Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 11-2017 sorted by title, page: 12

» Mobility-Aware User Association in Uplink Cellular Networks
Abstract:
This letter studies the mobility aware user-to-base station (BS) association policies, within a stochastic geometry framework, in two-tier uplink cellular networks with fractional channel inversion power control. Particularly, we model the BSs’ locations using the widely accepted Poisson point process and obtain the coverage probability and handover cost expressions for the coupled and decoupled uplink and downlink associations. To this end, we compute the average throughput for the mobile users and study the merits and demerits of each association strategy.
Autors: Rabe Arshad;Hesham Elsawy;Sameh Sorour;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 21, issue:11, pages: 2452 - 2455
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MOCVD Growth of High Quality InGaAs HEMT Layers on Large Scale Si Wafers for Heterogeneous Integration With Si CMOS
Abstract:
We report on the growth of In0.30Ga0.70As channel high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) epi-layers on a 200-mm Si substrate by metal-organic-chemical-vapor-deposition. The HEMT layers were grown on the Si substrate by using a ~3- thick epitaxial buffer composing of a Ge layer, a GaAs layer, and a compositionally graded and strain relaxed InAlAs layer. The optimized epitaxy has a threading dislocation density of less than cm−2 and a root mean square surface roughness of ~6.7 nm. The device active layers include a -doped InAlAs bottom barrier, a ~15-nm thick InGaAs channel, a ~8-nm InGaP top barrier layer and a heavily doped InGaAs contact layer. MOSHEMTs with channel length down to 130 nm were fabricated. The devices achieve a peak transconductance of at of 0.5 V. The peak effective mobility () in a device with a channel length of 20 device channel was ~3700 cm2/.
Autors: Xuan Sang Nguyen;Sachin Yadav;Kwang Hong Lee;David Kohen;Annie Kumar;Riko I. Made;Kenneth Eng Kian Lee;Soo Jin Chua;Xiao Gong;Eugene A. Fitzgerald;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 456 - 461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mode Selection and Resource Allocation in Device-to-Device Communications: A Matching Game Approach
Abstract:
Device to device (D2D) communication is considered as an effective technology for enhancing the spectral efficiency and network throughput of existing cellular networks. However, enabling it in an underlay fashion poses a significant challenge pertaining to interference management. In this paper, mode selection and resource allocation for an underlay D2D network is studied while simultaneously providing interference management. The problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem whose objective is to maximize the utility of all D2D pairs. To solve this problem, a learning framework is proposed based on a problem-specific Markov chain. From the local balance equation of the designed Markov chain, the transition probabilities are derived for distributed implementation. Then, a novel two phase algorithm is developed to perform mode selection and resource allocation in the respective phases. This algorithm is then shown to converge to a near optimal solution. Moreover, to reduce the computation in the learning framework, two resource allocation algorithms based on matching theory are proposed to output a specific and deterministic solution. The first algorithm employs the one-to-one matching game approach whereas in the second algorithm, the one-to many matching game with externalities and dynamic quota is employed. Simulation results show that the proposed framework converges to a near optimal solution under all scenarios with probability one. Moreover, our results show that the proposed matching game with externalities achieves a performance gain of up to 35 percent in terms of the average utility compared to a classical matching scheme with no externalities.
Autors: S. M. Ahsan Kazmi;Nguyen H. Tran;Walid Saad;Zhu Han;Tai Manh Ho;Thant Zin Oo;Choong Seon Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 3126 - 3141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Transformation Modularization as a Many-Objective Optimization Problem
Abstract:
Model transformation programs are iteratively refined, restructured, and evolved due to many reasons such as fixing bugs and adapting existing transformation rules to new metamodels version. Thus, modular design is a desirable property for model transformations as it can significantly improve their evolution, comprehensibility, maintainability, reusability, and thus, their overall quality. Although language support for modularization of model transformations is emerging, model transformations are created as monolithic artifacts containing a huge number of rules. To the best of our knowledge, the problem of automatically modularizing model transformation programs was not addressed before in the current literature. These programs written in transformation languages, such as ATL, are implemented as one main module including a huge number of rules. To tackle this problem and improve the quality and maintainability of model transformation programs, we propose an automated search-based approach to modularize model transformations based on higher-order transformations. Their application and execution is guided by our search framework which combines an in-place transformation engine and a search-based algorithm framework. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by using ATL as concrete transformation language and NSGA-III as search algorithm to find a trade-off between different well-known conflicting design metrics for the fitness functions to evaluate the generated modularized solutions. To validate our approach, we apply it to a comprehensive dataset of model transformations. As the study shows, ATL transformations can be modularized automatically, efficiently, and effectively by our approach. We found that, on average, the majority of recommended modules, for all the ATL programs, by NSGA-III are considered correct with more than 84 percent of precision and 86 percent of recall when compared to manual solutions provided by active developers. The statistical anal- sis of our experiments over several runs shows that NSGA-III performed significantly better than multi-objective algorithms and random search. We were not able to compare with existing model transformations modularization approaches since our study is the first to address this problem. The software developers considered in our experiments confirm the relevance of the recommended modularization solutions for several maintenance activities based on different scenarios and interviews.
Autors: Martin Fleck;Javier Troya;Marouane Kessentini;Manuel Wimmer;Bader Alkhazi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 43, issue:11, pages: 1009 - 1032
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Estimation of the Communication Cost of Hybrid Data-Parallel Applications on Heterogeneous Clusters
Abstract:
Heterogeneous systems composed of CPUs and accelerators sharing communication channels of different performance are getting mainstream in HPC but, at the same time, they show a complexity that makes it difficult to optimize the deployment of a data parallel application. Recent analytical tools such as Functional Performance Models, combined with advanced partitioning algorithms, manage to achieve a balanced configuration by distributing the workload unevenly, according to the performance of the different processing units. Unfortunately, such uneven distribution of the computation load leads to communication unbalances that, very often, render worthless the previous workload balancing efforts. Finding the optimal communication scheme without expensive testing on the executing platform requires an analytical approach to the estimation of the communication cost of different configurations of the application. With this goal in mind, we propose and discuss an extension of the -Lop communication performance model to cover heterogeneous architectures. In order to provide a quantitative assessment of this extended model, we conduct experiments with two representative computational kernels, the SUMMA algorithm and the 2D wave equation solver. The -Lop predictions are compared against the HLogGP model and the observed costs for a variety of configurations, hardware resources and problem sizes.
Autors: Juan-Antonio Rico-Gallego;Alexey L. Lastovetsky;Juan-Carlos Díaz-Martín;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 28, issue:11, pages: 3215 - 3228
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Managing Context-Aware Systems’ Variability
Abstract:
This theme issue provides an updated perspective on techniques to manage software system variability at runtime, to make software systems smarter and less dependent on human intervention.
Autors: Kim Mens;Rafael Capilla;Herman Hartmann;Thomas Kropf;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 58 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Optimal Operation of Distributed Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids
Abstract:
Due to high power in-feed from photovoltaics, it can be expected that more battery systems will be installed in the distribution grid in near future to mitigate voltage violations and thermal line and transformer overloading. In this paper, we present a two-stage centralized model predictive control scheme for distributed battery storage that consists of a scheduling entity and a real-time control entity. To guarantee secure grid operation, we solve a robust multi-period optimal power flow (OPF) for the scheduling stage that minimizes battery degradation and maximizes photovoltaic utilization subject to grid constraints. The real-time controller solves a real-time OPF taking into account storage allocation profiles from the scheduler, a detailed battery model, and real-time measurements. To reduce the computational complexity of the controllers, we present a linearized OPF that approximates the nonlinear AC-OPF into a linear programming problem. Through a case study, we show, for two different battery technologies, that we can substantially reduce battery degradation when we incorporate a battery degradation model. A further finding is that we can reduce battery losses by 30% by using the detailed battery model in the real-time control stage.
Autors: Philipp Fortenbacher;Johanna L. Mathieu;Göran Andersson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4340 - 4350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Optimization of a Tubular Generator for Vibration Energy Harvesting Application
Abstract:
The modeling and optimization of a direct-drive contactless tubular linear generator are investigated to ensure a highly reliable device with long lifetime for vibration energy harvesting application. A slotless structure is considered to minimize force ripples and simplify the later control. A semi-analytical model based on harmonic Fourier modeling is considered for the calculation of the magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets. Electrical and thermal iterative models are coupled with the magnetic Fourier model into a general optimization tool that is fast and accurate, which is validated by means of a finite element model.
Autors: Léo A. J. Friedrich;Johannes J. H. Paulides;Elena A. Lomonova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of Deciduous Forest Canopy and Its Anisotropic Reflectance Properties Using the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) Tool
Abstract:
Extraction of biophysical information from forest canopies using temporal analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral data can be significantly improved by understanding its anisotropic reflectance properties. However, limitations on the accessibility and data collection techniques in the field reduce the availability of high-resolution bidirectional reflectance measurements (BRDF) to a few datasets. These limitations can be mitigated in a virtual environment and this paper presents an approach to model the spectral BRDF of a forest canopy using the Digital Image and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool. The three-dimensional geometries of the trees were modeled using forest inventory data and OnyxTree, while the spectral properties of the geometric elements were assigned based on the field collected spectra and PROSPECT inversion model. The DIRSIG tool was used as a virtual goniometer to measure the BRDF observations for varying sun-view geometries and a full hemispherical BRDF model was constructed by fitting the measurements to a semiempirical BRDF model. This paper discusses the methods involved in modeling the forest canopy scene, sensitivity of the radiative transfer, BRDF sampling and modeling strategies, model accuracy and its effect on real-world simulations. The model fit results indicate a root mean square error of less than 5% relative to the forests reflectance in the VIS-NIR-SWIR region. The simulated BRDF matched to within 2% of the Landsat-8 surface reflectance product in the red and NIR bands. The results can be used directly to evaluate BRDF modeling algorithms and the proposed method can be easily extended for other biomes.
Autors: Rajagopalan Rengarajan;John R. Schott;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 10, issue:11, pages: 4805 - 4817
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Eddy Current Brake Emissions for Electromagnetic Compatibility With Signaling Devices in High-Speed Railways
Abstract:
This paper presents a model that anticipates the emissions from eddy current brakes (ECBs) installed in high-speed trains. The emissions are computed in the 10 KHz–1.3 MHz range, where trackside signaling devices operate and issues related to electromagnetic compatibility have arisen, hindering ECB's promise of full deployment. The electromagnetic model provides a transfer function in the frequency domain between the nondesired harmonic currents produced by the train power supply and the subsequent radiated emissions by the ECBs at the trackside. The model includes the influence of the on-board ECB system's electric circuitry on the three-dimensional field computation of the electromagnets by a cosimulation approach (circuit and electromagnetic cross talk). After the data are postprocessed, the simulated results are compared with the results of an extensive measurement campaign on board a high-speed ICE 3 train equipped with ECBs. The high correlation makes it possible to anticipate ECB emissions in order to save costly on-track test runs, to suggest ECB design strategies and to provide safe limits when the worst cases occur.
Autors: Daniel Valderas;Iker Mesa;Iñigo Adín;Henry Lehmann;Gavin Lancaster;Oliver Stark;Wilhelm Baldauf;Jon del Portillo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 9743 - 9752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling for Spin-FET and Design of Spin-FET-Based Logic Gates
Abstract:
Spintronics-based devices and circuits attract massive research interest from both academia and industry. A number of the devices and logic circuits have been proposed such as spin-based magnetic tunnel junction and all spin logic gate. A fundamental spin-based device, spin field-effect transistor (spin-FET) is one of the most interesting spin-based devices to address the power issue of semiconductor transistors which is still a research focus. In this paper, we first present an electrical model for the spin-FET based on both theoretical and experimental results. The theories of spin injection and detection are considered by a current driver of the spin-FET. Gate voltage modulation following Datta–Das theory is combined with the experimental results from several works of literature. Afterward, through the dc analysis of two spin-FETs with different channel materials, we demonstrate that the channel using InAs is a better choice to make a feasible spin-FET. The channel length is also optimized by the comparison of simulation results. Finally, a local geometry spin-FET model suitable for logic design is implemented with Verilog-A language and integrated on Cadence platform. Using our model, a low-power inverter is designed based on the concept of complementary spin-FET, and a logic circuit is proposed to implement AND and NOR logic functions. Simulation results validate the behaviors of the logic circuits and availability of our model.
Autors: Gefei Wang;Zhaohao Wang;Jacques-Olivier Klein;Weisheng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Through Dielectric Changes in Soil Moisture and Vegetation Over Shrublands
Abstract:
L-band airborne synthetic aperture radar observations were made over California shrublands to better understand the effects of soil and vegetation parameters on backscattering coefficient . Temporal changes in of up to 3 dB were highly correlated to surface soil moisture but not to vegetation, even though vegetation water content (VWC) varied seasonally by a factor of two. HH was always greater than VV, suggesting the importance of double-bounce scattering by the woody parts. However, the geometric and dielectric properties of the woody parts did not vary significantly over time. Instead the changes in VWC occurred primarily in thin leaves that may not meaningfully influence absorption and scattering. A physically based model for single scattering by discrete elements of plants successfully simulated the magnitude of the temporal variations in HH, VV, and HH/VV with a difference of less than 0.9 dB for both the mean and standard deviation when compared with the airborne data. In order to simulate the observations, the VWC input of the plant to the model was formulated as a function of plant's dielectric property (water fraction) while the plant geometry remains static in time. In comparison, when the VWC input was characterized by the geometry of a growing plant, the model performed poorly in describing the observed patterns in the changes. The modeling results offer explanation of the observation that soil moisture correlated highly with : the dominant mechanisms for HH and VV are double-bounce scattering by trunk, and soil surface scattering, respectively. The time-series- inversion of the physical model was able to retrieve soil moisture with the difference of (mean), (standard deviation), and 0.89 (correlation), which demonstrates the efficacy of the model-based time-series soil moisture retrieval for shrublands.
Autors: Seung-bum Kim;Motofumi Arii;Thomas Jackson;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 10, issue:11, pages: 4753 - 4762
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Microwave Backscattering From Parabolic Rice Leaves
Abstract:
Scattering from rice leaves contributes substantially to total vegetation canopy backscattering and detailed knowledge about it is necessary for developing a microwave scattering model. A parabolic curve is generally adopted to simulate the leaf shape but this is rarely incorporated into the calculation of the scattering. In this paper, two specific models, one based on physical optics (PO) approximation and the other on the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), are presented to involve the parabolic leaf curvature effects. Three typical leaves were chosen from 1433 parabolic leaves obtained during ground measurements. The PO and DDA models were used to calculate the leaf scattering. The generalized Rayleigh–Gans (GRG) approximation was also included in the simulation. The method of moments, a computational electromagnetic method, was utilized to evaluate the accuracy of each model. Validation of the models was conducted at incidence angles ranging from 10° to 60°, incidence azimuthal angles ranging from 0° to 360°, and incidence frequencies of 1.2 GHz (L-band), 5.4 GHz (C-band), and 9.65 GHz (X-band). Among the GRG approximation, the DDA model and the PO model, the latter gave the best accuracy −>65% in the cases tested, while the GRG model was the least accurate. The high accuracy of the PO model was maintained at both the low and high frequency bands. The PO model, therefore, has great potential for use to interpret radar measurements from rice fields and other types of vegetation canopy.
Autors: Long Liu;Yun Shao;Nicolas Pinel;Kun Li;Zhi Yang;Huaze Gong;Youcheng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 6044 - 6053
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Differential Power Sensor Based on Seesaw Structure for Microwave Communication Application
Abstract:
Modeling of the differential power sensor based on microelectromechanical systems seesaw membrane is proposed in this paper. When the microwave power is applied, the center part of the membrane is pulled down toward the substrate, while two end parts are turned away from the substrate. The proposed model is based on the theory of simply supported membrane. The displacement of membrane and the capacitance change are both calculated as a function of the incident power. The microwave performance measurement shows that the return loss is less than −12.5 dB and the insertion loss is better than 1.5 dB over 1–10 GHz. The power response measurement demonstrates that the capacitance change magnitudes and both increase with the microwave power, which agrees with the proposed model. For , the measured sensitivity is close to 69.2 aF/mW at 1 GHz, 71.5 aF/mW at 5 GHz, and 66.3 aF/mW at 10 GHz, respectively. For , the sensitivity is close to 35.2 aF/mW at 1 GHz, 33 aF/mW at 5 GHz, and 27.6 aF/mW at 10 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Zhenxiang Yi;Hao Yan;Xiaoping Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4664 - 4670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Hysteresis in Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B Cores With Transverse Ku
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the modeling of the hysteresis of Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B nanocrystalline alloys with transverse induced anisotropy based on the behavior of a correlated volume (CV). Only coherent rotation mechanism was considered, given the chosen value of . The formulations account for , the incoherent anisotropy , and the magnetostatic energy. The solving of the equations shows the existence of two kinds of CVs: the first one is responsible for the domain pattern, while the other causes the coercivity. The model has been compared with experimental data, and improved by considering the existence of a minority of CVs featuring strong incoherent anisotropy, causing the coercivity, mingled with classical CVs obeying the random anisotropy model.
Autors: Nicolas Boust;Olivier Geoffroy;Hervé Chazal;James Roudet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Joule Heating Induced Effects in Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Interconnects
Abstract:
Electrothermal performance of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-based interconnects has been studied under the influence of self-heating. The interlayer insulator is a low-k () dielectric. Various geometries have been studied for the normal operation and breakdown conditions. Electrothermal coupled equations have been solved iteratively by solving Fourier heat diffusion equation with a finite-element method. Within the relaxation time approximation, mean free path of the electron has been calculated under different scattering mechanisms. Landauer–Büttiker formalism resistance has been used for calculating electrical resistance. Breakdown voltages for varying MWCNT lengths have been calculated and found to be higher in MWCNT with a shorter length. Breakdown voltage varies from 8.2 to 12 V for inner diameters 10–40 nm of 5- interconnect length and 50-nm outer diameter. Breakdown voltage decreases with the increase in the length of interconnect. For a 5- long interconnect, the breakdown voltage is nearly 8 V whereas for the same diameter long interconnect it is nearly 22 V. Breakdown current density depends on the geometry of the MWCNT and is estimated on the order of A cm−2.
Autors: K. M. Mohsin;Ashok Srivastava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 3089 - 3098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamics in Nozzle Arc: A Mathematically and Numerically Efficient Approach
Abstract:
This paper deals with the numerical modeling of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) phenomenon inside a nozzle arc. Previous work for MHD simulation shows that current density is computed from current continuity equation and thereafter the magnetic field is computed by either of the three approaches: A1—Biot-Savart Law; A2—magnetic vector potential equation; and A3—Ampere’s Law. An alternative approach—called here as A4—is proposed here for nozzle arc application. This approach starts with computation of magnetic field from magnetic induction equation, and then current density is computed from Ampere’s Law. The proposed approach is shown to give good agreement with other approaches (reported in the published literature) for low- as well as high-current applications. It is demonstrated that the A4 approach offers two advantages over the most commonly used A2 approach: 1) A4 approach achieves almost same computational accuracy with much less computation time and is thus numerically more efficient and 2) A4 approach is mathematically more efficient as it can be nondimensionalized and used for parametric investigation. A hybrid model is also proposed to demonstrate that the A4 model predicts arc characteristics accurately with little effect of singularity issue.
Autors: Sumedh P. Pawar;Atul Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 3019 - 3029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Phase-Change Memory: Nucleation, Growth, and Amorphization Dynamics During Set and Reset: Part I—Effective Media Approximation
Abstract:
We have constructed a framework that enables finite-element modeling of nucleation, growth, and amorphization processes in phase-change memory devices using a single rate equation that tracks evolution of local crystal density at each mesh point. The rate equation, current continuity equation, and Fourier heat transfer equation are solved simultaneously to perform electro-thermal simulations that capture the device dynamics during set and reset operations. The functionality of this framework is demonstrated through simulation of various set and reset operations and consecutive set/reset cycles of a mushroom cell using temperature and crystallinity dependent parameters for Ge2Sb2Te5.
Autors: Zachary Woods;Ali Gokirmak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4466 - 4471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Field of a Coil Using the Magnetic Charge Method
Abstract:
In the last decades, the magnetic charge method has proven to be an excellent tool to analyze and design permanent magnet-based systems. Recent research has shown that the inclusion of the relative permeability of magnetic materials is also possible using the extended charge method. Contrary to popular belief, it is also possible to include currents into the equations for the magnetic field using a fictitious magnetization. In this paper, the fictitious magnetization is calculated and used to determine the field of a rectangular coil. Compared with the current method to calculate the field, on the same computational hardware and software, a large reduction in calculation time (81 versus 11 s) is observed.
Autors: Dave T. E. H. van Casteren;Johannes J. H. Paulides;Elena A. Lomonova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Performance of Nano Machined CMOS Transistors for Uncooled IR Sensing
Abstract:
This paper models the performance and summarizes the design considerations (electrical, mechanical, and thermal) of CMOS-SOI-NEMS (CMOS Silicon on Insulator nanoelectro mechanical systems) transistors fabricated in the 130-nm technology, which perform as uncooled passive infrared (PIR) sensors. The nanmachined CMOS-SOI-NEMS transistors (dubbed TMOS) are isolated thermally by the postprocessing dry etching with high yield and uniformity, achieved at the wafer-level processing as well as the wafer-level packaging, using 8-in wafers. The TMOS transistor is an active sensor with internal gain achieving voltage, responsivity, over V/W. This responsivity is larger by approximately an order of magnitude compared to bolometers, and several orders of magnitude compared to thermopiles or pyros, which are passive devices. The TMOS operates at subthreshold, requiring very low power, of the order of microWatt. Accordingly, this uncooled IR sensor, in the low-cost CMOS-SOI technology, promises to become the standard PIR technology for mobile applications, wearables, and Internet of Things.
Autors: Alex Zviagintsev;Tania Blank;Igor Brouk;Ilan Bloom;Yael Nemirovsky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4657 - 4663
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Virtual Humans
Abstract:
Modeling virtual humans has been an important and active research field in computer graphics for many years. Realistically representing a virtual human necessitates that we address several multifaceted challenges, generating realistic locomotion, facial expressions, natural speech, and interaction with clothes and hair. This special issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications focuses on these and other key factors that come into play when modeling virtual humans.
Autors: Jan Bender;Kenny Erleben;Barbara Solenthaler;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 37, issue:6, pages: 26 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling, Design Optimization, and Verifications of Permanent Magnet Linear Actuators for Structural Vibration Mitigation Applications
Abstract:
Structural vibrations in modern buildings have been increasing concerns. If not properly controlled, they would give rise to serviceability problems and disturbances to occupants. The permanent magnet (PM) linear actuator-based active vibration mitigation strategy exhibits excellent dynamic performances on elimination of vibrations with complex modes, and has great potential. This paper describes modeling, design optimization, and numerical and experimental verifications of a PM linear actuator for structural vibration mitigation applications. Analytical expressions for prediction of the actuator performance are derived, and the linear actuator is then designed in optimization within a specific set of volumetric and thermal constraints in order to maximize the product of efficiency and power factor. It is shown that the proposed analytical model has provided a computationally efficient tool for design optimization, and the Halbach ratio and actuator width have significant impacts on the performance of the PM linear actuator. The results are validated by finite-element computations, and further verified by experimental measurements on a prototype actuator.
Autors: Qian Wang;Jiabin Wang;Bo Zhao;Yong Li;Hui Zhao;Jing Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modelling Behaviour in UAV Operations Using Higher Order Double Chain Markov Models
Abstract:
Creating behavioural models of human operators engaged in supervisory control tasks with UAVs is of great value due to the high cost of operator failures. Recent works in the field advocate the use of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and derivatives to model the operator behaviour, since they offer interpretable patterns for a domain expert and, at the same time, provide valuable predictions which can be used to detect abnormal behaviour in time. However, the first order Markov assumption in which HMMs rely, and the assumed independence between the operator actions along time, limit their modelling capabilities. In this work, we extend the study of behavioural modelling in UAV operations by using Double Chain Markov Models (DCMMs), which provide a flexible modelling framework in which two higher order Markov Chains (one hidden and one visible) are combined. This work is focused on the development of a process flow to rank and select DCMMs based on a set of evaluation measures that quantify the predictability and interpretability of the models. To evaluate and demonstrate the possibilities of this modelling strategy over the classical HMMs, the proposed process has been applied in a multi-UAV simulation environment.
Autors: Victor Rodriguez-Fernandez;Antonio Gonzalez-Pardo;David Camacho;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 12, issue:4, pages: 28 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Models of Clustered Photolithography Tools for Fab-Level Simulation: From Affine to Flow Line
Abstract:
Fab-level discrete-event simulation is an important practical tool for the analysis and optimization of semiconductor wafer fabricators. In such facilities, a clustered photolithography tool (CPT) is by far the most expensive tool and often the capacity bottleneck. In this paper, we consider linear, affine, flow line, and detailed models of CPTs for use in fab-level simulation. We develop extensions to affine and flow line models and demonstrate exactly how to convert raw CPT data into the various models. Using a detailed CPT model based on industry data as the baseline, numerical experiments are conducted to test the models’ fidelity for cycle time, lot residency time, and throughput. We also compare the computational burden of each model class. Further simulations are conducted to test the models’ robustness to changing fab conditions, e.g., when lot size or train size changes. Flow line models are shown to be more accurate and robust than linear or affine models and require approximately 200 times less computation than detailed models.
Autors: Jung Yeon Park;Kyungsu Park;James R. Morrison;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 547 - 558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulating Ring Structural Configuration Influence on the Dual Air-Gap Magnetic Gear Electric Machine
Abstract:
In this paper, a study was conducted using a unit equivalent magnetic circuit (EMC) in correlating the relationship between the magnet thickness, the modulating ring pole-piece thickness, and their circumferential pitch. A numerical optimization method is employed in selecting the optimum ratio of the magnet to pole-piece thickness. The study reveals the need to simultaneously consider these parameters during the design of a magnetic gear electric machine because of their strong mutual dependency. A finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted using the optimum ratios. The results correspond to those of the EMC. Also, the performance of the machine is analyzed and found to have a power factor of 0.78. To further verify the results of FEA, a prototype was built using the same configurations of the FEA model. Measurements taken from the prototype are on par with the simulated results.
Autors: Chinweze U. Ubadigha;Mi-Ching Tsai;Min-Fu Hsieh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulation of Parkinsonian State With Uncertain Disturbance Based on Sliding Mode Control
Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of central nervous system that endangers the olds’ health seriously. The motor symptoms of PD can be attributed to the distorted relay reliability of thalamus to cortical sensorimotor input that results from the increase of inhibitory input from internal segment of the globus pallidum (GPi). Based on this, we construct the GPi-thalamocortical computational model to generate the normal and pathological firing patterns by varying GPi spike train input. A kind of closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy is proposed here. Our control objective is to make the controlled membrane potential of the thalamic neuron return to the normal firing pattern. The control input that directly acts on the thalamus is the DBS waveform, which is adjusted in real time according to the feedback signal. Aimed at a certain system without the change of object parameters or stochastic disturbance, the input–output feedback linearization method is able to eliminate the error between the system output and the desired output. When uncertain elements taken into consideration in the system, the simulation results indicate that sliding mode control scheme provides better effectiveness and higher robustness.
Autors: Yulin Zhu;Jiang Wang;Huiyan Li;Bin Deng;Chen Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 2026 - 2034
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Momentum Space Engineering of GaN HETs for RF Applications Through Full-Band Monte Carlo Simulations
Abstract:
The effect of the structure of the emitter barrier on the performance of GaN hot electron transistors (HETs) is investigated through the description of the hot electrons dynamics in the base region obtained with full-band Monte Carlo simulations. From the momentum distribution of the hot electrons in the base, it is found that the injection of carriers in the satellite valleys is limiting the current gain. A new layout with shorter emitter barrier layer reduces the number of electrons in the satellite valleys and shows an increase of the current gain by a factor of 3. The velocity and energy electron distribution are also calculated for the two devices to show the impact of the satellite valley population on the dynamics of the hot electrons. Several designs of the emitter barrier are proposed based on different AlGaN alloys, yielding cutoff frequencies up to 270 GHz. The design of the collector barrier is found to be related to the power performances highlighting a tradeoff between the maximum output power and the device efficiency. The present analysis provides insight on the operation of these new devices and guidelines to improve the dc and ac small- and large-signal performances of GaN HETs.
Autors: Riccardo Soligo;Flavio Sabatti;Srabanti Chowdhury;Marco Saraniti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4442 - 4449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monitoring Radiated Coexistence Testing Using GMM-Based Classifier
Abstract:
Sharing spectrum resources in unlicensed bands grants vehicular applications inexpensive and ubiquitous access to wireless services. However, wireless technology coexistence concerns are gaining increased attention. In response, coexistence test methods are now being reported in the literature, and novel solutions are considered in the American National Standards Institute C63.27 Standard for Evaluation of Wireless Coexistence. Furthermore, the IEEE 802 standards committee formed a new study group, named wireless automotive coexistence, operating under the umbrella of 802.19 working group to highlight the increasing concerns of wireless coexistence in the automotive domain. The radiated open environment coexistence test (ROECT) method offers high flexibility to test wireless devices for coexistence. Radio signal propagation during testing is over the air, reducing access to the signal path. Consequently, monitoring instantaneous device performance is a challenge yet to be addressed. This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the channel utilization of multiple, concurrent wireless transmitters sharing the 2.4-GHz ISM band in the context of ROECT. Passively received power measurements were collected during testing, and then a Gaussian mixture model was used to build a classifier for labeling observed power samples relative to their source. Case studies utilizing IEEE 802.11n as an interfering system with an under test system based on either IEEE 802.11n or ZigBee are detailed. Findings demonstrate the mutual effect of spectrum sharing on both interfering and under test systems in terms of per-second channel utilization and frame collision. Experimental results show an overall accuracy exceeding 98%.
Autors: Mohamad Omar Al Kalaa;Hazem H. Refai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10336 - 10345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monte Carlo Method for Uncertainty Propagation in Magnetic Resonance-Based Electric Properties Tomography
Abstract:
This paper investigates the uncertainty propagation in magnetic resonance-based electric properties tomography, a quantitative imaging technique that recovers the electric properties distribution inside a human body at the Larmor frequency. This is a needed step in order to make the quantitative results reliable for in vivo applications. To this aim, the contrast source inversion method is investigated as a promising technique and the uncertainty propagation through the corresponding model is studied by means of the Monte Carlo method. Thanks to the increased quality in the recovered electric properties, the results suggest that TEM coils for parallel transmission could be a preferable choice.
Autors: Alessandro Arduino;Mario Chiampi;Francesca Pennecchi;Luca Zilberti;Oriano Bottauscio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Morphological Image Analysis of Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Air
Abstract:
Surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has recently received growing interest for enormous application potential in various fields. In this paper, the optical observation of surface DBD is conducted by an intensified charge-coupled device camera from top view in the atmospheric air. Spacial and transient characteristics of discharge phenomenon in atmospheric pressure air have been, respectively, visualized with the exposure time of 100 ms and 5 . The discharge area is obtained by calculating the number of pixels in MATLAB software at different electrical parameters and different high-voltage electrode configurations with microsecond time scale. Experimental measurements show that the diffuse discharge during the negative-half cycle has good uniformity and stability compared with filamentary discharge during the positive-half cycle. The results offer a new estimated method for the discharge area.
Autors: Ying Zhang;Taotao Qin;Jie Li;Yan Wu;Akira Mizuno;Kefeng Shang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2988 - 2993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion-Based Temporal Alignment of Independently Moving Cameras
Abstract:
This paper presents a method to establish a nonlinear temporal correspondence between two video sequences captured by cameras independently moving in a dynamic 3D scene. We assume that the 3D spatial poses of the cameras are known for each frame. With predefined trajectory basis, the coefficients of the reconstructed trajectory of a moving scene point reflect the rhythm in motion. A robust rank constraint from the coefficient matrices is exploited to measure the spatiotemporal alignment quality for every feasible pair of video fragments. Point correspondences across sequences are not required or even it is possible that different points are tracked in different sequences, only if they satisfy the assumption that every 3D point tracked in the observed sequence can be described as a linear combination of a subset of the 3D points tracked in the reference sequence. Synchronization is then performed using a graph-based search algorithm to find the globally optimal path that minimizes both spatial and temporal misalignments. Our algorithm can use both complete and incomplete feature trajectories along time, and is robust to mild outliers. We verify the robustness and performance of the proposed approach on synthetic data as well as on challenging real video sequences.
Autors: Xue Wang;Jianbo Shi;Hyun Soo Park;Qing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 2344 - 2354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving-Object Detection From Consecutive Stereo Pairs Using Slanted Plane Smoothing
Abstract:
Detecting moving objects is of great importance for autonomous unmanned vehicle systems, and a challenging task especially in complex dynamic environments. This paper proposes a novel approach for the detection of moving objects and the estimation of their motion states using consecutive stereo image pairs on mobile platforms. First, we use a variant of the semi-global matching algorithm to compute initial disparity maps. Second, assisted by the initial disparities, boundaries in the image segmentation produced by simple linear iterative clustering are classified into coplanar, hinge, and occlusion. Moving points are obtained during ego-motion estimation by a modified random sample consensus) algorithm without resorting to time-consuming dense optical flow. Finally, the moving objects are extracted by merging superpixels according to the boundary types and their movements. The proposed method is accelerated on the GPU at 20 frames per second. The data which we use for testing and benchmarking is released, thus completing similar data sets. It includes 812 image pairs and 924 moving objects with ground truth for better algorithms evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves competitive results in terms of moving-object detection and their motion state estimation in challenging urban scenarios.
Autors: Long Chen;Lei Fan;Guodong Xie;Kai Huang;Andreas Nüchter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 18, issue:11, pages: 3093 - 3102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Color Imaging of Magnetic Co/Pt Multilayers
Abstract:
We demonstrate for the first time the realization of a spatial resolved two color, element-specific imaging experiment at the free-electron laser facility FERMI. Coherent imaging using Fourier transform holography was used to achieve direct real space access to the nanometer length scale of magnetic domains of Co/Pt heterostructures via the element-specific magnetic dichroism in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. As a first step to implement this technique for studies of ultrafast phenomena we present the spatially resolved response of magnetic domains upon femtosecond laser excitation.
Autors: D. Weder;C. Von Korff Schmising;F. Willems;C. M. Günther;M. Schneider;B. Pfau;A. Merhe;E. Jal;B. Vodungbo;J. Lüning;B. Mahieu;F. Capotondi;E. Pedersoli;S. Eisebitt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Level Security Embedded With Surveillance System
Abstract:
Graveness of guarding is an essential component of any system or organization in an increasingly hacking environment. Layers of protection are necessary. This paper presents a model to develop a multilevel security system. To reach or access inner most circle, three stages of security system endorsement will be necessary, making it the primary level of security. These include the Hex Keypad, Bluetooth, and RFID. The valuables in the inner vault are further secured with a secondary system completely separate from the primary, consisting of a fingerprint scanner. Any security breach detected will alert the authorities with the help of a GSM Shield, therefore taking the necessary response immediately. Continuous surveillance with online streaming is also demonstrated using Raspberry Pi and a digital camera, further safeguarding the valuables.
Autors: Sanket Goyal;Pranali Desai;Vasanth Swaminathan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7497 - 7501
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Sensor Fusion Based on Local Activity Measure
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel yet simple, multi-sensor fusion technique realizes in spatial domain is proposed. The core idea is to obtain the local activity features assuming that all the input images are random fields. This local activity feature matrix, which essentially incorporates the local features of the image, is then used to construct the fused image. In the penultimate step of the proposed technique, the homogeneity of the final fused image is verified by the consistency verification process. The performance of the proposed technique is validated subjectively and objectively by extensive experiments on different multi-sensor images. Furthermore, the comparative analysis with state-of-the-art methods confirmed the escalating improvement of the proposed technique.
Autors: Gaurav Bhatnagar;Zheng Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7487 - 7496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Timescale Coordinated Voltage/Var Control of High Renewable-Penetrated Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multi-timescale coordinated stochastic voltage/var control method for high renewable-penetrated distribution networks. It aims to utilize multiple devices to counteract uncertain voltage fluctuation and deviation. In the hourly timescale (first stage), capacitor banks and transformer tap changers are scheduled before stochastic renewable output and load variations are realized. In the 15-min timescale (second stage), inverters that interface the renewable energy resources provide var support to supplement the first-stage decision after uncertainty is observed. The coordination is model as a two-stage stochastic programming problem with scenario reduction. It is then converted to a deterministic mixed-integer quadratic programming equivalence model and solved by commercial solvers combined. Compared with existing methods, the proposed volt/var control can achieve lower expected energy loss and can sustain a secure voltage level under random load demand and renewable power injection. The proposed method is verified on the IEEE 33-bus distribution network and compared with existing practices.
Autors: Yan Xu;Zhao Yang Dong;Rui Zhang;David J. Hill;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4398 - 4408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-User Massive MIMO Relay Networks With Space-Constrained 2-D Antenna Arrays
Abstract:
The detrimental effects of spatially correlated fading are investigated for multi-user massive multiple-input multiple-output relay networks with maximal-ratio combining detectors. To this end, the achievable sum rates are derived in closed form for quantifying the cumulative effects of: 1) imperfect channel state information and 2) spatially correlated fading at the co-located space-constrained 2-D antenna arrays with increasingly many antenna elements for 3-D fading channels. The achievable sum rate for the uncorrelated fading and the corresponding asymptotic sum rate limit are derived. Our results reveal that the correlated fading in 2-D antenna arrays significantly degrades the achievable sum rate even in the finite antenna regime. The sum rate loss gradually increases, and hence, the achievable sum rate becomes infinitesimal in the asymptotic regime of 2-D antenna arrays with finite dimensions over 3-D correlated fading channels.
Autors: Dhanushka Priyankara Kudathanthirige;Gayan Amarasuriya Aruma Baduge;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 21, issue:11, pages: 2540 - 2543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiband Balanced Filters With Controllable Bandwidths Based on Slotline Coupling Feed
Abstract:
Novel multiband balanced bandpass filters with controllable bandwidths are presented in this letter. Slotline coupled-feed structure (SLCFS) is employed to suppress the common mode (CM), due to its intrinsic CM rejection. For differential mode, the tri-band/quad-band performance is realized by three/four pairsofhalf-wavelength resonators, which are designed for different passbands, respectively. Since the load effects between different resonators are very slight, the passband frequencies and bandwidths can be independently tuned and designed. Moreover, quasi-elliptical bandpass responses could be achieved to enhance the selectivity. Finally, two multiband balanced filters are designed and fabricated to validate the design method. To the best of authors’ knowledge, the quad-band balanced filter may be the first ever reported.
Autors: Shi-Xuan Zhang;Lei-Lei Qiu;Qing-Xin Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 974 - 976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicast Scheduling for Relay-Based Heterogeneous Networks Using Rateless Codes
Abstract:
We consider the multicast scheduling problem in the heterogeneous network using a half-duplex relay station (RS). Our goal is to minimize the delay of transmitting a block of packets to users over time-varying channels using rateless codes. Due to half-duplex operation, at each time slot, the RS can choose to either multicast a packet to the users, or fetch a packet from the macro base station. We formulate a fluid relaxation for the optimal decision problem, and reveal that the optimal policy has a threshold-based structure so as to exploit the opportunism of multicast channel: the RS should multicast only when the channel quality is sufficiently “high”. We propose an online policy based on the relaxation which does not require the knowledge of channel distribution. When the channel distribution is symmetric across users, we provide a closed-form expression of the asymptotic performance of our policy. For two-user systems, we prove that our scheme is asymptotically optimal. When the users’ channels are independent, we derive a performance bound based on water-filling rate allocation which approximates the optimal policy well. Simulation results show that our scheme performs close to theoretical bounds, under correlated as well as independent fading channels.
Autors: Chao Chen;Seung Jun Baek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 3142 - 3155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicriteria Green Supplier Segmentation
Abstract:
Supplier segmentation is an important strategic activity for companies. The main purpose of segmenting suppliers is to more easily manage a large number of suppliers by formulating relationship management strategies for subsets of suppliers, which is more efficient than separate unique strategies for each supplier. Existing supplier segmentation approaches have paid limited attention to environmentally related criteria. Given the increased importance of sustainable and green supply chains, this points a large gap in the literature. Thus, a green supplier segmentation model is proposed in this study. A supplier potential matrix is used to evaluate suppliers with respect to two dimensions, capabilities and willingness, with respect to environmental issues. Given the multicriteria nature of this problem, a novel hybrid multicriteria methodology is used to evaluate the problem. Rough set theory is used to calculate the weight of each criterion for suppliers’ capabilities and suppliers’ willingness. VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) is then used to determine an overall score for each supplier. Finally, fuzzy C-means is used to segment the suppliers while considering the overall score for each supplier. An application of the proposed model for suppliers of a large chemical company is used to evaluate the feasibility of this technique.
Autors: Chunguang Bai;Jafar Rezaei;Joseph Sarkis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 515 - 528
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifunctional Reconfigurable Filter Using Transversal Signal-Interaction Concepts
Abstract:
A novel multifunctional reconfigurable filter with three different transmission modes using transversal signal-interaction principles is proposed. These three operational modes allow to reconfigure the engineered filtering device as ultra-wideband bandpass filter, narrow-band bandpass filter (NB BPF), and ultra-wideband band-stop filter (UWB BSF). By turning on/off the RF switches, the transmission lines and stubs can be dynamically connected or disconnected so that the three transmission modes can be discretely selected. For the UWB-BPF mode, the 3-dB bandwidth is 95.7% (1.51–4.38 GHz) with minimum in-band insertion loss of 0.94 dB. For the NB-BPF mode, the 3-dB bandwidth is 25.3% (2.55–3.29 GHz), the minimum in-band insertion loss is 0.8 dB, and the stopband rejection is higher than 11.6 dB. For the UWB-BSF mode, the 3-dB bandwidth is 106% (1.41–4.59 GHz) with in-band insertion loss above 10 dB.
Autors: Wenjie Feng;Yuxia Shang;Wenquan Che;Roberto Gómez-García;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 980 - 982
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Converters: Control and Modulation Techniques for Their Operation and Industrial Applications
Abstract:
In the last decades, multilevel converters have been developed usually for medium-voltage high-power applications. They have become a mature solution for the increasing power demand of multiple applications such as renewable energy systems, power quality improvement, and motor drives. In this paper, the operation of multilevel converters is addressed focusing on control and modulation techniques for different well-known applications. The new developments are presented as an extension of conventional methods for two-level voltage-source converters which are still the mainstream solution for most cases.
Autors: Jose I. Leon;Sergio Vazquez;Leopoldo G. Franquelo;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 105, issue:11, pages: 2066 - 2081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Converters: Fundamental Circuits and Systems
Abstract:
This paper provides a chronological overview of the topology for multilevel converters, and discusses their different terminology usages and characteristics. The multilevel converters include three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) and neutral-point-piloted (NPP) inverters, three-level and four-level flying-capacitor (FLC) inverters, and a family of modular multilevel cascade converters. Some have already been put into commercial use, some have been on a research and development stage, and others have been on an academic research stage. This paper pays much attention to six family members of the modular multilevel cascade converters, intended for grid-tied applications and medium-voltage high-power motor drives.
Autors: Hirofumi Akagi;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 105, issue:11, pages: 2048 - 2065
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Subarray Modularization to Construct Hierarchical Beamforming Networks for Phased Array of Antennas With Low Complexity
Abstract:
A multilevel subarray RF modularization technique is presented to construct a hierarchical beamforming network (BFN) for phased array of antennas. In contrast to the conventional BFN architecture, which feeds each antenna element by using individual set of RF devices, the restructured RF modules may simplify the BFN architecture. They may dramatically reduce the cost without significantly sacrificing the radiation performance. In this technique, the RF devices to feed antenna elements are subdivided into groups for modularization. Each module is formed by very few elements of RF devices to form a multilevel BFN, where the number of RF elements in each module are the integer factors of array size. Each module at the same layer consists of identical RF structures to minimize the mass manufacture cost. In this paper, the theoretical foundation is developed to provide design guidelines. Examination of radiation discrepancy is also investigated to demonstrate the feasibility and validate the proposed technique.
Autors: Hsi-Tseng Chou;Hao-Ju Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 5819 - 5828
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimedia Relay Resource Allocation for Energy Efficient Wireless Networks: High-Layer Content Prioritization With Low-Layer Diversity Cooperation
Abstract:
With the popularity of versatile mobile multimedia applications and the pressing need to reduce energy consumption in future wireless networks, new challenges have been posed to maintain adequate coverage, quality of service, and reliability for big-scale multimedia traffic. Specifically, in this paper we introduce a cooperative multimedia relay framework and investigate premium-regular-diversity-based multimedia resource allocation treatment approaches. We also comparatively study five generic wireless multimedia relay scenarios including direct transmission, single relay, multiple pure relays, relay cooperation with space-time coding, and relay coordination with distributed beamforming. The key contribution of the new relay resource allocation framework is that packet importance priority diversity at the application layer is jointly considered with spatial diversity and relay coordination protocols at lower layers. Premium packets and regular packets of multimedia streams are adaptively allocated to relay nodes, and transmission resources are optimally allocated with regards to energy budget. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed resource allocation paradigm using multirelay coordination has significant video quality enhancement and energy saving potentials to support future big-data wireless multimedia traffic.
Autors: Qin Wang;Wei Wang;Kazem Sohraby;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10394 - 10405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Speech Capture System for Speech Rehabilitation and Learning
Abstract:
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators’ motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the multimodal speech capture system (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators’ motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation. We describe the MSCS hardware and software components, and demonstrate its basic visualization capabilities by a healthy individual repeating the words “Hello World.” A proof-of-concept prototype has been successfully developed for this purpose, and will be used in future clinical studies to evaluate its potential impact on accelerating speech rehabilitation by enabling patients to speak naturally. Pattern matching algorithms to be applied to the collected data can provide patients with quantitative and objective feedback on their speech performance, unlike current methods that are mostly subjective, and may vary from one SLP to another.
Autors: Nordine Sebkhi;Dhyey Desai;Mohammad Islam;Jun Lu;Kimberly Wilson;Maysam Ghovanloo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 2639 - 2649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiparty Consensus of Linear Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the multiparty output consensus of linear heterogeneous agents, in which the outputs of the agents within a party synchronize to each other, but different parties have different synchronized trajectories. To solve this problem, graphs with complex edge weights are used. We provide a sufficient condition for leader-follower multiparty output consensus of linear heterogeneous agents. We also give a similar sufficient condition for multiparty state consensus of linear homogeneous agents as homogeneous agents could be considered as a special case of heterogeneous agents. As one direct application of our theory, we provide a solution to formation control of linear heterogeneous agents, where the position of each follower agent in the formation is described by two key pieces of information: A fixed orientation of the follower's location with respect to the leader's location (within a given coordinate system), and a time-variant formation constraint (such as the relative distance) between the leader and the follower, which is captured by some linear command generator. We present sufficient conditions for both simultaneous formation and reference trajectory tracking via the internal model principle.
Autors: Farnaz Adib Yaghmaie;Rong Su;Frank L. Lewis;Lihua Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5578 - 5589
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipath Clustering and Cluster Tracking for Geometry-Based Stochastic Channel Modeling
Abstract:
This paper presents a clustering and tracking method that exploits the geometry of the scattering points (SPs) obtained from the measurement-based ray tracer. The multipath components (MPCs) were categorized into clusters by applying the KPowerMeans (KPM) framework to those SPs. The clusters were tracked by comparing the cluster-centroid SPs of the adjacent snapshots. The clusters were estimated based on the indoor environment geometry at 11 GHz, and their physical mechanisms were interpreted. The complexity and performance of this method was assessed and compared with that of conventional KPM by comparing the number of floating point operations (FLOPS) and the channel eigenvalues obtained from the reconstructed channel matrices, which were calculated by superposing the MPCs randomly generated from intracluster parameters. The verification of this method showed that most clusters were estimated and tracked according to the physical location of the scatterers in the environment with acceptable error. Moreover, the eigenvalues reconstructed from the proposed method were closer to the measured ones with less number of FLOPS, which indicates both accuracy and complexity improvement. The results also imply that multiple-input multiple-output performance is highly dependent on the radio propagation channel; therefore, it is imperative that clusters in the channel be determined accurately.
Autors: Panawit Hanpinitsak;Kentaro Saito;Jun-ichi Takada;Minseok Kim;Lawrence Materum;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 65, issue:11, pages: 6015 - 6028
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Event Detection and Recognition for Large-Scale Power Systems Through Cluster-Based Sparse Coding
Abstract:
Accurate event analysis in real time is of paramount importance for high-fidelity situational awareness such that proper actions can take place before any isolated faults escalate to cascading blackouts. Existing approaches are limited to detect only single or double events or a specified event type. Although some previous works can well distinguish multiple events in small-scale systems, the performance tends to degrade dramatically in large-scale systems. In this paper, we focus on multiple event detection, recognition, and temporal localization in large-scale power systems. We discover that there always exist “regions” where the reaction of all buses to certain event within each region demonstrates high degree similarity, and that the boundary of the “regions” generally remains the same regardless of the type of event(s). We further verify that, within each region, this reaction to multiple events can be approximated as a linear combination of reactions to each constituent event. Based on these findings, we propose a novel method, referred to as cluster-based sparse coding (CSC), to extract all the underlying single events involved in a multievent scenario. Multiple events of three typical disturbances (e.g., generator trip, line trip, and load shedding) can be detected and recognized. Specifically, the CSC algorithm can effectively distinguish line trip events from oscillation, which has been a very challenging task for event analysis. Experimental results based on simulated large-scale system model (i.e., NPCC) show that the proposed CSC algorithm presents high detection and recognition rate with low false alarms.
Autors: Yang Song;Wei Wang;Zhifei Zhang;Hairong Qi;Yilu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4199 - 4210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Kernel Learning for Hyperspectral Image Classification: A Review
Abstract:
With the rapid development of spectral imaging techniques, classification of hyperspectral images (HSIs) has attracted great attention in various applications such as land survey and resource monitoring in the field of remote sensing. A key challenge in HSI classification is how to explore effective approaches to fully use the spatial–spectral information provided by the data cube. Multiple kernel learning (MKL) has been successfully applied to HSI classification due to its capacity to handle heterogeneous fusion of both spectral and spatial features. This approach can generate an adaptive kernel as an optimally weighted sum of a few fixed kernels to model a nonlinear data structure. In this way, the difficulty of kernel selection and the limitation of a fixed kernel can be alleviated. Various MKL algorithms have been developed in recent years, such as the general MKL, the subspace MKL, the nonlinear MKL, the sparse MKL, and the ensemble MKL. The goal of this paper is to provide a systematic review of MKL methods, which have been applied to HSI classification. We also analyze and evaluate different MKL algorithms and their respective characteristics in different cases of HSI classification cases. Finally, we discuss the future direction and trends of research in this area.
Autors: Yanfeng Gu;Jocelyn Chanussot;Xiuping Jia;Jón Atli Benediktsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 6547 - 6565
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Hydraulic Fracture Modeling With Discontinuous Galerkin Frequency-Domain Method and Impedance Transition Boundary Condition
Abstract:
To facilitate the detection of hydraulic fractures by electromagnetic survey, a discontinuous Galerkin frequency-domain (DGFD) method is introduced in this paper to efficiently model the fracture responses under complicated geophysical environments. In the proposed DGFD method, the computational domain can be split into multiple subdomains with nonconformal meshes. The Riemann solver (upwind flux) is introduced to evaluate the numerical flux. The impedance transition boundary condition (ITBC) is employed to facilitate fracture modeling by approximating fractures as surfaces. Numerical results show that the ITBC works well for different fracture conductivities, dipping angles, operation frequencies, as well as different sources. For both small- and large-scale fractures, it also shows good agreement with the references. The responses of fractures increase as their conductivities become larger. Large dipping angles can cause spikes on the responses in a borehole. For a magnetic source, higher operation frequencies can enhance the signal level, while for an electric source, the sensitivity to frequency is small. When no borehole is considered, the responses due to an electric source are in general larger than those due to a magnetic one. However, when a borehole with conductive mud is included, the responses can be reversed for the electric and magnetic sources. For multiple fractures outside a cased borehole, the signal level of an electric source is significantly reduced, while that of a magnetic source remains at a similar level compared with the scenario without a casing. With the proposed technique, multiscale modeling of hydraulic fractures in complicated geophysical environments becomes possible.
Autors: Qingtao Sun;Runren Zhang;Qiwei Zhan;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 6566 - 6573
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Superpixel-Level Subspace-Based Support Vector Machines for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
This letter introduces a new spectral–spatial classification method for hyperspectral images. A multiscale superpixel segmentation is first used to model the distribution of classes based on spatial information. In this context, the original hyperspectral image is integrated with segmentation maps via a feature fusion process in different scales such that the pixel-level data can be represented by multiscale superpixel-level (MSP) data sets. Then, a subspace-based support vector machine (SVMsub) is adopted to obtain the classification maps with multiscale inputs. Finally, the classification result is achieved via a decision fusion process. The resulting method, called MSP-SVMsub, makes use of the spatial and spectral coherences, and contributes to better feature characterization. Experimental results based on two real hyperspectral data sets indicate that the MSP-SVMsub exhibits good performance compared with other related methods.
Autors: Haoyang Yu;Lianru Gao;Wenzhi Liao;Bing Zhang;Aleksandra Pižurica;Wilfried Philips;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 14, issue:11, pages: 2142 - 2146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Security-Constrained HVAC/HVDC Transmission Expansion Planning With a Reduced Search Space
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new method to solve the multistage security-constrained transmission expansion planning problem, incorporating lines based on high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) and high-voltage direct current (HVDC) alternatives. A novel mixed-integer linear programming model, which incorporates transmission losses using a piecewise linearization, is presented. An efficient method to reduce the search space of the problem is developed to help in the solution process. Garver's 6-bus system and a modified Southern Brazilian system are used to show the precision and efficiency of the proposed approach. The tests are performed for cases with and without HVDC links and transmission losses. The results indicate that better expansion plans can be found by considering HVDC proposals in the expansion process. The promising trend of using HVDC lines in future networks to improve the reliability in the system is demonstrated.
Autors: Andres Hernando Dominguez;Leonardo H. Macedo;Antonio Hernando Escobar;Rubén Romero;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4805 - 4817
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuser Millimeter Wave Beamforming Strategies With Quantized and Statistical CSIT
Abstract:
To alleviate the high cost of hardware in mm-wave systems, hybrid analog/digital precoding is typically employed. In the conventional two-stage feedback scheme, the analog beamformer is determined by beam search and feedback to maximize the desired signal power of each user. The digital precoder is designed based on quantization and feedback of effective channel to mitigate multiuser interference. Alternatively, we propose a one-stage feedback scheme, which effectively reduces the complexity of the signalling and feedback procedure. Specifically, the second-order channel statistics are leveraged to design digital precoder for interference mitigation while all feedback overhead is reserved for precise analog beamforming. Under a fixed total feedback constraint, we investigate the conditions under which the one-stage feedback scheme outperforms the conventional two-stage counterpart. Moreover, a rate splitting (RS) transmission strategy is introduced to further tackle the multiuser interference and enhance the rate performance. Consider: 1) RS precoded by the one-stage feedback scheme and 2) conventional transmission strategy precoded by the two-stage scheme with the same first-stage feedback as 1) and also certain amount of extra second-stage feedback. We show that 1) can achieve a sum rate comparable to that of 2). Hence, RS enables remarkable saving in the second-stage training and feedback overhead.
Autors: Mingbo Dai;Bruno Clerckx;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:11, pages: 7025 - 7038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multivariate Detection of Power System Disturbances Based on Fourth Order Moment and Singular Value Decomposition
Abstract:
This paper presents a new method to detect power system disturbances in a multivariate context, which is based on Fourth Order Moment and multivariate analysis implemented as Singular Value Decomposition. The motivation for this development is that power systems are increasingly affected by various disturbances and there is a requirement for the analysis of measurements to detect these disturbances. The application results on the measurements of an actual power system in Europe illustrate that the proposed multivariate detection method achieves enhanced detection reliability and sensitivity.
Autors: Lianfang Cai;Nina F. Thornhill;Bikash C. Pal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4289 - 4297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Myocardium Segmentation From DE MRI Using Multicomponent Gaussian Mixture Model and Coupled Level Set
Abstract:
Objective: In this paper, we propose a fully automatic framework for myocardium segmentation of delayed-enhancement (DE) MRI images without relying on prior patient-specific information. Methods: We employ a multicomponent Gaussian mixture model to deal with the intensity heterogeneity of myocardium caused by the infarcts. To differentiate the myocardium from other tissues with similar intensities, while at the same time maintain spatial continuity, we introduce a coupled level set (CLS) to regularize the posterior probability. The CLS, as a spatial regularization, can be adapted to the image characteristics dynamically. We also introduce an image intensity gradient based term into the CLS, adding an extra force to the posterior probability based framework, to improve the accuracy of myocardium boundary delineation. The prebuilt atlases are propagated to the target image to initialize the framework. Results: The proposed method was tested on datasets of 22 clinical cases, and achieved Dice similarity coefficients of 87.43 ± 5.62% (endocardium), 90.53 ± 3.20% (epicardium) and 73.58 ± 5.58% (myocardium), which have outperformed three variants of the classic segmentation methods. Conclusion: The results can provide a benchmark for the myocardial segmentation in the literature. Significance: DE MRI provides an important tool to assess the viability of myocardium. The accurate segmentation of myocardium, which is a prerequisite for further quantitative analysis of myocardial infarction (MI) region, can provide important support for the diagnosis and treatment management for MI patients.
Autors: Jie Liu;Xiahai Zhuang;Lianming Wu;Dongaolei An;Jianrong Xu;Terry Peters;Lixu Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 2650 - 2661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanodevice Arrays for Peripheral Nerve Fascicle Activation Using Ultrasound Energy-Harvesting
Abstract:
We propose the use of wireless, energy harvesting, implanted nanodevice arrays with electrodes for selective stimulation of peripheral nerves in the human body. We calculate the input ultrasound energy and harvested power for single fixed-size nanowire-based nanodevices at different tissue depths and compare these with the current and voltage levels required for peripheral neural stimulation. We model the dimensioning of arrays of nanodevices, embedded in biocompatible tissue patches, to meet these neural stimulation requirements. Selectivity of activation of particular nerve bundles requires that the output voltage and current of the array can be varied to increase or decrease penetration into the neural tissue. This variation can be achieved by changing the energized area of the array and/or by decreasing the incident ultrasound power. However, the array must be implanted horizontally relative to the incident ultrasound as any tilting of the nanodevices will reduce the harvested energy. The proposed approach provides a longer-term implant solution for nerve stimulation that allows the patient greater freedom of movement than with embedded tethered electrodes.
Autors: Michael Donohoe;Brendan Jennings;Josep Miquel Jornet;Sasitharan Balasubramaniam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 919 - 930
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanoislands-Based Charge Trapping Memory: A Scalability Study
Abstract:
Zinc-oxide (ZnO) and zirconia (ZrO2) metal oxides have been studied extensively in the past few decades with several potential applications including memory devices. In this work, a scalability study, based on the ITRS roadmap, is conducted on memory devices with ZnO and ZrO2 nanoislands charge trapping layer. Both nanoislands are deposited using atomic layer deposition; however, the different sizes, distribution, and properties of the materials result in different memory performance. The results show that at the 32-nm node charge trapping memory with 127 ZrO2 nanoislands can provide a 9.4 V memory window. However, with ZnO only, 31 nanoislands can provide a window of 2.5 V. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoislands are more promising than ZnO in scaled down devices due to their higher density, higher-k, and the absence of quantum confinement effects.
Autors: Nazek El-Atab;Irfan Saadat;Krishna Saraswat;Ammar Nayfeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 1143 - 1146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanopatterned Optical Fiber Tip for Guided Mode Resonance and Application to Gas Sensing
Abstract:
This paper reports on an efficient and convenient method of patterning nanostructures on the cleaved facet of an optical fiber to realize a high-performance fiber-optic gas sensor. The fabrication method utilizes an ultraviolet assisted nanoimprint lithography to transfer nanoscale patterns from a pre-formed stamp to the fiber tip. The novelty of this paper lies in utilizing simpler fabrication steps with better control over angle of contact at the fiber tip, which leads to rapid and precise formation of nanostructures with well-defined features. A periodic array of polymer nanoposts are formed at the fiber tip and coated with titanium dioxide to serve as a guided mode resonant (GMR) device. A gas sensor is realized by coating the GMR structure with a thin layer of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets. We have utilized the resonance sensitivity of the nanopatterned fiber-tip gas sensor to surrounding refractive index. The abundant functional groups available at GO provides an effective adsorption surface for gas molecules. Microscopic imaging and spectroscopic studies are conducted to illustrate the structural and optical properties, and gas-sensing performance of the sensor. Volatile organic compounds, such as ethylene and methanol, associated with crop plant health, are detected by the sensor. The sensor provides sensitivities of 0.92 and 1.37 pm/ppm for ethylene and methanol vapors, respectively, with a three-fold enhancement in sensitivity and 50% reduction in response time compared with the non-GO coated counterpart. In addition, the sensor demonstrates good stability and reproducibility, thus having a great potential in fiber-optic remote sensing applications.
Autors: Shawana Tabassum;Ratnesh Kumar;Liang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7262 - 7272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanostructured La–Sr–Mn–Co–O Films for Room-Temperature Pulsed Magnetic Field Sensors
Abstract:
The results of Co substitution for Mn in nanostructured La1-xSrxMn1-yCoyO3 films () grown on polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by pulsed-injection metal-organic chemical vapor deposition technique, are presented. The Co content y in the films was changed as follows: 0; 0.023; 0.053; 0.078. The resistivity ( dependences on temperature in zero magnetic field was investigated in the temperature range 5–300 K. It was found that the increase in Co content up to 0.078 results in the decrease of metal-insulator transition temperature and increase of the resistivity. The results of nanostructured films are compared with the epitaxial films grown on LaAlO3 substrate keeping the same technological conditions. The magnetoresistance (MR) and MR anisotropy (MRA) were investigated at room temperature (290 K) in permanent magnetic fields up to 2.35 T, and pulsed magnetic fields up to 20 T. It was found that the highest MR values are obtained for the intermediate Co content: , while the MRA decreased with the increase of Co content. The results are discussed within the double-exchange interaction model for the perovskite oxides. The possibility to apply the manganite-cobaltite films for the development of room temperature B-scalar magnetic field sensors is considered.
Autors: Nerija Zurauskiene;Vakaris Rudokas;Saulius Balevicius;Skirmantas Kersulis;Voitech Stankevic;Remigijus Vasiliauskas;Valentina Plausinaitiene;Milita Vagner;Rasuole Lukose;Martynas Skapas;Remigijus Juskenas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrow-Band Interference Suppression via RPCA-Based Signal Separation in Time–Frequency Domain
Abstract:
Narrow-band interference (NBI) is a critical issue for synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in which the imaging quality can be degraded severely. To suppress NBI effectively, a novel interference suppression algorithm using robust principal component analysis (RPCA) based signal separation in time–frequency domain is proposed. The RPCA algorithm is introduced for signal separation in the time–frequency domain for the first time. The fundamental assumption of RPCA is that a matrix can be modeled as a combination of a low-rank matrix and a sparse counterpart. In terms of the SAR echo, the short time Fourier transformation (STFT) matrix of mixed signals (i.e., useful SAR signals and NBIs) well fits the assumption of RPCA. Based on this property, radar echoes are first transformed into the time–frequency domain by STFT to form an STFT matrix. Then, the RPCA algorithm is used to decompose the STFT matrix into a low-rank matrix (i.e., NBIs) and a sparse matrix (i.e., useful signals). Finally, the NBIs can be reconstructed and subtracted from the echoes to realize the interference suppression. The experimental results of simulated and measured data demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only can suppress interference effectively, but also preserve the useful information as much as possible.
Autors: Jia Su;Haihong Tao;Mingliang Tao;Ling Wang;Jian Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 10, issue:11, pages: 5016 - 5025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Narrow-Sense BCH Codes Over $ {mathrm {GF}}(q)$ With Length $n=frac {q^{m}-1}{q-1}$
Abstract:
Cyclic codes are widely employed in communication systems, storage devices, and consumer electronics, as they have efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. BCH codes, as a special subclass of cyclic codes, are in most cases among the best cyclic codes. A subclass of good BCH codes are the narrow-sense BCH codes over with length . Little is known about this class of BCH codes when . The objective of this paper is to study some of the codes within this class. In particular, the dimension, the minimum distance, and the weight distribution of some ternary BCH codes with length are determined in this paper. A class of ternary BCH codes meeting the Griesmer bound is identified. An application of some of the BCH codes in secret sharing is also investigated.
Autors: Shuxing Li;Cunsheng Ding;Maosheng Xiong;Gennian Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 63, issue:11, pages: 7219 - 7236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Natural Language Requirements Processing: A 4D Vision
Abstract:
Natural language processing (NLP) and requirements engineering (RE) have had a long relationship, yet their combined use isn’t well established in industrial practice. This situation should soon change. The future evolution of the application of NLP technologies in RE can be viewed from four dimensions: discipline, dynamism, domain knowledge, and datasets.
Autors: Alessio Ferrari;Felice Dell’Orletta;Andrea Esuli;Vincenzo Gervasi;Stefania Gnesi;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 28 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Optimal SOC Trajectory for Traffic-Based Adaptive PHEV Control Strategy
Abstract:
The optimal charge and discharge management of the energy storage system (ESS) has a pivotal role in development of the energy management system for the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This research aims to estimate a near optimal trajectory of ESS state of charge (SOC) to be employed in traffic-based adaptive PHEV control strategy to enhance fuel economy in various driving cycles. In the first step, several driving cycles are developed based on the real-world driving data. Experimental map-based Pontryagin's minimum principle control strategy is designed to extract the optimal SOC trajectories for different cycles. The achieved optimal data is then used to create the database employed for training a Nero-Fuzzy system. The SOC trajectories, estimated under the light of the obtained fuzzy inference system, are employed as the reference SOC profiles in adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy. The simulation results reveal that the proposed approach provides near optimal SOC trajectory and improves the equivalent fuel economy in various driving cycles. Moreover, this adaptive near optimal control strategy could be applied on-line as it doesn't require the knowledge of the entire driving cycle, and only the trip length and the average speed should be known a priori.
Autors: Morteza Montazeri-Gh;Zeinab Pourbafarani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 9753 - 9760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nebula: Distributed Edge Cloud for Data Intensive Computing
Abstract:
Centralized cloud infrastructures have become the popular platforms for data-intensive computing today. However, they suffer from inefficient data mobility due to the centralization of cloud resources, and hence, are highly unsuited for geo-distributed data-intensive applications where the data may be spread at multiple geographical locations. In this paper, we present Nebula: a dispersed edge cloud infrastructure that explores the use of voluntary resources for both computation and data storage. We describe the lightweight Nebula architecture that enables distributed data-intensive computing through a number of optimization techniques including location-aware data and computation placement, replication, and recovery. We evaluate Nebula performance on an emulated volunteer platform that spans over 50 PlanetLab nodes distributed across Europe, and show how a common data-intensive computing framework, MapReduce, can be easily deployed and run on Nebula. We show Nebula MapReduce is robust to a wide array of failures and substantially outperforms other wide-area versions based on emulated existing systems.
Autors: Albert Jonathan;Mathew Ryden;Kwangsung Oh;Abhishek Chandra;Jon Weissman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 28, issue:11, pages: 3229 - 3242
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Need to build a better hospital? Use chip design [Spectral Lines]
Abstract:
Deepak Aatresh, an electrical and computer engineer from India, joined Intel in 1989 as a chip designer—after reading an article I wrote for IEEE Spectrum on Intel’s project to build the first million-transistor chip! After seven years at Intel, he moved on to communications hardware companies. Then, in 2008, bitten by the startup bug but without a particular startup idea in mind, he joined Artiman Ventures as an entrepreneur-in-residence. He thought he'd try to find ways to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency.
Autors: Tekla S. Perry;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 54, issue:11, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Net Shape Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing
Abstract:
Alternatives to rare earth permanent magnets, such as alnico, will reduce supply instability, increase sustainability, and could decrease the cost of permanent magnets, especially for high-temperature applications, such as traction drive motors. Alnico magnets with moderate coercivity, high remanence, and relatively high-energy product are conventionally processed by directional solidification and (significant) final machining, contributing to increased costs and additional material waste. Additive manufacturing (AM) is developing as a cost effective method to build net-shape 3-D parts with minimal final machining and properties comparable to wrought parts. This paper describes initial studies of net-shape fabrication of alnico magnets by AM using a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. High-pressure gas atomized pre-alloyed powders of two different modified alnico “8” compositions, with high purity and sphericity, were built into cylinders using the LENS process, and followed by heat treatment. The magnetic properties showed improvement over their cast and sintered counterparts. The resulting alnico permanent magnets were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and hysteresisgraph measurements. These results display the potential for net-shape processing of alnico permanent magnets for use in next generation traction-drive motors and other applications requiring high temperatures and/or complex engineered part geometries.
Autors: Emma Marie Hamilton White;Aaron Gregory Kassen;Emrah Simsek;Wei Tang;Ryan Timothy Ott;Iver Eric Anderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Navigation With Scheduling: Error Evolution
Abstract:
Network navigation is a promising paradigm for providing location awareness in wireless environments, where nodes estimate their locations based on sensor measurements and prior knowledge. In the presence of limited wireless resources, only a subset rather than all of the node pairs can perform inter-node measurements. The procedure of selecting node pairs at different times for inter-node measurements, referred to as network scheduling, affects the evolution of the localization errors. Thus, it is crucial to design efficient scheduling strategies for network navigation. This paper introduces situation-aware scheduling that exploits network states to select measurement pairs, and develops a framework to characterize the effects of scheduling strategies and of network settings on the error evolution. In particular, both sufficient and necessary conditions for the boundedness of the error evolution are provided. Furthermore, opportunistic and random situation-aware scheduling strategies are proposed, and bounds on the corresponding time-averaged network localization errors are derived. These strategies are shown to be optimal in terms of the error scaling with the number of agents. Finally, the reduction of the error scaling by increasing the number of simultaneous measurement pairs is quantified.
Autors: Tianheng Wang;Yuan Shen;Andrea Conti;Moe Z. Win;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 63, issue:11, pages: 7509 - 7534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Coded Multiple Access with High-Order Modulations
Abstract:
This paper presents the first network-coded multiple access (NCMA) system prototype operated on high-order modulations up to 16-QAM. NCMA jointly exploits physical-layer network coding (PNC) and multiuser decoding (MUD) to boost throughput of multipacket reception systems. Direct generalization of the existing NCMA decoding algorithm, originally designed for BPSK, to high-order modulations, will lead to huge performance degradation. The throughput degradation is caused by the relative phase offset between received signals from different nodes. To circumvent the phase offset problem, this paper investigates an NCMA system with multiple receive antennas at the access point, referred to as MIMO-NCMA. We put forth a low-complexity symbol-level NCMA decoder that, together with MIMO, can substantially alleviate the performance degradation induced by relative phase offset. To demonstrate the feasibility and advantage of MIMO-NCMA for high-order modulations, we implemented our designs on software-defined radio. Our experimental results show that the throughput of QPSK MIMO-NCMA is double that of both BPSK NCMA and QPSK MUD at SNR = 10 dB. For higher signal-to-noise ratios at which 16-QAM can be supported, the throughput of MIMO-NCMA can be as high as 3.5 times that of BPSK NCMA. Overall, this paper provides an implementable framework for high-order modulated NCMA.
Autors: Haoyuan Pan;Lu Lu;Soung Chang Liew;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 9776 - 9792
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Constrained Multiperiod Auction for Pool-Based Electricity Markets of Hydrothermal Systems
Abstract:
Network-constrained market clearing procedures in pool-based electricity markets of hydropower systems have traditionally neglected the constraints associated with physical and operating aspects of hydroelectric generation (hydraulic constraints). Such constraints are generally taken into account by means of expost procedures, which may lead to suboptimal results regarding social welfare function. This paper proposes a network-constrained auction model for hydrothermal systems that represents the hydraulic constraints in detail. The objectives of the paper are twofold: the analysis of the impact of hydraulic constraints on market clearing prices and on generation/consumption scheduling and the analysis of the influence of strategic offering of hydro plants in the operation of a hydraulic cascade. As some of the hydraulic constraints are nonlinear and intertemporal, linearization techniques are applied, resulting in a mixed-integer linear programming problem.
Autors: Augusto Cesar Pereira;Alberto Quialheiro de Oliveira;Edméa Cássia Baptista;Antonio Roberto Balbo;Edilaine Martins Soler;Leonardo Nepomuceno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4501 - 4514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neurogenesis Enhances Response Specificity to Spatial Pattern Stimulation in Hippocampal Cultures
Abstract:
Objective: Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus facilitates cognitive functions such as pattern separation in mammals. However, it remains unclear how newborn neurons mediate changes in neural networks to enhance the pattern separation ability. Here, we developed an in vitro model of adult neurogenesis using rat hippocampal cultures in order to investigate whether newborn neurons can be directly incorporated into neural networks related to pattern separation to produce functional improvements. Method: We optimized at schedule of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) administration to enhance neurogenesis, and then used a microelectrode array system to evaluate the responses of neural cultures to two different spatial pattern stimuli (L and inverted L shapes) before and after training. Results: We found that early synaptic response times to a given pattern were shortened after training, and that this effect was more pronounced in cultures treated with bFGF. Furthermore, bFGF-treated cultures showed improved response specificity after training as indicated by calculated Kullback–Leibler divergence values, suggesting that pattern separation was better achieved in cultures with enhanced neurogenesis. Conclusion: Neural networks containing greater numbers of immature neurons exhibited higher response specificity to spatial pattern stimulation, suggesting the improvement of the pattern separation by neurogenesis enhancement. Significance: These results are the first in vitro demonstration that neurogenesis improves pattern separation. Our novel in vitro system will be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of adult neurogenesis to cognitive functions.
Autors: Yukimi Tanaka;Takuya Isomura;Kenta Shimba;Kiyoshi Kotani;Yasuhiko Jimbo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 2555 - 2561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neuromorphic Architecture With 1M Memristive Synapses for Detection of Weakly Correlated Inputs
Abstract:
Neuromorphic computing takes inspiration from the brain to build highly parallel, energy- and area-efficient architectures. Recently, hardware realizations of neurons and synapses using memristive devices were proposed and applied for the task of correlation detection. However, for weakly correlated signals, this task becomes challenging because of the variability and the asymmetric conductance response of the memristive devices. In this brief, we propose a high-density memristive system realized using nanodevices based on phase-change technology. We present a noise-robust phase-change implementation of a neuron and a synaptic learning rule that is capable of capturing patterns of weakly correlated inputs. We experimentally demonstrate the operation with a correlation coefficient as low as 0.2 using a record number of 1M phase-change synapses.
Autors: Stanisław Woźniak;Angeliki Pantazi;Severin Sidler;Nikolaos Papandreou;Yusuf Leblebici;Evangelos Eleftheriou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 1342 - 1346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Algorithms for Verification of Relative Observability and Computation of Supremal Relatively Observable Sublanguage
Abstract:
In this technical note, we present a new property of relative observability, and based on this property, we propose two algorithms: the first one, that has polynomial complexity, verifies if a regular language is relatively observable; the second algorithm computes the supremal relatively observable sublanguage of a given regular language. Although the latter has exponential complexity, it is more efficient than a recently proposed algorithm, which has double exponential complexity. Moreover, the algorithm proposed here has polynomial complexity when the automaton that marks the specification language is state partition.
Autors: Marcos V. S. Alves;Lilian K. Carvalho;João C. Basilio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 5902 - 5908
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Approach to Increase CNT Contents in Electrodeposited Ni-CNT Composite Thin Films by Modified Current Conditions
Abstract:
In this paper, an electrodeposition method for nickel (Ni)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite thin films is presented. The composite film is deposited using an electrolyte in which MWCNTs are randomly dispersed. Two kinds of MWCNTs annealed at 1200 °C and 2600 °C were used for the electrodeposition using pulse or sine waveforms. An electrodeposition condition using CNT annealed at 1200 °C and sine waveform with maximum current 0.2 A and frequency 5.0 Hz results in a maximum CNT weight fraction of 5.4% in the composite film. The electrodeposited film with the maximum CNT content shows a microindentation hardness of 17.0 GPa, which is approximately 1.45 times greater than that of a pure Ni film. Moreover, mechanical strengthening is found in the composite films due to the addition of CNTs. This result shows that the electrodeposition for the Ni-MWCNT composite thin film with modified current condition would be applicable to microsystem, which requires micromechanical components with high mechanical strength.
Autors: Akhtar Muhammad Shahrukh;Zhonglie An;Masaya Toda;Takahito Ono;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 931 - 938
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Bounds for Frameproof Codes
Abstract:
Frameproof codes are used to fingerprint digital data. They can prevent copyrighted materials from unauthorized use. In this paper, we study upper and lower bounds for -frameproof codes of length over an alphabet of size . The upper bound is based on a combinatorial approach and the lower bound is based on a probabilistic construction. Both bounds can improve one of the previous results when is small compared with , say for some constant . Furthermore, we pay special attention to binary frameproof codes. We show a binary -frameproof code of length cannot have more than codewords if .
Autors: Chong Shangguan;Xin Wang;Gennian Ge;Ying Miao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 63, issue:11, pages: 7247 - 7252
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Formulation and Strong MISOCP Relaxations for AC Optimal Transmission Switching Problem
Abstract:
As the modern transmission control and relay technologies evolve, transmission line switching has become an important option in power system operators’ toolkits to reduce operational cost and improve system reliability. Most recent research has relied on the DC approximation of the power flow model in the optimal transmission switching problem. However, it is known that DC approximation may lead to inaccurate flow solutions and also overlook stability issues. In this paper, we focus on the optimal transmission switching problem with the full AC power flow model, abbreviated as AC optimal transmission switching (AC OTS). We propose a new exact formulation for AC OTS and its mixed-integer second-order cone programming relaxation. We improve this relaxation via several types of strong valid inequalities inspired by the recent development for the closely related AC optimal power flow problem [Kocuk et al., “Strong SOCP relaxations for the optimal power flow problem,” Oper. Res., vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1177–1196, 2016]. We also propose a practical algorithm to obtain high-quality feasible solutions for the AC OTS problem. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed formulation and algorithms efficiently solve IEEE standard and congested instances and lead to significant cost benefits with provably tight bounds.
Autors: Burak Kocuk;Santanu S. Dey;Xu Andy Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4161 - 4170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Method of Screening Out Outlier; Expanded Part Average Testing During Package Level Test
Abstract:
To achieve the automotive quality for semiconductor devices represented by “zero-defect,” part average testing (PAT) is actively applied to outgoing test. PAT has been generally used on wafer level test. This time we expanded it to package level test and established the method of detecting the characteristic variations and screening out the outliers. Moreover, we suggest a way of thinking about the outliers and consideration on the basis of the actual data analysis. We were especially conscious of the statistical meaning of the outliers which were detected. It has been demonstrated that the expanded PAT to package level test can reject the outliers of characteristics variation even within spec. The outliers in distribution of characteristic variations were detected by maintaining chip traceability. The new method can screen out outliers outside the 6-sigma within spec, and there was a clear inflection point between the distribution of the abnormal data and that of the population. It was assumed that hidden failure devices which had not been rejected as early failure were screened out. Detecting the outlier with the new method can reduce the failure rate to the target.
Autors: Tadashi Sakamoto;Kazunori Yofu;Takashi Kyuho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 351 - 356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Multiferroic Composite Materials Consisting of Ferromagnetic, Ferroelectric, and Polymer Components
Abstract:
The multiferroic ferroelectric–ferromagnetic-polymer composite systems, consisting of ferroelectric PZT particles, ferromagnetic NdFeB (or barium ferrite) particles, and silicone matrix, were investigated. The influence of the polymer Young’s modulus on the properties was determined. The coercivity of elastomers with the same magnetic fillers in different matrices differs by a factor of 7. The influence of magnetic field on electric properties was investigated. Magnetodielectric effect in three-phase samples was found to be non-monotonic. The influence of electric field on magnetic properties of elastomers was investigated. The magnetoelectric effect under an applied electric field in new three-phase material was discovered.
Autors: Liudmila A. Makarova;Valeria V. Rodionova;Yuliya A. Alekhina;Tatiana S. Rusakova;Aleksander S. Omelyanchik;Nikolai S. Perov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Single-Phase Flux Switching Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor
Abstract:
In this paper, a new topology of a single-phase flux switching permanent magnet motor (FSPM) is presented. Unlike conventional FSPMs, the air-gap flux flows in the axial direction, and therefore, it is named the flux switching axial flux permanent magnet motor (FS AFPM). The proposed single-phase FS AFPM has a compact disc-type structure, four stator pole teeth, and two rotor pole teeth (4/2 combination). However, a number of the stator poles as well as the rotor poles can be easily increased, due to an enlarged circumferential length. It has two discs, one for the stator and other for the rotor. Like conventional FSPMs, this machine has a simple salient rotor pole structure. Along with the armature windings, the PMs are also embedded in the stator. A 3-D finite-element analysis is carried out for the characteristic analysis of the proposed single-phase FS AFPM. For the enhancement of the self-starting torque capability and unidirectional rotation, the rotor pole is tapered.
Autors: Qurban Ali Shah Syed;Haris Kurtović;Ingo Hahn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Skills Needed: Structural Transformation in the Electricity Industry [In My View]
Abstract:
Presents an interview conducted with Fatih Guvenen, a University of Minnesota economist, about a new analysis of the lifetime earnings of American workers. The study was done for the National Bureau of Economic Research and clearly shows that the market for workers has irreversibly changed in major ways. Discusses how such structural transformation will impact the electricity industry.
Autors: Mark Ahlstrom;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 15, issue:6, pages: 116 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Node Deployment Based on Extra Path Creation for Wireless Sensor Networks on Mountain Roads
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks on mountain roads will form winding and long transmission paths and accordingly result in centralized energy dissipation near the sink and large transmission delay. In this letter, we propose a node deployment scheme to settle the above-mentioned thorny issues. The core idea is to construct extra paths to the sink and achieve data diversion. Specifically, the places with relatively large transmission hops to the sink and also comparatively small distance away from it are selected as the starting points of the extra paths. This selection mechanism contributes to alleviating the energy holes and reducing the transmission delay. Finally, experimental simulations show the effectiveness and superiority of our deployment scheme.
Autors: Xuxun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 21, issue:11, pages: 2376 - 2379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Equalization for Ultrafast Plane Wave Microvessel Imaging
Abstract:
Ultrafast plane wave microvessel imaging significantly improves ultrasound Doppler sensitivity by increasing the number of Doppler ensembles that can be collected within a short period of time. The rich spatiotemporal plane wave data also enable more robust clutter filtering based on singular value decomposition. However, due to the lack of transmit focusing, plane wave microvessel imaging is very susceptible to noise. This paper was designed to: 1) study the relationship between ultrasound system noise (primarily time gain compensation induced) and microvessel blood flow signal and 2) propose an adaptive and computationally cost-effective noise equalization method that is independent of hardware or software imaging settings to improve microvessel image quality.
Autors: Pengfei Song;Armando Manduca;Joshua D. Trzasko;Shigao Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 1776 - 1781
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise of a JFET Charge Amplifier for Piezoelectric Sensors
Abstract:
A comprehensive noise model of a junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET) charge amplifier is presented for applications with piezoelectric sensors. Based on this previously reported amplifier structure, a noise equivalent circuit is derived and discussed. Universal noise gain expressions for each of the twelve considered noise sources are given. By means of an analytical description of the charge amplifier’s noise behavior, the design and optimization of such preamplifiers for various capacitive microelectromechanical sensor systems will be distinctly simplified. Calculations of the noise floor are compared with measurements with a cantilever-type magnetoelectric sensor and with the performance of a so far commonly utilized basic charge amplifier. With the JFET charge amplifier a noise reduction of approximately 22 dB is achieved in the vicinity of the utilized sensor’s resonance frequency of 7.45 kHz. The reported amplifier is the first which has no negative influence on the total noise level of a resonant magnetoelectric sensor system.
Autors: Phillip Durdaut;Veronika Penner;Christine Kirchhof;Eckhard Quandt;Reinhard Knöchel;Michael Höft;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 17, issue:22, pages: 7364 - 7371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Binary Protograph-Based LDPC Codes for 2-D-ISI Magnetic Recording Channels
Abstract:
2-D inter-symbol-interference (2-D-ISI), consisting of ISI in the down track direction and inter-track interference along the cross-track direction, is a major factor that severely degrades the performance of ultra-high density magnetic recording systems. Due to its superior performance and the protograph structure which facilitates high-speed encoding and decoding, the protograph codes have shown a high potential to tackle 2-D-ISI. However, so far, no work has been reported on the design of non-binary protograph-based low-density parity-check (NP-LDPC) codes for 2-D-ISI channels. In this paper, we first propose a modified protograph extrinsic information transfer analysis. In conjunction with the asymptotic ensemble weight distribution analysis, they both serve as theoretical tools to analyze the performance of NP-LDPC codes designed for the 2-D-ISI channels. By further applying a fast search approach, we construct two types of NP-LDPC codes for 2-D-ISI channels. Both theoretical analyses and simulated results show that the proposed codes outperform the existing binary LDPC codes that optimized for 2-D-ISI channels as well as the non-binary quasi-cyclic LDPC code, at both low and high SNR regions.
Autors: Pingping Chen;Cai Kui;Lingjun Kong;Zaichun Chen;Mu Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Degeneracy and Effects of Pinning in Strongly Coupled Vortex Pairs
Abstract:
We study the effects of pinning on the quasi-static behavior of stacked, strongly coupled spin-vortex pairs in magnetic multilayered nanopillars, with vertical vortex separation small compared with the vortex-core size. The small separation causes the core–core interaction to be the dominant energy contribution for small applied fields and excitations, which results in highly non-linear dynamics. The properties of such a vortex pair are expected to only be dependent on the relative vortex core polarizations and relative chiralities, so that the individual configurations should be degenerated. We show how pinning can lift this degeneracy, which can be used to distinguish the individual chirality configurations.
Autors: Erik Holmgren;Artem Bodarenko;Björn Koop;Boris Ivanov;Vladislav Korenivski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Intrusive Energy Disaggregation Using Non-Negative Matrix Factorization With Sum-to-k Constraint
Abstract:
Energy disaggregation or non-intrusive load monitoring addresses the issue of extracting device-level energy consumption information by monitoring the aggregated signal at one single measurement point without installing meters on each individual device. Energy disaggregation can be formulated as a source separation problem, where the aggregated signal is expressed as linear combination of basis vectors in a matrix factorization framework. In this paper, an approach based on Sum-to-k constrained non-negative matrix factorization (S2K-NMF) is proposed. By imposing the sum-to-k constraint and the non-negative constraint, S2K-NMF is able to effectively extract perceptually meaningful sources from complex mixtures. The strength of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated through two sets of experiments: Energy disaggregation in a residential smart home; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning components energy monitoring in an industrial building testbed maintained at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of S2K-NMF as compared to state-of-the-art decomposition-based disaggregation algorithms.
Autors: Alireza Rahimpour;Hairong Qi;David Fugate;Teja Kuruganti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 4430 - 4441
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncontact Electrical Permittivity Mapping and pH-Sensitive Films for Osseointegrated Prosthesis and Infection Monitoring
Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to develop a noncontact, noninvasive system for detecting and monitoring subcutaneous infection occurring at the tissue and osseointegrated prosthesis interface. It is known that the local pH of tissue can change due to infection. Therefore, the sensing system integrates two parts, namely, pH-sensitive thin films that can be coated onto prosthesis surfaces prior to them being implanted and an electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) algorithm that can reconstruct the spatial permittivity distribution of a region of space in a noncontact fashion. First, a thin film pH sensor was fabricated by spray coating, and tests confirmed that the film exhibited changes in its permittivity due to pH. Second, the ECT forward and inverse problems were implemented. Third, an aluminum rod was employed as a representative phantom of an osseointegrated prosthesis and then spray coated with the pH sensor. Finally, the film-coated phantom was immersed in different pH buffers, dried, and subjected to ECT interrogation and spatial permittivity reconstruction. The results validated that ECT was able to detect and localize permittivity variations correlated to pH changes.
Autors: Sumit Gupta;Kenneth J. Loh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 36, issue:11, pages: 2193 - 2203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Frequency-Domain Analysis of the Transformation of Cortical Inputs by a Motoneuron Pool-Muscle Complex
Abstract:
Corticomotor coherence in the beta and/or gamma bands has been described in different motor tasks, but the role of descending brain oscillations on force control has been elusive. Large-scale computational models of a motoneuron pool and the muscle it innervates have been used as tools to advance the knowledge of how neural elements may influence force control. Here, we present a frequency domain analysis of a NARX model fitted to a large-scale neuromuscular model by the means of generalized frequency response functions (GFRF). The results of such procedures indicated that the computational neuromuscular model was capable of transforming an oscillatory synaptic input (e.g., at 20 Hz) into a constant mean muscle force output. The nonlinearity uncovered by the GFRFs of the NARX model was responsible for the demodulation of an oscillatory input (e.g., a beta band oscillation coming from the brain and forming the input to the motoneuron pool). This suggests a manner by which brain rhythms descending as command signals to the spinal cord and acting on a motoneuron pool can regulate a maintained muscle force. In addition to the scientific aspects of these results, they provide new interpretations that may further neural engineering applications associated with quantitative neurological diagnoses and robotic systems for artificial limbs.
Autors: Renato Naville Watanabe;André Fabio Kohn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 25, issue:11, pages: 1930 - 1939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Approach for the Reduction of Leakage Current Characteristics of 20 nm DRAM Capacitors With ZrO2–Based High-k Dielectrics
Abstract:
In order to produce a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) of 20 nm or less, the most important concern regarding development is to reduce the leakage current degradation of the capacitor using high-k dielectrics. We studied the effect of defect sources present after the formation of the capacitor and measured the leakage current characteristics of the capacitor using the dielectric breakdown degradation test, a test used in mass production. From these results, we confirmed that the leakage current degradation was completely eliminated by removing external impurities of boron and hydrogen without any change in the structure or materials of the capacitor. For further DRAM scaling, we propose a method of reducing leakage current degradation of the capacitor.
Autors: Jong-Min Lee;Dong-Sik Park;Seung-chul Yew;Soo-Ho Shin;Jun-Yong Noh;Hyoung-Sub Kim;Byoung-Deog Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 38, issue:11, pages: 1524 - 1527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Differential Dielectric Waveguide Filter Using Spatial Coupling Mechanism
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel differential dielectric waveguide (DW) filter using a spatial coupling mechanism. The DW resonator operating in TE-mode is reasonably cut and applied to the design of compact differential filter. Different from the traditional DW filter, the coupling between the DW resonators can be fulfilled by placing the cut planes of the DW resonators face-to-face in an open space. Meanwhile, the proposed differential filter can work well whether the employed DW resonators have the common ground plane or not, leading to a high flexibility. For demonstration, two kinds of differential DW filters with and without the common ground plane are designed and measured, and their simulation and measured results are presented. Both of them showcase high performance, such as low insertion loss of the differential-mode passband and good common-mode suppression.
Autors: Yan-Yuan Zhu;Jian-Xin Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 971 - 973
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Expressions and Applications for the Level Crossing Rate of Maximal Ratio Combining in the Presence of Cochannel Interferers
Abstract:
The level crossing rate (LCR) is an important second-order statistical quantity that characterizes the rate of occurrence of fading time intervals. In this paper, we investigate the LCR of multiantenna flat-fading channels in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise and cochannel interferers with unequal received powers and Doppler shifts. We first present a unified approach to derive the exact LCR of the signal-to-interference-noise ratio at a receiver, where maximum ratio combining is deployed over spatially correlated or uncorrelated systems. Through the exact LCR derivation, we identify an accurate approach to obtain a simplified approximate LCR expression in the spatially uncorrelated system case. Benefits of the LCR expressions derived in the paper are demonstrated in two important applications: 1) the packet error rate is evaluated through the finite-state Markov channel model; and 2) the optimum packet length to maximize the throughput of the system with the stop-and-wait automatic repeat request protocol is derived. The analytical results are validated by simulations.
Autors: Ahmed O. D. Ali;Cenk M. Yetis;Murat Torlak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 9793 - 9808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Heteropolar Radial Hybrid Magnetic Bearing With Low Rotor Core Loss
Abstract:
In this paper, one novel heteropolar radial hybrid magnetic bearing (HRHMB) is proposed for flywheel energy storage system. First, its structure and working principle are introduced in detail. Then, its fundamental equations are derived based on magnetic circuit model, such as displacement stiffness, current stiffness, and load capacity. Furthermore, its suspension performance and magnetic coupling are analyzed based on the 2-D finite-element analysis. Finally, the comparison of main performance indexes between the proposed HRHMB and conventional one under the same constraints is made. It indicates that the displacement stiffness can be reduced by the novel structure. In addition, the rotor core loss of the novel HRHMB is just 22.53 W, which is only 41.6% of the conventional eight-pole HRHMB with the same load capacity.
Autors: Runze Zhu;Wei Xu;Caiyong Ye;Jianguo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Hybrid-Flux-Path Moving-Iron Linear Oscillatory Machine With Magnets on Stator
Abstract:
While having various desired merits of high structural robustness and thus reliability, high thrust density, low fabrication cost, and so on, the stator-magnet moving-iron transverse-flux linear oscillatory machine suffers from high consumption of rare-earth magnetic material (high material cost) and heavy flux leakage at the stator outer region (underutilization of permanent magnets). To mitigate the demerits, a novel stator-magnet moving-iron transversal-flux hybrid-flux-path linear oscillatory machine (SMTHLOM), with additional back iron and auxiliary radially magnetized ferrite magnets, is proposed in this paper. The topology and operational principle of the proposed SMTHLOM are explained in detail. The 3-D finite-element analysis is introduced to investigate the sensitivities of main structural parameters, which enables the selection of optimal dimensions. Based on a set of comparison rules, a comprehensive comparison was conducted between these two topologies on various key indicators, such as the back electromotive force, thrust, and thermal distribution. The simulation results show that the SMTHLOM is low cost and small stator outer flux leakage, and thus is more suitable for some applications, e.g., fridge compressors, requiring low cost and high thrust density.
Autors: Xiang Li;Wei Xu;Caiyong Ye;Jianguo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Operation of a Multi-Bit SOT Memory Cell Addressed With a Single Write Line
Abstract:
Spin–orbit torque (SOT) originates from the spin–orbit interaction of non-magnetic heavy metals (HMs), allowing for an electrical manipulation of perpendicular magnetization in HM/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide structures. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the SOT-induced switching of two FM bits addressed with a single write line. We fabricate a device consisting of two perpendicularly magnetized Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with a common Ta underlayer, in which the magnetization directions of the two FM bits could be concurrently controlled by injecting a single current pulse. This suggests that multiple bits in SOT-based devices can be written as either “0” or “1” at the same time. Moreover, the selective switching of a specific bit is achieved by differentiating the critical switching currents between the two FM bits, which is crucial in demonstrating multi-level cell SOT memory. Our results provide an efficient writing mechanism, enabling wider applications of SOT-based spintronic devices.
Autors: Seung-heon Chris Baek;Young-Wan Oh;Byong-Guk Park;Mincheol Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 53, issue:11, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Pixel Circuit Using Coupling Method to Achieve High Driving Voltage for Blue-Phase LCDs
Abstract:
This paper presents a new pixel circuit that uses amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) for use in in-plane switching blue-phase liquid-crystal displays (IPS BPLCDs). The proposed pixel circuit has a simple structure that involves only three TFTs and two capacitors. To drive the high transmittance of the BPLCs, the coupling mode with a two-voltage-level signal is designed to produce a higher operating voltage. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed pixel circuit, the electrical characteristics of a fabricated a-IGZO TFT are measured and used to construct the RPI simulation model in HSPICE. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum operating voltage is 29.884 V with an input data voltage of 15 V, so the required voltage of high transmittance of BPLCs is achieved.
Autors: Chih-Lung Lin;Po-Cheng Lai;Mao-Hsun Cheng;Po-Chun Lai;Chia-Lun Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 64, issue:11, pages: 4768 - 4771
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Relay Selection Strategies for Cooperative NOMA
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) relaying networks, where one base station communicates with two mobile users with the aid of multiple relays. We propose a two-stage relay selection strategy for NOMA networks with decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying protocols with different quality of service requirements at the users, respectively. Then, the outage probabilities of the NOMA two-stage DF and AF schemes are obtained in closed-form expressions, and the diversity order is determined based on their asymptotic expressions at high signal-to-noise ratio. Both of the developed analytical results and carried out computer simulations show that NOMA two-stage DF (AF) relaying is superior to existing relay selection strategies developed for cooperative NOMA and orthogonal multiple access networks.
Autors: Zheng Yang;Zhiguo Ding;Yi Wu;Pingzhi Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 66, issue:11, pages: 10114 - 10123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Superjunction LDMOS (>950 V) With a Thin Layer SOI
Abstract:
A novel superjunction (SJ) lateral double-diffused MOSFET (>950 V) with a thin layer SOI combining the advantage of low specific on-resistance of the SJ and the high breakdown voltage of the thin SOI is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this letter. Based on our previously developed equivalent substrate model, the optimized SJ endows the device with a respectably reduced without sacrificing . Meanwhile, the thin layer SOI is designed with the enhanced dielectric layer field principle to carry out a high . The experimental results exhibit a of 145 cm2 with a of 977 V. This represents a reduction in by 18.1% when compared with the theoretical “silicon limit”.
Autors: Wentong Zhang;Zhenya Zhan;Yang Yu;Shikang Cheng;Yan Gu;Sen Zhang;Xiaorong Luo;Zehong Li;Ming Qiao;Zhaoji Li;Bo Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 38, issue:11, pages: 1555 - 1558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Tunable Ultrashort Pulse Generator With High Amplitude and Low Ringing Level
Abstract:
A new design of the ultrashort pulse generator based on a step recovery diode (SRD) is presented in this letter. The design schematic features allow us to increase the pulse amplitude, decrease the ringing level, and realize pulse duration tuning. The signal amplitude increase results from the use of an additional inductive energy storage, which accumulates energy of the magnetic field during both charge storing and extraction phases of the generator duty cycle. The ringing level is reduced by including the ringing reduction subcircuit in the design. This subcircuit consists of the Schottky diode to block the negative half-waves of ringing oscillation and the resistor to force oscillation fading. The electronic tuning of the pulse duration is based on the relation between the SRD recovery time and the forward current. In the experiments ultrashort pulses with the duration in a range from 350 ps to 1.5 ns and the 40-V amplitude were obtained for a 50- load by varying the diode forward current. The output signal has a good symmetry shape, which is shown both in simulation and experimentally. The measured ringing level was −20.5 dB.
Autors: A. M. Bobreshov;A. S. Zhabin;V. A. Stepkin;G. K. Uskov;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 27, issue:11, pages: 1013 - 1015
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Wire-Grid Nano-Antenna Array With Circularly Polarized Radiation for Wireless Optical Communication Systems
Abstract:
A new circularly polarized wire-grid nano-antenna array designed for optical telecommunication applications is proposed in this paper. The array consists of two groups of radiators, which are orthogonal to each other. Each group consists of six aligned radiators connected via nonradiating connectors. A 90° phase shift is achieved by inserting a gap between the feeding coupling rods and the inner radiators of one of the two antenna groups. The antenna is characterized by its high directivity (10.8 dBi) and a wide axial ratio bandwidth, which covers the range from 188.2 to 197.8 THz. The radiation efficiency of the antenna is 82.75% at 193.55 THz with very small variations along its operating bandwidth. Such good radiation characteristics are very attractive for optical communication applications.
Autors: Mai O. Sallam;Guy A. E. Vandenbosch;Georges G. E. Gielen;Ezzeldin A. Soliman;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Nov 2017, volume: 35, issue:21, pages: 4700 - 4706
Publisher: IEEE
 

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