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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 11-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» ΔΣ digitised polar transmitter with CMOS switching power amplifier
Abstract:
A delta-sigma (ΔΣ ) digitised polar RF transmitter with a CMOS switching power amplifier is presented. The proposed power amplifier consists of a class-E amplifier with a modulating current source which allows high efficiency and high linearity. A current source is introduced in the proposed power amplifier to achieve ΔΣ digitised amplitude modulation. The current mode amplitude modulation is suitable for a high speed modulated signal such as an oversampled ΔΣ signal.
Autors: Paek, J.-S.;Lee, H.-Y.;Joo, T.H.;Hong, S.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 46, issue:23, pages: 1551 - 1553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» @neurIST: Infrastructure for Advanced Disease Management Through Integration of Heterogeneous Data, Computing, and Complex Processing Services
Abstract:
The increasing volume of data describing human disease processes and the growing complexity of understanding, managing, and sharing such data presents a huge challenge for clinicians and medical researchers. This paper presents the @neurIST system, which provides an infrastructure for biomedical research while aiding clinical care, by bringing together heterogeneous data and complex processing and computing services. Although @neurIST targets the investigation and treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the system's architecture is generic enough that it could be adapted to the treatment of other diseases.
Autors: Benkner, S.;Arbona, A.;Berti, G.;Chiarini, A.;Dunlop, R.;Engelbrecht, G.;Frangi, A. F.;Friedrich, C. M.;Hanser, S.;Hasselmeyer, P.;Hose, R. D.;Iavindrasana, J.;Köhler, M.;Iacono, L. L.;Lonsdale, G.;Meyer, R.;Moore, B.;Rajasekaran, H.;Summers,
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 1365 - 1377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “behaviorism”: a framework for dynamic data visualization
Abstract:
While a number of information visualization software frameworks exist, creating new visualizations, especially those that involve novel visualization metaphors, interaction techniques, data analysis strategies, and specialized rendering algorithms, is still often a difficult process. To facilitate the creation of novel visualizations we present a new software framework, behaviorism, which provides a wide range of flexibility when working with dynamic information on visual, temporal, and ontological levels, but at the same time providing appropriate abstractions which allow developers to create prototypes quickly which can then easily be turned into robust systems. The core of the framework is a set of three interconnected graphs, each with associated operators: a scene graph for high-performance 3D rendering, a data graph for different layers of semantically linked heterogeneous data, and a timing graph for sophisticated control of scheduling, interaction, and animation. In particular, the timing graph provides a unified system to add behaviors to both data and visual elements, as well as to the behaviors themselves. To evaluate the framework we look briefly at three different projects all of which required novel visualizations in different domains, and all of which worked with dynamic data in different ways: an interactive ecological simulation, an information art installation, and an information visualization technique.
Autors: Forbes, Angus;Hollerer, Tobias;Legrady, George;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 1164 - 1171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.5-V Low- CMOS Preamplifier for Low-Power and High-Speed Gigabit-DRAM Arrays
Abstract:
A novel low- CMOS preamplifier was developed for low-power and high-speed gigabit DRAM arrays. The sensing time of a sense amplifier (SA) with the proposed preamplifier and its activation schemes at a data-line voltage of 0.5 V was 6 ns, which is 62% shorter than that of an SA using a conventional preamplifier. By activating the proposed preamplifier temporarily during the write cycle, the writing time was 16.3 ns, which is 72% shorter than the case without activation of the proposed preamplifier, and this time is short enough to apply a DRAM array using the proposed preamplifier to 1.6-Gbit/s/pin DDR3 SDRAM. The operating current of the memory array and its peripheral circuit including the proposed preamplifier was reduced by 12% by reducing the data-line voltage from 0.8 to 0.5 V.
Autors: Kotabe, A.;Yanagawa, Y.;Akiyama, S.;Sekiguchi, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2348 - 2355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.5-V Low- CMOS Preamplifier for Low-Power and High-Speed Gigabit-DRAM Arrays
Abstract:
A novel low-VT CMOS preamplifier was developed for low-power and high-speed gigabit DRAM arrays. The sensing time of a sense amplifier (SA) with the proposed preamplifier and its activation schemes at a data-line voltage of 0.5 V was 6 ns, which is 62% shorter than that of an SA using a conventional preamplifier. By activating the proposed preamplifier temporarily during the write cycle, the writing time was 16.3 ns, which is 72% shorter than the case without activation of the proposed preamplifier, and this time is short enough to apply a DRAM array using the proposed preamplifier to 1.6-Gbit/s/pin DDR3 SDRAM. The operating current of the memory array and its peripheral circuit including the proposed preamplifier was reduced by 12% by reducing the data-line voltage from 0.8 to 0.5 V.
Autors: Kotabe, A.;Yanagawa, Y.;Akiyama, S.;Sekiguchi, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2348 - 2355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.65V class-AB current-mode four-quadrant multiplier with reduced power dissipation
Abstract:
A class-AB CMOS current-mode four-quadrant multiplier with an improved biasing scheme is introduced in this letter. Compared to the corresponding already published topology, the proposed multiplier offers a significant reduction of power dissipation without increasing the circuit complexity. The behavior of the proposed topology has been verified through simulation results using typical parameters of a 0.13?m CMOS technology.
Autors: C., Kasimis , C., Psychalinos
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Nov 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 1.3- m Laterally Tapered Ridge Waveguide DFB Lasers With Second-Order Cr Surface Gratings
Abstract:
We report the laterally tapered ridge waveguide InGaAsP–InGaAsP multiple quantum-well distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers with metal surface gratings, operating at , by holographic lithography. Single-tapered and double-tapered (bow-tie) ridge waveguide DFB structures with second-order Cr surface gratings are employed to enhance the coupling efficiency. The 600- -long laterally coupled DFB laser with a double-tapered ridge waveguide structure exhibits significantly improved single-mode operation without mode hopping, with a maximum sidemode suppression ratio of 42 dB and temperature-dependent wavelength shift up to .
Autors: Yeo, C. I.;Jang, S. J.;Yu, J. S.;Lee, Y. T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:22, pages: 1668 - 1670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10.7-Gb/s Discrete Multitone Transmission Over 25-m Bend-Insensitive Multicore Polymer Optical Fiber
Abstract:
We report on 10.7-Gb/s transmission over 25-m multicore polymer optical fiber (MC-POF) which allows a robust transmission and ease of installation including tight bends. The discrete multitone modulation technique is applied to the intensity-modulated direct-detection optical channel in order to achieve high spectral efficiency. The use of bend-insensitive MC-POF reduces significantly the admissible bending radius to 2.5 mm without any signal distortion resulting in a very robust installation. The POF-optimized receiver comprises a silicon pin photodiode with an active diameter of 400 and a transimpedance amplifier.
Autors: Loquai, S.;Kruglov, R.;Bunge, C.-A.;Ziemann, O.;Schmauss, B.;Vinogradov, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:21, pages: 1604 - 1606
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100-GHz Wireless-Over-Fiber Links With Up to 16-Gb/s QPSK Modulation Using Optical Heterodyne Generation and Digital Coherent Detection
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel technique for direct conversion of an optical baseband quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal to a millimeter-wave wireless signal and subsequent signal demodulation is reported. Optical heterodyne mixing of the optical baseband QPSK signal with a free-running unmodulated laser for the wireless signal generation is employed. To correct for the phase and frequency offset originating from the heterodyne mixing of the two free-running lasers, wireless signal demodulation based on optical coherent detection in combination with baseband digital signal processing is implemented. As a proof of concept, 5-Gb/s amplitude-shift keying and up to a 16-Gb/s QPSK wireless signal in the band of 75–110 GHz was generated and successfully demodulated. All-photonic millimeter-wave wireless signal generation and digital coherent detection at baud-rate are employed without complex optical phase-locked loop.
Autors: Sambaraju, R.;Zibar, D.;Caballero, A.;Monroy, I. T.;Alemany, R.;Herrera, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:22, pages: 1650 - 1652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D high-frame-rate dynamic elastography using delay compensated and angularly compounded motion vectors: Preliminary results
Abstract:
This paper describes a new ultrasound-based system for high-frame-rate measurement of periodic motion in 2-D for tissue elasticity imaging. Similarly to conventional 2-D flow vector imaging, the system acquires the RF signals from the region of interest at multiple steering angles. A custom sector subdivision technique is used to increase the temporal resolution while keeping the total acquisition time within the range suitable for real-time applications. Within each sector, 1-D motion is estimated along the beam direction. The intraand inter-sector delays are compensated using our recently introduced delay compensation algorithm. In-plane 2-D motion vectors are then reconstructed from these delay-compensated 1-D motions. We show that Young's modulus images can be reconstructed from these 2-D motion vectors using local inversion algorithms. The performance of the system is validated quantitatively using a commercial flow phantom and a commercial elasticity phantom. At the frame rate of 1667 Hz, the estimated flow velocities with the system are in agreement with the velocity measured with a pulsed-wave Doppler imaging mode of a commercial ultrasound machine with manual angle correction. At the frame rate of 1250 Hz, phantom Young¿s moduli of 29, 6, and 54 kPa for the background, the soft inclusion, and the hard inclusion, are estimated to be 30, 11, and 53 kPa, respectively.
Autors: Azar, R.Z.;Baghani, A.;Salcudean, S.E.;Rohling, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 2421 - 2436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D modeling of laterally acoustically coupled thin film bulk acoustic wave resonator filters
Abstract:
A 2-D model is developed for calculating lateral acoustical coupling between adjacent thin film BAW resonators forming an electrical N-port. The model is based on solution and superposition of lateral eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a structure consisting of adjacent regions with known plate wave dispersion properties. Mechanical and electrical response of the device are calculated as a superposition of eigenmodes according to voltage drive at one electrical port at a time while extracting current induced in the other ports, leading to a full Y-parameter description of the device. Exemplary cases are simulated to show the usefulness of the model in the study of the basic design rules of laterally coupled thin film BAW resonator filters. Model predictions are compared to an experimental 1.9- GHz band-pass filter based on aluminum nitride thin film technology and lateral acoustical coupling. Good agreement is obtained in prediction of passband behavior. The eigenmode-based model forms a useful tool for fast simulation of laterally coupled acoustic devices. It allows one to gain insight into basic device physics in a very intuitive fashion compared with more detailed but heavier finite element method. Shortcomings of this model and possible improvements are discussed.
Autors: Pensala, T.;Meltaus, J.;Kokkonen, K.;Ylilammi, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 2537 - 2549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2010 list of reviewers for Automatica?
Abstract:
[No author name available]
Autors: Source: Automatica, Volume 46, Issue 12, December 2010, Pages 2116-2125
Appeared in: Automatica
Publication date: Nov 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 2012 Isn't the End of the World
Abstract:
The Internet address space has used a format called IPv4 since 1977, but this only allows for 4.3 billion unique termination points in the Internet. It is now clear that more terminations must be supported and the recommended format is called IPv6 and uses 128 bit addresses. The IPv4 address space is going to exhausted by 2012 or sooner. It is time to implement IPv6 everywhere in the Internet and to assure full connectivity among all IPv6-capable devices and sub-networks.
Autors: Cerf, Vinton G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 96 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 21st Century Green Power Rises from Early ElectricRailway—Part 2 [History]
Abstract:
The Albany and Hudson Railway and Power Company opened its electric railroad on 22 November 1900. Considered the longest road of its type at the time, the 37-mi third-rail line stretched between Hudson and the city of Rensselaer, New York, providing commuter transportation, freight movement, and electricity for nearby communities. The railway derived its 600-V dc power from a unique combination of steam and hydroelectric generation delivered from a dam and power station on Kinderhook Creek at Stuyvesant Falls, New York.
Autors: Besha, J.A., Sr.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 7 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Model Search and Retrieval From Range Images Using Salient Features
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel framework for partial matching and retrieval of 3-D models based on a query-by-range-image approach. Initially, salient features are extracted for both the query range image and the 3-D target model. The concept behind the proposed algorithm is that, for a 3-D object and a corresponding query range image, there should be a virtual camera with such intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that would generate an optimum range image, in terms of minimizing an error function that takes into account the salient features of the objects, when compared to other parameter sets or other target 3-D models. In the context of the developed framework, a novel method is also proposed to hierarchically search in the parameter space for the optimum solution. Experimental results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach even in the presence of noise or occlusion.
Autors: Stavropoulos, G.;Moschonas, P.;Moustakas, K.;Tzovaras, D.;Strintzis, M. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 12, issue:7, pages: 692 - 704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Scanning of Nonopaque Objects by Means of Imaging Emitted Structured Infrared Patterns
Abstract:
Three-dimensional surface acquisition is a subject that has been studied to a large extent; a significant number of techniques for acquiring shapes have been proposed, and a wide range of commercial solutions is available. Nevertheless, today's systems still have difficulties when digitizing objects that are transparent or semitransparent in the visible range. In this paper, some of the issues of traditional scanning systems are addressed by considering the radiative properties of materials. As a result, an infrared laser light-based scanner is presented for successfully acquiring the shape of complex surfaces by analyzing heat patterns that are emitted by the object.
Autors: Meriaudeau, F.;Alonso Sanchez Secades, L.;Eren, G.;Ercil, A.;Truchetet, F.;Aubreton, O.;Fofi, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 2898 - 2906
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using the direct frame interpolation method
Abstract:
A new method for 3-D ultrasound volume reconstruction using tracked freehand 3-D ultrasound is proposed. The method is based on solving the forward volume reconstruction problem using direct interpolation of high-resolution ultrasound B-mode image frames. A series of ultrasound B-mode image frames (an image series) is acquired using the freehand scanning technique and position sensing via optical tracking equipment. The proposed algorithm creates additional intermediate image frames by directly interpolating between two or more adjacent image frames of the original image series. The target volume is filled using the original frames in combination with the additionally constructed frames. Compared with conventional volume reconstruction methods, no additional filling of empty voxels or holes within the volume is required, because the whole extent of the volume is defined by the arrangement of the original and the additionally constructed B-mode image frames. The proposed direct frame interpolation (DFI) method was tested on two different data sets acquired while scanning the head and neck region of different patients. The first data set consisted of eight B-mode 2-D frame sets acquired under optimal laboratory conditions. The second data set consisted of 73 image series acquired during a clinical study. Sample volumes were reconstructed for all 81 image series using the proposed DFI method with four different interpolation orders, as well as with the pixel nearest-neighbor method using three different interpolation neighborhoods. In addition, volumes based on a reduced number of image frames were reconstructed for comparison of the different methods? accuracy and robustness in reconstructing image data that lies between the original image frames. The DFI method is based on a forward approach making use of a priori information about the position and shape of the B-mode image frames (e.g., masking information) to optimize the reconstruction procedure and to reduce comp- - utation times and memory requirements. The method is straightforward, independent of additional input or parameters, and uses the high-resolution B-mode image frames instead of usually lower-resolution voxel information for interpolation. The DFI method can be considered as a valuable alternative to conventional 3-D ultrasound reconstruction methods based on pixel or voxel nearest-neighbor approaches, offering better quality and competitive reconstruction time.
Autors: Scheipers, U.;Koptenko, S.;Remlinger, R.;Falco, T.;Lachaine, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 2460 - 2470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Forward and Back-Projection for X-Ray CT Using Separable Footprints
Abstract:
Iterative methods for 3D image reconstruction have the potential to improve image quality over conventional filtered back projection (FBP) in X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, the computation burden of 3D cone-beam forward and back-projectors is one of the greatest challenges facing practical adoption of iterative methods for X-ray CT. Moreover, projector accuracy is also important for iterative methods. This paper describes two new separable footprint (SF) projector methods that approximate the voxel footprint functions as 2D separable functions. Because of the separability of these footprint functions, calculating their integrals over a detector cell is greatly simplified and can be implemented efficiently. The SF-TR projector uses trapezoid functions in the transaxial direction and rectangular functions in the axial direction, whereas the SF-TT projector uses trapezoid functions in both directions. Simulations and experiments showed that both SF projector methods are more accurate than the distance-driven (DD) projector, which is a current state-of-the-art method in the field. The SF-TT projector is more accurate than the SF-TR projector for rays associated with large cone angles. The SF-TR projector has similar computation speed with the DD projector and the SF-TT projector is about two times slower.
Autors: Long, Y.;Fessler, J. A.;Balter, J. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 29, issue:11, pages: 1839 - 1850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D monolithic integration: technological challenges and electrical results
Abstract:
After a short reminder of the principle of monolithic 3D integration, this paper firstly reviews the main technological challenges associated to this integration and proposes solutions to assess them. Wafer bonding is used to have perfect crystalline quality of the top layer at the wafer scale. Thermally stabilized silicide is developed to use standard salicidation scheme in the bottom layer. Finally a Fully Depleted SOI low temperature process is demonstrated for top layer processing (overall temperature kept below 650°C). In a second part the electrical results obtained within this integration scheme are summarized: mixed Ge over Si invertor is demonstrated...
Autors: M., Vinet , P., Batude , C., Tabone , B., Previtali , C., LeRoyer , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3DUI 2010 Contest Grand Prize Winners
Abstract:
The 2010 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces ran the symposium's first 3DUI Grand Prize, a contest for innovative, practical solutions to classic 3DUI problems. The authors describe the rationale for the first contest and give an analysis of all submissions. Each category's winners also discuss their solutions.
Autors: Figueroa, Pablo;Kitamura, Yoshifumi;Kuntz, Sebastien;Vanacken, Lode;Maesen, Steven;De Weyer, Tom;Notelaers, Sofie;Octavia, Johanna Renny;Beznosyk, Anastasiia;Coninx, Karin;Bacim, Felipe;Kopper, Regis;Leal, Anamary;Ni, Tao;Bowman, Doug A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 30, issue:6, pages: 86 - 96, c3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3GPP Mobile Multimedia Streaming Standards [Standards in a Nutshell]
Abstract:
Data rates offered by mobile networks are increasing, as are the capabilities of mobile devices. With this, mobile multimedia services are getting wider distribution [1]. Traditional linear mobile TV services, where the viewer has to watch a scheduled TV program at the offered time, were initially dominating but other streaming services like Video on Demand, User-Generated Content (USG) services, or Internet streaming services are becoming more important. This article describes the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards for mobile unicast multimedia streaming and how they are used in almost 200 mobile networks.
Autors: Gabin, F.;Kampmann, M.;Lohmar, T.;Priddle, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 27, issue:6, pages: 134 - 138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 45 nm hp line/space patterning into a thin spin coat film by UV nanoimprint based on condensation
Abstract:
Applicability of UV nanoimprint based on gas condensation to 45 nm line and space (L/S) patterning using a spin-coat UV curable resin was evaluated. Although high capillary pressure is generated in such fine L/S patterns when UV curable resin liquid comes in contact with the groove surface, the trapped air in those grooves is not completely compressed and results in the formation of bubble defects. Bubbles much larger than the pattern size were generated at the middle of the L/S patterns for a 108 nm thick, UV curable resin film, and incomplete filling may occur on a large area of the L/S patterns for a 19 nm thick film. Since nearly bubble-free L/S patterns have been fabricated for 48 nm thick, UV curable resin film, it might be possible to make bubble-free UV nanoimprint by prolonging the imprinting time. On the contrary, when UV nanoimprint was carried out in pentafluoropropane (PFP), no bubbles were created for all thicknesses of the UV curable resin films. Uniformity of residual layer looked quite good judging from the color uniformity of the area around the L/S patterns. It was found, from the residual layer measurement by a reflective thickness monitor, that bubble-free UV nanoimprint was carried out with a residual layer thickness of 15.2 nm. UV nanoimprinted samples were inspected with a scanning electron microscope and it was verified that UV nanoimprint using PFP is viable for the fabrication 45 nm L/S patterns.
Autors: Hiroshima, Hiroshi;Wang, Qing;Youn, Sung-Won;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 28, issue:6, pages: C6M12 - C6M16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50–250 MHz ΔΣ DLL for Clock Synchronization
Abstract:
A DLL targeted for clock synchronization has been proposed. Unlike other existing DLL designs, the proposed DLL makes use of the dithering in the feedback path rather than at the input, which eliminates the need of additional multi-phase generator, and hence simplifies the architecture and improves the jitter performance. It also employs a second order adaptive filter to achieve dynamic loop bandwidth control for different operating frequencies as well as a unique antiharmonic detector to avoid false locking. Clock synchronization is achieved in two steps. During the coarse tuning step, the delay edge from DLL that closely matched to the incoming clock is first determined. In subsequent fine tuning step, a successive approximation method is then employed to quickly shift the selected delay edge to achieve synchronization with the incoming clock. Fabricated in 0.35 m CMOS technology, the DLL core can operate from 50 to 250 MHz with a delay step resolution of 15 ps and occupy only 0.4 mm . It draws about 6.9 mA from 3 V supply at 200 MHz and exhibits an rms jitter of 2.1 ps.
Autors: Cheng, S.-J.;Qiu, L.;Zheng, Y.;Heng, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2445 - 2456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50-Wavelength Channel-by-Channel Tunable Optical Dispersion Compensator Using a Combination of AWG and Bulk Grating
Abstract:
We propose a novel optical configuration for a multichannel tunable optical dispersion compensator (TODC) with channel-by-channel operation across the entire -band. The TODC consists of a cyclic frequency arrayed-waveguide grating whose free spectral range coincides with the channel spacing, a bulk grating, and a liquid crystal on silicon. We achieved channel-by-channel compensation over 50 channels with a maximum chromatic dispersion of 800 ps/nm.
Autors: Seno, K.;Suzuki, K.;Ooba, N.;Watanabe, T.;Itoh, M.;Mino, S.;Sakamoto, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:22, pages: 1659 - 1661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 years since "kpb wcy xz" became more informative than "I love you"
Abstract:
Claude Elwood Shannon's classic paper on information theory is into its 60th year of existence, having appeared in the Bell System Technical Journal in 1948. Shannon passed away in 2001, at the age of 84, but information theory is 60 years young. Shannon himself demonstrated discrete sources of information through the example of natural language, and today a similar analysis is being applied in the realm of yet another language, the language of life. One of the unique features of information theory is its simplicity, not withstanding the mathematical rigor that Shannon has used in his seminal 1948 paper. The definitions for information content and information entropy are both elegantly conceived, though counterintuitive, in certain ways. As per information theory, a random selection of English alphabets and space would be more informative than a phrase that is picked out at random from a newspaper or a blog (hence the choice of the title for this article). When we reconcile with this apparent counter-intuitiveness, we are on the learning curve of information theory.
Autors: Nair, Achuthsankar S.;K.S., Arun;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 16 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 70-Gb/s Multicore Multimode Fiber Transmissions for Optical Data Links
Abstract:
This letter describes a novel structure and crosstalk characteristics of a graded-index multicore fiber with seven cores arranged in a hexagonal array. A total of 70 Gb/s (7 10 Gb/s) is transmitted over a single 100-m seven-core multimode fiber (MMF) using tapered multicore fiber connectors and 850-nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, demonstrating high-speed multicore MMF transmissions for parallel optical data links.
Autors: Zhu, B.;Taunay, T. F.;Yan, M. F.;Fishteyn, M.;Oulundsen, G.;Vaidya, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:22, pages: 1647 - 1649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2–3 μm mid infrared light sources using InGaAs/GaAsSb “W” type quantum wells on InP substrates
Abstract:
We have investigated the InGaAs/GaAsSb/InAlGaAs/InAlAs type-II “W” quantum wells (QWs) grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence (PL) emission wavelength longer than 2.56 μm at room temperature (RT) is demonstrated for the first time in this material system. The PL emission peaks of our designed samples can cover a wide range from 2 to 2.5 μm at cryogenic temperature. The samples show good optical quality that the reduction in integrated PL intensity is only around one order of magnitude from 35 K to RT. We found that the integrated PL intensity decreased as the emission wavelength increased, which is due to the reduction in the electron-hole wave function overlap. This is consistent with the calculated result. In the power dependent PL measurements, the emission peak of “W” type QWs show blue shifts with the excitation power (Pex) but does not follow the Pex1/3 rule as predicted by type-II band bending model. The localized states filling effect gives reasonable explanations for the observed phenomena.
Autors: Pan, C. H.;Lin, S. D.;Lee, C. P.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 108, issue:10, pages: 103105 - 103105-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CO2 laser treatment for stabilization of the superhydrophobicity of carbon nanotube surfaces
Abstract:
In this work, the authors demonstrate the formation of stable superhydrophobic vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (VACNT) surfaces through CO2 laser irradiance, in which the contact angle value reached 161°. VACNT arrays were synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using N2/H2/CH4 [10/90/14 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP)]. CO2 laser technique was applied on VACNT surfaces with irradiance at different laser powers to promote the great stability of superhydrophobic surfaces. Contact angle measurement reveals that irradiated VACNT surface is superhydrophobic at all irradiances tested. Unlike as-grown VACNT, the samples treated with CO2 laser show no sign of water seepage even after a prolonged period of time (∼24 h). This characteristic is very interesting and has various possible functional applications in micro- and nanomaterials and devices.
Autors: Ramos, S. C.;Vasconcelos, G.;Antunes, E. F.;Lobo, A. O.;Trava-Airoldi, V. J.;Corat, E. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 28, issue:6, pages: 1153 - 1157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nb/AlAlOxNb superconducting heterostructures: A promising class of self-shunted Josephson junctions
Abstract:
The measurements of dc Josephson and quasiparticle current-voltage characteristics of four-layered Nb/AlAlOxNb devices with a fixed Nb thickness of 270 nm and Al thicknesses ranging from 40 to 120 nm are reported and analyzed in the framework of a microscopic model developed to determine stationary properties of dirty limit double-barrier junctions. It is shown that the temperature dependence of the supercurrent as well as the values of characteristic voltages are well reproduced by the model calculations with only one fitting parameter. We have revealed a hysteretic-to-nonhysteretic transition in the current-voltage characteristics of our junctions at temperatures near 4.2 K and argue that this effect is caused by two factors: high-transparency insulating barrier with a broad distribution of the transmission coefficient and the temperature as a tuning parameter, which decreases the McCumber–Stewart parameter from values above unity at low temperatures to less than one above 4.2 K. Finally, we show how and why the temperature stability of the proposed Josephson devices can be significantly improved by choosing an appropriate Al thickness.
Autors: Lacquaniti, V.;De Leo, N.;Fretto, M.;Sosso, A.;Belogolovskii, M.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 108, issue:9, pages: 093701 - 093701-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» VO2 multidomain heteroepitaxial growth and terahertz transmission modulation
Abstract:
We report the epitaxial relationship of VO2 thin-films on c-plane sapphire and their terahertz transmission modulation with temperature. The films exhibit a triple-domain structure caused by the lattice mismatch between monoclinic VO2 and sapphire hexagon. The epitaxial relationship is determined to be VO2[010]||Al2O3[0001] and VO2(202)||Al2O3{1120}, with the in-plane lattice mismatch of 2.66% (tensile) along [202] and the out-of-plane lattice mismatch of -2.19% (compressive). Terahertz measurements revealed that VO2 films have over fourfold change in transmission during the metal-insulator transition, indicating a strong potential for terahertz wave switching and modulation applications.
Autors: Chen, Changhong;Zhu, Yanhan;Zhao, Yong;Lee, Joon Hwan;Wang, Haiyan;Bernussi, Ayrton;Holtz, Mark;Fan, Zhaoyang;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 97, issue:21, pages: 211905 - 211905-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduction for Removal Using Wet-Type Plasma Reactor
Abstract:
The fundamental characteristics of flue gas cleaning for using a wet-type plasma reactor are evaluated, with attention being laid on concentrations of nitrate and ammonium ions in the liquid. The wet-type plasma reactor of the wire–cylinder configuration driven by a square-wave high voltage was used. A thin liquid film was maintained on the inner wall of the reactor. In this reactor, a discharge plasma oxidizes NO to , and is dissolved into the liquid as . Continuous absorption of nitrogen oxides induces saturation and acidification of the liquid, therefore inhibiting further absorption. The effect of the addition of ammonium ions into the liquid film on the enhancement of removal has been experimentally confirmed. In that case, the addition of was effective for NO oxidation, as well as absorption into the liquid, resulting in the increase of and concentrations in the liquid. With the presence of ions in the liquid exposed to the discharge plasma, a reduction of $ hbox{NO}_{3}^{-}$- - to takes place. The reduction of nitrate ions to ammonia raises the solution pH and ensures continuous absorption. These results suggest the possibility of the continuous operation of the wet-type plasma reactor for removal without excess acidification of the absorbing water. The process that is responsible for the reduction of nitrate ions into ammonium ions is of an electrochemical nature.
Autors: Thagard, S. M.;Kinoshita, Y.;Ikeda, H.;Takashima, K.;Katsura, S.;Mizuno, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 2165 - 2171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.3–1.4 GHz All-Digital Fractional-N PLL With Adaptive Loop Gain Controller
Abstract:
A 0.3–1.4 GHz all-digital phase locked loop (ADPLL) with an adaptive loop gain controller (ALGC), a 1/8-resolution fractional divider and a frequency search block is presented. The ALGC reduces the nonlinearity of the bang-bang phase-frequency detector (BBPFD), reducing output jitter. The fractional divider partially compensates for the large input phase error caused by fractional-N frequency synthesis. A fast frequency search unit using the false position method achieves frequency lock in 6 iterations that correspond to 192 reference clock cycles. A prototype ADPLL using a BBPFD with a dead-zone-free retimer, an ALGC, a fractional divider, and a digital logic implementation of a frequency search algorithm was fabricated in a 0.13- CMOS logic process. The core occupies 0.2 and consumes 16.5 mW with a 1.2-V supply at 1.35-GHz. Measured RMS and peak-to-peak jitter with activating the ALGC are 3.7 ps and 32 ps respectively.
Autors: Kim, D.-S.;Song, H.;Kim, T.;Kim, S.;Jeong, D.-K;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2300 - 2311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5 mm Power-Scalable 0.5–3.8-GHz CMOS DT-SDR Receiver With Second-Order RF Band-Pass Sampler
Abstract:
A highly flexible receiver chain based on RF-sampling and discrete-time signal processing in the charge domain for SDR applications is presented. A compact switched-inductor variable-gain front-end provides multiband low noise amplification and RF-selectivity with reduced area penalties. Strong selectivity at RF was obtained through a novel discrete-time decimating bandpass filter with triangular weighted filter taps. Decimation filters with programmable number of taps offer flexible rate decimation. A power scalable discrete-time baseband filter was implemented in-order to minimize static power consumption. The 90-nm digital CMOS implementation achieves a noise figure of 5.1 dB, a variable gain range of more than 60 dB with IIP3 and IIP2. This is achieved for power figures competitive with dedicated solutions. The receiver, frequency synthesizer excluded, occupies only 0.5 .
Autors: Geis, A.;Ryckaert, J.;Bos, L.;Vandersteen, G.;Rolain, Y.;Craninckx, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2375 - 2387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5 mm Power-Scalable 0.5–3.8-GHz CMOS DT-SDR Receiver With Second-Order RF Band-Pass Sampler
Abstract:
A highly flexible receiver chain based on RF-sampling and discrete-time signal processing in the charge domain for SDR applications is presented. A compact switched-inductor variable-gain front-end provides multiband low noise amplification and RF-selectivity with reduced area penalties. Strong selectivity at RF was obtained through a novel discrete-time decimating bandpass filter with triangular weighted filter taps. Decimation filters with programmable number of taps offer flexible rate decimation. A power scalable discrete-time baseband filter was implemented in-order to minimize static power consumption. The 90-nm digital CMOS implementation achieves a noise figure of 5.1 dB, a variable gain range of more than 60 dB with +1 dBm IIP3 and +50 dBm IIP2. This is achieved for power figures competitive with dedicated solutions. The receiver, frequency synthesizer excluded, occupies only 0.5 mm2 .
Autors: Geis, A.;Ryckaert, J.;Bos, L.;Vandersteen, G.;Rolain, Y.;Craninckx, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2375 - 2387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5- V 12- W Wirelessly Powered Patch-Type Healthcare Sensor for Wearable Body Sensor Network
Abstract:
A wirelessly powered patch-type healthcare sensor IC is presented for a wearable body sensor network (W-BSN) to continuously monitor personal vital signals. Thick-film electrodes are screen printed on a fabric by planar-fashionable circuit board (P-FCB) technology on which stainless steel powder with a grain size of 100 m is added to reduce both contact impedance as well as motion artifacts. A nested chopped amplifier (NCA) is designed and optimized for the proposed patch-type healthcare sensor with a reduced electrode referred noise of 0.5 V . A programmable gain and bandwidth amplifier (PGA) stage is also implemented to accommodate various dynamic ranges of vital signals. A 10-b folded successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) reduces capacitive digital-to-analog conversion size by 94% and relaxes the power budget of the ADC driver by 36%. Measured sensor resolution is 9.2 b and rejects common-mode interference larger than 100 dB while consuming only 12 W of power supplied wirelessly. A 2.0 mm 1.3 mm sensor IC is fabricated in 0.18- m 1P6M CMOS technology. The chip is directly integrated between two screen printed electrodes and stacked by a screen printed fabric inductor. With the proposed patch-type sensor, personal healthcare without expensive batteries is possible in W-BSN and greatly improves wearability and convenience in use.
Autors: Yan, L.;Yoo, J.;Kim, B.;Yoo, H.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2356 - 2365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5- V 12- W Wirelessly Powered Patch-Type Healthcare Sensor for Wearable Body Sensor Network
Abstract:
A wirelessly powered patch-type healthcare sensor IC is presented for a wearable body sensor network (W-BSN) to continuously monitor personal vital signals. Thick-film electrodes are screen printed on a fabric by planar-fashionable circuit board (P-FCB) technology on which stainless steel powder with a grain size of 100 μ m is added to reduce both contact impedance as well as motion artifacts. A nested chopped amplifier (NCA) is designed and optimized for the proposed patch-type healthcare sensor with a reduced electrode referred noise of 0.5 μVrms. A programmable gain and bandwidth amplifier (PGA) stage is also implemented to accommodate various dynamic ranges of vital signals. A 10-b folded successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) reduces capacitive digital-to-analog conversion size by 94% and relaxes the power budget of the ADC driver by 36%. Measured sensor resolution is 9.2 b and rejects common-mode interference larger than 100 dB while consuming only 12 μ W of power supplied wirelessly. A 2.0 mm × 1.3 mm sensor IC is fabricated in 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS technology. The chip is directly integrated between two screen printed electrodes and stacked by a screen printed fabric inductor. With the proposed patch-type sensor, personal healthcare without expensive batteries is possible in W-BSN and greatly improves wearability and convenience in use.
Autors: Long Yan;Yoo, J.;Binhee Kim;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2356 - 2365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.1 THz Gain-Bandwidth -Band Amplifier in a 0.12 Silicon Germanium BiCMOS Process
Abstract:
A -band, cascaded constructive wave amplifier realizes high gain and bandwidth in a 0.12 m SiGe BiCMOS process. The amplifier achieves 37.5 dB gain at 90 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth of 14.6 GHz. Consequently, this amplifier demonstrates a gain-bandwidth product as high as 1,095 GHz. At nominal bias condition, input and output return losses are better than 11 dB over the entire 3 dB bandwidth and the output-referred dB is 5.5 dBm. The amplifier consumes 65 mW from a 1.8 V at a nominal bias condition and 130 mW from a 2 V at a high-gain bias condition. The chip occupies an area of 0.39 mm including the pads.
Autors: Kim, J.;Buckwalter, J. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 20, issue:11, pages: 625 - 627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.25-Gb/s Indoor Cellular Optical Wireless Communications Demonstrator
Abstract:
This letter reports an experimental demonstration of an indoor angle-diversity optical wireless communications system. This operates at 1.25 Gb/s and provides bidirectional communications between two terminals. Each terminal uses three transmitting “cells” giving a field of view of approximately over a range of approximately 3 m. Data is transmitted to a terminal that uses three receivers to obtain a similar reception field of view. Link operation at a bit-error rate is reported, together with an overview of the system configuration.
Autors: Le Minh, H.;O'Brien, D.;Faulkner, G.;Bouchet, O.;Wolf, M.;Grobe, L.;Li, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:21, pages: 1598 - 1600
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10–Bit 1.6-GS/s 27-mW Current-Steering D/A Converter With 550-MHz 54-dB SFDR Bandwidth in 130-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10-bit 5-5 segmented current- steering digital-to-analog converter implemented in a standard 130-nm CMOS technology. It achieves full-Nyquist performance up to 1 GS/s and maintains 54-dB SFDR over a 550-MHz output bandwidth up to 1.6 GS/s. The power consumption for a near-Nyquist output signal sampled at 1.6 GS/s equals 27 mW. To enable the presented performance a design strategy is proposed that introduces a switch-driver power consumption aware analysis of the switched current cell. The analysis of the major distortion mechanisms in the switched current cell allows the derivation of a design strategy for maximum linearity. This strategy is extended to include the power consumption of the switch drivers in function of the switched current cell design. To minimize the digital power consumption, low-power implementations of the thermometer decoder and switch driver circuits are introduced.
Autors: Palmers, P.;Steyaert, M. S. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 2870 - 2879
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 25-GHz Compact Low-Power Phased-Array Receiver With Continuous Beam Steering in CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A compact low-power phased array receiver with continuous beam steering is presented based on the subsector beam steering technique. The entire beam steering range is divided into five subsectors from four characteristic beams of the Butler matrix. In each subsector the receive beam is steered by weighted combination of the received signals from array antennas. The theory of beam steering is detailed and the relationship of the steered angle with the beam steering factors is derived. The proposed architecture has lower circuit complexity and less power consumption because no challenging CMOS 360 variable phase shifters and multi-phase voltage-controlled oscillators are required . The phased array MMIC implemented in 0.13 CMOS technology has 17–21 dB receiving gain and 8.9–10.7 dB noise figure in 25–26 GHz. It consumes lower than 30 mW and takes a small chip area of 1.43 . The continuous beam steering is demonstrated over the spatial range from to .
Autors: Chin, T.-Y.;Chang, S.-F.;Wu, J.-C.;Chang, C.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2273 - 2282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 26.9 K 314.5 Mb/s Soft (32400,32208) BCH Decoder Chip for DVB-S2 System
Abstract:
This paper provides a soft Bose–Chaudhuri–Hochquenghem (BCH) decoder chip with soft information from the LDPC decoder for the DVB-S2 system. In contrast with the hard BCH decoder, the proposed soft BCH decoder that deals with least reliable bits can provide much lower complexity with similar error-correcting performance. Moreover, the error locator evaluator is proposed to evaluate error locations without the Chien search for higher throughput, and the Björck–Pereyra error magnitude solver (BP-EMS) is presented to improve decoding efficiency and hardware complexity. The chip measurement results reveal that our proposed soft (32400, 32208) BCH decoder for DVB-S2 system can achieve 314.5 Mb/s with a gate-count of 26.9 K in standard 90 nm 1P9M CMOS technology. Extended for fully supporting 21 modes in the DVB-S2 system, our approach can achieve 300 MHz operation frequency with a gate-count of 32.4 K.
Autors: Lin, Y.-M.;Chen, C.-L.;Chang, H.-C.;Lee, C.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2330 - 2340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 29 dBm 70.7% PAE Injection-Locked CMOS Power Amplifier for PWM Digitized Polar Transmitter
Abstract:
This letter presents an injection-locked CMOS power amplifier for pulse width modulation (PWM) digitized polar transmitter. A power oscillator combined with injection-locking technique reduces the required driving power and provide high drain efficiency in the power stage. The switched power oscillator is proposed for PWM digitized polar transmitter. To achieve differential to single output and impedance transformation, a lumped element balun, employing a minimum number of discrete components, is used. The power amplifier achieved a power-added efficiency of 70.7% at a maximum output power of 29.05 dBm. The measured drain efficiency in the power stage was 72.7% at 820 MHz. The chip is implemented with a 0.18 CMOS process. The total chip size is 0.48 .
Autors: Paek, J.-S.;Hong, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 20, issue:11, pages: 637 - 639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2 25-Gb/s Receiver With 2:5 DMUX for 100-Gb/s Ethernet
Abstract:
A 2 25-Gb/s receiver for 100-Gb Ethernet (100 GbE) has been implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology. A new regulation mechanism is applied to the limiting amplifier to minimize its gain and bandwidth variations. Two low-power full-rate CDRs (with a built-in clock generator) and a high-speed 2:5 DMUX circuit are integrated. Although only two channels are implemented, this receiver provides exactly the same operation as a four-channel one while dealing with independent channels. The prototype achieves bit error rate with 20-mV input sensitivity, consuming a total power of 510 mW from a 1.2-V supply.
Autors: Wu, K.-C.;Lee, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2421 - 2432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2 25-Gb/s Receiver With 2:5 DMUX for 100-Gb/s Ethernet
Abstract:
A 2 × 25-Gb/s receiver for 100-Gb Ethernet (100 GbE) has been implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology. A new regulation mechanism is applied to the limiting amplifier to minimize its gain and bandwidth variations. Two low-power full-rate CDRs (with a built-in clock generator) and a high-speed 2:5 DMUX circuit are integrated. Although only two channels are implemented, this receiver provides exactly the same operation as a four-channel one while dealing with independent channels. The prototype achieves bit error rate <;10-12 with 20-mVpp input sensitivity, consuming a total power of 510 mW from a 1.2-V supply.
Autors: Ke-Chung Wu;Jri Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2421 - 2432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-Gbit/s CMOS Optical Receiver With Integrated Spatially Modulated Light Detector and Equalization
Abstract:
This paper presents an optical receiver with a monolithically integrated photodetector in 0.18- CMOS technology using a combination of spatially modulated light (SML) detection and an analog equalizer. A transimpedance amplifier employing negative Miller capacitance is introduced to increase its bandwidth without causing gain peaking. To provide sufficient reverse-bias voltage to the photodetector's p-n junction, the transimpedance amplifier is operated with a 3.3-V supply, while the rest of the circuit blocks is powered with a 1.8-V supply. The on-chip SML detector achieves a net responsivity of 0.052 A/W. Occupying a core area of 0.72 , the fully integrated optical receiver achieves 4.25 and 5 Gbits/s with power consumption values of 144 and 183 mW, respectively.
Autors: Kao, T. S.-C.;Musa, F. A.;Carusone, A. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 2844 - 2857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60 GHz Wideband Phased-Array LNA With Short-Stub Passive Vector Generator
Abstract:
This letter presents 60 GHz 5 b phased-array low noise amplifier (LNA) implemented in 90 nm CMOS for a short range wireless application. The design consists of common source two-stage LNA, short-stub vector generator, I/Q modulator with 5 b digital to analog converter and differential to single amplifier. All the proposed amplifiers are designed using a transformer coupled method which results in wideband operation to meet the frequency requirement of the standard. The proposed circuit provides 360 phase controllability over 50–70 GHz band while achieving 12.5 dB gain, 6.55 dB NF and consuming 50 mA from 1.2 V. The measured rms phase error is in the phase accuracy limitation (differential phase array) and gain variation is quite low over 5 b control range.
Autors: Kim, K.-J.;Ahn, K. H.;Lim, T. H.;Park, H. C.;Yu, J.-W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 20, issue:11, pages: 628 - 630
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 700- W Wireless Sensor Node SoC for Continuous Real-Time Health Monitoring
Abstract:
A low-power low-voltage system on a chip (SoC) was designed and implemented in a 0.18- m CMOS process to provide a fully integrated sensor node solution for wearable wireless health monitoring. The SoC contains a sensor interface circuit, an analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal processor and a radio-frequency transmitter. Only a minimal number of off-chip components, which include an antenna, a crystal and supply decoupling capacitors, are used for improved user experience and affordability. The sensor node developed was demonstrated together with the prototype personal server. The acquired electrocardiogram (ECG) signal could be reliably transmitted to and monitored by the personal server over a distance greater than 5 m. The SoC consumes only 700 W at 0.7-V supply voltage when it acquires ECG signal from the patient and transmits it through the 433.92-MHz channel with an output power of 16 dBm. This low-power sensor node solution enables continuous and real-time health monitoring for more than 200 hours without changing the battery, when a typical button-cell battery (e.g., CR2032) is used.
Autors: Teo, T. H.;Qian, X.;Kumar Gopalakrishnan, P.;Hwan, Y. S.;Haridas, K.;Pang, C. Y.;Cha, H.-K.;Je, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2292 - 2299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 700- W Wireless Sensor Node SoC for Continuous Real-Time Health Monitoring
Abstract:
A low-power low-voltage system on a chip (SoC) was designed and implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process to provide a fully integrated sensor node solution for wearable wireless health monitoring. The SoC contains a sensor interface circuit, an analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal processor and a radio-frequency transmitter. Only a minimal number of off-chip components, which include an antenna, a crystal and supply decoupling capacitors, are used for improved user experience and affordability. The sensor node developed was demonstrated together with the prototype personal server. The acquired electrocardiogram (ECG) signal could be reliably transmitted to and monitored by the personal server over a distance greater than 5 m. The SoC consumes only 700 μW at 0.7-V supply voltage when it acquires ECG signal from the patient and transmits it through the 433.92-MHz channel with an output power of -16 dBm. This low-power sensor node solution enables continuous and real-time health monitoring for more than 200 hours without changing the battery, when a typical button-cell battery (e.g., CR2032) is used.
Autors: Tee Hui Teo;Xinbo Qian;Kumar Gopalakrishnan, P.;Hwan, Y.S.;Haridas, K.;Chin Yann Pang;Hyouk-Kyu Cha;Minkyu Je;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2292 - 2299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 77-GHz CMOS On-Chip Bandpass Filter With Balanced and Unbalanced Outputs
Abstract:
This letter presents the design and implementation of a 77-GHz millimeter-wave on-chip bandpass filter with balanced output that was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18- standard CMOS process. The performances of the single-ended and single-ended-to-differential bandpass filters are simulated and measured. The chip size of the designed filter is . The simulated and measured results of the proposed filter are found to be in good agreement. The filter has a 3-dB bandwidth of about 14 GHz at a center frequency of 77 GHz. The measured insertion loss of the passband is about 6 dB and includes a 3-dB splitting loss; the return loss is less than 10 dB within the passband.
Autors: Hsu, C.-Y.;Chen, C.-Y.;Chuang, H.-R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 31, issue:11, pages: 1205 - 1207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian solution to the multiple composite hypothesis testing for fault diagnosis in dynamic systems?
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with model-based isolation and estimation of additive faults in discrete-time linear Gaussian systems. The isolation problem is stated as a multiple composite hypothesis testing on the innovation sequence of the Kalman filter (KF) that considers the system operating under fault-free conditions. Fault estimation is carried out, after isolating a fault mode, by using the Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) criterion. An explicit solution is presented for both fault isolation and estimation when the parameters of the fault modes are assumed to be realizations of specific random variables (RV).
Autors: Davi Antônio, dos Santos , Takashi, Yoneyama
Appeared in: Automatica
Publication date: Nov 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Biased Random Walk Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks: The Lukewarm Potato Protocol
Abstract:
Low-latency data delivery is an important requirement for achieving effective monitoring through wireless sensor networks. When sensor nodes employ duty cycling, sending a message along the shortest path, however, does not necessarily result in minimum delay. In this paper, we first study the lowest latency path problem, i.e., the characteristics of a path with minimum delay that connects a source node to the sink under random duty cycling nodes. Then, we propose a forwarding protocol based on biased random walks, where nodes only use local information about neighbors and their next active period to make forwarding decisions. We refer to this as lukewarm potato forwarding. Our analytical model and simulation experiments show that it is possible to reduce path latency without significantly increasing the number of transmissions (energy efficiency) needed to deliver the message to the destination. In particular, although deviating from the shortest path requires additional transmissions, and hence, higher energy consumption, this increase is compensated by a lighter duty cycle. Our experiments show that, overall, we can save up to 15 percent of energy while obtaining the same data delivery delay as shortest path routing. Additionally, the proposed solution is tunable. By changing the value of just one threshold parameter, it can be tuned to operate anywhere in the continuum from hot potato/random walk forwarding protocol to a deterministic shortest path forwarding protocol.
Autors: Beraldi, R.;Baldoni, R.;Prakash, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 9, issue:11, pages: 1649 - 1661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bode Plot Characterization of All Stabilizing Controllers
Abstract:
In this technical note, we consider continuous-time control systems and present a new characterization of the Nyquist criterion in terms of Bode plots of the plant and the controller. This gives a nonparametric, and model independent characterization of arbitrary order stabilizing controllers. The result shows that the frequency response of any stabilizing controller must satisfy constraints on its magnitude, phase, and rate of change of phase at certain frequencies that are imposed by the frequency response of the inverse plant.
Autors: Keel, L. H.;Bhattacharyya, S. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 2650 - 2654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A BOI-Preserving-Based Compression Method for Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:
Hyperspectral images (HSI) regularly contain hundreds of bands, which are of different importance in the application. Most HSI compression methods usually deal with most bands in the same way, and they do not take the difference of different bands into consideration, which may cause the loss of important spectral information. In order to preserve the spectral information of interest for applications, a new band-of-interest (BOI)-preserving-based HSI compression method is proposed. The conception of BOI is proposed because some bands are significant in the specific applications, and BOI selection methods are chosen according to application requirements. BOI selection is first performed according to application measurements. Then, BOI information is fed into recursive bidirection prediction (RBP) and set partition in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) compression scheme which uses RBP for spectral decorrelation followed by SPIHT algorithm for coding the resulting decorrelated residual images. More bits are allocated to BOI to preserve BOI by two approaches, respectively. Compress BOI and non-BOI bands directly with low distortion and high distortion, respectively, and compress all bands with low distortion and perform a postcompression truncation. Experiments are implemented with different settings using AVIRIS images. Results indicate that the proposed two methods both can achieve excellent compression efficiency and reconstructed quality. In addition, they can improve the application effect in both material classification and target recognition. Compared with non-BOI compression algorithm, at the compression ratio of 80, the proposed methods improve the classification accuracy by 2% and target recognition accuracy by 9%.
Autors: Chen, H.;Zhang, Y.;Zhang, J.;Chen, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 3913 - 3923
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A case study of a presence based end-user lookup service for the dynamic discovery of entities across technologies and domains
Abstract:
End-users may wish to interact with entities (e.g., groups of persons or physical objects) that need to be discovered dynamically. The entities may even reside in domains where different technologies are used. This article presents a case study on the design and implementation of a novel lookup service for the dynamic discovery of entities across technologies and domains. This novel service allows end users to dynamically discover entities that meet specific constraints (e.g., interests or abilities, availability at a specific time or location, and/or affiliation(s)). It is a powerful enabler that may be used as a pillar for a wide range of other end-user services. The proposed architecture relies on presence service and RESTful Web services. The related security aspects are studied. A proof-of-concept prototype is built and its performance is evaluated.
Autors: Zhu, Z.;Belqasmi, F.;Fu, C.;Glitho, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 48, issue:11, pages: 82 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Channels Resulting in Ill-Convergence for CMA in Decision Feedback Equalizers
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the convergence of the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) in a decision feedback equalizer using only a feedback filter. Several works had already observed that the CMA presented a better performance than decision directed algorithm in the adaptation of the decision feedback equalizer, but theoretical analysis always showed to be difficult specially due to the analytical difficulties presented by the constant modulus criterion. In this paper, we surmount such obstacle by using a recent result concerning the CM analysis, first obtained in a linear finite impulse response context with the objective of comparing its solutions to the ones obtained through the Wiener criterion. The theoretical analysis presented here confirms the robustness of the CMA when applied to the adaptation of the decision feedback equalizer and also defines a class of channels for which the algorithm will suffer from ill-convergence when initialized at the origin.
Autors: Neves, A.;Panazio, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 58, issue:11, pages: 5736 - 5743
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of New Preconditioners for Linear Solvers Used in Power System Time-Domain Simulation
Abstract:
In this paper, a new class of preconditioners for iterative methods is proposed for the solution of linear equations that arise in the time-domain simulation of the power system. The system of linear equations results from an attempt to solve the differential algebraic equations (DAE) encountered in the power system dynamic simulation. The preconditioners are based on the multifrontal direct methods. The proposed method is compared to the incomplete LU factorization (ILU) based preconditioned iterative methods and other conventional direct linear sparse solvers. The comparison shows the proposed method achieves great computational efficiency relative to these other methods.
Autors: Khaitan, S. K.;McCalley, J. D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 25, issue:4, pages: 1835 - 1844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Spectrum-Sensing Schemes for Cognitive Radio Under Impulsive Noise Circumstances: Structure and Performance in Nonfading and Fading Environments
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a class of spectrum-sensing schemes for cognitive radio with receive diversity. By employing the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) in the detectors on the antenna branches and exploiting a nonlinear diversity-combining strategy, the proposed scheme exhibits better performance than conventional schemes in various fading and noise environments. Exact expressions of the detection and false-alarm probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived in nonfading and Nakagami fading channels with Gaussian noise. Through computer simulations, it is confirmed that the proposed scheme provides a significant performance gain over conventional schemes in impulsive noise environments.
Autors: Kang, H. G.;Song, I.;Yoon, S.;Kim, Y. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 59, issue:9, pages: 4322 - 4339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Closed-Form Robust Chinese Remainder Theorem and Its Performance Analysis
Abstract:
Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) reconstructs an integer from its multiple remainders that is well-known not robust in the sense that a small error in a remainder may cause a large error in the reconstruction. A robust CRT has been recently proposed when all the moduli have a common factor and the robust CRT is a searching based algorithm and no closed-from is given. In this paper, a closed-form robust CRT is proposed and a necessary and sufficient condition on the remainder errors for the closed-form robust CRT to hold is obtained. Furthermore, its performance analysis is given. It is shown that the reason for the robustness is from the remainder differential process in both searching based and our proposed closed-form robust CRT algorithms, which does no exist in the traditional CRT. We also propose an improved version of the closed-form robust CRT. Finally, we compare the performances of the traditional CRT, the searching based robust CRT and our proposed closed-form robust CRT (and its improved version) algorithms in terms of both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. The results demonstrate that the proposed closed-form robust CRT (its improved version has the best performance) has the same performance but much simpler form than the searching based robust CRT.
Autors: Wang, W.;Xia, X.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 58, issue:11, pages: 5655 - 5666
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS 6-mW 10-bit 100-MS/s Two-Step ADC
Abstract:
A 10-bit 100-MS/s two-step ADC was fabricated using a 90 nm CMOS technology. To reduce power consumption, the ADC uses latch-type comparators for signal digitalization and an open-loop amplifier for residue amplification. The accuracy of the comparators is improved by offset calibration. The gain accuracy and the linearity of the residue amplifier are enhanced by digital background calibration. The ADC consumes 6 mW from a 1 V supply. Measured SNR and SFDR are 58.2 dB and 75 dB respectively. Measured ENOB is 9.34 bits. The FOM is per conversion-step.
Autors: Chung, Y.-H.;Wu, J.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 45, issue:11, pages: 2217 - 2226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Quadrature VCO With Subharmonic and Injection-Locked Techniques
Abstract:
A 1-V quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) using subharmonic and injection-locked techniques (SHIL-QVCO) is presented. Instead of using the traditional transformer-coupling LC tank with a large area to implement the quadrature output, we use a frequency-doubled differential pair with an injection-locked method. The proposed QVCO is implemented with a TSMC 0.18- 1P6M CMOS process having a chip area. This QVCO has the advantages of low phase noise and low power consumption. Experimental results show that the QVCO has a phase noise of 126 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz and a power consumption of 4.9 mW to achieve a 186 figure of merit. Moreover, a tuning frequency between 2.17 and 2.52 GHz can be obtained with a tuning voltage range of 0-1 V for the IEEE 802.15.4.
Autors: Lee, S.-Y.;Wang, L.-H.;Lin, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 843 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Approach for High-Resolution Corrosion Monitoring and Temperature Compensation Using Ultrasound
Abstract:
A novel approach for combined corrosion monitoring and temperature compensation (CMTC) using permanently installed immersion ultrasound probes with a well-defined standoff is presented. Combining subsample delay estimation with knowledge of how the sound speed in the immersion fluid and the steel varies with temperature enables us to simultaneously estimate the temperature variations and the changes in wall thickness using a linearized maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE). The results show that submicrometer changes in the wall thickness are detected and that the corrosion rates are predicted in good accordance with theory, also in the presence of temperature variations.
Autors: Rommetveit, T.;Johansen, T. F.;Johnsen, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 59, issue:11, pages: 2843 - 2853
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Common Language
Abstract:
LONG ISLAND POWER AUTHORITY (LIPA) OPERATES WITH A BUSINESS model of fully outsourcing its electric business operation, including system operation and asset maintenance. Such a model, in which LIPA has the role of asset owner and the shared role of asset manager, adds complexity in managing the data and critical IT systems needed to support both LIPA and its service provider business processes. One key issue is the possibility of a periodic change of service providers for all or part of the business. This is one of reasons that LIPA decided to develop and implement a comprehensive and strict enterprise information management (EIM) strategy along with the supporting business processes. LIPA's EIM strategy has been developed with the goal of being used both internally and externally, by LIPA's service providers for services and by the IT infrastructure that provides services to LIPA.
Autors: Hervey, M.;Vujovic, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 8, issue:6, pages: 28 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Design of High-Power Spurious-Free Low-Pass Waveguide Filter
Abstract:
In this letter, a new technique is proposed for the design of a compact high-power low-pass rectangular waveguide filter with a wide spurious-free frequency behavior. Specifically, the new filter is intended for the suppression of the fundamental mode over a wide band in much higher power applications than the classical corrugated filter with the same frequency specifications. Moreover, the filter length is dramatically reduced when compared to alternative techniques previously considered.
Autors: Arregui, I.;Arnedo, I.;Lujambio, A.;Chudzik, M.;Benito, D.;Jost, R.;Gortz, F. -J.;Lopetegi, T.;Laso, M. A. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 20, issue:11, pages: 595 - 597
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing
Abstract:
We designed and developed a compact dual-wavelength and dual-channel time-resolved system for near-infrared spectroscopy studies of muscle and brain. The system employs pulsed diode lasers as sources, compact photomultipliers, and time-correlated single photon counting boards for detection. To exploit the full temporal and dynamic range of the acquisition technique, we implemented an approach based on wavelength space multiplexing: laser pulses at the two wavelengths are alternatively injected into the two channels by means of an optical 2×2 switch. In each detection line (i.e., in each temporal window), the distribution of photon time-of-flights at one wavelength is acquired. The proposed approach increases the signal-to-noise ratio and avoids wavelength cross-talk with respect to the typical approach based on time multiplexing. The instrument was characterized on tissue phantoms to assess its properties in terms of linearity, stability, noise, and reproducibility. Finally, it was successfully tested in preliminary in vivo measurements on muscle during standard cuff occlusion and on the brain during a motor cortex response due to hand movements.
Autors: Re, Rebecca;Contini, Davide;Caffini, Matteo;Cubeddu, Rinaldo;Spinelli, Lorenzo;Torricelli, Alessandro;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 81, issue:11, pages: 113101 - 113101-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact wideband fractal cantor antenna for wireless applications?
Abstract:
A low cost, compact antenna is a new exemplar in communication. Fractal geometry, a concept in mathematics is adopted to design a miniaturized low profile fractal antenna. The size of the antenna is 38.734mm×28.757mm×1.6mm. The antenna is designed in such a way to operate at ISM band, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and IEEE802.15, PCS(1900), GSM lowerband, DCS, UMTS(2100) and WLAN wireless applications. The prototype of developed antenna exhibits wideband characteristics and provides a good agreement of returnloss (S11) -30dB. Experimental returnloss has been compared with the one which is obtained using method of moments. The main objective of implementing self-similar fractal...
Autors: G., Srivatsun , S., Subha Rani
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Nov 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Comparison of Perceptually-Based Metrics for Objective Evaluation of Geometry Processing
Abstract:
Recent advances in 3-D graphics technologies have led to an increasing use of processing techniques on 3-D meshes, such as filtering, compression, watermarking, simplification, deformation, and so forth. Since these processes may modify the visual appearance of the 3-D objects, several metrics have been introduced to properly drive or evaluate them, from classic geometric ones such as Hausdorff distance, to more complex perceptually-based measures. This paper presents a survey on existing perceptually-based metrics for visual impairment of 3-D objects and provides an extensive comparison between them. In particular, different scenarios which correspond to different perceptual and cognitive mechanisms are analyzed. The objective is twofold: 1) catching the behavior of existing measures to help Perception researchers for designing new 3-D metrics and 2) providing a comparison between them to inform and help computer graphics researchers for choosing the most accurate tool for the design and the evaluation of their mesh processing algorithms.
Autors: Lavoue, G.;Corsini, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 12, issue:7, pages: 636 - 649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comprehensive model for the ultrashort visible light irradiation of semiconductors
Abstract:
We present a new model describing the irradiation of semiconductors with ultrashort laser pulses. Based on the earlier developed multiple rate equation [Rethfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004)], the model additionally includes the interaction of electrons with the phononic subsystem of the lattice and allows for the direct determination of the conditions for crystal damage. In contrast to commonly used approaches based on the thermodynamic description of the material, our model is applicable to nonequilibrium electronic conditions. Accounting for the dynamic changes in the optical properties of the target (i.e., reflectivity, photoabsorption coefficients), the developed model allows for a comprehensive evaluation of the damage by tracing the changes in the optical parameters, lattice heating and subsequent melting. Our model effectively describes the dynamics of the electronic subsystem and lattice heating and the results are in very good agreement with experimental measurements on the transient reflectivity and the fluence damage threshold of silicon irradiated with a femtosecond laser pulse.
Autors: Medvedev, N.;Rethfeld, B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 108, issue:10, pages: 103112 - 103112-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computation Control Motion Estimation Method for Complexity-Scalable Video Coding
Abstract:
In this paper, a new computation-control motion estimation (CCME) method is proposed which can perform motion estimation (ME) adaptively under different computation or power budgets while keeping high coding performance. We first propose a new class-based method to measure the macroblock (MB) importance where MBs are classified into different classes and their importance is measured by combining their class information as well as their initial matching cost information. Based on the new MB importance measure, a complete CCME framework is then proposed to allocate computation for ME. The proposed method performs ME in a one-pass flow. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can allocate computation more accurately than previous methods and, thus, has better performance under the same computation budget.
Autors: Lin, W.;Panusopone, K.;Baylon, D. M.;Sun, M.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 20, issue:11, pages: 1533 - 1543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Adaptive IIR Solution to Active Noise and Vibration Control Systems
Abstract:
In spite of special advantages of IIR filters in active noise and vibration control (ANVC) applications, the multimodal error surface and instability problem of adaptive IIR filters has prevented its extensive use. To alleviate these problems, in this paper, a new RLS-based fast array adaptive IIR filters in ANVC applications is proposed. The algorithm is developed with slow adaptation assumption and by transforming the active noise and vibration control problem to an output-error identification problem. By derivation of the fast-array equivalent form both computational complexity and numerical stability of the proposed algorithm are improved. The geometrical illustration of the algorithm, in a simple case, is also given to unify and complete its mathematical formulation. In spite of low computational complexity of the order , simulation results confirm high convergence speed of the proposed algorithm and also its ability to reach the lower minimum mean square error in comparison with commonly used adaptive IIR algorithms in ANVC systems.
Autors: Montazeri, A.;Poshtan, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 55, issue:11, pages: 2671 - 2676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Configurable Rete-OO Engine for Reasoning with Different Types of Imperfect Information
Abstract:
The RETE algorithm is a very efficient option for the development of a rule-based system, but it supports only boolean, first order logic. Many real-world contexts, instead, require some degree of vagueness or uncertainty to be handled in a robust and efficient manner, imposing a trade-off between the number of rules and the cases that can be handled with sufficient accuracy. Thus, in the first part of the paper, an extension of RETE networks is proposed, capable of handling a more general inferential process, which actually includes several types of schemes for reasoning with imperfect information. In particular, the architecture depends on a number of configuration parameters which could be set by the user, individually or as a whole for the entire rule base. The second part, then, shows how an appropriate combination of parameters can be used to emulate some of the most common, specialized engines: 3-valued logic, classical certainty factors, fuzzy, many-valued logic and Bayesian networks.
Autors: Sottara, D.;Mello, P.;Proctor, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:11, pages: 1535 - 1548
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Contamination Aware Droplet Routing Algorithm for the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips
Abstract:
Recent advances of digital microfluidic biochips (DMFBs) have revolutionized the traditional laboratory procedures. By providing the droplet-based system, DMFB can perform real-time biological analysis and safety-critical biomedical applications. However, different droplets being transported and manipulated on the DMFB may introduce the contamination problem caused by liquid residue between different biomolecules. To overcome this problem, a wash droplet is introduced to clean the contaminations on the surface of the microfluidic array. However, current scheduling of wash droplet does not restrict the extra used cells and execution time of bioassay, thereby degrading the reliability and fault-tolerance significantly. In this paper, we propose a contamination aware droplet routing algorithm for DMFBs. To reduce the routing complexity and the used cells, we first construct preferred routing tracks by analyzing the global moving vector of droplets to guide the droplet routing. To cope with contaminations within one subproblem, we first apply a -shortest path routing technique to minimize the contaminated spots. Then, to take advantage of multiple wash droplets, we adopt a minimum cost circulation (MCC) algorithm for optimal wash-droplet routing to simultaneously minimize used cells and the cleaning time. Since the droplet routing problem consists of several subproblems, a look-ahead prediction technique is further used to determine the contaminations between successive subproblems. After that, we can simultaneously clean both contaminations within one subproblem and those between successive subproblems by using the MCC-based algorithm to reduce the execution time and the used cells significantly. Based on four widely used bioassays, our algorithm reduces the used cells and the execution time significantly compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm.
Autors: Huang, T.-W.;Lin, C.-H.;Ho, T.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 29, issue:11, pages: 1682 - 1695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Domain Multiprocessor System-on-a-Chip for Embedded Real-Time Systems
Abstract:
GENESYS Multiprocessor System-on-a-Chip (MPSoC) is the building block of a generic platform for the component-based development of embedded real-time systems in different domains, such as in automotive, aerospace, industrial control, and consumer-electronic applications. The GENESYS MPSoC offers a stable set of domain-independent core services (e.g., common time, message-based communication, and configuration). On top of the core services, higher level services can be implemented by domain-independent and domain-specific system components that customize the platform to the needs of the specific application domain. Through its cross-domain applicability, the GENESYS MPSoC supports the wide reuse of components and realizes the benefits of the economies of scale of the semiconductor technology. Furthermore, the GENESYS MPSoC contributes towards the solution of prevalent technological challenges such as complexity management, robustness, and technology obsolescence. This paper presents the GENESYS MPSoC and provides insights from a prototype implementation, which demonstrates that such a cross-domain MPSoC can be built with today's technology.
Autors: Obermaisser, R.;Kopetz, H.;Paukovits, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 6, issue:4, pages: 548 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Curved Ray Camera for Handling Occlusions through Continuous Multiperspective Visualization
Abstract:
Most images used in visualization are computed with the planar pinhole camera. This classic camera model has important advantages such as simplicity, which enables efficient software and hardware implementations, and similarity to the human eye, which yields images familiar to the user. However, the planar pinhole camera has only a single viewpoint, which limits images to parts of the scene to which there is direct line of sight. In this paper we introduce the curved ray camera to address the single viewpoint limitation. Rays are C1-continuous curves that bend to circumvent occluders. Our camera is designed to provide a fast 3-D point projection operation, which enables interactive visualization. The camera supports both 3-D surface and volume datasets. The camera is a powerful tool that enables seamless integration of multiple perspectives for overcoming occlusions in visualization while minimizing distortions.
Autors: Cui, Jian;Rosen, Paul;Popescu, Voicu;Hoffmann, Christoph;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 1235 - 1242
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DC-to-Three-Phase-AC High-Frequency Link Converter With Compensation for Nonlinear Distortion
Abstract:
This paper focuses on a new high-frequency (HF) link dc-to-three-phase-ac power converter. The least number of switching devices among other HF link dc-to-three-phase-ac converters, improved power density due to the absence of devices of bidirectional voltage-blocking capability, simple commutation requirements, and isolation between input and output are the integral features of this topology. The commutation process of the converter requires zero portions in the link voltage. This causes a nonlinear distortion in the output three-phase voltages. The mathematical analysis is carried out to investigate the problem, and suitable compensation in modulating signal is proposed for different types of carrier. Along with the modified modulator structure, a synchronously rotating reference-frame-based control scheme is adopted for the three-phase ac side in order to achieve high dynamic performance. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been investigated and verified through computer simulations and experimental results with 1-kVA prototype.
Autors: De, D.;Ramanarayanan, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 3669 - 3677
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deductive Spreadsheet System for End Users
Abstract:
We exploit the spreadsheet metaphor to make deductive problem-solving methods available to the vast population of spreadsheet end users. In particular, we show how the function-based problem-solving capabilities of spreadsheets can be extended to include logical deductive methods in a way that is consistent with the existing spreadsheet "look and feel." We also show a spreadsheet-based framework for authoring logic implication rules. This framework was conceived with the objective of reproducing many of the characteristics that make spreadsheet programming accessible to end users. In the proposed framework, rule authors describe the semantics of a binary relation by constructing a functional spreadsheet model that computes the image of that binary relation. This model is subsequently translated into a collection of logic implication rules. We implemented this deductive spreadsheet system on top of Microsoft Excel and adopting the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard ontology language OWL+SWRL formalisms.
Autors: Tallis, M.;Balzer, R.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 22, issue:11, pages: 1563 - 1576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential Dual-Polarized Cavity-Backed Microstrip Patch Antenna With Independent Frequency Tuning
Abstract:
A dual-polarized cavity-backed microstrip patch antenna has been demonstrated with independent tuning of both polarizations from 0.6 GHz to 1.0 GHz using varactor diodes (1.2–5.4 pF). The 10-dB impedance bandwidth varies from 0.9% to 1.8% over that range. Differential coaxial feeds and the placement of the tuning varactors in the appropriate symmetry planes are employed to achieve a differential-mode port-to-port isolation of 28 dB over the tuning range. Accordingly, the cross-polarization level is 20 dB at broadside. The antenna is and is fabricated on a dielectric substrate . The feed point and matching circuit for an impedance match to 50 are determined using the transmission line model. This model underestimates the sensitivity of the resonance frequency to the loading capacitance, but leads to a good initial design. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first dual-polarized antenna with independent tuning over a 1.7:1 bandwidth and single-sided radiation.
Autors: White, C. R.;Rebeiz, G. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 58, issue:11, pages: 3490 - 3498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital PLL Scheme for Three-Phase System Using Modified Synchronous Reference Frame
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop (PLL) control strategy to synthesize unit vector using the modified synchronous reference frame (MSRF) instead of the traditional synchronous reference frame. The unit vector is used for vector rotation or inverse rotation in vector-controlled three-phase grid-connected converting equipment. The developed MSRF-PLL is fast in transient response compared to standard PLL technique. The performance is robust against disturbances on the grid, voltage wave with harmonic distortion, and noise. The proposed algorithm has been analyzed in detail and was fully implemented digitally using digital signal processor TMS320F2812. The experimental evaluation of the MSRF-PLL in a shunt active power filter confirms its fast dynamic response, noise immunity, and applicability.
Autors: da Silva, C. H.;Pereira, R. R.;da Silva, L. E. B.;Lambert-Torres, G.;Bose, B. K.;Ahn, S. U.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 3814 - 3821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct-Write Printed Antenna on Paper-Based Organic Substrate for Flexible Displays and WLAN Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents the design, fabrication and measurements of a direct-write printed low-cost and flexible inverted-F antenna on an ultra-low-cost paper-based organic substrate for wireless local area network (WLAN) and flexible display applications. Innovations include the study and utilization of paper as a high-frequency substrate for the first time in the gigahertz (GHz) range, the fabrication technology for the direct-write printing of the antenna as a flexible RF electronic device, and the investigation of antenna flexibility in conjunction with flexible displays. Although paper substrates exhibit relatively high dielectric losses ( at 2.45 GHz), the maximum realized gain of the fabricated antenna is measured to be 1.2 dBi giving a total efficiency 82%. Simulated results of the antenna's return loss and radiation patterns agree well with the measurements, and can lead to a whole new class of flexible low-cost electronic devices of the future.
Autors: Anagnostou, D. E.;Gheethan, A. A.;Amert, A. K.;Whites, K. W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 6, issue:11, pages: 558 - 564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete-Time FFT Processor for Ultrawideband OFDM Wireless Transceivers: Architecture and Behavioral Modeling
Abstract:
A discrete-time (DT) fast Fourier transform (FFT) processor which enables an architectural improvement to ultrawide-bandwidth orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) receivers for use in low-power handheld applications is presented. The new architecture performs FFT demodulation of the OFDM signal in the DT signaling domain before analog-to-digital conversion. The approach significantly reduces the required number of bits in the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) while increasing receiver linearity and providing improved handling of narrow-band blockers. The processor is first implemented in simulation using a top-down methodology based on behavioral models which are developed to describe the circuit functions of the DT FFT processor. System simulation results show that the processor can be implemented with DT CMOS circuits having typical nonidealities while outperforming equivalent all-digital FFT processors. An improvement in dynamic range in the FFT processor and ADC from 35 to 54 dB is demonstrated through simulation.
Autors: Lehne, M.;Raman, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 3011 - 3022
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete-Time Input ADC Architecture Using a Dual-VCO-Based Integrator
Abstract:
This brief presents a hybrid analog–digital analog-to-digital converter architecture with a pseudodifferential integrator based on current-controlled oscillators (CCOs). Two oscillators driven by differential input signals and followed by digital counters are used to form a quantizer whose output is digitally integrated. This pseudodifferential circuit configuration reduces the relative quantization step size and also improves linearity by canceling even-order distortion. Instead of driving a CCO with a continuous-time current input or a converter, a double-sampled switched-capacitor circuit is used to dump charge packets proportional to the signal voltage into the input of each oscillator. A hybrid analog–digital modulator allows for further signal processing in the digital domain to produce a low-resolution output suitable for a feedback digital-to-analog converter and an all-digital excess-loop-delay compensation feedback path. Simulation results show a signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 83.9 dB in a 2-MHz bandwidth.
Autors: Hamilton, J.;Yan, S.;Viswanathan, T. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 848 - 852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete-Time Input ADC Architecture Using a Dual-VCO-Based Integrator
Abstract:
This brief presents a hybrid analog–digital analog-to-digital converter architecture with a pseudodifferential integrator based on current-controlled oscillators (CCOs). Two oscillators driven by differential input signals and followed by digital counters are used to form a quantizer whose output is digitally integrated. This pseudodifferential circuit configuration reduces the relative quantization step size and also improves linearity by canceling even-order distortion. Instead of driving a CCO with a continuous-time current input or a converter, a double-sampled switched-capacitor circuit is used to dump charge packets proportional to the signal voltage into the input of each oscillator. A hybrid analog–digital modulator allows for further signal processing in the digital domain to produce a low-resolution output suitable for a feedback digital-to-analog converter and an all-digital excess-loop-delay compensation feedback path. Simulation results show a signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio of 83.9 dB in a 2-MHz bandwidth.
Autors: Hamilton, J.;Yan, S.;Viswanathan, T. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 57, issue:11, pages: 848 - 852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Approach for Optimizing Cascaded Classifier Topologies in Real-Time Stream Mining Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss distributed optimization techniques for configuring classifiers in a real-time, informationally-distributed stream mining system. Due to the large volume of streaming data, stream mining systems must often cope with overload, which can lead to poor performance and intolerable processing delay for real-time applications. Furthermore, optimizing over an entire system of classifiers is a difficult task since changing the filtering process at one classifier can impact both the feature values of data arriving at classifiers further downstream and, thus, the classification performance achieved by an ensemble of classifiers, as well as the end-to-end processing delay. To address this problem, this paper makes three main contributions. 1) Based upon classification and queuing theoretic models, we propose a utility metric that captures both the performance and the delay of a binary filtering classifier system. 2) We introduce a low-complexity framework for estimating the system utility by observing, estimating, and/or exchanging parameters between the interrelated classifiers deployed across the system. 3) We provide distributed algorithms to reconfigure the system, and analyze the algorithms based upon their convergence properties, optimality, information exchange overhead, and rate of adaptation to nonstationary data sources. We provide results using different video classifier systems.
Autors: Foo, B.;van der Schaar, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Nov 2010, volume: 19, issue:11, pages: 3035 - 3048
Publisher: IEEE
 

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