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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 11-2013 sorted by title, page: 0
» "I Saw Three Ships?" [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Autors: Wood, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 14, issue:7, pages: 6 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1024-QAM High Image Rejection -Band Sub-Harmonic IQ Modulator and Transmitter in 65-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
Pub DtlAn -band high image-rejection sub-harmonic in-phase/quadrature (IQ) modulator for a high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal is designed and implemented on standard 65-nm CMOS technology. To maintain high image-rejection ratio of the IQ modulator over a wide bandwidth for high data-rate application, a load-insensitive analysis and a local oscillator (LO) broadband 45 power splitter are proposed to achieve low amplitude and phase imbalanced structure. In addition, the doubly balanced sub-harmonic Gilbert-cell mixer with the advantages of good LO leakage suppression has been selected in the mixer design. The IQ modulator demonstrates a measured flat conversion gain of 0 1 dB from 55 to 85 GHz. The image rejection ratio is better than 40 dBc from 64 to 84 GHz. For millimeter-wave communication applications, the IQ modulator is integrated with a four-stage power amplifier to form a direct-conversion transmitter. The measured conversion gain of the transmitter is 33 dB and the measured saturated power is 11 dBm. Via high image rejection and good LO suppression of the modulator, a 1024-QAM modulated signal with a data rate of 500 Mb/s and 1.7% error vector magnitude is successfully demonstrated at 65 GHz.
Autors: Lin, W.-H.;Yang, H.-Y.;Tsai, J.-H.;Huang, T.-W.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 3974 - 3985
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 180-nm CMOS Wideband Capacitor-Free Inductively Coupled Power Receiver and Charger
Abstract:
Wireless microsystems like biomedical implants and embedded sensors derive energy from tiny in-package sources that, unfortunately, exhaust easily, which means that operational life is short. Periodically coupling power wirelessly is one way of replenishing onboard batteries, except that small receiver coils suffer from low coupling factors and induce low electromotive-force voltages. Today, receivers store and resonate incoming energy between the receiving coil and an off-chip capacitor until the voltage rises sufficiently high for a diode-bridge rectifier to steer power into a battery. The capacitor, however, requires board space and constrains the source to a particular frequency. The 180-nm CMOS power receiver presented in this paper removes the diode bridge, which establishes a minimum voltage below which the system cannot derive power, so that neither tuning nor a resonating capacitor is necessary. Experimental measurements show that the system draws power from 30-mV signals when is 0.0046 and coil separation is 11.35 mm, and this threshold voltage only changes 13.6 mV across 100–150 kHz, which is a 27.1% lower threshold voltage that is 36 less sensitive than its resonating counterpart. The peak efficiency of the receiver when rectifying to 1.2 V is 82% at 224 and 125 kHz and average efficiency is 76% for 90–386-mV coil voltages.
Autors: Lazaro, O.;Rincon-Mora, G.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2839 - 2849
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 24 GHz Single-Balanced Diode Mixer Exploiting Cellulose-Based Materials
Abstract:
A 24 GHz single-balanced diode mixer in paper substrate is presented. The microstrip 180 degrees hybrid junction (rat-race) is fabricated exploiting a copper adhesive tape that is shaped by a photo-lithographic process and transferred to the hosting (paper) substrate using a sacrificial layer. Only three discrete devices are necessary for the mixer operation, namely: two low-barrier, Schottky diodes and a 0 resistor, used as a jumper. The measurements show a conversion loss of about 10 dB at 24 GHz with a 50 MHz IF signal. At the same frequency the isolation between LO and RF ports is better than 35 dB. The record performance achieved demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of K-band mixers exploiting cellulose-based materials.
Autors: Alimenti, F.;Mezzanotte, P.;Giacomucci, S.;Dionigi, M.;Mariotti, C.;Virili, M.;Roselli, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 596 - 598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-dB Power Dividers With Equal Complex Termination Impedances and Design Methods for Controlling Isolation Circuits
Abstract:
Pub DtlA 3-dB power divider (PD) terminated in equal complex impedances is presented. It consists of two identical 90 transmission-line sections and an isolation circuit, being composed of resistance and capacitance, or resistance and inductance, depending on the termination impedances. If the termination impedance has capacitance, the isolation impedance should consist of inductance, and therefore, the isolation circuit should be implemented with a chip inductor. However, the chip inductor contains additional stray capacitance and resistance, which lead to undesired frequency performance. To avoid the usage of the chip inductors, even with arbitrary termination impedances, three design methods by adding transmission-line sections, adding open stubs, and adding short stubs are introduced. The PDs designed by the three methods can have not only desired isolation impedances, but also the total size of the PDs can be reduced. To verify the suggested theory, three PDs are measured. For one PD with adding transmission-line sections, the measured reflection coefficients at all ports are 43.29, 41.55, and 51.69 dB, the isolation is 56.7 dB, and the power division is 3.042 dB at a design center frequency of 1 GHz, which agree quite well with those predicted.
Autors: Ahn, H.-R.;Nam, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 3872 - 3883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 & 16 Years Ago
Abstract:
A summary of articles published in Computer 32 and 16 years ago.
Autors: Holmes, Neville;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 46, issue:11, pages: 14 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-Phase Interleaved Boost Converter With IC Controller for Distributed Photovoltaic Systems
Abstract:
We present a DC-DC converter for photovoltaic (PV) applications that is suitable for distributed power conversion obtained by transferring part of the electronics from the inverter to the module. The proposed circuit implements a high-efficiency four-phase interleaved boost converter employing relatively low-valued inductive and capacitive components. Its compact realization is made possible thanks to the innovative design of a dedicated integrated circuit (IC) embedding the power MOS switches and performing the converter control section as well as the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The solution is designed for a maximum delivered power of 300 W and to work with an MPPT voltage between 9 V and 36 V, with maximum allowed panel current of 9 A. The area of the complete printed-circuit board is 4 cm 7 cm. Experimental measurements show that the average power conversion efficiency is between 93% and 99% and that the MPPT efficiency is always greater than 99.7%.
Autors: Pulvirenti, F.;La Scala, A.;Ragonese, D.;D'Souza, K.;Tina, G.M.;Pennisi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 3090 - 3102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40Gb/s & 100Gb/s ethernet long-reach host board channel design
Abstract:
The intended objective of this article is to provide designers with the basic knowledge to implement an Ethernet long-reach 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s host board. Ethernet was originated in the early 70s and has successfully displaced other popular communication standards, such as Token- Ring, becoming the default standard for local area networks in the enterprise office and datacenter equipment. Its success has roots on its basic open architecture and asynchronous protocol. During the lifetime of the Ethernet, the data rates have dramatically increased from its original 10 Mb/s to 100 Gb/s at the present time and the standard body is in the process of generating the next higher speed project most likely to be 400 Gb/s. In 2010 the IEEE802.3 body published the Ethernet 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s standard targeting the support of the next generation of communication equipment and components. The IEEE802.3ba?????????- 2010 Ethernet standard was a quantum leap to penetrate Communication Metropolitan applications, a.k.a. Wide Area Network (WAN), which were clearly dominated by the SONET/SDH protocol. This article is a continuation to the article published in the IEEE Communication Magazine in its April 2012 edition ?????????40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet Short-Reach Optical and Copper Host Board Channel Design?????????[1], which presented the challenges of designing 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet host board electrical and optical channels targeted for Enterprise/Datacenter applications. The article reviews the long-reach for 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet and the extendedreach Ethernet for 100 Gb/s host board channel electrical and optical specifications for Metropolitan/ Carrier applications. The long- and extendedreach links are intended for communication carrier equipment in inter- and intra-city infrastructures. The host board channel comprises the electrical (host board and connector) and the optical (module) sections. This article will analyze both sections and highlight the sa- ient specifications that the designer of 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet switches and ports needs to know to comply with the standard.
Autors: Rabinovich, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 51, issue:11, pages: 152 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz Spatial Radio Transmission: Multiplexing or Beamforming?
Abstract:
This paper compares the capacity improvement capability of spatial multiplexing and beamforming techniques for 60 GHz spatial transmissions in a multi-carrier radio system such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. The term beamforming in this paper refers to the conventional gain focusing, for the strongest propagation path, by narrow antenna beams. Our channel capacity metric depends only on the multipath richness of the propagation channel and the antenna aperture size, but is otherwise independent of the realization of antenna elements on the aperture. Our analysis also reveals the spatial degrees-of-freedom (SDoF) of the radio channel, which is the maximum number of antenna elements on the aperture for efficient spatial multiplexing. We evaluate the capacity and SDoF of single-polarized 60 GHz radio channels measured in an office environment. Our results show that the radio channel offers multiple SDoFs both in line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) scenarios such that spatial multiplexing can improve the channel capacity, provided that the receive signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is sufficiently high to utilize them. Under 10 dBm of the transmit power, the high receive SNR is guaranteed when the antenna aperture size is larger than in LOS and in NLOS scenarios, respectively.
Autors: Haneda, K.;Gustafson, C.;Wyne, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5735 - 5743
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 600-V Normally Off /AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT With Large Gate Swing and Low Current Collapse
Abstract:
In this letter, 600-V normally-OFF /AlGaN/GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) is reported. Normally-OFF operation and low OFF-state gate leakage are obtained by using fluorine plasma ion implantation in conjunction with the adoption of a 17-nm thin film grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition as the gate insulator. The normally-OFF MIS-HEMT exhibits a threshold voltage of , a drive current of 430 mA/mm at a gate bias of 14 V, a specific ON-resistance of 2.1 and an OFF-state breakdown voltage of 604 V at a drain leakage current of 1 with , and the substrate grounded. Effective current collapse suppression is obtained by AlN/ passivation as proved by high-speed pulsed and low-speed high-voltage switching measurement results.
Autors: Tang, Z.;Jiang, Q.;Lu, Y.;Huang, S.;Yang, S.;Tang, X.;Chen, K.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 34, issue:11, pages: 1373 - 1375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -band High-PAE Wide-Tuning-Range VCO Using Triple-Coupled Tanks
Abstract:
This brief presents a fully differential -band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using commercial 0.18- SiGe BiCMOS process. By using triple-coupled tanks with strong coupling and varactor-controlled capacitor bank, the proposed VCO simultaneously achieves a wide tuning range, low phase noise, high output RF power, and high power-added efficiency (PAE). The implemented VCO demonstrates an oscillation frequency range from 22.50 to 26.23 GHz, a frequency tuning range of 15.3%, a phase noise of 107.7 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset, an output power of 3.1 dBm, PAE of 5.97%, and a figure of merit of -186.9 dBc/Hz with a dc power of 8.2 mW.
Autors: Mahalingam, N.;Ma, K.;Yeo, K.S.;Lim, W.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 736 - 740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.1–1.5 GHz 8-bit Inverter-Based Digital-to-Phase Converter Using Harmonic Rejection
Abstract:
This paper presents a digital-to-phase converter (DPC) with 8-bits of resolution and a wide frequency range for the input/output clocks. A harmonic rejection (HR) filter is introduced to improve linearity across a frequency range of 0.1–1.5 GHz. Instead of using time-domain averaging of phase interpolators (PI) in a conventional DPC, the frequency-domain filter directly cancels the 3rd- and 5th-order harmonics of the phase interpolated signal. The architecture is designed using an inverter-based PI circuit structure to improve power consumption and area. The inverter nonlinearity is improved using resistive averaging. The residual INL and DNL are further reduced by nonlinear weighting of the interpolation. Designed and fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology, the DPC demonstrates a maximum INL and DNL of 1.33 and 0.52 LSB while consumes a power of 4.3 mW and occupies 0.06 mm² area.
Autors: Chen, M.-S.;Hafez, A.A.;Yang, C.-K.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2681 - 2692
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.45-V MOSFETs-Based Temperature Sensor Front-End in 90 nm CMOS With a Noncalibrated Relative Inaccuracy From to 105
Abstract:
This brief presents a low-voltage subthreshold MOSFETs-based scattered relative temperature sensor that uses a simple regulated current mirror structure. NMOSFETs in the subthreshold region instead of bipolar junction transistors are used as sensing devices for low voltage purpose. Dynamic element matching is implemented to minimize the errors induced by device mismatches. The 3 3 sensor nodes with small size are remotely distributed across the chip, whereas the other parts are centralized and shared. Experimental results show that the minimum analog supply voltage can be 0.45 V from to in a 90-nm process implementation. The measured relative inaccuracy was less than without any calibration. Furthermore, the multilocation thermal monitoring function has been experimentally demonstrated, and a 2.2 on-chip temperature gradient was detected. Compared with our previous design, superior line sensitivity and comparable relative accuracy are realized with simpler circuit implementation.
Autors: Lu, L.;Block, S.T.;Duarte, D.E.;Li, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 771 - 775
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5-V 5.2-fJ/Conversion-Step Full Asynchronous SAR ADC With Leakage Power Reduction Down to 650 pW by Boosted Self-Power Gating in 40-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents an ultralow-power and ultralow-voltage SAR ADC. Full asynchronous operation and boosted self-power gating are proposed to improve conversion accuracy and reduce static leakage power. By designing with MOSFET of high threshold voltage and low threshold voltage , the leakage power is reduced without decrease of maximum sampling frequency. The test chip in 40-nm CMOS process has successfully reduced leakage power by 98%, and it achieves 8.2-bit ENOB and while consuming only 650 pW at 0.1 kS/s from 0.5-V power supply. The power consumption is scalable up to 4 MS/s and power supply range from 0.4 to 0.7 V. The best figure of merit at 0.5 V is 5.2 fJ/conversion-step at 20 kS/s.
Autors: Sekimoto, R.;Shikata, A.;Yoshioka, K.;Kuroda, T.;Ishikuro, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2628 - 2636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1- to 10-GHz RF and Wideband IF Cross-Coupled Gilbert Mixer in 0.13- CMOS
Abstract:
A modified Gilbert-cell mixer exhibiting both wideband radio-frequency (RF) and wideband IF performance is presented. With the proposed common-gate RF stage with the cross-coupled complementary transistors, a measured conversion gain of 3–8 dB over an RF band of 1–10 GHz is demonstrated, together with an RF input return loss better than 10 dB. The proposed mixer also incorporates wideband active local oscillator (LO) and IF baluns for matching and testing purposes. An IF bandwidth from 100 MHz to 1 GHz is achieved with a conversion gain variation of less than 2 dB. The measured output return loss within the IF band is better than 10 dB. Fabricated in a standard 0.13- CMOS technology, the chip only draws 7 mA from a 1.2-V supply due to the current reuse in the proposed RF stage. The measured input referred 1-dB compression point , third-order input intercept point , and single-sideband noise figure are better than 16 dBm, 7 dBm, and 15 dB throughout the entire RF band.
Autors: Zijie, H.;Mouthaan, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 726 - 730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.6–9.7 GHz CMOS LNA Linearized by Post Distortion Technique
Abstract:
A linearized ultra-wideband (UWB) CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) is proposed. The linearity is improved by a post distortion technique, employing PMOS as an auxiliary FET to cancel the second- and the third-order nonlinear currents of common-gate LNA. A three-section band-pass Chebyshev filter is presented for wideband input matching. The LNA implemented in a 0.18 CMOS technology demonstrates that IIP3 and IIP2 have about 9 and 6.9 dB improvements in broad frequency range, respectively. Power gain of 9.6–12.6 dB and noise figure (NF) of 3.9–5.8 dB are obtained in the frequency range of 1.6–9.7 GHz with a power dissipation of 10.6 mW under a 1.8 V power supply.
Autors: Guo, B.;Li, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 608 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-Bit 200 MS/s Capacitor-Sharing Pipeline ADC
Abstract:
A 10-bit 200 MS/s pipeline ADC using the capacitor-sharing concept is presented. A charge-neutralization technique is proposed between the 1st and 2nd MDACs to mitigate the memory effect. To further enhance power efficiency, a reference precharge technique is proposed between the 2nd and 3rd MDACs. The prototype ADC in 90-nm low-power CMOS process exhibits an INL of LSB and a DNL of LSB. Its ENOB is 8.53 bits at input frequency of 2 MHz and 8.05 bits at Nyquist input frequency with the conversion rate of 200 MS/s. It consumes 45.4 mW at 1.2 V supply and occupies an active chip area of 0.53 mm .
Autors: Tseng, C.-J.;Hsieh, Y.-C.;Yang, C.-H.;Chen, H.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2902 - 2910
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-Gb/s Adaptive Parallel Receiver With Joint XTC and DFE Using Power Detection
Abstract:
A 10-Gb/s adaptive parallel receiver with joint crosstalk canceller (XTC) and decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) is presented. A differentiator-based XTC and a one-tap DFE are adapted to cancel far-end crosstalk (FEXT) and inter-symbol interference (ISI), respectively. When the lengths of the coupled microstrip lines change, an FEXT detector measures and compares the powers of FEXT and XTC to digitally update the XTC coefficient. Then, an ISI detector measures and compares the powers of the received data and recovered data to digitally update the DFE coefficient. This adaptive parallel receiver was fabricated in a 40-nm CMOS technology. The maximum power consumption is 17.55 mW from a 1.3-V supply, and the core area occupies 0.0352 . For a 10-Gb/s PRBS of passing through 15-in FR4 printed-circuit-board traces with 8-mil spacing, the measured rms and peak-to-peak jitter of recovered data are 5.56 and 30.2 ps, respectively. The measured bit error rate is less than . The measured total calibration time is 2.424 .
Autors: Kao, S.-Y.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2815 - 2826
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2–8 GHz Wideband Dually Frequency-Tuned Ring-VCO With a Scalable
Abstract:
A 2–8 GHZ wideband dual-tuned ring voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) has been designed and fabricated in TSMC 65nm CMOS process. Using a 6-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) that provided the , the entire frequency range was evenly divided into 64 sub-bands. Next, the oscillation frequency was finely tuned by to control the strength of the latches in the delay cell of the VCO. In addition, 4-bit latch bank was used in each delay cell to ensure that the was scalable. The active silicon area was and the power consumption was 1.7 and 6.8 mW at 2 and 8 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Yoo, S.;Kim, J.J.;Choi, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 602 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.3-mW, 5-Gb/s Low-Power Decision-Feedback Equalizer Receiver Front-End and its Two-Step, Minimum Bit-Error-Rate Adaptation Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power decision-feedback equalizer (DFE) receiver front-end and a two-step minimum bit-error-rate (BER) adaptation algorithm. A high energy efficiency of 0.46 mW/Gbps is made possible by the combination of a direct-feedback finite-impulse-response (FIR) DFE, an infinite-impulse-response (IIR) DFE, and a clock-and-data recovery (CDR) circuit with adjustable timing offsets. Based on this architecture, the power-hungry stages used in prior DFE receivers such as the continuous-time linear equalizer (CTLE), the current-mode summing circuit for a multitap DFE, and the fast selection logic for a loop-unrolling DFE can all be removed. A two-step adaptation algorithm that finds the equalizer coefficients minimizing the BER is described. First, an extra data sampler with adjustable voltage and timing offsets measures the single-bit response (SBR) of the channel and coarsely tunes the initial coefficient values in the foreground. Next, the same circuit measures the eye-opening and bit-error rates and fine tunes the coefficients in background using a stochastic hill-climbing algorithm. A prototype DFE receiver fabricated in a 65-nm LP/RF CMOS dissipates 2.3 mW and demonstrates measured eye-opening values of 174 and 0.66 while operating at 5 Gb/s with a loss channel.
Autors: Son, S.;Kim, H.-S.;Park, M.-J.;Kim, K.;Chen, E.-H.;Leibowitz, B.;Kim, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2693 - 2704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 250-MHz 18-Mb Full Ternary CAM With Low-Voltage Matchline Sensing Scheme in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
An 18-Mb full ternary CAM with low-voltage matchline sensing scheme (LVMLSS) is designed and fabricated in 65-nm bulk CMOS process. LVMLSS has three key techniques: voltage down converter, differential sense amplifier with matchline isolation, and reference voltage generation scheme. With these techniques, LVMLSS can reduce the dynamic power consumption of matchlines to 33% compared with conventional one and realizes 42% fast match-line sensing. At 1.0-V typical supply voltage, 250-MHz search frequency is achieved. The power consumption of fully paralleled search operation at 250 MHz is 9.3 W, which is 66% smaller than previous work. This work has realized high-speed, low-power, and robust large-scale TCAM. We believe that this work will greatly contribute to reducing the power of network systems.
Autors: Hayashi, I.;Amano, T.;Watanabe, N.;Yano, Y.;Kuroda, Y.;Shirata, M.;Dosaka, K.;Nii, K.;Noda, H.;Kawai, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2671 - 2680
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 300 GHz Divide-by-2 ILFD Using Frequency Boosting Technique
Abstract:
A 300 GHz divide-by-2 ILFD is fabricated in 40 nm CMOS technology. This ILFD adopts -type LC networks with a negative coupling technique to enhance the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency and the locking range of the proposed ILFD are analyzed. The measured locking range is 297.08–306.64 GHz. The ILFD consumes 9.18 mW under a standard supply of 0.9 V excluding output buffers.
Autors: Feng, P.-H.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 599 - 601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40 nm 535 Mbps Multiple Code-Rate Turbo Decoder Chip Using Reciprocal Dual Trellis
Abstract:
This paper presents a multiple code-rate turbo decoder using the reciprocal dual trellis to improve the hardware efficiency. For a convolutional code with code rate , its corresponding reciprocal dual code with rate has smaller codeword space than the original code while , leading to a simplified trellis of the high code-rate code. The proposed decoder architecture can decode code rate constituent convolutional codes for , 2, 4, 8, and 16. Moreover, two parallel soft-in/soft-out (SISO) decoders are exploited in our turbo decoder by using the quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) interleaver to improve the decoding speed. After fabricated in 1P9M CMOS 40 nm process, the proposed decoder with 1.27 mm core area can achieve 535 Mbps throughput at 8/9 code rate, and the energy efficiency is 0.068 nJ/bit/iteration at 0.9 V.
Autors: Lin, C.-Y.;Wong, C.-C.;Chang, H.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2662 - 2670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40-MHz-to-1-GHz Fully Integrated Multistandard Silicon Tuner in 80-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A fully integrated, multistandard silicon tuner for the 42–1002-MHz band is presented. The tuner utilizes a single RF port for the whole band and requires a minimal number of external components. It achieves a NF of 2.7 to 4 dB and maximum gain IIP2/IIP3 of +20/–13 dBm, respectively. It combines a tunable RF filter and a harmonic rejection mixer to reject all harmonic channels by more than 65 dB. A filtering continuous time ΣΔ ADC minimizes baseband processing while supporting the ATSC blocking profile. Continuous background digital calibration allows more than 65 dB of image rejection. Various calibration methods are used to guarantee performance over PVT. The tuner consumes less than 450 mW from 1.8/1.0-V analog/digital supplies and occupies an area of 2×2.8 mm².
Autors: Greenberg, J.;De Bernardinis, F.;Tinella, C.;Milani, A.;Pan, J.;Uggetti, P.;Sosio, M.;Dai, S.;Tang, S.E.-S.;Cesura, G.;Gandolfi, G.;Colonna, V.;Castello, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2746 - 2761
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 57 mW 12.5 µJ/Epoch Embedded Mixed-Mode Neuro-Fuzzy Processor for Mobile Real-Time Object Recognition
Abstract:
A digital/analog mixed-mode processor is proposed to realize low-power and real-time neuro-fuzzy system for mobile object recognition. It integrates 1024 highly-parallel analog processing element for high dimensional inference operation, and accurate and fast digital accelerator for cascaded learning operation of neuro-fuzzy network. A neuro-fuzzy controller is proposed to manage the mixed-mode operations as a host processor while reducing extra processing delay and power consumption on inter-domain communications. To solve the conventional problems of a large dimensional mixed-mode VLSI system such as throughput degradation due to long channel delay, limited functionality of fixed analog circuits, and mismatches from process variation, the proposed processor adopts 2-stage asynchronous mixed-mode pipeline, flexible channel configuration of each domain, and learning-based calibration technologies respectively. As a result, the processor only consumes 57 mW on average and obtains 12.5 µJ/epoch energy efficiency for on-line learning mixed-mode neuro-fuzzy system with 50 fuzzy rules.
Autors: Oh, J.;Kim, G.;Nam, B.-G.;Yoo, H.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2894 - 2907
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 58.9-dB ACR, 85.5-dB SBA, 5–26-MHz Configurable-Bandwidth, Charge-Domain Filter in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A configurable-bandwidth charge-domain filter (CDF) with bandwidth calibration and clock-pulse modulation (CPM) is proposed. The bandwidth calibration scheme controls the insertion loss at a pre-specified frequency by modulating the feedback gain and delay; this helps the CDF to suppress the sinc distortion and thus achieve near-ideal brick-wall filtering. For multi-frequency compensation, a multi-stage CDF architecture is utilized to organize the feedback delay. Together with non-decimation filtering, the noise folding effect as well as the chip area can be reduced. On the other hand, to provide a stable gain under variable channel bandwidth, a CPM scheme is proposed; it adjusts the clock period with a fixed pulse width by zero-insertion. Implemented in a 65-nm CMOS technology, the proposed CDF achieves 58.9-dB adjacent-channel rejection (ACR), 85.5-dB stop-band attenuation (SBA), 41-dB conversion gain, and 19.5-MHz channel bandwidth at 320-MS/s input-sampling rate. Furthermore, for input-sampling rates range from 300 to 480 MS/s, the channel bandwidth can be configured from 5 to 26 MHz. At 1.2-V supply, the chip consumes 8.4-mW power and occupies 0.52-mm² area.
Autors: Huang, M.-F.;Kuo, M.-C.;Yang, T.-Y.;Huang, X.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2827 - 2838
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 600 GHz Asymmetrical Orthogonal Mode Transducer
Abstract:
Development of dual-polarization sensitive receivers offers significant advantages for future terahertz radiometers. The key to any such system is the orthogonal mode transducer (OMT) which separates two superimposed modes into two single-mode waveguides. This letter presents the design, fabrication and measurement of a split-block asymmetrical OMT operating from 500 to 600 GHz.
Autors: Reck, T.J.;Chattopadhyay, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 569 - 571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 64-fJ/Conv.-Step Continuous-Time Modulator in 40-nm CMOS Using Asynchronous SAR Quantizer and Digital Truncator
Abstract:
A third-order single-loop continuous-time sigma-delta modulator (CTSDM) with 6-bit asynchronous successive approximation register (ASAR) quantizer and digital truncator for WCDMA/GSM/EDGE cellular systems is presented. The proposed ASAR-based quantizer reduces the area and power of the modulator dramatically by utilizing the digital truncation technique. By using the 6-bit ASAR quantizer, the sampling frequency is lowered, which reduces the design efforts not only in system level but also in the modulator. In addition, the ac-coupled push–pull stage is employed to improve the high-frequency driving capability of the first integrator. Sampling at 65 MHz, the modulator achieves 83.4 dB dynamic range (DR) and 80/79.6 dB peak SNR/SNDR with 1.92 MHz bandwidth in WCDMA mode. In GSM/EDGE mode, the DR is 96.2 dB. Fabricated in 40-nm CMOS, the modulator occupies 0.051 mm and consumes 1.91 mW from a 1.2-V supply. A 64fJ/conv.-step figure of merit is achieved.
Autors: Tsai, H.-C.;Lo, C.-L.;Ho, C.-Y.;Lin, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2637 - 2648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Background Self-Learning Framework for Unstructured Target Detectors
Abstract:
Unstructured background model based detectors have been successfully applied in various hyperspectral target detection applications. The background statistics of an image can be estimated in a global way or a local way. The global approach involves modeling the background directly from the whole image, which can prove to be inaccurate due to target contamination of the background information. The local approach usually involves estimating the background statistics using a spatially sliding local window. However, this approach can also fail to reflect reality, due to sensitive parameters, like the window size, and presents high computational costs. This letter proposes a self-learning method to adaptively determine the background statistics for unstructured detectors, with the consideration of exploiting both the spatial and spectral information, and accelerating the computation speed. The experimental results with two real hyperspectral images confirm the superior performance when compared to the other two approaches to modeling background statistics.
Autors: Wang, T.;Du, B.;Zhang, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 10, issue:6, pages: 1577 - 1581
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Battery Management System Using an Active Charge Equalization Technique Based on a DC/DC Converter Topology
Abstract:
An active charge equalization technique based on a dc/dc converter topology is proposed in this paper. The technique achieves cell balancing of batteries in a stack in terms of both voltage and charge as the pack is being charged/discharged and in idle periods to maximize the energy and reliability of stack operation. A set of MOSFET switches controlled by a voltage monitoring circuit ensures that each battery module has the same output voltage by transferring charge from an individual battery module with the highest voltage to a weak module. An overvoltage and overdischarge protection circuit is presented to reduce the degradation of battery life and to operate each battery within the voltage limits.
Autors: Yarlagadda, S.;Hartley, T.T.;Husain, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 49, issue:6, pages: 2720 - 2729
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Binary Space-Time Code for Additional Diversity Gains
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a bit-interleaved binary space-time code (B-STC) for a coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system to obtain an additional diversity gain over the full-rate spatial multiplexing (SM) transmission. By applying the B-STC scheme, codeword bits from each stream are transmitted effectively through N_t or (N_t - 1) layers in N_r x N_t MIMO systems. At the receiver, the iterative decoding is performed. The extrinsic information provided by the soft-in/soft-out (SISO) decoder is applied as an improved priori information after the B-STC decoding at the next iteration. Since a priori information can be extracted from multiple layers independently by the B-STC scheme, codeword bits have an improved diversity gain of (N_t - 1). In order to verify the proposed scheme, we derive the asymptotic bit error probability, which can be achieved after convergence of the iterative decoder. Because the proposed B-STC scheme is a binary code for coded MIMO systems, different types of channel codes and various space-time codes can be also concatenated.
Autors: Song, Bongseop;Park, Hyuncheol;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 12, issue:11, pages: 5780 - 5787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Stacked Power Amplifier in 45-nm CMOS SOI Technology
Abstract:
A fully integrated broadband power amplifier (PA) is implemented in a standard 45-nm CMOS SOI technology. The PA is designed using a dynamically biased stacked SOI transistor approach, which constructively adds drain–source voltage signals of individual transistors while keeping their gate voltages within source and drain voltage limits. The design overcomes both low gate-oxide breakdown and low source-drain reachthrough voltages of nanoscale CMOS transistors. The number, size, and topology of transistors in the stack are optimized to deliver a relatively high linear output power over a wide range of frequencies. The amplifier under a supply voltage of 4.5 V measures a flat gain of 6 dB with 1-dB bandwidth of 6 to 26.5 GHz ( -band to -band). At 18 GHz, the PA under a supply voltage of 7.2 V measures a saturated output power of 26.1 dBm ( 400 mW), a linear output power of 22.5 dBm, and a peak power-added efficiency (PAE) of 11%. With a lower power supply voltage of 4.5 V, the PAE increases to more than 20% and stays above 17% with relatively constant and for several measured frequencies in the range of 6 to 20 GHz. The PA occupies an active chip area of only 0.16 .
Autors: Chen, J.-H.;Helmi, S.R.;Azadegan, R.;Aryanfar, F.;Mohammadi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2775 - 2784
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband-Matched Load Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
In this paper, a broadband-matched load using the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is proposed. The MWCNT-matched load could be used to match the microstrip line impedance over a broad frequency range. The measured reflection coefficient of the MWCNT-matched load is smaller than −20 dB from 3.14 to 14.82 GHz, while the corresponding radiation efficiency in this frequency range is less than 0.4%. These results demonstrate that 99% of the microstrip line power is transmitted into and dissipated by the MWCNT-matched load over a broad frequency range. Therefore, the MWCNT-matched load does serve as a broadband-matched load.
Autors: Chuang, J.-K.;Fang, R.-Y.;Huang, Y.-J.;Lee, Y.-C.;Wang, C.-L.;Lee, K.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 1213 - 1218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Case Study of Automated Face Recognition: The Boston Marathon Bombings Suspects
Abstract:
Commercial automated face recognition technology shows promise in a challenging identification environment.
Autors: Klontz, Joshua C.;Jain, Anil K.;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 46, issue:11, pages: 91 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Ceramic Antenna for Tri-Band Radio Devices
Abstract:
This communication reports a ceramic antenna for tri-band radio devices operating in the 2.4, 5.2 and 60 GHz bands in low temperature cofired ceramic technology. It integrates a microstrip grid array antenna for the 60-GHz band, a meander-line monopole for the 5.2-GHz band, and a helix monopole for the 2.4-GHz band in a substrate of size . Both simulated and measured results are presented and discussed.
Autors: Zhihong, T.;Zhang, Y.P.;Luxey, C.;Bisognin, A.;Titz, D.;Ferrero, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5776 - 5780
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact a-IGZO TFT Model Based on MOSFET SPICE Template for Analog/RF Circuit Designs
Abstract:
This letter presents a compact model for flexible analog/RF circuits design with amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). The model is based on the MOSFET SPICE model template, where parameters are fitted to measurements for both dc and ac characteristics. The proposed TFT compact model shows good scalability of the drain current for device channel lengths ranging from 50 to 3.6 . The compact model is validated by comparing measurements and simulations of various TFT amplifier circuits. These include a two-stage cascode amplifier showing 10 dB of voltage gain and 2.9 MHz of bandwidth.
Autors: Perumal, C.;Ishida, K.;Shabanpour, R.;Boroujeni, B.K.;Petti, L.;Munzenrieder, N.S.;Salvatore, G.A.;Carta, C.;Troster, G.;Ellinger, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 34, issue:11, pages: 1391 - 1393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Superconducting Filter Using Microstrip/CPW Spiral Resonators
Abstract:
A compact eight-pole dual-band bandpass filter is designed using a combination of microstrip and coplanar waveguide spiral resonators. To implement a coupling matrix with both large and small elements, four coupling paths are used to apply coupling coefficients varying from 0.001 to 0.3. The fabricated superconducting filter exhibits high performance and excellent agreement with simulations.
Autors: Xu, Z.;Wei, B.;Cao, B.;Guo, X.;Zhang, X.;Heng, Y.;Jiang, L.;Zheng, T.;Wang, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 584 - 586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Nano- Underlayer for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
Abstract:
A compact nano- underlayer is formed on a titanium (Ti) foil through a two-step soaking pretreatment. This underlayer effectively suppresses the charge recombination reaction on the photoanode side, which is attributed to efficient electron transfer due to good adhesion between Ti and nano- . It also enhances the electrical contact with screen-printed mesoporous film due to surface nanostructure. Both fill factor and short-circuit current density are improved, and accordingly the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell is enhanced by 22%.
Autors: Hsu, C.-Y.;Cherng, S.-J.;Lin, Y.-J.;Chen, C.-M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 34, issue:11, pages: 1415 - 1417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Strip Dipole Coupled Split-Ring Resonator Antenna for RFID Tags
Abstract:
A compact strip dipole coupled split-ring resonator (SRR) antenna is proposed for radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag applications. The antenna has a simple and uniplanar structure and can be designed to conjugate match to the tag chip. Design details are presented and a tag chip of impedance at 915 MHz is used to verify the design. The simulated and measured input impedances of the prototype antenna are and , respectively, which are very close to the conjugate of the chip impedance. Simulated and measured radiation patterns are in good agreement and are nearly omnidirectional, especially in the H-plane. The minimum power transmitted by the reader and reflected back by the tag with detectable signals at the reader is also measured at two distances of about and using a commercially available reader card. The results are satisfactory.
Autors: Chen, J.-P.;Hsu, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5372 - 5376
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compressed PCA Subspace Method for Anomaly Detection in High-Dimensional Data
Abstract:
Random projection is widely used as a method of dimension reduction. In recent years, its combination with standard techniques of regression and classification has been explored. Here, we examine its use for anomaly detection in high-dimensional settings, in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA) and corresponding subspace detection methods. We assume a so-called spiked covariance model for the underlying data generation process and a Gaussian random projection. We adopt a hypothesis testing perspective of the anomaly detection problem, with the test statistic defined to be the magnitude of the residuals of a PCA analysis. Under the null hypothesis of no anomaly, we characterize the relative accuracy with which the mean and variance of the test statistic from compressed data approximate those of the corresponding test statistic from uncompressed data. Furthermore, under a suitable alternative hypothesis, we provide expressions that allow for a comparison of statistical power for detection. Finally, whereas these results correspond to the ideal setting in which the data covariance is known, we show that it is possible to obtain the same order of accuracy when the covariance of the compressed measurements is estimated using a sample covariance, as long as the number of measurements is of the same order of magnitude as the reduced dimensionality. We illustrate the practical impact of our results in the context of predicting volume anomalies in Internet traffic data.
Autors: Ding, Q.;Kolaczyk, E.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 7419 - 7433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuously and Widely Tunable 5 dB-NF 89.5 dB-Gain 85.5 dB-DR CMOS TV Receiver With Digitally-Assisted Calibration for Multi-Standard DBS Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a direct-conversion, multi-standard TV receiver implemented in a 0.13 µm CMOS technology occupying less than 4 mm². The receiver is compliant with several direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) standards, including DVB-S, DVB-S2, and ABS-S. A novel automatic frequency tuning (AFT) technique is adopted based on a searching algorithm to ensure less than 6% bandwidth deviation of the different bandwidths (over 40 bandwidth channels) for multi-standard applications. Moreover, digitally-assisted DC offset calibration is used to improve second-order distortion and calibration time of the receiver and the residual output offset achieved is less than 3 mV. An integrated ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer utilizing an optimized automatic frequency calibration (AFC) scheme enables a fast and high-precision calibration process for dual-VCO phase-locked loop (PLL) operation. The measured linearity exceeds the desired target with the minimum margin in excess of 7 dBm, and the maximum carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) values are better than 30 dB over wide input power levels, ensuring robust reception in variable environments. All circuit blocks are operated at 2.8 V stabilized by an LDO and consuming a total current of about 56 mA.
Autors: Li, S.-T.;Li, J.-C.;Gu, X.-C.;Wang, H.-Y.;Tang, M.-H.;Zhuang, Z.-W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2762 - 2774
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coreless Electric Current Sensor With Circular Conductor Positioning Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel coreless current sensor unit for measuring electrical current of circular conductors. The proposed sensor unit consists of three magnetic field sensors and a microcontroller unit (MCU). The new sensor unit does not need a bulky magnetic core necessary for magnetic field concentration, and can be used in the same way as conventional current transformers (CTs). An algorithm is developed to calibrate the outputs of the magnetic field sensors (e.g., Hall effect integrated circuits (ICs) with respect to the relative position of the current-carrying circular conductor. The algorithm can be implemented on a low-cost MCU for automatic real-time operation. Unlike other coreless magnetic field sensors that need to be fixed onto the conductor for accurate current measurement, the proposed sensor unit affords a more flexible installation option. A hardware prototype is constructed for the proposed coreless current sensor unit. The performance evaluation results show that the accuracy of the proposed sensor unit is comparable to the conventional magnetic core CTs.
Autors: Chan, J.Y.C.;Tse, N.C.F.;Lai, L.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 2922 - 2928
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Entropy-Based Three-Stage Sequential Importance Sampling for Composite Power System Short-Term Reliability Evaluation
Abstract:
Regarding short-term reliability of composite power system, probability of critical event resulting in system failure within a short lead time is extremely low, which renders classical sequential Monte Carlo simulation method inefficient. In this paper, a cross-entropy-based three-stage sequential importance sampling (TSSIS) method is proposed to solve the low efficiency problem resulted from the low rate of component state transition during a fixed lead time. First, by assuming the system state transition process conforms to continuous time Markov chain, an analytical solution to optimal distorted component state transition rate to be used for sequential importance sampling is found by means of cross-entropy method. Second, TSSIS for a fixed lead time is constructed as follows: 1) acceleration of producing system state transitions; 2) enhanced learning to give optimal distorted transition rate; 3) compensation to the cost function. Case studies based on a reinforced Roy Billinton reliability test system and RTS-79 are carried out respectively for illustration of parameter settings of TSSIS as well as efficiency gain in comparison with the classical sequential Monte Carlo simulation method. The results demonstrate that given rational setting of parameters, TSSIS is of relatively high efficiency for sequential short-term reliability evaluation of composite power system.
Autors: Wang, Y.;Guo, C.;Wu, Q.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4254 - 4263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Guide Waveguide Directional Coupler With High Directivity and Broad Bandwidth
Abstract:
A cross-guide waveguide directional coupler (patent pending) with high directivity and broad bandwidth is proposed in this letter. It consists of two rectangular waveguides (called main waveguide and branch waveguide) crossing at a certain angle and sharing a common broad wall. High directivity is achieved by adding metal inserts in the branch waveguide in the coupling region near the crossed round-ended slots. For verification purpose, a sample coupler has been designed, manufactured and measured. The measured results show that the sample coupler has a directivity greater than 28 dB over the full waveguide bandwidth.
Autors: Zhang, Y.;Wang, Q.;Ding, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 581 - 583
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Based State Feedback Control Method for a Class of Nonlinear Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, a data-based state feedback control method is developed for a class of nonlinear systems. It is a real-time control method, which requires little prior knowledge about the system dynamics, and does not need to know or to build the mathematical model of the system. We apply a fast sampling technique to sample the state signal, which contains useful information of the system. The zero-order hold (ZOH) and the control switch are also used to obtain system information. The feedback gain matrix is calculated and adjusted according to these sampled data. Theoretical analysis on the convergence and simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of this data-based control method.
Autors: Wang, Z.;Liu, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 2284 - 2292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Approach to Mixed-Sensitivity Control With Application to an Active Suspension System
Abstract:
In this paper, a data-driven approach is proposed to tune fixed-order controllers for unknown stable LTI plants in a mixed-sensitivity loop-shaping framework. The method requires a single set of input-output samples and it is based on convex optimization techniques; moreover, it asymptotically guarantees the internal stability of the closed-loop system. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated with application to the control of an active suspension system.
Autors: Formentin, S.;Karimi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 2293 - 2300
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Iterative Feedback Tuning Approach of ALINEA for Freeway Traffic Ramp Metering With PARAMICS Simulations
Abstract:
In this work, a new iterative feedback tuning approach is proposed to tune ALINEA's controller gain automatically when there is not enough prior information available to select a proper feedback gain of ALINEA. It is a data-driven method and the ALINEA controller is auto-tuned only depending on the input and output data collected from closed-loop experiments. To mimic a real traffic environment, a simulator is built on the PARAMICS platform. The flow-based ALINEA controller is also considered to illustrate the good tuning performance of IFT comprehensively. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is verified through PARAMICS based simulations.
Autors: Chi, R.;Hou, Z.;Jin, S.;Wang, D.;Hao, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 2310 - 2317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deep Investigation of the Synchronization Mechanisms in LC-CMOS Frequency Dividers
Abstract:
The behavior of LC-CMOS frequency dividers is investigated in depth obtaining a new and clearer insight into the synchronization phenomenon. We show that it occurs according to two mechanisms, which are referred to as “synchronization by mixing” and “synchronization by harmonics.” This latter, still not known, may be the dominant mechanism in some practical circuits, and justifies the presence of locked states when the well known mechanism by mixing fails to predict them. A new model of CMOS frequency dividers that includes both mechanisms is presented, and its utility is demonstrated by analyzing the locked states of a divider by 3 and of a divider by 4, which are predicted in closed form. The calculation results show a close correspondence between the theory and the circuit simulations and measurements.
Autors: Buonomo, A.;Lo Schiavo, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2857 - 2866
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic Polynomial-Time Algorithm for Constructing a Multicast Coding Scheme for Linear Deterministic Relay Networks
Abstract:
We propose a new way to construct a multicast coding scheme for linear deterministic relay networks. Our construction can be regarded as a generalization of the well-known multicast network coding scheme of Jaggi to linear deterministic relay networks and is based on the notion of flow for a unicast session that was introduced by the authors in earlier work. We present randomized and deterministic polynomial-time versions of our algorithm and show that for a network with destinations, our deterministic algorithm can achieve the capacity in uses of the network and has the fastest construction time among algorithms for this problem.
Autors: Tabatabaei Yazdi, S.M.S.;Savari, S.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 7541 - 7552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential Feedback Scheme Exploiting the Temporal and Spectral Correlation
Abstract:
Channel state information (CSI) provided by a limited feedback channel can be utilized to increase system throughput. However, in multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems, the signaling overhead realizing this CSI feedback can be quite large, whereas the capacity of the uplink feedback channel is typically limited. Hence, it is crucial to reduce the amount of feedback bits. Prior work on limited feedback compression commonly adopted the block-fading channel model, where only temporal or spectral correlation in a wireless channel is considered. In this paper, we propose a differential feedback scheme with full use of the temporal and spectral correlations to reduce the feedback load. Then, the minimal differential feedback rate over a MIMO time–frequency (or doubly)-selective fading channel is investigated. Finally, the analysis is verified by simulation results.
Autors: Zhou, M.;Zhang, L.;Song, L.;Debbah, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 62, issue:9, pages: 4701 - 4707
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital-Domain Calibration of Split-Capacitor DAC for a Differential SAR ADC Without Additional Analog Circuits
Abstract:
A digital-domain calibration method is proposed for a split-capacitor DAC (split-CDAC) used in a differential-type 11-bit SAR ADC. It calibrates the nonlinearities of SAR ADC due to the DAC capacitance mismatch as well as the two parasitic capacitances connected in parallel with each of the bridge capacitor and the LSB bank of split-CDAC. The proposed ADC does not require any additional analog circuits for calibration, because it utilizes one of the two split-CDACs to measure the error codes of the other split-CDAC. During the normal A/D conversion step, the 11.5-bit raw SAR code output of ADC is added to the pre-measured error codes to generate the 11-bit calibrated output code. The analog block of the ADC was fabricated in a 0.13- CMOS process, and the digital block was implemented in a FPGA. The measured SNDR and SFDR are 61.6 dB (ENOB 9.93 bits) and 78 dB at the Nyquist rate with a 5 kHz sine wave input. INL and DNL are measured to be , and , respectively. This work extends the prior work by utilizing an additional 0.5-bit raw SAR code to eliminate the missing code, and by employing a temporal averaging with a FIR LPF to measure the error code reliably in spite of the supply noise.
Autors: Um, J.-Y.;Kim, Y.-J.;Song, E.-W.;Sim, J.-Y.;Park, H.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2845 - 2856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Control Strategy for Reactive Power Compensation in Smart Microgrids
Abstract:
Pub DtlWe consider the problem of optimal reactive power compensation for the minimization of power distribution losses in a smart microgrid. We first propose an approximate model for the power distribution network, which allows us to cast the problem into the class of convex quadratic, linearly constrained, optimization problems. We then consider the specific problem of commanding the microgenerators connected to a microgrid, in order to achieve the optimal injection of reactive power. For this task, we design a randomized, leader-less, gossip-like optimization algorithm. We show how a distributed approach is possible, where microgenerators need to have only a partial knowledge of the problem parameters and of the state, and can perform only local measurements. For the proposed algorithm, we provide conditions for convergence together with an analytic characterization of the convergence speed. The analysis shows that, in radial networks, the best performance is achieved when we command cooperation among microgenerators that are neighbors in the electric topology. Numerical simulations are included to validate both the proposed model and the analytic results about the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Bolognani, S.;Zampieri, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 58, issue:11, pages: 2818 - 2833
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Band Polarization Reconfigurable Antenna for WLAN Systems
Abstract:
A new microstrip dual-band polarization reconfigurable antenna is presented for wireless local area network (WLAN) systems operating at 2.4 and 5.8 GHz. The antenna consists of a square microstrip patch that is aperture coupled to a microstrip line located along the diagonal line of the patch. The dual-band operation is realized by employing the and modes of the patch antenna. Four shorting posts are inserted into the patch to adjust the frequency ratio of the two modes. The center of each edge of the patch is connected to ground via a PIN diode for polarization switching. By switching between the different states of PIN diodes, the proposed antenna can radiate either horizontal, vertical, or 45 linear polarization in the two frequency bands. Measured results on reflection coefficients and radiation patterns agree well with numerical simulations.
Autors: Qin, P.-Y.;Guo, Y.J.;Ding, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5706 - 5713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Mode Human Computer Interface Combining Speech and Tongue Motion for People with Severe Disabilities
Abstract:
We are presenting a new wireless and wearable human computer interface called the dual-mode Tongue Drive System (dTDS), which is designed to allow people with severe disabilities to use computers more effectively with increased speed, flexibility, usability, and independence through their tongue motion and speech. The dTDS detects users' tongue motion using a magnetic tracer and an array of magnetic sensors embedded in a compact and ergonomic wireless headset. It also captures the users' voice wirelessly using a small microphone embedded in the same headset. Preliminary evaluation results based on 14 able-bodied subjects and three individuals with high level spinal cord injuries at level C3–C5 indicated that the dTDS headset, combined with a commercially available speech recognition (SR) software, can provide end users with significantly higher performance than either unimodal forms based on the tongue motion or speech alone, particularly in completing tasks that require both pointing and text entry.
Autors: Huo, X.;Park, H.;Kim, J.;Ghovanloo, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 21, issue:6, pages: 979 - 991
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Purpose Reconfigurable Negative Group Delay Circuit Based on Distributed Amplifiers
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel reconfigurable negative group delay distributed amplifier (NGD-DA) circuit is proposed. This NGD-DA offers a new method to realize negative group delay. By properly choosing the gain coefficient of each tap for the DA, we can synthesize the negative group delay at the reverse port of the DA in the frequency band of interest, while maintaining a flat gain at the forward port; this results in a dual-purpose DA. Moreover, the proposed NGD-DA is reconfigurable; the phase response at the reverse port can be simply controlled by adjusting the tap gain coefficients, and therefore the bandwidth as well as the amount of negative group delay can be manipulated. The proposed active NGD circuit is validated through theoretical explanation and experimental results.
Autors: Wu, C.-T.M.;Gharavi, S.;Daneshrad, B.;Itoh, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 593 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Game Algorithm for Power Allocation in Cognitive Relay Transmission
Abstract:
In cognitive networks, the cooperative transmission between primary user and secondary user has been regarded as an effective method to promote harmonious coexistence between themselves where how to balance user's benefits and improve the system throughput is a key issue. In this paper, we study the joint pricing and power allocation strategy for the cognitive relay transmission by using the Stackelberg model which is a classical dynamic game model. We first give presentations of a cognitive relay model over Rayleigh fading channels and then investigate the primary benefits in power saving during this cooperation. According to the profits of primary user (as a game leader) and secondary user (as a follower), corresponding utility functions which describe their overall profits in the cognitive relay transmission are derived one by one. Then, optimal strategies for interference pricing and power allocation are fixed by resolving the objective functions. The existence of the Nash equilibrium and the sufficient conditions for the positive equilibrium are further discussed. Numerical results are presented to show that the algorithm can achieve encouraging outcomes with low-complexity.
Autors: Li, Feng;Wang, Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 4440 - 4447
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Region based Limited Feedback Scheme for Efficient Power Allocation in OFDM Systems
Abstract:
This letter proposes a dynamic region based limited feedback scheme for efficient power allocation in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. At the receiver, after obtaining the channel gains of all subcarriers by channel estimation, the maximum and the minimum channel gains can be determined easily. Using the maximum and the minimum channel gains, the proposed scheme divides the range of the channel gains into multiple regions adaptively. Each region is assigned with a unique index. Then each subcarrier will be allocated with the index of the region that its channel gain belongs to. The index information of all subcarriers can be denoted by a code from a predetermined codebook. Along with the maximum and the minimum channel gains, only the codes will be fed back. The feedback information will be used to estimate the channel gains of all subcarriers at the transmitter. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve both the accuracy of feedback channel gain information and the spectral efficiency with less feedback information overhead.
Autors: Wang, Jun-Bo;Su, Qin;Wang, Jiangzhou;Chen, Ming;Song, Xiaoyu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 17, issue:11, pages: 2036 - 2039
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Family of Alltop Functions that are EA-Inequivalent to the Cubic Function
Abstract:
Sequences with optimal correlation properties are much sought after for applications in communication systems. In 1980, Alltop (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 26(3):350-354, 1980) described a set of sequences based on a cubic function and showed that these sequences were optimal with respect to the known bounds on auto and crosscorrelation. Subsequently these sequences were used to construct mutually unbiased bases (MUBs), a structure of importance in quantum information theory. The key feature of this cubic function is that its difference function is a planar function. Functions with planar difference functions have been called Alltop functions. This paper provides a new family of Alltop functions and establishes the use of Alltop functions for construction of sequence sets and MUBs.
Autors: Hall, Joanne L.;Rao, Asha;Gagola, Stephen M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 4722 - 4727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Calibration Method for Triaxial Magnetometers
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel iterative calibration algorithm for triaxial magnetometers. The proposed algorithm estimates and compensates the effects of deterministic interference parameters using only nine distinct measurements. The results of our extensive simulations and empirical evaluations confirm that the proposed method outperforms conventional ellipsoid fitting based models both in terms of accuracy and reliability even in the presence of a moderate wideband noise. The algorithm also achieves considerably faster convergence, which makes it suitable for real-time applications. The algorithm performance is also shown to be independent of the initial guesses of the interference parameters.
Autors: Tabatabaei, S.A.H.;Gluhak, A.;Tafazolli, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 62, issue:11, pages: 2929 - 2937
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Contingency Screening Technique for Generation System Reliability Evaluation
Abstract:
In most existing reliability evaluation techniques, the stopping rules applied for contingency enumeration are either a given number of states with the highest probabilities or the states up to a specified failure order. However, the probability of a high order outage state may be larger than that of a low order outage state due to different reliabilities of the failed components. On the other hand, a low probability state with high outage capacity may have larger impact on system reliability than a high probability state with low outage capacity. These effects have not been considered in the existing techniques for contingency filtering or screening. A fast contingency screening technique (FCST) for generation system reliability evaluation is proposed in this paper. In this technique, contingency states are searched and ranked based on the severity coefficients determined by both state probabilities and outage capacities of the failed units. Several severity coefficients for a unit are defined and examined based on reliability and capacity factors. The replaceable neighboring states of a state and the minimum set of the neighboring states are defined to further reduce computation time. The merits of the proposed techniques and severity coefficients are validated by evaluating the East-China Power Grid.
Autors: Jia, Y.;Wang, P.;Han, X.;Tian, J.;Singh, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4127 - 4133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast-Locking ADPLL With Instantaneous Restart Capability in 28-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This brief presents a bang-bang all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) clock generator for multiprocessor system-on-chip applications in Globalfoundries 28-nm superlow-power CMOS technology. The circuit features a single-shot phase synchronization scheme for instantaneous phase lock after power-up. This feature is used for fast frequency search during lock-in, resulting in less than 1- initial lock time and the capability of instantaneous restart. The ADPLL provides a wide range of output clocks from 83 MHz to 2 GHz and exhibits 31-ps accumulated jitter with 3-ps period jitter at 2 GHz. It occupies an area of only 0.00234 and consumes 0.64 mW from a 1.0-V supply.
Autors: Hoppner, S.;Haenzsche, S.;Ellguth, G.;Walter, D.;Eisenreich, H.;Schuffny, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 741 - 745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A fault-tolerant core mapping technique in networks-on-chip
Abstract:
This study proposes a fault-tolerant technique on application mapping and spare core allocation in networks-on-chip. The proposed technique sets the place of spare cores among free non-faulty processing cores, dynamically. Here, dynamically setting means that the places of spare cores are tuned for each application and are not fixed in the platform statically. Some vertices of each application core graph can be known as critical, based on their vulnerabilities, the performance degradation and the energy consumption overheads because of negative impacts of failure recovery. This technique locates the spare cores near to the critical cores. As the main theoretical contribution, the problem of spare core placement and its impression on system fault-tolerance properties is discussed. Some metrics are investigated to be considered in spare core allocation. The results of 1 000 000 fault injection experiments show that the proposed technique leads to communication energy reductions and performance improvement, compared with related works.
Autors: Khalili, F.;Zarandi, H.R.;
Appeared in: IET Computers & Digital Techniques
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 7, issue:6, pages: 238 - 245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A FIR-Embedded Phase Interpolator Based Noise Filtering for Wide-Bandwidth Fractional-N PLL
Abstract:
This paper presents a 1-GHz fractional-N PLL with a noise-filtering scheme using a FIR-embedded phase interpolator. The proposed dual-referenced interpolation scheme compensates for systematic nonlinearity in circuit operation and increases immunity to mismatches in input seed phases. By multiple use of a dual-referenced interpolator, the phase interpolator realizes an embedded FIR filtering for the quantization noise from the modulator. The implemented PLL in 0.13- m CMOS consumes 16.8 mW and shows a reduction of the phase noise by 34 dB. With 3.2-MHz-wide bandwidth, the proposed filtering technique achieves an in-band noise of 106 dBc at 100 kHz and an out-of-band noise of 107.5 dBc at 6 MHz.
Autors: Jee, D.-W.;Suh, Y.;Kim, B.;Park, H.-J.;Sim, J.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2795 - 2804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A First Step Towards the Resolution of the Starvation Problem in Multi-Point-to-Point ICRCNs
Abstract:
This letter revolves around an Intermittently Connected Roadside Communication Network (ICRCN) scenario consisting of isolated source Stationary Roadside Units (SRUs) exploiting mobile smart vehicles as store-carry-forward data relays to a destination SRU. In this case, it is observed that a subset of these source SRUs may suffer from a significant starvation problem. In this letter, first, an Markov Decision Process (MDP) framework is established for the purpose of identifying a suitable Bulk Release Decision Policy (BRDP). Second, BRDP is implemented within a Starvation Mitigation and Delay-Minimal (SMDM) bundle delivery scheme. Extensive simulations are conducted for the purpose of: a) quantifying the severity of the starvation experienced by the downstream SRUs and b) gauging the merit of the proposed SMDM scheme through its ability to jointly mitigate starvation and achieve end-to-end delay minimal bundle delivery to the destination SRU.
Autors: Fawaz, Wissam;Atallah, Ribal;Khabbaz, Maurice;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 17, issue:11, pages: 2104 - 2107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fourier-Analytic Approach to Reed–Muller Decoding
Abstract:
We present a Fourier-analytic approach to list-decoding Reed–Muller codes over arbitrary finite fields. We use this to show that quadratic forms over any field are locally list-decodable up to their minimum distance. The analogous statement for linear polynomials was proved in the celebrated works of Goldreich Previously, tight bounds for quadratic polynomials were known only for and 3; the best bound known for other fields was the Johnson radius. Departing from previous work on Reed–Muller decoding which relies on some form of self-corrector, our work applies ideas from Fourier analysis of Boolean functions to low-degree polynomials over finite fields, in conjunction with results about the weight-distribution. We believe that the techniques used here could find other applications, we present some applications to testing and learning.
Autors: Gopalan, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 7747 - 7760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fresh Look At Wind: Reflections on Where We Are Going [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
The articles in this special section focus on the current state of wind power equipment and technologies as well as applications for their use.
Autors: Smith, J.;Clark, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 11, issue:6, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Full-Wave Hybrid Method for the Analysis of Multilayered SIW-Based Antennas
Abstract:
We propose a fast and accurate full-wave code capable of analyzing electrically large substrate integrated waveguides consisting of stacked parallel-plate waveguides hosting dielectric or metallic posts and coupling and/or radiating slots. Boundary conditions enforced on posts yield scattering amplitudes, while slots are modeled by equivalent magnetic currents, solved by a method of moments. Substantial accelerations are proposed to exploit various symmetries of the structures and to select the optimal number of modes according to the relevant geometrical and physical parameters. The formulation is validated by full-wave simulations with a commercial software and measurement results.
Autors: Casaletti, M.;Valerio, G.;Seljan, J.;Ettorre, M.;Sauleau, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5575 - 5588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Construction and Improvements on Nonbinary Codes From Goppa Codes
Abstract:
We present an efficient construction of extended length Goppa codes. Using this construction, we obtain 78 new nonbinary codes with better minimum distance than the previously known codes with the same length and dimension. The construction is based on the observation that certain Goppa codes can be seen as BCH codes.
Autors: Tomlinson, M.;Jibril, M.;Tjhai, C.;Bezzateev, S.V.;Grassl, M.;Ahmed, M.Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 7299 - 7304
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Magnetostrictive-Forces Approach to the Computation of the Magnetostriction-Induced Vibration of Laminated Steel Structures
Abstract:
This research introduces a new, numerical and experimental approach to the analysis of the vibration of laminated structures resulting from magnetostriction. The focus is on the in-plane magnetostriction of electrical steel and its transmission into the out-of-plane direction, in which laminated structures (e.g., transformer cores, stators, and rotors) exhibit the greatest vibration. A finite-element magnetostriction model is developed on an experimental basis and enables a general, in-plane and out-of-plane assessment of the magnetostrictive response. The magnetostriction model is compatible with various finite-element structural models and is incorporated into a structural model, updated based on experimental data, representing a clamped laminated structure. An experiment employing the operating-deflection-shapes method is used to assess the presented approach under various operating conditions.
Autors: Javorski, M.;Cepon, G.;Slavic, J.;Boltezar, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 49, issue:11, pages: 5446 - 5453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Geometric Error Model for Misaligned Calibration Target in Passive Microwave Remote-Sensing Systems
Abstract:
We present a geometric error model associated with calibration-target misalignment in passive microwave remote-sensing systems. The developed analytic formulation is universally applicable to both lateral and rotational misalignment conditions. Numerical simulations are performed on two practical blackbody targets of different sizes used as radiation references for passive microwave remote sensing. The significance of this work is to furnish a framework of uncertainty analysis due to target misalignment and to provide a reference for alignment requirements based on passive radiometer measurement sensitivity.
Autors: Gu, D.;Randa, J.;Walker, D.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 10, issue:6, pages: 1597 - 1601
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Heat-Map-Based Algorithm for Recognizing Group Activities in Videos
Abstract:
In this paper, a new heat-map-based algorithm is proposed for group activity recognition. The proposed algorithm first models human trajectories as series of heat sources and then applies a thermal diffusion process to create a heat map (HM) for representing the group activities. Based on this HM, a new key-point-based (KPB) method is used for handling the alignments among HMs with different scales and rotations. A surface-fitting (SF) method is also proposed for recognizing group activities. Our proposed HM feature can efficiently embed the temporal motion information of the group activities while the proposed KPB and SF methods can effectively utilize the characteristics of the HM for activity recognition. Section IV demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.
Autors: Lin, W.;Chu, H.;Wu, J.;Sheng, B.;Chen, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 23, issue:11, pages: 1980 - 1992
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchy of Information Quantities for Finite Block Length Analysis of Quantum Tasks
Abstract:
We consider two fundamental tasks in quantum information theory, data compression with quantum side information, as well as randomness extraction against quantum side information. We characterize these tasks for general sources using so-called one-shot entropies. These characterizations—in contrast to earlier results—enable us to derive tight second-order asymptotics for these tasks in the i.i.d. limit. More generally, our derivation establishes a hierarchy of information quantities that can be used to investigate information theoretic tasks in the quantum domain: The one-shot entropies most accurately describe an operational quantity, yet they tend to be difficult to calculate for large systems. We show that they asymptotically agree (up to logarithmic terms) with entropies related to the quantum and classical information spectrum, which are easier to calculate in the i.i.d. limit. Our technique also naturally yields bounds on operational quantities for finite block lengths.
Autors: Tomamichel, M.;Hayashi, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 7693 - 7710
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Linearity Pipelined ADC With Opamp Split-Sharing in a Combined Front-End of S/H and MDAC1
Abstract:
This paper presents a power-efficient, high-linearity pipelined ADC, utilizing a combined front-end of the sample/hold circuit (S/H) and the first multiplying digital-to-analog converter (MDAC1). In contrast with the conventional merged sample-and-hold amplifier (SHA) and first MDAC, the front-end uses an opamp split-sharing scheme to meet the different gain and bandwidth requirements of both the S/H and the first MDAC. This opamp split-sharing scheme mitigates the memory effect without a dedicated clock phase and avoids crosstalk. In the back-end ADC, 4.5-bit opamp-sharing MDACs with four-input operational trans-conductance amplifiers (OTAs) are used for further power saving. Implemented in a 0.18- CMOS process, the 14-bit ADC achieves a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 89.1 dB and a signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 70.2 dB, with a sampling rate of 100 MS/s and an input of 15.5 MHz. For input signals up to 220 MHz, measured SFDR and SNDR are maintained above 82.7 dB and 66.2 dB, respectively. The ADC consumes 92 mW with a 1.8-V supply, occupying an area of 6.3 .
Autors: Wang, Z.;Wang, M.;Gu, W.;Chen, C.;Ye, F.;Ren, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2834 - 2844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Highly Time Sensitive XOR Gate for Probe Attempt Detectors
Abstract:
Probe attempt detectors are sensors designed to protect buses of secure chips against the physical contact of probes. The operation principle of these detectors relies on the comparison of the delay propagation times between lines. CMOS XOR gates are very well suited for this comparison since they are small, fast, and compatible with the technology used in secure chips. However, the lack of activity while comparing matched lines and the limited reaction time pose a risk for tampering and decrease the sensitivity of the sensor, respectively. In this brief, a modification of a CMOS XOR gate is presented, which solves both the aforementioned problems.
Autors: Manich, S.;Strasser, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 786 - 790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Holistic Approach for Planning Natural Gas and Electricity Distribution Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a new planning expansion model of an electricity and natural gas distribution system that has high penetration of distributed generation based on natural gas. The model entails lower investment costs as compared to traditional planning models that consider both systems (electricity and natural gas) as independent networks. This model is especially convenient for utilities that own both systems, as electricity and natural gas customers can derive benefits (via electricity or natural gas tariffs) if there are significant savings in investment costs. For fast-growing economies, the merging of electricity and natural gas distribution systems is seen as a promising business opportunity in which economies of scope can have lower investment costs, so there is a definite need for this type of approach.
Autors: Saldarriaga, C.A.;Hincapie, R.A.;Salazar, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4052 - 4063
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid ABC-DE Algorithm and Its Application for Time-Modulated Arrays Pattern Synthesis
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel hybrid algorithm based on artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) algorithm called ABC-DE is proposed to inherit their advantages and overcome their drawbacks. In ABC-DE algorithm, employed bees employ the mutation and crossover strategies of DE to enforce their exploration ability while onlooker bees keep their original updating strategy to retain the exploitation ability. Classical test functions have been provided to testify the ABC-DE algorithm. Furthermore, ABC-DE is applied to different types of time-modulated arrays (TMAs) pattern synthesis problems, including the syntheses of low equal-ripple sidelobe level (SLL) pattern, deep null level pattern, multiple-beams patterns and satellite footprint pattern. Experiment results reveal that ABC-DE has a promising performance in the convergence rate and the exploration ability when compared with other improved evolutionary algorithms, which indicates that the proposed algorithm can be an effective approach for TMAs synthesis problems.
Autors: Yang, J.;Li, W.-T.;Shi, X.-W.;Xin, L.;Yu, J.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5485 - 5495
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Approach for Finite-Size Fabry-Pérot Antenna Design With Fast and Accurate Estimation on Directivity and Aperture Efficiency
Abstract:
We present a simple hybrid approach for the design of finite-size Fabry-Pérot antennas (FPA) operated for broadside radiation. The model provides an accurate estimation on the directivity and aperture efficiency, and hence may obtain the optimal configuration of the partially reflective surface (PRS) and the antenna dimensions. The PRS properties are simulated by numerical tools. However, the overall FPA maximum directivity and the required dimensions are derived with a leaky-wave analysis and a Fourier transform method. The presented model was validated by the full-wave simulation on a classic FPA structure. Additionally, from design curves of the presented model, a PCB-based patch-patterned FPA is implemented and measured. The illustrated FPA prototype showed a realized gain of 20 dBi with an aperture efficiency of 65%. The model predictions were well consistent with the full-wave simulation and measured results.
Autors: Lu, Y.-F.;Lin, Y.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5395 - 5401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid BCI System Combining P300 and SSVEP and Its Application to Wheelchair Control
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid brain–computer interface (BCI) system combining P300 and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is proposed to improve the performance of asynchronous control. The four groups of flickering buttons were set in the graphical user interface. Each group contained one large button in the center and eight small buttons around it, all of which flashed at a fixed frequency (e.g., 7.5 Hz) to evoke SSVEP. At the same time, the four large buttons of the four groups were intensified through shape and color changes in a random order to produce P300 potential. During the control state, the user focused on a desired group of buttons (target buttons) to evoke P300 potential and SSVEP, simultaneously. Discrimination between the control and idle states was based on the detection of both P300 and SSVEP on the same group of buttons. As an application, this method was used to produce a “go/stop” command in real-time wheelchair control. Several experiments were conducted, and data analysis results showed that combining P300 potential and SSVEP significantly improved the performance of the BCI system in terms of detection accuracy and response time.
Autors: Li, Y.;Pan, J.;Wang, F.;Yu, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 3156 - 3166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide for the Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polariton at 1.55 μm on SOI Substrate
Abstract:
A hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPW) has been numerically investigated, based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure near the telecom wavelength λ = 1550 nm using the finite-element method. The HPW consists of metal cap placed on SOI rib, which has a trench with a semicircle interface at the bottom of the trench. With the proper choice of waveguide sizes, our proposed HPW can support hybrid long-range surface plasmon which have strong mode confinement / ≅ 0.0035–0.035 and long propagation length > 525 μm) simultaneously. In addition, for the proposed HPW, the calculated coupling length for two parallel identical waveguides which is separated by distance = 250 nm is approximately 1.3 μm, which is very helpful in realizing photonic integration circuits with ultrahigh integration density.
Autors: Amirhosseini, A.;Safian, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 1031 - 1036
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Joint Scheme for Angle and Array Gain-Phase Error Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar
Abstract:
In this letter, we investigate the subject of joint angle and array gain-phase error estimation for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output radar, and propose a joint scheme for angle and array gain-phase error estimation based on trilinear decomposition. The estimations of transmit and receive direction matrices are primarily obtained via trilinear decomposition, after which the optimization problem for estimating array gain-phase errors and angles can be constructed. Array gain-phase error vectors are obtained by Lagrange multipliers, and the angles are estimated according to the estimated gain-phase errors. In contrast to the ESPRIT-like algorithm, the proposed method not only obtains automatically paired estimations of the angles but also has much better performance for angle and array gain-phase error estimation. Simulations verify the effectiveness of our approach.
Autors: Li, J.;Zhang, X.;Gao, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 10, issue:6, pages: 1478 - 1482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A large-signal model for CMUT arrays with arbitrary membrane geometry operating in non-collapsed mode
Abstract:
A large-signal, transient model has been developed to predict the output characteristics of a CMUT array operated in the non-collapse mode. The model is based on separation of the nonlinear electrostatic voltage-to-force relation and the linear acoustic array response. For modeling of linear acoustic radiation and crosstalk effects, the boundary element method is used. The stiffness matrix in the vibroacoustics calculations is obtained using static finite element analysis of a single membrane which can have arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions. A lumped modeling approach is used to reduce the order of the system for modeling the transient nonlinear electrostatic actuation. To accurately capture the dynamics of the non-uniform electrostatic force distribution over the CMUT electrode during large deflections, the membrane electrode is divided into patches shaped to match higher order membrane modes, each introducing a variable to the system model. This reduced order nonlinear lumped model is solved in the time domain using commercial software. The model has two linear blocks to calculate the displacement profile of the electrode patches and the output pressure for a given force distribution over the array. The force?????????to?????????array-displacement block uses the linear acoustic model, and the Rayleigh integral is evaluated to calculate the pressure at any field point. Using the model, the time-domain transmitted pressure can be simulated for different large drive signal configurations. The acoustic model is verified by comparison to harmonic FEA in vacuum and fluid for high- and low-aspect-ratio membranes as well as mass-loaded membranes. The overall software model is verified by comparison to transient 3-D finite element analysis and experimental results for different large drive signals, and an example for a phased array simulation is given.
Autors: null;null;null;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2426 - 2439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Learning-Based Framework for Engineering Feature-Oriented Self-Adaptive Software Systems
Abstract:
Self-adaptive software systems are capable of adjusting their behavior at runtime to achieve certain functional or quality-of-service goals. Often a representation that reflects the internal structure of the managed system is used to reason about its characteristics and make the appropriate adaptation decisions. However, runtime conditions can radically change the internal structure in ways that were not accounted for during their design. As a result, unanticipated changes at runtime that violate the assumptions made about the internal structure of the system could degrade the accuracy of the adaptation decisions. We present an approach for engineering self-adaptive software systems that brings about two innovations: 1) a feature-oriented approach for representing engineers' knowledge of adaptation choices that are deemed practical, and 2) an online learning-based approach for assessing and reasoning about adaptation decisions that does not require an explicit representation of the internal structure of the managed software system. Engineers' knowledge, represented in feature-models, adds structure to learning, which in turn makes online learning feasible. We present an empirical evaluation of the framework using a real-world self-adaptive software system. Results demonstrate the framework's ability to accurately learn the changing dynamics of the system while achieving efficient analysis and adaptation.
Autors: Esfahani, Naeem;Elkhodary, Ahmed;Malek, Sam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 39, issue:11, pages: 1467 - 1493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Lifetime Guarantee
Abstract:
IEEE Software editor-in-chief Forrest Shull discusses the software sustainability and his interview with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, an organization that offers "firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects" in government contracts. In addition, he discusses the best paper award at the 21st Annual IEEE International Requirements Engineering Conference and the best research paper award at the Agile Conference. The first Web extra at http://youtu.be/L1XN0R4koRk is an audio interview highlighting IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull's discussion with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, about the organization's philosophy of offering "firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects" in government contracts. The second Web extra at http://youtu.be/iFsZlrhSM9E is the complete audio interview in which IEEE Software editor in chief Forrest Shull's speaks with Girish Seshagiri, the CEO of AIS, about the organization's philosophy of offering "firm fixed-price contracting with performance guarantees, including a lifetime warranty on software defects" in government contracts.
Autors: Shull, Forrest;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 30, issue:6, pages: 4 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Linked Data Approach for Geospatial Data Provenance
Abstract:
Geospatial data provenance records sources and processing steps that are used in deriving geospatial data products. In the Web of Data environment enabled by Linked Data technologies, sources and processing steps, such as geospatial data and geoprocessing services, can be published as part of the Web of Data. To take full advantages of the machine-understandable format and linkages among heterogeneous data items in the Web of Data, this paper proposes to publish geospatial data provenance into the Web of Data. In particular, it analyzes how a catalogue for provenance, i.e., geospatial data provenance managed by a geospatial metadata catalog service, can be published into the Web of Data using a Linked Data approach. Consequently, queries over linked geospatial data provenance are analyzed and tested to demonstrate the benefits of the approach.
Autors: Yuan, J.;Yue, P.;Gong, J.;Zhang, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 51, issue:11, pages: 5105 - 5112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Locally Adaptive Regularization Based on Anisotropic Diffusion for Deformable Image Registration of Sliding Organs
Abstract:
Pub DtlWe propose a deformable image registration algorithm that uses anisotropic smoothing for regularization to find correspondences between images of sliding organs. In particular, we apply the method for respiratory motion estimation in longitudinal thoracic and abdominal computed tomography scans. The algorithm uses locally adaptive diffusion tensors to determine the direction and magnitude with which to smooth the components of the displacement field that are normal and tangential to an expected sliding boundary. Validation was performed using synthetic, phantom, and 14 clinical datasets, including the publicly available DIR-Lab dataset. We show that motion discontinuities caused by sliding can be effectively recovered, unlike conventional regularizations that enforce globally smooth motion. In the clinical datasets, target registration error showed improved accuracy for lung landmarks compared to the diffusive regularization. We also present a generalization of our algorithm to other sliding geometries, including sliding tubes (e.g., needles sliding through tissue, or contrast agent flowing through a vessel). Potential clinical applications of this method include longitudinal change detection and radiotherapy for lung or abdominal tumours, especially those near the chest or abdominal wall.
Autors: Pace, D.F.;Aylward, S.R.;Niethammer, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 32, issue:11, pages: 2114 - 2126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power 0.5–6.6 Gb/s Wireline Transceiver Embedded in Low-Cost 28 nm FPGAs
Abstract:
This paper describes the design of a 0.5–6.6 Gb/s fully-adaptive low-power quad transceiver embedded in low-leakage 28 nm CMOS FPGAs. Integration techniques enable the utilization of the transceiver in FPGAs with both wire-bond and flip-chip packages and resolve significant challenges with receiver input and transmitter output insertion loss, power integrity, ESD, and reliability. The transceiver clocking network provides continuous operation range up to the maximum speed and incorporates two wide-range ring-based PLLs for enhanced clocking flexibility. The receiver front-end utilizes a 3-stage CTLE with wide input common-mode to remove the post-cursor ISI. The CTLE is fully adaptive using an LMS algorithm and edge-based equalization. The transmitter utilizes a 3-tap FIR. The transceiver achieves BER 10 at 6.6 Gb/s over a 20 dB loss channel. Power consumption is 129 mW from 1.2 V and 1 V supplies.
Autors: Savoj, J.;Hsieh, K.C.;An, F.-T.;Gong, J.;Im, J.;Jiang, X.;Jose, A.P.;Kireev, V.;Lim, S.-W.;Roldan, A.;Turker, D.Z.;Upadhyaya, P.;Wu, D.;Chang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2582 - 2594
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Low-VDD Nonvolatile Latch Using Spin Transfer Torque MRAM
Abstract:
The high leakage power due to the scaling down of the process nodes has been one of the critical issues in CMOS circuits, especially in the sleep power critical systems. The emerging nonvolatile flip-flops (nvFFs) with fast saving and restoration speed and zero sleep power may be the solution to address the high sleep power issue. However, the “source degeneration” and/or “serial write” issues of the reported works may significantly limit the scalability. We propose a novel nvFF using two-phase write approach and complementary write drivers, which reduces more than 38% power for the saving operation and also scales VDD down to 1 V and below. Our proposed nvFF has the closest flip-flop (FF) performance as the CMOS retention FF. Moreover, it has more than 50% area reduction compared to the smallest nvFF in the prior arts.
Autors: Huang, K.;Lian, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 1094 - 1103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Magneto-Electric Dipole for Unidirectional UWB Communications
Abstract:
A new magneto-electric dipole antenna is designed. The antenna is composed of a horizontal bowtie electric dipole, a center-fed loop antenna functioning as a magnetic dipole and a rectangular cavity. A microstrip-to-stripline transition is employed as a balun to feed the antenna. A prototype was fabricated and measured. Results show that an impedance bandwidth of 110%, with from 3.08 to 10.6 GHz, was achieved. A stable gain of was realized by using the rectangular cavity. Stable radiation pattern with low cross polarization , low back radiation and symmetrical E- and H-plane patterns was found over the operating frequencies. Moreover, the impulse response is analyzed which reveals the antenna with good time domain characteristic.
Autors: Ge, L.;Luk, K.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 5762 - 5765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Markov Analysis of Selective Repeat ARQ with Variable Round Trip Time
Abstract:
Many papers analyze selective repeat automatic repeat request schemes by means of a Markov chain representation for the channel and, by extension, the whole transmission system. This Markov approach precisely characterizes the queueing behavior and the statistics of several delay terms. In the vast majority of the investigations, the round-trip time of the channel, which determines the instant of reception of the feedback from the receiver, is taken as a fixed value. This letter explores the relaxation of this assumption, still framing the system within a Markov chain. The main conclusion is that the impact of a variable round trip time on the delay statistics is rather limited. The used approach can be promptly applied to any similar analysis of retransmission-based error control systems.
Autors: Badia, Leonardo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 17, issue:11, pages: 2184 - 2187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Measurement-Based Multipath Channel Model for Signal Propagation in Presence of Wind Farms in the UHF Band
Abstract:
Scattering signals on wind turbines may lead to degradation problems on the communication systems provided in the UHF band, such as terrestrial television broadcasting, broadband wireless systems or public safety services. To date, despite the continuous requests from the International Telecommunication Union for studies on this field, no channel model has been developed to characterize signal propagation under these particular conditions. In response to this necessity, this paper presents a complete Tapped Delay Line (TDL) channel model to characterize multipath propagation in presence of a wind farm, including novel scattering modeling and Doppler spectra characterization. As proved later, this channel model, which is based on both theoretical development and empirical data obtained in the surroundings of a real wind farm, is adaptable to the particular features of any case under study: wind turbine dimensions, working frequency, and relative location of the wind farm, transmitter and receivers.
Autors: Angulo, Itziar;Montalban, Jon;Canizo, Josune;Wu, Yiyan;de la Vega, David;Guerra, David;Angueira, Pablo;Arrinda, Amaia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 61, issue:11, pages: 4788 - 4798
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Evaluating Energy Efficiency to Justify Power Factor Correction in Ship Power Systems
Abstract:
A poor power factor is often overlooked in ship power systems where electric motors are widely used to drive a variety of machinery and operate numerous processes. By reducing the reactive power produced by power generators through power factor correction (PFC), not only have system operating efficiency and economic targets been enhanced but greenhouse gas emissions have been also reduced. An evaluation of the economics of power factor improvement should take into account diesel electric generator loading, fuel oil consumption rate, running time, operating efficiency, and the production of emissions. This will help achieve energy-saving evaluation and ensure that the additional capital costs of installing a PFC system will provide an adequate rate of return on investment. This paper presents the methodology and results for the economic evaluation of PFC in marine vessels. A mathematical model, used to determine the relationships among fuel oil consumption, emission, and power factor for the diesel electric generator, is derived to quantify the possible benefits with PFC. An economic evaluation method using present worth analysis is performed to evaluate the PFC system. Numerical analysis and field test of practical ship power systems confirm the validity of the proposed approach and the critical parameters for PFC economics are determined.
Autors: Su, C.-L.;Lin, M.-C.;Liao, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 49, issue:6, pages: 2773 - 2782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metric for Test Set Characterization and Customization Toward Fault Diagnosis
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new metric to characterize test sets in terms of their diagnostic power. Our method uses much less space compared to the existing ones and is quite accurate. The metric can be utilized to increase the diagnosability of incompletely specified test sets via don't care filling. The X-filling approach can be integrated with test pattern generation tools to aid in better diagnostic pattern set generation.
Autors: Kundu, S.;Pal, S.;Chattopadhyay, S.;Sengupta, I.;Kapur, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 32, issue:11, pages: 1824 - 1828
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Riccati Transformation for Decentralized Computation of the Viability Kernel Under LTI Dynamics
Abstract:
Pub DtlComputing the viability kernel is key in providing guarantees of safety and proving existence of safety-preserving controllers for constrained dynamical systems. Current numerical techniques that approximate this construct suffer from a complexity that is exponential in the dimension of the state. We study conditions under which a linear time-invariant (LTI) system can be suitably decomposed into lower dimensional subsystems so as to admit a conservative computation of the viability kernel in a decentralized fashion in subspaces. We then present an isomorphism that imposes these desired conditions, most suitably on two-time-scale systems. Decentralized computations are performed in the transformed coordinates, yielding a conservative approximation of the viability kernel in the original state space. Significant reduction of complexity can be achieved, allowing the previously inapplicable tools to be employed for treatment of higher dimensional systems. We show the results on two examples including a 6-D system.
Autors: Kaynama, S.;Oishi, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 58, issue:11, pages: 2878 - 2892
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modular Neural Block to Enhance Power System Stability
Abstract:
Conventional supplementary controllers (CSCs) can still be widely observed in power system utilities. This work aims to develop a modular neural block (MNB) to improve control performance and stability of CSCs-aided power systems. The proposed MNB is actually a one-to-one offline trained self-recurrent wavelet neural network (SRWNN) which can be modularity added to the PI/PD/PID/Lag-Lead controllers to enhance their performance by adding an adaptive property to them. Independent of the plant model, the MNB is initially trained offline using virtual training-samples. As a prefabricated one-to-one neural block, it can then be copied to required numbers and added to the lag-lead controller or any/all branches of the PI/PD/PID controller in series connection. The employed MNB(s) is then re-trained online to increase control performance by minimizing a predefined cost-function. The online training is performed by back-propagation (BP) algorithm while the closed-loop stability is guaranteed by an efficient Lyapunov-based approach. The proposed approach is thus a model-free scheme which is simple enough for implementation. Ability of the MNB to enhance the performance of the CSCs and dynamic stability of power systems is demonstrated by the simulation results of two small power plants and an IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system.
Autors: Alizadeh, M.;Kojori, S.S.;Ganjefar, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4849 - 4856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multichannel Serial Link Receiver With Dual-Loop Clock-and-Data Recovery and Channel Equalization
Abstract:
This paper presents a four channel receiver for high-speed signal conditioning. Each channel consists of a continuous time linear equalizer (CTLE) and a dual loop CDR with phase-interpolator. All channels share a single PLL that generates and distributes quadrature clock phases to each CDR for data recovery. Clock amplitude, phase and phase are derived for phase error and predict phase-dependent jitter contributions to the recovered clock. The multilane receiver was designed in 130-nm CMOS technology. The die occupies an area of 1930 by 1250 and consumes 67.9 mW per channel. It achieves a maximum data rate of 7 Gbps per channel for 0 and clock frequency deviation.
Autors: Kalantari, N.;Buckwalter, J.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2920 - 2931
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multimarket Decision-Making Framework for GENCO Considering Emission Trading Scheme
Abstract:
In a multimarket environment, a GENCO produces electricity subject to a number of factors, including physical and environmental constraints, together with trading strategies in the electricity market (EM), fuel market (FM) and carbon market (CM). To assist a GENCO to maximize its profits from EM, FM and CM, this paper proposes a dynamic decision making model with two consecutive stages. Fuzzy differential evolution algorithm is used to solve this decision-making problem. Taking transactions in the three interactive markets into account, the proposed model has been tested for a GENCO consisting of seven thermal units and a wind farm. A rational tradeoff between the profit-making and emission reduction has been demonstrated by the GENCO using the proposed model, indicating a well alignment with the intended goal of the introducing emission trading scheme (ETS).
Autors: Li, X.R.;Yu, C.W.;Xu, Z.;Luo, F.J.;Dong, Z.Y.;Wong, K.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4099 - 4108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A multiplicative model for improving microvascular flow estimation in dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US): theory and experimental validation
Abstract:
Perfusion parameter estimation from dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) data relies on fitting parametric models of flow to curves describing linear echo power as a function of time. The least squares criterion is generally used to fit these models to data. This criterion is optimal in the sense of maximum likelihood under the assumption of an additive white Gaussian noise. In the current work, it is demonstrated that this assumption is not held for DCEUS. A better-adapted maximum likelihood criterion based on a multiplicative model is proposed. It is tested on simulated bolus perfusion data and on 11 sequences acquired in vivo during bolus perfusion of contrast agent in the cortex of healthy murine kidney, an area where the perfusion is expected to be approximately homogeneous. Results on simulated data show a significant improvement (p < 0.05) of the precision and the accuracy for the estimations of perfusion parameters time to peak (TTP), wash-in rate (WiR), and mean transit time (MTT). On the 11 in vivo sequences, the new method leads to a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the variation of parametric maps for 9 sequences for TTP and 10 sequences for WiR and MTT. The mean percent decreases of the coefficient of variation are 40%, 25%, and 59% for TTP, WiR, and MTT, respectively. This method should contribute to a more robust and accurate estimation of perfusion parameters and an improved resolution of parametric imaging.
Autors: null;null;null;null;null;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 60, issue:11, pages: 2284 - 2294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Near-Threshold 480 MHz 78 µW All-Digital PLL With a Bootstrapped DCO
Abstract:
This paper presents a near-threshold low-power all-digital PLL (ADPLL). It includes a 9-bit bootstrapped DCO (BDCO) to reduce supply voltage and power consumption, a weighted thermometer-controlled resistor network (WTRN) to achieve high linearity, and a 4-bit sigma-delta modulator to improve the resolution through dithering. The ADPLL is fabricated in a 90 nm SPRVT low-K CMOS process with a core area of 0.057 mm². The measured results demonstrate that the bootstrapped ring oscillator (BTRO) oscillates at 602 MHz under a supply of 0.5 V and consumes 49.1 µW. The ADPLL operates at 480 MHz (48 MHz) with a power consumption of 78 µW (2.4 µW) under a supply voltage of 0.5 V (0.25 V).
Autors: Ho, Y.;Yang, Y.-S.;Chang, C.;Su, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 2805 - 2814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New and Fast Method for Preventive Control Selection in Voltage Stability Analysis
Abstract:
A new method for selection of the most effective controls to prevent voltage instability in electrical power systems is developed in this paper. The proposed method is fast and suitable for real time operation. It is based on a sensitivity analysis of both a maximum loadability estimate (which is obtained via Look-Ahead method) and the load flow solution with respect to the selected controls. These sensitivities are calculated without computing the maximum loadability points, which significantly speeds-up the analysis. The method was successfully tested in a reduced model of the south-southeast Brazilian system composed of 107 buses.
Autors: Mansour, M.R.;Geraldi, E.L.;Alberto, L.F.C.;Ramos, R.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 28, issue:4, pages: 4448 - 4455
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New DES Control Synthesis Approach Based on Structural Model Properties
Abstract:
This work proposes a novel approach for controller synthesis on the shop-floor level for discrete-event systems. The approach is based on a modular modeling formalism and structural properties of models of uncontrolled plant behavior that are designed using this modeling formalism. The approach takes advantage of the transition invariants of the underlying Petri net components of the model and uses the event interconnections of transitions that are part of the transition invariants. The result is the so-called transition invariant graph that represents a new structural property of the modeled system. The synthesis procedure takes models of the uncontrolled plant behavior and formal specifications of the desired cyclic plant behavior under control and forbidden states as well. From these ingredients, the transition invariant graph is computed from which the admissible trajectories are extracted. This is performed by partial reachability analysis. An example taken from a lab-scaled manufacturing system illustrates the methodology and shows the application. The complexity of the synthesis procedure is significantly reduced. That makes it feasible to be used for even larger systems of real industrial scale.
Autors: Lapp, H.-C.;Hanisch, H.-M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Nov 2013, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 2340 - 2348
Publisher: IEEE
 

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