
Autors: Mehdi Sadi;Gustavo K. Contreras;Jifeng Chen;LeRoy Winemberg;Mark Tehranipoor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 3237 - 3250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Winding Changeable BLDC Motor Considering Demagnetization in Winding Change Section
Abstract:
In this paper, a changeable winding brushless DC (BLDC) motor for the expansion of the speed region is described. The changeable winding BLDC motor is driven by a large number of phase turns at low speeds and by a reduced number of turns at high speeds. For this reason, the section where the winding changes is very important. Ideally, the time at which the windings are to be converted should be same as the time at which the voltage changes. However, if this timing is not exactly synchronized, a large current is generated in the motor, and the demagnetization of the permanent magnet occurs. In addition, a large torque ripple is produced. In this paper, we describe the demagnetization of the permanent magnet in a fault situation when the windings change, and we suggest a design process to solve this problem.
Autors: Hyun-Soo Seol;Dong-Woo Kang;Hyun-Woo Jun;Jongsuk Lim;Ju Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design, Analysis, and Field Testing of an Innovative Drone-Assisted Zero-Configuration Localization Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In wireless sensor networks, there are usually a small number of position-aware nodes, referred to as anchors. Every other node, called target node (or sensor), can estimate its distances to surrounding anchors according to the received signal strength. Then, trilateration can be employed for self localization. This system is low-cost, simple, and thus popular, but it suffers from two major drawbacks. The first problem is the requirement for realtime channel parameters, which should be estimated and transmitted to target sensors by a central node. Another problem arises from the fact that positioning accuracy is dependent on number of anchors, but anchor density is quite limited for economic consideration in the conventional localization systems. To solve these problem, we proposed in this paper, a new localization framework for wireless sensor networks, which employs a mobile node to serve as virtual anchors. This new framework has two advantages over the conventional one: 1) Offline measurements are totally unnecessary; 2) the number of virtual anchors can be vastly increased with negligible cost, leading to very high positioning accuracy. To justify the superiority of this new framework, extensive analysis and simulations were conducted. Besides, we implemented it on a drone and did field experiments, which showed very promising results.
Autors: Zijun Gong;Cheng Li;Fan Jiang;Ruoyu Su;Ramachandran Venkatesan;Chuiyang Meng;Shuai Han;Yan Zhang;Shudong Liu;Kun Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10322 - 10335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design, Analysis, and Implementation of Spacecloth Based on Hexagonal Resistor Grid Network of Planar Resistors
Abstract:
A novel spacecloth is designed based on a hexagonal grid network of planar resistors. S-parameters of spacecloth are derived for plane wave transmission through spacecloth. A prototype C-band spacecloth is developed and tested using waveguide simulator in conjunction with vector network analyzer to validate the design. Predicted, simulated, and measurement results agree well. The spacecloth can be used for realizing ultra wide band absorption of more than 95% from 2.4 to 17.7 GHz in a four layer-Jaumann absorber.
Autors: Chandrika Sudhendra;Madhu A. Ramkumar;K. A. R. K. Rao;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 986 - 988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Desirable Properties of Internet Identifiers
Abstract:
With more than 30 years since the Internet’s inception, Internet identifier spaces need an overhaul to make them more useful. Here, Vint Cerf explores why this exceptional challenge is easier said than done.
Autors: Vinton G. Cerf;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 21, issue:6, pages: 63 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detailed Analytical Modeling of Fractional-Slot Concentrated-Wound Interior Permanent Magnet Machines for Prediction of Torque Ripple
Abstract:
Electromagnetic torque in interior permanent magnet machines is a function of their inductances and permanent magnet (PM) flux linkages, which are assumed sinusoidal in the standard dq model of the machine. This assumption is flawed when a fractional-slot concentrated-wound stator is utilized, because its nonsinusoidal winding function leads to harmonics in the machine parameters. In order to address this deficiency, the nonsinusoidal machine parameters are modeled in this paper, based on which, a modified extended dq model is proposed. The harmonics in the machine parameters are included in the proposed modified extended dq model and their effects on the machine operational characteristics are accounted for. Detailed equations for the average torque and torque ripple are then derived based on the proposed modified extended dq model. Experimental tests are also described for the measurement of the proposed modified extended dq model parameters. The estimated torque and torque ripple by the proposed model are validated through experimental tests on a prototype fractional-slot concentrated-wound interior permanent magnet machine.
Autors: Mohammad Farshadnia;Muhammad Ali Masood Cheema;Rukmi Dutta;John E. Fletcher;Muhammed F. Rahman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 5272 - 5283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting and Preventing Gate Oxide Plasma Damage During PECVD Carbon Deposition Through Surface Photovoltage Measurements
Abstract:
For an advanced NAND flash memory device, there is a failure mechanism known as “blown gate oxide” that is commonly sourced to the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) amorphous carbon deposition step. It has been observed that specific maintenance events on the PECVD process chambers will trigger this failure mechanism, most significantly when replacing the showerhead, or installing a “poor quality” showerhead. This paper investigates utilizing surface photovoltage measurements to indicate when a chamber has a high probability to cause blown gates. In this expanded edition of this paper, we also investigate issues concerning chamber cleaning cycles and how they were resolved.
Autors: Alan K. Fritz;Leonard J. Olmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 426 - 433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection and Correction of Spectral Shift Effects for the Airborne Prism Experiment
Abstract:
Shifts of center wavelengths (CWLs) and related changes of full-widths at half-maximums (FWHMs) occur during in-flight data acquisitions of push-broom imaging spectrometers such as the airborne prism experiment (APEX). Combined with the spectrally changing properties of the dichroic coating that acts as a beam splitter between the visible and near infrared (VNIR) as well as the short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels, these shifts affect both the spectral and radiometric accuracies of the spectrometer data, and hence the accuracy of higher level products. In this paper, two independent standards, i.e., atmospheric absorption features as well as features of the standard reference material filter built in the APEX in-flight characterization facility, are used in a complementary way to improve in-flight spectral calibration. The CWL shift and FWHM change for each detector element are simultaneously detected by using spectrum-matching and surface fitting techniques under constraints from pregenerated shift realizations. Subsequently, the APEX spectroradiometric response model is improved in the aspect of spectral resolution by using performance parameters of optics and detector modules. The radiometric gain and offset for each detector element are corrected according to the detected CWLs and FWHMs, as well as the improved APEX response model. Compared with the spectral and radiometric parameters acquired during laboratory calibration, the detected CWLs and FWHMs promote the accuracy of the atmospheric feature positions in the SWIR channel by 10 nm, whereas the corrected gains and offsets reduce the radiance deviation in the spectral regions 375–550 nm and 950–1080 nm both by 70% on average.
Autors: Guorui Jia;Andreas Hueni;Michael E. Schaepman;Huijie Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 6666 - 6679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Inner Cracks in Thick Steel Plates Using Unsaturated AC Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing With a Magnetic Resistance Gradiometer
Abstract:
In order to ensure the safety of infrastructure, it is important to be able to detect both surface and inner cracks in the thick steel plates used. However, it is difficult to use conventional magnetic measurement techniques for inspecting inner cracks in steel because of its high permeability as well as owing to the variations in it. To solve this problem, we developed a method called unsaturated ac magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing based on a magnetic resistance gradiometer for analyzing the inner cracks in steel. The proposed method uses a sensor probe consisting of a semicircular yoke with induction coils at each end, and a gradiometer with two anisotropic magnetic resistance sensors for detecting the components perpendicular to the steel surface. The conventional MFL testing method requires a strong power source for observing the MFL in the magnetic saturation region. In contrast, in this paper, a gradiometer-based method for detecting the differential intensity and phase is used to detect low levels of magnetic leakage using a weak power source when the test steel sample is unsaturated. During the measurements, a deep inner crack could be detected by decreasing the frequency. The line-scanned differential signal exhibited a peak just above the crack position and was observed to be depth dependent. Based on these results, the method could be used to determine the position of the crack as well as its depth.
Autors: Keiji Tsukada;Yatsuse Majima;Yoshihiro Nakamura;Takuya Yasugi;Nannan Song;Kenji Sakai;Toshihiko Kiwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Inter-Turn Stator Faults in Induction Motors Using Short-Term Averaging of Forward and Backward Rotating Stator Current Phasors for Fast Prognostics
Abstract:
Stator-related failures in induction machines are often encountered in industrial applications due to the unforeseen insulation damage. This paper addresses the fast prognosis of inter-turn faults. It presents simulation and measurement of the stator winding short circuit faults of a three-phase induction motor. A 50 Hz four-pole 2 hp induction motor was operated under healthy and faulty conditions and the increase in backward sequence current component assessed. It was found that the negative sequence component is a powerful component for the detection of inter-turn faults and simple algorithms allow it to be monitored and faults detected.
Autors: David G. Dorrell;Khanyisani Makhoba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Printable EUV Mask Absorber Defects and Defect Adders by Full Chip Optical Inspection of EUV Patterned Wafers
Abstract:
The ability to rapidly detect both printable EUV mask adder defects as well as mask absorber defects across the entire mask image field is a key enabler for EUV lithography. Current optical wafer-based inspection techniques are only capable of detecting repeater defects on a die-to-die basis for chiplets within the image field. Larger server-type chips that encompass the entire mask image field cannot rely on such a scheme, since the presence of the defect in every die prevents their detection. In this paper, a prototype optical wafer defect inspection methodology designed to detect repeater defects over the entire image field, termed die-to-baseline reference die (D2BRD), is investigated. The sensitivity of this inspection technique is demonstrated and compared to eBeam inspection over a range of defect sizes for both opaque and clear type mask absorber programmed defects. Moreover, the D2BRD methodology is used to monitor printing defect adders present in a lithographic defect test mask, as well as 7-nm BEOL layers. Using defect repeater analysis, SEM review and patch image classification of full chip wafer inspections over several mask cycles, the D2BRD scheme is shown to allow the unambiguous identification of mask adder defects, while suppressing random process defects. This methodology has the potential to define the risk assessment of mask adder defects in the absence of an EUV pellicle, and can play an integral part of the wafer print protection strategy.
Autors: Luciana Meli;Ravi Bonam;Scott Halle;Nelson Felix;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 402 - 409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Sub-Design Rule Shorts for Process Development in Advanced Technology Nodes
Abstract:
Electric shorts down to atomic scale have emerged as the most critical yield detractors in advanced technology process development. In this paper, we demonstrate successful detection by various charging dynamic effects which stem from the transistor level response under electron beam exposure. We found that charging dynamic effects coupled with photon or scan direction are exceptionally useful for critical voltage contrast defect detection. Correlation with other characterization methods on the same defective location from electron beam inspection scan shows consistent results for various shorting mechanisms.
Autors: Ming Lei;Kevin T. Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 418 - 425
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determination of Intrinsic and Induced Magnetic Anisotropies in Ni–Zn and Ni–Zn–Co Spinel Ferrites by Using Singular Point Detection Method and Their Comparison With FMR Method
Abstract:
This paper dealt with the determination—at room temperature—of two contributions to the total anisotropy field of soft ferrite-based composite materials. These contributions ( and came from the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and from the magnetoelasticity, respectively. The values of were determined through microwave measurements of the permeability [ferromagnetic resonance method (FMR)] and also through a static method [singular point detection method (SPD)]. The contributions of and were experimentally distinguished and separated and their values interpreted. The results obtained from these two methods compare well. The values of are consistent with the published data. The ability of the SPD method to determine induced anisotropy fields in materials textured by external stress is highlighted. The FMR method appeared to be more precise in measuring , , and , in reason of some inaccuracies coming from the sensitivity of the SPD method to demagnetizing effects. However, and unlike the FMR method, the SPD method is believed to be applicable to further temperature measurements of anisotropy fields.
Autors: Jean-Luc Mattei;Azar Maalouf;Vincent Laur;Alexis Chevalier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Analysis of Bridge-Type Saturated-Core Fault Current Limiter
Abstract:
The saturated-core fault current limiter (SFCL) is an effective device for limiting fault current. This paper proposes and analyzes a novel bridge-type SFCL (BSFCL) that uses a permanent magnet (PM) to reduce dc bias while improving the stability of the PM. The bridge structure in the BSFCL consists of four coils and a fault-limiting reactor which is used to limit fault current. The ac and the dc share coils to help reduce energy loss. The iron core uses air-gap branches to offer paths for ac flux, which reduces eddy current in the PMs and enhances their stability. The operating principle and characteristics of the BSFCL were analyzed using the electromagnetic coupling method. To investigate the effects of parameters on the performance of the BSFCL, various finite-element analysis simulations were performed by Maxwell. Experimental results of a 220 V prototype verify the effectiveness of the BSFCL.
Autors: Jiaxin Yuan;Yongheng Zhong;Shuhan Liao;Yanhui Gao;Kazuhiro Muramatsu;Jiabin Jia;Baichao Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of 3-D Ultrasonic Anemometer With Nonorthogonal Geometry for the Determination of High-Intensity Winds
Abstract:
The wind speed is an important quantity in various areas of knowledge. Among the existing types of anemometers, the ultrasonic is the one that requires less maintenance and may be used in most applications. This paper presents the development of an ultrasonic anemometer that measures wind speed in three dimensions. It discusses the important aspects of the mechanical structure of the equipment in order to minimize its influence in measurements. It also presents the electronic circuits used in the excitement and in the conditioning of signals of the transducers that make up the instrument. The equipment was calibrated in a wind tunnel, with a coefficient of determination R2 = 0.999994, in relation to the reference method. In addition, results of field tests comparing two different mechanical structures are presented. Empirically, it is shown that a nonorthogonal arrangement for the anemometer favors the accuracy of the measurements. The results showed that the proposed equipment has an excellent accuracy for the measurement of up to 160 km/h.
Autors: Giancarlo Michelino Gaeta Lopes;David Pereira da Silva Junior;José Alexandre de França;Maria Bernadete de Morais França;Lucas de Souza Ribeiro;Maurício Moreira;Pitstone Elias;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 2836 - 2844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a low sag carbon fiber reinforced aluminum conductor for transmission lines [News from Japan]
Abstract:
The demand for electric power in the world is growing steadily, especially in China. Electric power transmission capacity must, therefore, be increased. However, construction of new transmission lines requires time and space and is costly. Towers for overhead transmission lines are expensive, compared with the cost of the cables. It follows that, if possible, the transmission capacity of overhead transmission lines should be increased without changing the tower structures.
Autors: Y. Ohki;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 33, issue:6, pages: 54 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a New Low-Cost 3-D Flux Transverse Flux FSPMM With Soft Magnetic Composite Cores and Ferrite Magnets
Abstract:
In this paper, a new 3-D flux transverse flux flux switching permanent magnet machine (3-DFTFFSPMM) is proposed. The cost of this machine is very low since both the soft magnetic composite (SMC) cores and ferrite magnets are very cheap, and the performance of this machine is good due to the special designed topology. For the qualitative analysis and initial design, the simplified power equation is developed to find the optimal design, and the 3-D finite-element method is applied for the quantitative analysis. Considering it is very difficult to obtain a special ferrite magnet in the current market, the 3-DFTFFSPMM for prototyping in the workshop is improved with a new design. For the prototyping, the SMC cores are made by using the manual die compacting technology. Last, the efficiency map of these two machines is obtained to judge the operational performance.
Autors: Chengcheng Liu;Gang Lei;Bo Ma;Youhua Wang;Youguang Guo;Jianguo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a Silicon-Only Capacitive Dew Point Sensor
Abstract:
The development of a silicon-only capacitive dew point sensor is described in this paper. The principle of operation is based on the change in capacitance of an interdigitated parallel plate capacitor due to the condensation of water below dew point temperature. The proposed sensor element is simple in fabrication, with only one lithography step and no metal or polymer usage. The experiments show good repeatability and baseline stability, whereas detection accuracy needs to be further improved. The influence of condensed water on the capacitance is investigated at different frequencies and cooling rates. It is expected that replacing air with water increases the capacitance by a factor of 80, due to the ratio of relative permittivity of water to ambient air. However, at low frequencies, the conducting properties of water in combination with the ultra-thin oxide coating on the electrodes result in a more complex capacitance behavior and an increase of up to four orders of magnitude has been measured. This additional and more rapid increase in capacitance may be utilized for faster dew point detection. In the current stage of development, the accuracy of the dew point temperature reading is equal to or better than the reference sensor (± 2 °C), with a response time of < 40 s, and is expected to be further improved with a more accurate test setup.
Autors: Jochen Stehle;Ashwin K. Samarao;Gary Yama;Uma Krishnamoorthy;Oliver Ambacher;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7223 - 7230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of Active Shielding-Type MI Gradiometer and Application for Magnetocardiography
Abstract:
We have developed an active magnetic shielding system for a magnetoimpedance (MI) gradiometer, in which a reference-type MI element output is fed back to a sensor head with a feedback coil to reduce the effect of environmental magnetic noise around the sensor head, and applied the device to magnetocardiography (MCG). This type of sensor reduced the 60 Hz noise related to the power source line by −40 dB and can operate in an unshielded environment and at room temperature with a noise amplitude of 100 pT. We simultaneously measured the electrocardiography (ECG) and MCG signals at a point on the chest surface near the pit of the stomach. In the output of the developed MI gradiometer, negative magnetic peaks were observed after average processing over 25 cycles, and these signals corresponded to the characteristics of the ECG waveform. The amplitude of the sharp magnetic peak corresponding to the R peak in the ECG was approximately 60 pT. This result corresponded to the value obtained by a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device. Consequently, we considered the active magnetic shielding system to be effective for a very weak magnetic signal such as MCG.
Autors: Takashi Takiya;Tsuyoshi Uchiyama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of an Energy-Saving Controller for Sub Apparatus
Abstract:
An enormous energy has been consumed in a semiconductor manufacturing factory. The energy consumption ratio for the use of manufacturing apparatus is approximately 60% in a semiconductor manufacturing factory, and the cost of energy is increasing in recent years. Therefore, we develop an energy saving controller for saving the energy of sub apparatus. We introduce the controller for dry pump and gas detoxifying apparatus during wafer transfer steps. We succeed in reducing energy consumption approximately 17 percent per manufacturing apparatus. The energy saving controller has the feature of rationality for energy saving operation and usability for every sub apparatus.
Autors: Toshiya Ozaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 367 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of Compact Ultra-Low-Field MRI System Using an Induction Coil
Abstract:
Ultra-low-field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF-MRI) is attractive for MRI applications such as a concurrent system of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and MRI. We are developing a compact ULF-MRI system that can be combined with a small-animal MEG system. In this paper, we developed a detection method that uses an induction coil instead of a superconducting quantum interference device for the ULF-MRI. The induction coil has advantages such as being more robust, easy to handle, and flexible for designing. We fabricated an induction coil from a copper wire with dimensions of 29 mm mm mm (inner diameter outer diameter length). A capacitor was connected to increase the sensitivity by the LC resonance effect. The resonance frequency was 3 kHz, and the corresponding magnetic field density for MRI measurement was . The detection coil was integrated with the compact ULF-MRI system and placed inside a magnetically shielded box. MRI measurement was demonstrated by using water phantoms with a total volume of mm. The size of the obtained image was pixels for 30.2 mm mm. A clear shape of the water phantom was taken with this ULF-MRI system. This result shows the induction coil can be used for the compact ULF-MRI system.
Autors: Daisuke Oyama;Yoshiaki Adachi;Masanori Higuchi;Naohiro Tsuyuguchi;Gen Uehara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of Equivalent 2-D Finite-Element Models for Accurate Prediction of Thrust Force in Permanent Magnet Lead Screws
Abstract:
This paper deals with equivalent 2-D finite-element (FE) models of permanent magnet lead screw (PMLS), to accurately predict the thrust force. Due to the helical-shape permanent magnets (PMs), the magnetic fields of PMLS are typically 3-D and non-symmetric. However, the PMLS is approximately symmetric in some cases and an equivalent 2-D axis-symmetric FE model is developed instead of 3-D models. The problem lies in that no evaluation about the accuracy and applicability of the 2-D axis-symmetric FE model was offered in previous literature. In this paper, the 2-D axis-symmetric FE model is derived based on the concept of equivalent current sheets of PMs. The limitations of the existing 2-D axis-symmetric FE model are clarified, and a novel equivalent 2-D torque FE model is then proposed to predict thrust force with the gear ratio when the 2-D axis-symmetric FE model is not appropriate. It is shown that the choice of equivalent 2-D FE model depends on the lead angle of PMLS, 2-D axis-symmetric FE model is applicable in the range of (0°, 15°), and 2-D torque FE model is preferred in the range of (65°, 90°).
Autors: Fang Gao;Qian Wang;Jibin Zou;Yongxiang Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of Reliable Gearless Motors for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
In this paper, a new class of reliable gearless motors, dubbed as the magnetic steering (MS) motor, is proposed to realize the concept of the magnetic differential (MagD) system for direct-drive electric vehicles. While the electronic differential (ED) system can control two individual motors to provide the differential action in the absence of mechanical differential, it suffers from reliability concerns upon errors from the individual motors. The proposed MagD system instead utilizes the MS-field excitation to interlock the magnetic fields in two rotors of the MS motor. With the control of MS-field excitation, the two rotors can be differentiated to generate appropriate torque levels for two driving wheels. As a result, the MagD system can offer higher reliability than the ED system. The machine performances of the proposed MS motor are evaluated by finite-element analysis, and the operating performances of the proposed MagD system are testified by system-level simulation.
Autors: Christopher H. T. Lee;K. T. Chau;Libing Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dielectric Characterization at Millimeter Waves With Hybrid Microstrip-Line Method
Abstract:
This paper proposes a hybrid microstrip-line method for characterizing materials with unknown dielectric properties at millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) frequencies. The proposed method introduces two error boxes, representing the impedance mismatch and discontinuities caused by signal path transitions between two different types of transmission lines. Therefore, unlike conventional covered- or two-transmission-line methods, the proposed method requires neither a perfect impedance match between the test fixture and the coaxial cables nor a high reproducibility of the transitions' radio frequency characteristics. We applied the proposed method to characterize two types of dielectric materials: Rogers RT/d5880 standard high-frequency substrate and a plain-woven polyester fabric substrate, using a single setup with an in-house designed universal test fixture in the 37-39 GHz range. The accuracy of the proposed method under imperfect fixture conditions is demonstrated.
Autors: Xiaoyou Lin;Boon-Chong Seet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 3100 - 3102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Differential Dual-Band Filters With Flexible Frequency Ratio Using Asymmetrical Shunt Branches for Wideband CM Suppression
Abstract:
In this paper, a group of differential dual-band bandpass filters based on a single quad-mode stub-loaded twin-ring resonator (TRR) are presented, which utilize asymmetrical shunt branches for common-mode (CM) suppression. Under differential-mode (DM) operation, the stub-loaded TRR manifests quad-mode characteristic for dual-band design. The frequency ratio of the two passbands can be flexibly selected according to the form of the loaded stubs. Different from the inline topology, differential multimode structures inevitably suffer from the hardship in CM suppression, especially for dual-band designs. Despite previous work fulfilled moderate CM suppression via embedded defected ground structure units, but the CM noise in the DM lower band can just be shifted away rather than suppressed. Instead, a novel CM-suppression approach is devised attributing to the asymmetrical short-terminated branches along the bisection line of the TRR. The transmission of the CM noise near the DM passbands can be blocked effectively. Furthermore, multiple CM notches can be obtained by the cooperation of the asymmetrical branches and source–load coupling, leading to the favorable CM suppression in a wide frequency range. For verification, a prototype differential dual-band filter based on the open stub-loaded TRR has been realized with frequency ratio which is larger than two. Similarly, a differential dual-band filter using the short-circuited stub-loaded TRR is also presented as an extension for frequency ratio which is smaller than two. The simulation and experiment results of the two demonstrated filters are given, showcasing a good agreement.
Autors: Li-Heng Zhou;Jian-Xin Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 4606 - 4615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Differential Protection With Critical Motors and Motor Applications: What You Didn't Know
Abstract:
The application of differential protection has been shown to be effective in many applications within the forest product-based industries. However, there are some aspects of differential protection that need special consideration. Some differential configurations may be harmful to the systems they were installed to protect. This article will cover a few of the basics surrounding typical differential applications. Also highlighted are some of the risk areas that are typically overlooked when applying differential protection for certain applications.
Autors: John A. Kay;David C. Mazur;Kenneth D. Mazur;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 23, issue:6, pages: 62 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Deadbeat and Repetitive Combined Control for a Stand-Alone Four-Leg VSI
Abstract:
This paper deals with a newly conceived combined control topology. Deadbeat and repetitive controllers are proposed to operate jointly in a four-leg voltage-source inverter for stand-alone applications. In such a mode of operation, a dedicated controller has to regulate the inverter output voltages, which are measured at the output of the power filter. In the proposed combined control, the deadbeat rapidly compensates the output voltage variations due to load changes, whereas the repetitive control provides the required harmonic compensation capabilities that are mandatory to comply with the standards when balanced and unbalanced nonlinear loads have to be fed. As a consequence, high dynamic performance is assured, as well as harmonics in the output voltages are almost absent. In fact, the achieved experimental tests have verified that resulting output voltage total harmonic distortion is around 0.5%, and in the case of highly unbalanced and nonlinear loads, compensating also the distortion introduced by the switches’ deadtime.
Autors: Alessandro Lidozzi;Chao Ji;Luca Solero;Pericle Zanchetta;Fabio Crescimbini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 5624 - 5633
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Payments in India: The Road Ahead
Abstract:
India is a vast country with a population of more than 1.3 billion, with nearly one-seventh of its residents living in rural areas. However, India is blessed with a young demographic profile with half of the population younger than 21 years of age.
Autors: Ashish Das;Praggya Das;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 36, issue:6, pages: 14 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Predistortion of Wideband Power Amplifier With Single Undersampling ADC
Abstract:
A novel direct-learning digital predistortion (DPD) of power amplifier (PA) is proposed to alleviate the requirement of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in the feedback path. Different from existing undersampling methods, the proposed approach requires only a single ADC running at low sampling rate, which saves one-half hardware cost and avoids the I/Q imbalance problem of the conventional zero-IF feedback structure. First, a modified Gauss-Newton iteration using a low-rate single-branch feedback signal is derived, which justifies the use of single undersampling ADC. Second, a low-complexity time and phase synchronization algorithm based on pattern cross correlation is presented, to align the input and output samples. Experimental results on a 10-W class-AB wideband PA and 100-MHz LTE-A test signal show that the proposed approach can effectively linearize the PA and outperforms other undersampling DPD approaches using the conventional zero-IF feedback structure, in terms of adjacent channel leakage ratio.
Autors: Ning Guan;Nan Wu;Hua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 1016 - 1018
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DIO Suppression Attack Against Routing in the Internet of Things
Abstract:
Recent standardization efforts are consolidating the role of routing protocol for low-power and lossy networks (RPL) as the standard routing protocol for IPv6-based wireless sensor and actuator networks. Investigating possible attacks against RPL is a top priority to improve the security of the future Internet of Things systems. In this letter, we present the DIO suppression attack, a novel degradation-of-service attack against RPL. Unlike other attacks in the literature, the DIO suppression attack does not require to steal cryptographic keys from some legitimate node. We show that the attack severely degrades the routing service, and it is far less energy-expensive than a jamming attack.
Autors: Pericle Perazzo;Carlo Vallati;Giuseppe Anastasi;Gianluca Dini;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 21, issue:11, pages: 2524 - 2527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Direct and Indirect Model Reference Adaptive Control for Multivariable Piecewise Affine Systems
Abstract:
This article proposes direct and indirect model reference adaptive control strategies for multivariable piecewise affine systems, which constitute a popular tool to model hybrid systems and approximate nonlinear systems. A chosen reference model, which can be linear or also piecewise affine, describes the desired closed-loop system behavior that is to be achieved by the adaptive controllers for unknown system dynamics. Each subsystem acquires its own set of control gains, which is tuned under careful consideration of the switching behavior. In the indirect approach, the use of dynamic gain adjustment avoids singularities in the certainty equivalence principle. It is shown for both algorithms that the state of the reference model is tracked asymptotically given a common Lyapunov function for the switched reference model is available. Furthermore, parameter convergence in both the direct and indirect approach is proven for sufficiently rich reference signals. Finally, both algorithms are evaluated in numerical simulations and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.
Autors: Stefan Kersting;Martin Buss;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5634 - 5649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DIRSIG5: Next-Generation Remote Sensing Data and Image Simulation Framework
Abstract:
The digital imaging and remote sensing image generation model is a physics-based image and data simulation model that is primarily used to generate synthetic imagery across the visible to thermal infrared regions using engineering-driven descriptions of remote sensing systems. The model recently went through a major redesign and reimplementation effort to address changes in user requirements and numerical computation trends that have emerged in the 15 years since the last major development effort. The new model architecture adopts some of the latest light transport algorithms matured by the computer graphics community and features a framework that is easily parallelized at the microscale (multithreading) and macroscale (cluster-based computing). A detailed description of the framework is provided, including a novel method for efficiently storing, evaluating, integrating, and sampling spherical and hemispherical datasets appropriate for the representation of modeled or measured bidirectional scattering, reflectance, and transmission distribution functions. The capabilities of the model are then briefly demonstrated and cross-verified with scenarios of interest to the remote sensing community.
Autors: Adam A. Goodenough;Scott D. Brown;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 10, issue:11, pages: 4818 - 4833
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discrete Numerical Approach to the Fredholm Integral Method for Evaluating Scattering by Irregular Dielectric Particles
Abstract:
A new approach to the implementation of the Fredholm integral method (FIM) was developed to evaluate scattering by irregular dielectric particles. In this paper, particles are modeled discretizing their volume with cells according to their weighted contents. The approach to FIM presented in this paper represents a departure from earlier work where the numerical integration is no longer based on expansion in a set of polynomials but on direct spatial integration. This approach which still involves contour integration method uses quandrantal contour in combination with a conditioning weighting function to control the magnitude of the integrand due to the power of the radial variable in the integrand being odd. The strength of our approach lies on the fact that computations are performed in the spatial frequency domain. As a result, the angular scattering pattern is strongly connected to the spatial Fourier transform of the scatterer; hence, for electrically small particles the angular spectrum is relatively smooth and the number of pivots required for integration is relatively low. This technique is well suited to the treatment of scattering from irregular inhomogeneous dielectric particles since only the distribution in space of the dielectric constants needs to be defined. Numerical results also confirm the inadequacy of effective medium theories in evaluating scattering characteristics of inhomogeneous particles.
Autors: Felix Ngobigha;David Bebbington;Laura Carrea;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 5949 - 5959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discriminant Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Using Fast Kernel Sparse and Low-Rank Graph
Abstract:
Due to the high-dimensional characteristic of hyperspectral images, dimensionality reduction (DR) is an important preprocessing step for classification. Recently, sparse and low-rank graph-based discriminant analysis (SLGDA) has been developed for DR of hyperspectral images, for which the properties of sparsity and low-rankness are simultaneously exploited to capture both local and global structures. However, SLGDA may not achieve satisfactory results when handling complex data with nonlinear nature. To address this problem, this paper presents two kernel extensions of SLGDA. In the first proposed classical kernel SLGDA (KSLGDA), the kernel trick is exploited to implicitly map the original data into a high-dimensional space. With a totally different perspective, we further propose a Nyström-based kernel SLGDA (KSLGDA) by constructing a virtual kernel space by the Nyström method, in which virtual samples can be explicitly obtained from the original data. Both KSLGDA and KSLGDA can achieve more informative graphs than SLGDA, and offer superiority over other state-of-the-art DR methods. More importantly, the KSLGDA can outperform KSLGDA with much lower computational cost.
Autors: Lei Pan;Heng-Chao Li;Wei Li;Xiang-Dong Chen;Guang-Ning Wu;Qian Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 6085 - 6098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Display Technique for Embedding Information in Real Object Images Using Temporally and Spatially Luminance-Modulated Light
Abstract:
We propose a display technique that can invisibly embed information into an image of a real object captured with a video camera. It uses illumination light that illuminates a real object. This light invisibly contains information. As the light contains information, the image of an object illuminated by such light also contains information. Information in the light is produced by modulating luminance with a small amplitude according to the embedded pattern at half-frame frequency. The differences between every other frame image over a certain period are summed up. Changes in brightness by modulation in each frame are accumulated over the frames, while the object image is removed by this processing. This makes it possible to read out the embedded patterns. However, the object image cannot be removed completely and still remains as noise. This lowers the readability of an invisible pattern. In this paper, we present a technique that improves the readability of an invisible pattern by reducing the noise drastically. We propose a method that uses the correlation between channels in which the pattern is embedded and not embedded to reduce the noise. Moreover, it also uses the size features of an embedded pattern to reduce the noise. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique from experimental results.
Autors: Hiroshi Unno;Kazutake Uehira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:6, pages: 5966 - 5971
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dissimilarity-Weighted Sparse Representation for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
To improve the capability of a traditional sparse representation-based classifier (SRC), we propose a novel dissimilarity-weighted SRC (DWSRC) for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. In particular, DWSRC computes the weights for each atom according to the distance or dissimilarity information between the test pixel and the atoms. First, a locality constraint dictionary set is constructed by the Gaussian kernel distance with a suitable distance metric (e.g., Euclidean distance). Second, the test pixel is sparsely coded over the new weighted dictionary set based on the -norm minimization problem. Finally, the test pixel is classified by using the obtained sparse coefficients with the minimal residual rule. Experimental results on two widely used public HSIs demonstrate that the proposed DWSRC is more efficient and accurate than other state-of-the-art SRCs.
Autors: Le Gan;Junshi Xia;Peijun Du;Zhigang Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 14, issue:11, pages: 1968 - 1972
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Active Anti-Disturbance Consensus for Leader-Follower Higher-Order Multi-Agent Systems With Mismatched Disturbances
Abstract:
This technical note studies the finite-time consensus problem of leader-follower higher-order multi-agent systems with mismatched disturbances. To solve such a problem, by combining the non-singular terminal sliding-mode control (NTSMC) and disturbance observer based control (DOBC) methods together, a distributed active anti-disturbance cooperative control scheme is proposed. Firstly, to estimate the matched/mismatched disturbances of each follower, a finite-time disturbance observer is constructed. Secondly, by distributedly employing the mismatched disturbances estimates, integral-type non-singular terminal sliding-mode surfaces are designed for followers. Thirdly, distributed protocols are proposed based on the surfaces. In the presence of mismatched disturbances, these protocols achieve finite-time output consensus for the agents. Simulations validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Autors: Xiangyu Wang;Shihua Li;Xinghuo Yu;Jun Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5795 - 5801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Congestion Management of Distribution Grids Under Robust Flexible Buildings Operations
Abstract:
Flexible demand side energy and reserve procurement have the potential to improve the overall operation of the grid. However, as argued in previous studies, this flexibility might cause congestion in distribution grids. In this paper, we improve the conventional distribution locational marginal price (DLMP) method, while integrating congestion free energy and reserve provision from buildings in distribution grids. First, robust day-ahead (DA) DLMPs are calculated to account for unmodeled dynamics of flexible loads. Second, using dual decomposition, the data sharing requirements between the aggregator and the distribution system operator are minimized. Third, a sensitivity-based real-time adjustment method is presented to remove the conservatism of DA robust DLMPs. Case studies are performed on a benchmark distribution system. The numerical results show that the proposed technique efficiently handles load uncertainties and data sharing requirements, improving the practicality of the conventional DMLP method.
Autors: Sarmad Hanif;H. B. Gooi;Tobias Massier;Thomas Hamacher;Thomas Reindl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4600 - 4613
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Database and Application Architecture for Big Data Solutions
Abstract:
In this paper, we report about platform and architecture that real-time analysis of big data are possible, and structured IT infrastructure that they are optimally combined. We developed a distributed architecture which the data conversion and the abnormality determination are multi-blocked. Furthermore, by selecting a distributed storage database (DB), we succeeded in constructing IT infrastructure capable of high-speed processing at a large number of manufacturing sites. In the new IT infrastructure, we achieved resource leveling of the application server and improvement of data processing time. It is expected that data file stagnation and delay of DB registration can be resolved.
Autors: Makoto Misaki;Tomio Tsuda;Shinji Inoue;Shintaro Sato;Akihiro Kayahara;Shin-Ichi Imai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 328 - 332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Downlink Power Control for Dense Networks With Carrier Aggregation
Abstract:
Given the proven benefits cell densification brings in terms of capacity and coverage, it is certain that 5G networks will be even more heterogeneous and dense. However, as smaller cells are introduced in the network, interference will inevitably become a serious problem as they are expected to share the same radio resources. Another central feature envisioned for future cellular networks is carrier aggregation (CA), which allows users to simultaneously use several component carriers of various widths and frequency bands. By exploiting the diversity of the different carriers, CA can also be used to effectively mitigate the interference in the network. In this paper, we leverage the above key features of next-generation cellular networks and formulate a downlink power setting problem for the different available carriers. Using game theory, we design a distributed algorithm that lets cells dynamically adjust different transmit powers for the different carriers. The proposed solution greatly improves network performance by reducing interference and power consumption, while ensuring coverage for as many users as possible. We compare our scheme with other interference mitigation techniques, in a realistic large-scale scenario. Numerical results show that our solution outperforms the existing schemes in terms of user throughput, energy, and spectral efficiency.
Autors: Zana Limani Fazliu;Carla-Fabiana Chiasserini;Gian Michele Dell’Aera;Enver Hamiti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 7052 - 7065
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Gateway Selection for M2M Communication in Cognitive 5G Networks
Abstract:
M2M communication is an important component for future wireless networks. M2M systems consist of a large number of devices that can operate with minimum or no human intervention. However, spectrum demand rises exponentially with the increase in the number of connected devices. Cognitive 5G networks are key to address the issue of spectrum scarcity. Further, use of multiple gateways in cognitive 5G networks for M2M communication can increase system throughput, coverage, and energy efficiency. Nevertheless, using multiple gateways for the secondary M2M devices may cause interference to the primary M2M devices. Existing gateway selection protocols for cognitive M2M communication mostly use single channel CSMA, and thus are not efficient in terms of reducing the interference. Thus, in this article, we propose a DGAP based on multi-channel CSMA for M2M communication in 5G networks. Further, we propose a Lo-DGAP, where each gateway transmits only the worst primary M2M device information rather than transmitting all neighboring primary M2M device information. The proposed Lo-DGAP increases the throughput of the system by reducing the message header payload and is also energy- efficient. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in terms of network lifetime and energy consumption.
Autors: Muhammad Naeem;Waleed Ejaz;L. Karim;Syed Hassan Ahmed;A. Anpalagan;Minho Jo;Houbing Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 31, issue:6, pages: 94 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Observer-Based Cyber-Security Control of Complex Dynamical Networks
Abstract:
Distributed tracking problem for complex dynamical networks with Lipschitz-type nonlinear dynamics under the framework of cyber-physical systems is investigated. Due to practical limitations in some circumstances, the states of the agents are usually unavailable for controllers, so distributed observers used to reconstruct the states of nodes are needed, which will be first designed. Differing from other studies of observer-based control problems for complex dynamical networks and multi-agent systems, it considers here the scenario that the communication channels for controllers and observers may be subjected to frequently malicious attacks, which will destroy the communication links and result in disconnected topologies of the communication networks. It is assumed that the impacts of attacks on different communication networks are different and independent. New security control strategies are proposed and analyzed. An algorithm to properly select the feedback gain matrices and coupling strengths is presented. By utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory, sufficient conditions are derived to check whether final consensus tracking can be achieved against such attacks. Finally, a simulation example comparing the security control and uncontrolled scenarios is demonstrated to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Autors: Ying Wan;Jinde Cao;Guanrong Chen;Wei Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 2966 - 2975
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Optimization Decomposition for Joint Economic Dispatch and Frequency Regulation
Abstract:
Economic dispatch and frequency regulation are typically viewed as fundamentally different problems in power systems and, hence, are typically studied separately. In this paper, we frame and study a joint problem that co-optimizes both slow timescale economic dispatch resources and fast timescale frequency regulation resources. We show how the joint problem can be decomposed without loss of optimality into slow and fast timescale subproblems that have appealing interpretations as the economic dispatch and frequency regulation problems, respectively. We solve the fast timescale subproblem using a distributed frequency control algorithm that preserves network stability during transients. We solve the slow timescale subproblem using an efficient market mechanism that coordinates with the fast timescale subproblem. We investigate the performance of our approach on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system.
Autors: Desmond Cai;Enrique Mallada;Adam Wierman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4370 - 4385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Sensor Coordination Algorithms for Efficient Coverage in a Network of Heterogeneous Mobile Sensors
Abstract:
Controlled mobility of nodes in mobile sensor networks allows for autonomous deployment and further optimization of network coverage after initial deployment. When sensor nodes have non-identical sensing ranges, more sophisticated optimization techniques should be used to solve for distributed relocation algorithms that maximize coverage. In this work, novel geometric methods are presented to address this problem. The proposed iterative algorithms use the available local information to judiciously relocate mobile sensors to new positions. This process leads to a continuous reduction in the size of coverage gaps throughout the field. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms in improving network coverage.
Autors: Hamid Mahboubi;Kaveh Moezzi;Amir G. Aghdam;Kamran Sayrafian-Pour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5954 - 5961
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Torque Control of Deloaded Wind DFIGs for Wind Farm Power Output Regulation
Abstract:
In this work, we propose a distributed control methodology that solves the problem of dispatching and regulating the power outputs of a group of deloaded wind double-fed induction generators (DFIGs) to attain fast, dynamic, and efficient wind farm power output regulation, with fair load-sharing among the DFIGs. In this context, fair load-sharing means that the ratio defined by the mechanical power over the maximum power from the wind, i.e., the utilization level, of all DFIGs, is the same in the steady state. Dynamic distributed dispatch and control of the power outputs of DFIGs refers to their ability to self-dispatch and regulate their power outputs under dynamical conditions and through peer-to-peer information exchange. Initially, we propose a leader–follower consensus protocol that DFIGs can adopt into their control system to attain: 1) asymptotic consensus on their utilization levels (i.e., fair load-sharing), and 2) total power output regulation. Then, we perform compositional stability analysis and prove that the protocol asymptotically converges under sufficient conditions. Finally, we design a distributed control-Lyapunov-function-based torque controller for the rotor-side converter that realizes the protocol in practice. The performance of the distributed control methodology is evaluated through numerical simulations on the modified IEEE 24-bus RT system.
Autors: Stefanos Baros;Marija D. Ilić;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4590 - 4599
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Velocity-Constrained Consensus of Discrete-Time Multi-Agent Systems With Nonconvex Constraints, Switching Topologies, and Delays
Abstract:
In this technical note, a distributed velocity-constrained consensus problem is studied for discrete-time multi-agent systems, where each agent's velocity is constrained to lie in a nonconvex set. A distributed constrained control algorithm is proposed to enable all agents to converge to a common point using only local information. The gains of the algorithm for all agents need not to be the same or predesigned and can be adjusted by each agent itself based on its own and neighbors' information. It is shown that the algorithm is robust to arbitrarily bounded communication delays and arbitrarily switching communication graphs provided that the union of the graphs has directed spanning trees among each certain time interval. The analysis approach is based on multiple novel model transformations, proper control parameter selections, boundedness analysis of state-dependent stochastic matrices1, exploitation of the convexity of stochastic matrices, and the joint connectivity of the communication graphs. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the theoretical results.
Autors: Peng Lin;Wei Ren;Huijun Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5788 - 5794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DNN-Based Predictive Magnetic Flux Reference for Harmonic Compensation Control in Magnetically Unbalanced Induction Motor
Abstract:
A stator inter-turn fault occurring in one of the phases of a three-phase induction motor (IM) gives rise to high harmonics distortion in air-gap flux density, increased torque ripple, temperature rise in the stator windings, and mechanical vibrations due to varying magnetic forces and magnetic noise. The fault leads to a change in the electromagnetic field generated when compared to that during the normal motor operation. An incipient stator fault leads to variation of machine’s parameters, causing malfunction of the motor drive. Hence, it is of significant importance to detect the incipient fault before complete motor breakdown occurs. In this paper, a novel magnetic flux reference predictive method for control has been presented by using a harmonic compensation block in coordination with deep neural network (DNN) as a feedforward method to continue safe operation of motor after occurrence of incipient stator fault. This method takes into account both time and space harmonics discrepancies produced due to the fault. The proposed method has been implemented on a 7.5 hp IM using online observer of unhealthy conditions and compensated using DNN predictive methodology.
Autors: Eshaan Ghosh;Aida Mollaeian;Seog Kim;Jimi Tjong;Narayan C. Kar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Does $ell _{p}$ -Minimization Outperform $ell _{1}$ -Minimization?
Abstract:
In many application areas ranging from bioinformatics to imaging, we are faced with the following question: can we recover a sparse vector from its undersampled set of noisy observations , . The last decade has witnessed a surge of algorithms and theoretical results to address this question. One of the most popular schemes is the -regularized least squares given by the following formulation:, where . Among these optimization problems, the case , also known as LASSO, is the best accepted in practice, for the following two reasons. First, thanks to the extensive studies performed in the fields of high-dimensional statistics and compressed sensing, we have a clear picture of LASSO’s performance. Second, it is convex and efficient algorithms exist for finding its global minima. Unfortunately, neither of the above two properties hold for . However, they are still appealing because of the following folklores in the high-dimensional statistics. First, is closer to than . Second, if we employ iterative methods that aim to converge to a local minima of , then under good initialization, these algorithms converge to a solution that is still closer to than . In spite of the existence of plenty of empirical results that support these folklore theorems, the theoretical progress to establish them has been very limited. This paper aims to study the above-mentioned folklore theorems and establish their scope of validity. Starting with approximate message passing (AMP) algorithm as a heuristic method for solving -regularized least squares, we study the following questions. First, what is the impact of initialization on the performance of the algorithm? Second, when does the algorithm recover the sparse signal under a “good” initialization? Third, when does the algorithm converge to the sparse signal regardless of the initialization? Studying these questions will not only shed light on the second folklore theorem, but also lead us to the answer the first one, i.e., the performance of the global optima . For that purpose, we employ the replica analysis1 to show the connection between the solution of AMP and in the
Autors: Le Zheng;Arian Maleki;Haolei Weng;Xiaodong Wang;Teng Long;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 63, issue:11, pages: 6896 - 6935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Domain Structure and Spin Reorientation in TbCo5 and DyCo5 Intermetallics
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the spin-reorientation processes in DyCo5 and TbCo5 intermetallic compounds by direct observation of domain structure (DS) realignment during the easy plane—easy cone—easy axis phase transitions. In addition to the analysis of DS changes due to temperature induced spin reorientation, a description is given of a newly discovered effect of surface out-of-plane domain reorientation produced by abrasion and/or indentation of the surface of macroscopic samples with overall easy-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
Autors: R. M. Grechishkin;A. I. Ivanova;A. N. Grachev;A. D. Zigert;R. M. Eguzhokova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Domain Wall Interconnections for NML
Abstract:
Nanomagnet logic (NML) is one of the most novel solutions studied as complementary technology to CMOS transistors. Information propagation involves only a change in spin orientation, no charge movement is present. Since the basic element is a nanomagnet, NML circuits have no stand-by power consumption and the ability to mix logic and memory in the same device. While CMOS is a multilayer technology, until now NML is confined to one single physical layer. The consequence is that circuit area grows exponentially due to interconnections overhead. In this paper, we present an innovative solution that drastically reduces the area wasted for interconnection wires relying on the properties of domain walls (DWs). We mix DWs and NML technologies in a unique DW logic (DWL) solution that exploits the advantages of both technologies. The proposed solution is technologically compatible with up-to-date fabrication processes. All the results here presented for the NML logic blocks and the DWs interconnections and their combination are obtained through rigorous micromagnetic simulations. Moreover, we implemented as a case study an high performance adder (Pentium 4 adder) and evaluated its features with increasing parallelism and compared with the simple NML implementation in order to explore the potential of DWL technology at circuit and architectural level. The reduction in circuit area corresponds to a notable reduction in both the latency and power consumption. The improvements in NML technology are shown by both the remarkable performance improvement and new possibilities offered by this novel solution.
Autors: Fabrizio Cairo;Marco Vacca;Giovanna Turvani;Maurizio Zamboni;Mariagrazia Graziano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 3067 - 3076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Doubly Salient Dual-PM Linear Machines for Regenerative Shock Absorbers
Abstract:
In order to fully utilize the high-energy nature of permanent magnet (PM) material, the stator-PM structure and the mover-PM structure of linear machines are integrated into one doubly salient PM machine topology, leading to a new class of doubly salient dual-PM linear machines. In essence, PMs are mounted on both the stator and mover iron cores while avoiding magnetic saturation, hence offering the high force density and high power density. Meanwhile, it consists of a fault-tolerant tooth stator and a consequent-pole mover, which can provide the fault-tolerant capability and exert the salient effect, respectively. By using finite-element analysis, the proposed machine is optimized for application to regenerative shock absorbers which can provide on-board renewable energy harvesting in vehicles. The machine performances are analyzed and quantitatively compared with that of its counterparts including the stator-PM linear machine and the mover-PM linear machine. Moreover, both the flat and tubular morphologies of the proposed machine are quantitatively compared and discussed.
Autors: Hua Fan;K. T. Chau;Chunhua Liu;Wenlong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dual Active Resonator for Dispersion Coefficient Measurement of Asphaltene Nano-Particles
Abstract:
Dispersion and diffusion of Asphaltene particles in -Heptane is measured to investigate the solution characteristics of different concentrations in wide range of 0.000625–0.625 (%wt). Planar split ring resonator (SRR) is armed with active circuitry (active resonator) to enhance the quality factor over 3 K to achieve ultra-high resolution sensing and track minute variations in microfluidic tube. Parallel SRRs as dual active resonator are performing independently, both in sensing and resolution, at 1.03 GHz () and 1.149 GHz () as the sensing tool in non-contact mode to monitor the spread of model oil (short pulse) in -Heptane (continuous flow). With the frequency shifts (, ), average flow rate, and the inner diameter of the tube, the molecular diffusion coefficient, and then the dispersion coefficient can be rapidly derived according to two-window solution of Taylor-Aris dispersion analysis. Samples with higher concentration of Asphaltene are shown to have faster spread and larger dispersion in the flow. Dispersion coefficients of the samples cover the range of 5.2– mm2/s in great agreement with conventional methods.
Autors: Mohammad Abdolrazzaghi;Mojgan Daneshmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7248 - 7256
Publisher: IEEE
 

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