Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 9

» Grid-Level Application of Electrical Energy Storage: Example Use Cases in the United States and China
Abstract:
Electrical energy storage (EES) systems are expected to play an increasing role in helping the United States and China-the world's largest economies with the two largest power systems-meet the challenges of integrating more variable renewable resources and enhancing the reliability of power systems by improving the operating capabilities of the electric grid. EES systems are becoming integral components of a resilient and efficient grid through a diverse set of applications that include energy management, load shifting, frequency regulation, grid stabilization, and voltage support.
Autors: Yingchen Zhang;Vahan Gevorgian;Caixia Wang;Xuejiao Lei;Ella Chou;Rui Yang;Qionghui Li;Liping Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 51 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gridless 1-b DOA Estimation Exploiting SVM Approach
Abstract:
We investigate the problem of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation with 1-b measurements in massive MIMO systems, as 1-b quantization offers low cost and low complexity in the implementation. We first establish the connection between 1-b DOA estimation and linear classification based on the sparsity of the incident signals. Then, we present an iterative refinement procedure based on Taylor expansion to obtain DOA estimation off the grid. This refinement procedure can be easily extended to other 1-b DOA estimation algorithms with minor changes. Finally, simulations are conducted for validation and the results illustrate the high performance of the proposed algorithm in spite of the extreme 1-b quantization.
Autors: Yulong Gao;Deshun Hu;Yanping Chen;Yongkui Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2210 - 2213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Group Structure Preserving Pedestrian Tracking in a Multicamera Video Network
Abstract:
Pedestrian tracking in video has been a popular research topic with many practical applications. In order to improve tracking performance, many ideas have been proposed, among which the use of geometric information is one of the most popular directions in recent research. In this paper, we propose a novel multicamera pedestrian tracking framework, which incorporates the structural information of pedestrian groups in the crowd. In this framework, first, a new cross-camera model is proposed, which enables the fusion of the confidence information from all camera views. Second, the group structures on the ground plane provide extra constraints between pedestrians. Third, the structured support vector machine is adopted to update the cross-camera model for each pedestrian according to the most recent tracked location. The experiments and detailed analysis are conducted on challenging data. The results demonstrate that the improvement in tracking performance is significant when a group structure is integrated.
Autors: Zhixing Jin;Le An;Bir Bhanu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2165 - 2176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grouping and Cooperating Among Access Points in User-Centric Ultra-Dense Networks With Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
Abstract:
A user-centric ultra-dense network (UUDN) is proposed as one of the promising solutions to provide very high area throughput density and flexible access service for users in the fifth-generation systems. On the one hand, network densification provides opportunities to cooperate among a large number of access points (APs) for serving a given user. On the other hand, the limited radio resources cause the serious competition among numerous APs and may degrade the network performance. Therefore, to support large number of connections and break through the restriction of limited frequency resource, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA), which supports multiple signals to transmit on the same frequency resource, is introduced into the UUDN. However, NOMA with network densification arises a series of challenges. And the method to group APs efficiently on the same frequency to support for a given user is a critical problem. Thus, in this paper, we propose a user-centric access framework for providing efficient access service and the flexible resource management in NOMA-based UUDN. Under the proposed framework, we then investigate the access scheme that organizes multiple APs into respective AP group (APG) cooperatively to provide access service for each user, aiming at maximizing the system energy efficiency. First, considering the users’ requirement and network environment, a grouping evaluation model is set up to organize APG efficiently. Then, we formulate the resource allocation problem of APG as a mix-integer non-linear programming problem, which is hard to tackle. For tractability purpose, we transform this problem and propose low-complexity algorithms based on matching and differ of convex programming theories to obtain a feasible solution. Extensive simulation results are presented to demonstrate the significant performance improvement compared with the existing schemes.
Autors: Yiming Liu;Xi Li;F. Richard Yu;Hong Ji;Heli Zhang;Victor C. M. Leung;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2295 - 2311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grouping-Based TSV Test Architecture for Resistive Open and Bridge Defects in 3-D-ICs
Abstract:
After the 3-D stacking, 3-D-ICs based on through-silicon-vias (TSVs) must be inspected for any TSV defects such as resistive open or bridge defects. In some research studies, several effective testing techniques have been developed such as parallel or serial test architectures, which measure the voltage across a single TSV with a comparator. However, in the current test architectures, hardware overhead and test time are proportional to the number of TSVs. In this paper, we propose a new unified test architecture for screening of TSV defects in 3-D-ICs. Depending on the number of assembled TSVs, the proposed grouping-based test architecture can effectively reduce the cumulative test time and hardware overhead without compromising the test quality.
Autors: Young-woo Lee;Hyeonchan Lim;Sungho Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1759 - 1763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Growth Goals, Travel Grants, Chapter Awards, and Chapter Events [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Presents information on various APS Society chapters.
Autors: Ajay K. Poddar;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 10 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editor's Introduction: Selected Papers from ACM-BCB 2014
Abstract:
Autors: Ümit V. Çatalyürek;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1000 - 1001
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial
Abstract:
This Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques’ Mini-Special Issue includes ten papers from the 2017 IEEE Radio and Wireless Week (RWW 2017) held in Phoenix, AZ, USA, January 15–18, 2017. The Radio and Wireless Week consists of five related conferences that focus on the intersection between wireless communication theory, systems, circuits, and device technologies: the Radio and Wireless Symposium, the Topical Conference on Power Amplifiers for Wireless and Radio Applications, the Topical Meeting on Silicon Monolithic Integrated Circuits in RF Systems, the Topical Conference on Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks, and the Topical Workshop on The Internet of Space. Radio and Wireless Week is thus a multidisciplinary event bringing together innovations that are happening across the broad wireless spectrum. A total of 214 papers were submitted to the RWW 2017 Technical Program Committee, of which 168 papers were accepted for presentation and publication online on the IEEE Xplore website. Together with the technical sessions, four workshops, one special talk on the Internet of Things powered by wireless, a plenary session on 5G hardware and system solutions, a panel session on linearization of power amplifiers for 5G, and a demo track session to show the latest innovative wireless experimental achievements were successfully held.
Autors: Andrei Grebennikov;Nils Pohl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3559 - 3560
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial for Special Section on the 11th International Conference on Intelligent Computing (ICIC)
Abstract:
Autors: De-Shuang Huang;Vitoantonio Bevilacqua;M. Michael Gromiha;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1104 - 1105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on Internet of Things and Sensors Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems
Abstract:
The degree of modernization of transportation is currently an important criterion for urban development. Progress in communication techniques and networking, together with vehicle localization methods, have become the key enablers of innovative transportation systems.
Autors: Reza Malekian;Kui Wu;Kris Steenhaut;Ning Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2798 - 2801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial ISCAS 2016 Special Issue
Abstract:
Autors: P. HÄFLIGER;S. CHAKRABARTTY;Z. WANG;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 977 - 978
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Medical Measurements and Applications: 10 Years of Ideas and Innovation
Abstract:
The interest of industry and academia in medical measurements continues to increase, due to technology advancements that allow new sensors, measurement systems, and methodologies, supporting a wide number of medical applications.
Autors: Luca De Vito;J. Max Cortner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2502 - 2504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue for Selected Papers from EAPPC/BEAMS/MEGAGAUSS 2016
Abstract:
The joint conference of the 6th Euro-Asian Pulsed Power Conference (EAPPC 2016), the 21st International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams (BEAMS 2016), and the 15th International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics (MEGAGAUSS 2016) was held in Estoril, Portugal, on September 18–22, 2016. It was the first time that researchers from these three areas, although closely related, have come together to share their findings following an integrated scientific program.
Autors: Joshua Leckbee;Fernando Silva;Hong-Je Ryoo;Jianqiang Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2610 - 2610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Emerging Informatics for Risk Hedging and Decision Making in Smart Grids
Abstract:
Autors: Zhao Xu;Loi Lei Lai;Kit Po Wong;Pierre Pinson;Fangxing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2507 - 2510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Systems of Power Converters: Design, Modeling, Control, and Implementation
Abstract:
Autors: Wenxin Liu;Josep M. Guerrero;Jang-Mok Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2631 - 2633
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Target and Reverberation Experiment 2013 (TREX13)—Part II
Abstract:
Autors: Brian T. Hefner;Dajung Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 757 - 758
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Alternative Computing and Machine Learning for Internet of Things
Abstract:
The impending Internet of Things (IoT) wave is promising to affect every aspect of our daily lives, ranging from smart things to smart buildings, smart cities, and smart environments. A lot of attention has been devoted to the tsunami of data produced by IoT, and the related means of extracting useful actionable information from it, spawning efforts in Big Data processing and machine learning. Yet, all of this does little to address the need for IoT to capture, interpret, and act on this wall of (noisy) information at the right time, at the right place, and in the right form. Conventional computing systems are a poor match to the needs of this emerging massively distributed real-time system. Hence, alternative computing techniques present an attractive alternative, trading off computational resolution for significant gains in quality-of-service energy efficiency and robustness. This observation is based on the conjecture that most applications related to IoT have an inherent error resilience and are evolutionary (that is, learning-based). Alternative computing strategies may be conceived at every level of the design hierarchy, starting from the device level with novel 3-D nonvolatile memory/logic combinations, or at the architectural level by shifting away from the traditional von Neumann architecture to different computing paradigms such as neuromorphic and/or stochastic computation all the way up to the algorithmic and data representation levels.
Autors: Farshad Firouzi;Bahar Farahani;Andrew B. Kahng;Jan M. Rabaey;Natasha Balac;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2685 - 2687
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Special Collection of Papers Arising From UComms16
Abstract:
Autors: John R. Potter;João Alves;Ian F. Akyildiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 754 - 756
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Video Over Future Networks
Abstract:
Autors: X. Zhu;S. Mao;M. Hassan;H. Hellwagner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2133 - 2135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hamilton Paths With Lasting Separation
Abstract:
We determine the asymptotics of the largest cardinality of a set of Hamilton paths in the complete graph with vertex set under the condition that for any two of the paths in the family there is a subpath of length entirely contained in only one of them and edge-disjoint from the other one.
Autors: Emanuela Fachini;János Körner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6344 - 6346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harbor Water Area Extraction From Pan-Sharpened Remotely Sensed Images Based on the Definition Circle Model
Abstract:
Harbor water area extraction is a key step in nearshore environment pollution surveillance using remote sensing image processing techniques. This letter proposes the definition circle (DC) model of color gradient to describe color fluctuations in harbor water surface areas based on pan-sharpened remote sensing images. The DC model includes two steps: center setting and radius tuning. In the center setting process, labeled training set pixels are selected in the red, green, and blue color space. Then, center setting is completed in the hue, saturation, and intensity color space using the perceptron model. In the radius tuning process, positive and negative sample pixels are used to tune the radius value. After these two steps, the DC model can describe the color gradient of a water surface area and provide accurate harbor water area extraction. A series of experiments shows that the proposed DC model is robust and performs better than other extraction methods based on pan-sharpened remote sensing images.
Autors: Yin Zhuang;Penglin Wang;Yiding Yang;Hao Shi;He Chen;Fukun Bi;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1690 - 1694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Trojan Detection Through Chip-Free Electromagnetic Side-Channel Statistical Analysis
Abstract:
The hardware Trojan (HT) has become a major threat for the integrated circuit (IC) industry and supply chain, and has motivated numerous developments of Trojan detection schemes. Although the side-channel method is the most promising one, nearly all of the side-channel methods require fabricated golden chips, which are very difficult to obtain in reality. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for HT detection using electromagnetic side-channel-based spectrum modeling and analyzing. We utilize the design data at early stage of the IC lifecycle, and the generated spectrum can serve as the golden reference, and thus we do not need the fabricated golden chips anymore. Another very important feature is that our method is immune to the process variation theoretically. Experimental results on selected Advanced Encryption Standard benchmark circuits on FPGA show that our proposed method can effectively detect Trojans even with very small traces.
Autors: Jiaji He;Yiqiang Zhao;Xiaolong Guo;Yier Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2939 - 2948
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Head and Media Design for Curvature Reduction in Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording
Abstract:
Recording curvature in magnetic data-storage technology has long been one of the significant challenges impacting on recording performance. Despite curvature occurrence in the conventional recording techniques such as perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR), heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) is demonstrated to induce much more severe curvature than PMR. HAMR curvature could cause poor bit error rate and limits the maximum areal density capacity. Here we have theoretically predicted and demonstrated various approaches for curvature reduction from the aspect of either altering the near-field transducer head design or recording medium design. Optical and thermal modeling have indicated that by utilizing a crown-shape peg to change the thermal source profile and compensate for thermal expansion and rounding effect, it could potentially improve curvature figure of merit (FOM) and achieve curvature reduction by ~45%. In terms of the recording media design, by altering the heat sink and internal layer media material or geometry, it could also achieve curvature cancellation of ~40% with increased thermal gradient. The combined approach from both HAMR head and media perspectives with balanced recording FOMs, could potentially realize significant curvature reduction to be of similar or better recording curvature level to PMR.
Autors: Zhongyang Li;Weibin Chen;Chris Rea;Martin G. Blaber;Nan Zhou;Hua Zhou;Huaqing Yin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heat Transfer in Filamentary RRAM Devices
Abstract:
We study the heat transport in filamentary resistive random access memory nanosized devices by comparing the accurate results of COMSOL Multiphysics modeling with simplified analytical models for two complementary mechanisms: one neglecting the radial heat transfer from the filament to the insulating host, while the other describing the radial transport through the dielectric in the absence of the filament heat transfer. For the former, we find that the earlier assumed simplification of the electrodes being ideal heat conductors is insufficient; a more adequate approximation is derived where the heat transport is determined by the adjacent proximities of the filament tips in the electrodes. We find that both complementary mechanisms overestimate the maximum temperature yet offering acceptable results. However, the two in parallel provide a better analytical approximation. In addition, we show that the Wiedemann–Franz–Lorenz law helps the analysis when the Lorenz parameter is chosen from the actual data. We present an approximate relation between device SET voltage and SET temperature possessing a high degree of universality and predicting that filament materials with low Lorenz numbers can be good candidates for the future low set voltage devices.
Autors: Dipesh Niraula;Victor G. Karpov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4106 - 4113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hiding the Rumor Source
Abstract:
Anonymous social media platforms, like Secret, Yik Yak, and Whisper, have emerged as important tools for sharing ideas without the fear of judgment. Such anonymous platforms are also important in nations under authoritarian rule, where freedom of expression and the personal safety of message that authors may depend on anonymity. Whether for fear of judgment or retribution, it is sometimes crucial to hide the identities of users who post sensitive messages. In this paper, we consider a global adversary who wishes to identify the author of a message; it observes either a snapshot of the spread of a message at a certain time or sampled timestamp metadata, or both. Recent advances in rumor source detection show that existing messaging protocols are vulnerable against such an adversary. We introduce a novel messaging protocol, which we call adaptive diffusion, and show that under the snapshot adversarial model, adaptive diffusion spreads content fast and achieves perfect obfuscation of the source when the underlying contact network is an infinite regular tree. That is, all users with the message are nearly equally likely to have been the origin of the message. When the contact network is an irregular tree, we characterize the probability of maximum likelihood detection by proving a concentration result over Galton–Watson trees. Experiments on a sampled Facebook network demonstrate that adaptive diffusion effectively hides the location of the source even when the graph is finite, is irregular, and has cycles.
Autors: Giulia Fanti;Peter Kairouz;Sewoong Oh;Kannan Ramchandran;Pramod Viswanath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6679 - 6713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Distributed Scheme for Demand Estimation and Power Reallocation in a Future Power Grid
Abstract:
The classical power allocation/reallocation faces difficult challenges in a future power grid with a great many distributed generators and fast power fluctuations caused by high percentage of renewable energy. To perform power reallocation fast in a future power grid with a large number of participants and disturbances, a hierarchical distributed scheme based on a partition framework is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the power grid is naturally partitioned into a certain number of regions, and the total energy demand in the power grid with disturbances is automatically estimated rather than given in advance. Besides, the centralized local optimizations in regions and the distributed global optimization among regions are coupled to solve the power reallocation problem, in which each region performs as a single agent. Thus, the agents in the proposed scheme are much fewer than the purely distributed ones, hence the communication load is greatly relieved and the reallocation process is significantly simplified. Effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by the cases.
Autors: Xiong Hu;Hong Zhou;Zhi-Wei Liu;Xinghuo Yu;Chaojie Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2279 - 2290
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Place Recognition for Topological Mapping
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel appearance-based approach for topological mapping based on a hierarchical decomposition of the environment. In our map, images with similar visual properties are grouped together in nodes, which are represented by means of an average global descriptor and an index of binary features based on a bag-of-words online approach. Each image is represented by means of a global descriptor and a set of local features, and this information is used in a two-level loop closure approach, where first global descriptors are employed to obtain the most likely nodes of the map and then binary image features are used to retrieve the most likely images inside these nodes. This hierarchical scheme enables us to reduce the search space when recognizing places, maintaining high accuracy when creating a map. Our approach is validated using several public datasets and compared against several state-of-the-art techniques. The accuracy and the sparsity of the generated maps are also discussed.
Autors: Emilio Garcia-Fidalgo;Alberto Ortiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1061 - 1074
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Mechanical Strength Thin HIT Solar Cells With Graphene Back Contact
Abstract:
It is widely known that thinner Si substrate is the main path for lower $/Watt HIT solar cells due to improved charge collection, reduced bulk and total recombination, and fewer raw material consumption (Panasonic, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics., vol. 4, p. 96, 2014). Nonetheless, thin substrates always lead to low mechanical stability and wafer breaking. In this work, spray coated 50 nm graphene layer is used as the back electrode in Si HIT solar cells to enhance the mechanical stability. With the incorporation of graphene as the back electrode in Si HIT solar cells, remarkable improvements in substrate mechanical strength are achieved. Without the degradation of HIT solar cell efficiency, hardness is increased nearly twofold from 902 to 1747 HV. The Young's modulus is increased from 93.9 to 140.1 GPa while the ultimate tensile strength is increased from 96.71 to 273.68 MPa. Low-cost chemical exfoliation method and low-temperature (150 °C) spray coating method have been employed for the preparation and deposition of thin graphene back electrode, respectively. In addition, unlike the graphene as the substitute for ITO in OLED applications, the graphene strengthened thin silicon substrate technology here imposes no additional constraint on the graphene electrode transparency since it is used as a back electrode. We, thereby, believe that our proposed method is effective for attaining higher efficiency and lower $/Watt thin Si HIT solar cell technology with enhanced mechanical strength.
Autors: Albert S. Lin;Parag Parashar;Chih-Chieh Yang;Wei-Ming Huang;Yi-Wen Huang;Ding-Rung Jian;Ming-Hsuan Kao;Shi-Wei Chen;Chang-Hong Shen;Jia-Min Shieh;Tseung Yuen Tseng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance CuO Nanorectangles-Based Room Temperature Flexible NH3 Sensor
Abstract:
Here, we report the fabrication of a flexible room temperature ammonia gas sensor using surfactant-free hydrothermally synthesized copper oxide (CuO) nanorectangles. The structural analysis revealed that the CuO nanorectangles possessed monoclinic structure with an average length and breadth of 950 and 450 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of CuO nanorectangles was determined to be 29 m2/g. The sensor was fabricated on a flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate by screen printing technique. The room temperature ammonia sensing measurement exhibited significant response down to 5 ppm of ammonia with a quick response time of 90 s and recovered to baseline within 120 s. Maximum response of 0.99 was recorded for 100 ppm of ammonia. The rate constants for adsorption and desorption were estimated for 6.5 to 100 ppm of ammonia from the exponential conductance changes during response and recovery process. The sensor showed appreciable stability and reproducibility of the sensing performance over a period of three months. The fabricated flexible sensor demonstrated its ability to detect a wide range of ammonia concentrations at room temperature irrespective of the mechanical deformations applied. Thus, the fabricated sensor is promising and can be suitably employed for practical applications in environments where efficient gas sensing is vitally important.
Autors: Bhuvaneshwari Sakthivel;Libu Manjakkal;Gopalakrishnan Nammalvar;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6529 - 6536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Selectivity Wideband Balanced Filters With Multiple Transmission Zeros
Abstract:
Two novel high selectivity wideband balanced filters based on open/shorted stubs with multiple transmission zeros are proposed in this brief. Two and four transmission zeros near each passband for the differential mode (DM) can be easily achieved for two balanced filters. In addition, the common mode can be suppressed with three and five transmission zeros with an insertion loss greater than 15 dB/20 dB over a wide frequency band. Two prototypes with 3-dB fractional bandwidths of 67.6% and 37.8% for the DM with an insertion loss greater than 15 dB (7.0–12.7 GHz) are designed and fabricated. A good agreement can be observed between the measured results and the theoretical expectations.
Autors: Wenjie Feng;Xin Gao;Wenquan Che;Wanchen Yang;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1182 - 1186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Accuracy Impedance Detection to Improve Transient Stability in Microgrids
Abstract:
The advancements in dc microgrids and the increase in distributed generation systems have led to a new trend toward the coexistence of multiple power converters from different sources (renewable, storage, etc.) supplying a variety of loads of different natures in a weak network. The loads can behave as passive loads (resistances) or be implemented by tightly regulated power converters, leading to constant power load (CPL) behavior. The CPLs present a characteristic negative incremental resistance that can alter the response of the system, even causing instability. In this work, a novel embedded technique based on a digital lock-in amplifier is proposed that enables the real-time detection of the dynamic impedance present in a power converter. The proposed technique uses a very efficient algorithm, along with standard sensors available in the converter, to measure the magnitude and phase of the dynamic load, and uses this information to improve the performance of the converter. A sample application of the proposed technique in an adaptive control system is described. Although the total output power of the converter is independent of the nature of the load, the converter's dynamic response is not. The interaction of the CPL, passive load, and control loop will determine not only the stability but also the transient response. The proposed instrument allows the incremental load of the converter to be accurately measured while reducing the complexity and sensor requirements, and improving the performance of the controller. Simulations of the proposed technique are presented to illustrate its behavior. Experimental results for different kinds of loads are presented to validate the proposed strategy.
Autors: Francisco Paz;Martin Ordonez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8167 - 8176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Brightness Multimode Fiber Lasers for Resonant Pumping
Abstract:
We present multimode fiber lasers for tandem pumping of high power Er-, Tm-, and Yb-doped lasers. These pump sources are based on especially developed multimode Er- and Yb-doped double-clad fibers. Er-doped lasers with record pump conversion efficiency >48% at 1565 nm and more than 41% at 1535 and 1590 nm were realized. Yb-doped fiber laser at 1020 nm with record high 85% pump conversion efficiency was demonstrated. Also, we propose novel design of compact and cost-effective multimode laser scheme. The potential of power scaling of proposed lasers to the 1–10-kW level and their advantages as resonant pump sources are discussed.
Autors: Leonid V. Kotov;Svetlana S. Aleshkina;Maksim M. Khudyakov;Mikhail M. Bubnov;Oleg I. Medvedkov;Denis S. Lipatov;Aleksei N. Guryanov;Mikhail M. Likhachev;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4540 - 4546
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Level Energy Estimation for Submicrometric TSV Arrays
Abstract:
The 3-D integration using through silicon vias (TSVs) is one of the most promising approaches to overcome the interconnect delay problem of current CMOS technologies. Nevertheless, the TSV energy consumption is not negligible due to the high capacitive coupling. This paper presents an abstract and yet accurate model to estimate the pattern-dependent energy consumption in arrays of TSVs; it is the first high-level model including the effects of the voltage-dependent metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitances surrounding each TSV and a possible temporal misalignment between the input signals. We propose a regression method to estimate the dynamic size of the coupling capacitances as a function of the bit probabilities. Experimental results for real and synthetic data streams, a submicrometer 9-bit TSV array and a 65-nm technology show that the presented TSV energy model exhibits a maximum error of 5.53%, while the traditional high-level model shows errors of up to 79.77%. Furthermore, the new insights provided by our model reveal a possibility to easily boost the efficiency of existing low-power codes for TSV structures by over 10% without affecting the coding efficiency for the planar metal wires or the encoder complexity.
Autors: Lennart Bamberg;Alberto Garcia-Ortiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2856 - 2866
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Order Dual-Band Superconducting Bandpass Filter With Controllable Bandwidths and Multitransmission Zeros
Abstract:
In this paper, a compact dual-mode hairpin ring resonator (HRR) with two controllable resonances is proposed to design high-order dual-band high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bandpass filters. Its noncoupled dual-mode resonant characteristics and the mechanism for inherent transmission zero (TZ) production are studied. Moreover, a general dual-path coupling scheme is introduced for high-order coupling realization and applied to the third-order and eighth-order dual-band filter design. Also, two coupling structures for the adjacent HRRs with different orientations are proposed to excite TZs between the passbands for high selectivity. Besides, dual-parallel input–output feeding structure is adopted to tune the external quality factors of the dual-mode HRR individually so that the two passband are realized easily using high-order structure. For demonstration, an eighth-order dual-band HTS filter both operating at 1.9 and 2.6 GHz for mobile communications application are designed and analyzed. Compared with the third-order one, the selectivity of the eighth-order filter has at least 4.2 times improvement and five TZs are produced for high band-edge selectivity. Finally, the eighth-order dual-band filter is fabricated on MgO substrate with YBCO thin films. Measured results agree well with the simulations and show the excellent performance with 0.12-dB minimum insertion loss and better than −75-dB rejection level up to 5 GHz. In addition, the nonlinear characteristics of the fabricated HTS filter is observed by experiment, which shows the temperature dependence of filter center frequency performance and microwave insertion loss.
Autors: Haiwen Liu;Baoping Ren;Shuangxi Hu;Xuehui Guan;Pin Wen;Jiaming Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3813 - 3823
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Compact Diplexers for Ku/K-Band Satellite Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, two novel compact diplexers for satellite applications are presented. The first covers the Ku-band with two closely spaced channels (Ku-transmission band: 10.7–13 GHz and Ku-reception band: 13.75–14.8 GHz). The second is wider than the first (overall bandwidth up to 50%) achieves the suppression of the higher order modes, and covers the Ku/K-band with a reception channel between 17.2 and 18.5 GHz. Both diplexers are composed of two novel bandpass filters, joined together with an E-plane T-junction. The bandpass filters are designed by combining a low-pass filtering function (based on /4-step-shaped band-stop elements separated by very short waveguide sections) and a high-pass filtering structure (based on the waveguide propagation cutoff effect). The novel diplexers show a very compact footprint and very relaxed fabrication tolerances, and are especially attractive for wideband applications. A prototype Ku/K-band diplexer has also been fabricated by milling. Measurements show a very good agreement with simulations, thereby demonstrating the validity and manufacturing robustness of the proposed topology.
Autors: Fernando Teberio;Ivan Arregui;Pablo Soto;Miguel A. G. Laso;Vicente E. Boria;Marco Guglielmi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3866 - 3876
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance of Al Nanoparticle Enhanced 4H-SiC MSM Photodiodes for Deep Ultraviolet Detection
Abstract:
The size controlled Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing. Significant deep ultraviolet (DUV) detection enhancement is demonstrated on 4H-SiC metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodiodes (PDs) by introducing the coupling of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from Al NPs. The peak responsivity of 165 mA/W and quantum efficiency of 93% at 220-nm wavelength are achieved under deuterium lamp illumination when 10-V bias is applied, which is 3.93 times than that without Al NPs. LSPR at wavelength as low as 220 nm is the shortest one ever reported in Al NPs.
Autors: Shao-Xiong Liu;Tao Wang;Zhi-Zhan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1405 - 1408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power and High-Efficiency Millimeter-Wave Harmonic Oscillator Design, Exploiting Harmonic Positive Feedback in CMOS
Abstract:
Based on time-variant behavior of metal-oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors in large-signal operations, harmonic translations and their mutual effects are analyzed. Large amplitudes at terminal voltages of these transistors push them into different regions of operation. In this paper, harmonic translations are derived as a result of such changes in operation region of transistors. Operation in triode region for a portion of oscillation cycle results in iterative harmonic translations between fundamental frequency and second harmonic. They boost each other constructively for significantly stronger oscillation, more second harmonic output power, and enhanced dc-to-RF efficiency. Based on this analysis, a 215-GHz signal source, implemented in a TSMC 65-nm CMOS LP is presented. The proposed oscillator achieves a maximum output power of 5.6 dBm and a dc-to-RF efficiency of 4.6%. The measured phase noise is −94.6 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The proposed oscillator occupies only 0.08 mm2 of chip area.
Autors: Rouzbeh Kananizadeh;Omeed Momeni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3922 - 3936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power Narrow-Linewidth Tunable 670.8-nm Master Oscillator Power Amplifier With High Efficiency
Abstract:
A highly efficient 670.8-nm high-power narrow-linewidth wavelength-tunable laser source with master oscillator power amplifier structure is demonstrated, which yielded CW output power of 4.5 W with spectral linewidth of 0.3 pm and mode-hop free tuning range of 52 pm (35 GHz). The total conversion efficiency of 20% was achieved. The developed narrow-linewidth tunable laser source can provide better performance than others ever reported at 670.8 nm for many applications, such as laser isotope separation, Bose–Einstein condensation experiments, and mid-infrared laser generation.
Autors: Hao Wu;Hangyu Peng;Jun Zhang;Jinlong Zhang;Hongbo Zhu;Yongqiang Ning;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision Hydraulic Pressure Control Based on Linear Pressure-Drop Modulation in Valve Critical Equilibrium State
Abstract:
High precision and fast response are of great significance for hydraulic pressure control in automotive braking systems. In this paper, a novel sliding mode control based high-precision hydraulic pressure feedback modulation is proposed. Dynamical models of the hydraulic brake system including valve dynamics are established. An open loop load pressure control based on the linear relationship between the pressure-drop and coil current in valve critical open equilibrium state is proposed, and also experimentally validated on a hardware-in-the-loop test rig. The control characteristics under different input pressures and varied coil currents are investigated. Moreover, the sensitivity of the proposed modulation on valve's key structure parameters and environmental temperatures are explored with some unexpected drawbacks. In order to achieve better robustness and precision, a sliding mode control based closed loop scheme is developed for the linear pressure-drop modulation. Comparative tests between this method and the existing methods are carried out. The results validate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed closed loop modulation method.
Autors: Chen Lv;Hong Wang;Dongpu Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7984 - 7993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Quality Plane Wave Compounding Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
Single plane wave (PW) imaging produces ultrasound images of poor quality at high frame rates (ultrafast). High-quality PW imaging usually relies on the coherent compounding of several successive steered emissions (typically more than ten), which in turn results in a decreased frame rate. We propose a new strategy to reduce the number of emitted PWs by learning a compounding operation from data, i.e., by training a convolutional neural network to reconstruct high-quality images using a small number of transmissions. We present experimental evidence that this approach is promising, as we were able to produce high-quality images from only three PWs, competing in terms of contrast ratio and lateral resolution with the standard compounding of 31 PWs ( speedup factor).
Autors: Maxime Gasse;Fabien Millioz;Emmanuel Roux;Damien Garcia;Hervé Liebgott;Denis Friboulet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1637 - 1639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-R Poly Resistance Deviation Improvement From Suppressions of Back-End Mechanical Stresses
Abstract:
This paper investigates techniques for N-type high-resistance polysilicon resistors to reduce the resistance deviation which is caused by the back-end mechanical stress. In the back-end layers of the wafer, a top metal thickness equal to is provided to increase the heat allowing current density in the metal routes of power ICs. The top metal processing yields the mechanical stress to increase the resistance by the piezoresistance effect. To eliminate the mechanical stresses, a new layout is proposed with the full passivation cutting (FPC). The resistor with an FPC uses the passivation film separation to create a physical empty room for suppressing the mechanical stresses on the polysilicon. The proposed layout has been verified in the 0.4- bipolar-CMOS-DMOS process, and the resistance shifts were compared with other four-type layouts. Compared to those original layouts, the proposed layout exhibits the improvements in the resistance deviation reduction in the maximum ratio 20.80%.
Autors: Tingyou Lin;Yingchieh Ho;Chauchin Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4233 - 4241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Real-Time Underwater 3-D Acoustical Imaging Through Designing Ultralarge Ultrasparse Ultra-Wideband 2-D Arrays
Abstract:
Acoustical imaging systems are an important kind of instrumentation for underwater investigation. Currently, angular resolutions of most existing real-time underwater 3-D imaging systems are around 1°, which cannot meet the high-quality imaging requirement in a relatively far distance. Enhancing the angular resolution of a real-time 3-D imaging system needs enlarging the aperture size of its receiving 2-D array. However, the huge number of elements is not affordable for a traditional fully sampled uniform large 2-D array with half-wavelength interelement spacing to achieve a high angular resolution. This paper proposes the concept of ultralarge ultrasparse ultra-wideband (UUU) 2-D arrays for achieving the high angular resolution of underwater 3-D acoustical imaging systems. The design method of UUU 2-D arrays is demonstrated through the example of designing an annular 2-D array with only 100 elements. The capabilities of the designed annular UUU 2-D array are evaluated, showing that it can achieve a 0.1° angular resolution and a −32 dB maximum sidelobe level. The imaging simulations of complicated targets also demonstrate that the designed annular UUU 2-D array can satisfy the requirement of high-resolution underwater 3-D acoustical imaging. The element number of the designed annular UUU 2-D array is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of a fully sampled uniform 2-D array, which provides a viable choice for developing high-resolution real-time underwater 3-D acoustical imaging systems.
Autors: Cheng Chi;Zhaohui Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2647 - 2657
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution SAR ADC With Enhanced Linearity
Abstract:
This brief proposes two digital-to-analog converter switching techniques for binary-weighted capacitor array successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), rotating&averaging without redundancy technique and rotating&averaging with redundancy technique. The rotating&averaging without redundancy technique can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of conventional SAR ADCs by averaging four samples for one input voltage, while the rotating&averaging with redundancy has better static linearity improvement but less SNR improvement than the rotating&averaging without redundancy technique. The application of these two methods to 14-bit SAR ADC is demonstrated by Monte-Carlo runs, results show that with a mismatch error typical of modern technology, the proposed rotating&averaging with redundancy scheme can improve the root-mean-square of integral nonlinearity from 2.08 to 0.57 LSB, and the SFDR is more than 15 dB better. On the other hand, the averaged SNR of 7.7 dB is improved by using the proposed rotating&averaging without redundancy technique for a 14-bit SAR ADC. Furthermore, the schemes proposed require only small additional circuit on a typical SAR ADC configuration, which are more feasible to implement high-resolution SAR ADC compared with the traditional calibration schemes.
Autors: Hua Fan;Franco Maloberti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1142 - 1146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Satellite Observations of a New Hazard of Golden Tides Caused by Floating Sargassum in Winter in the Yellow Sea
Abstract:
A new marine hazard of golden tides caused by floating brown macroalgae-Sargassum occurred in the Yellow Sea in December 2016. An economic loss of 0.5 billion CNY (about U.S. $73 million) was estimated due to the damaged seaweed aquaculture in the Jiangsu Shoal, China. In this letter, images from the new Chinese satellite of Gaofen (GF) with high-resolution optical cameras are used to retrieve the drifting path of floating Sargassum and its origin. A southward drifting path of floating Sargassum in the western Yellow Sea is identified for the first time, and the initial site of bloom occurrence is near the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, China, implying the origin of this hazard of floating Sargassum. The scale of this Sargassum bloom event in the Jiangsu Shoal is also evaluated using a linear-mixing model suitable for high-resolution images. The result shows that the total area of Sargassum-containing pixels in the GF-1 wide-field-of-view images on December 31, 2016 was more than 46 km2, and according to the estimation by the linear-mixing model, the total area of sea surface completely covered by Sargassum was above 8.8 km2. The approach and the results presented in this letter should contribute to the future study and management of golden tides in Chinese coastal waters.
Autors: Qianguo Xing;Ruihong Guo;Lingling Wu;Deyu An;Ming Cong;Song Qin;Xuerong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1815 - 1819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Spaceborne SAR Processing Using the Decomposed Transfer Function
Abstract:
In this paper, a new analytic decomposed transfer function (DTF) for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar processing is calculated using the stationary phase approximation and Taylor's series expansion. The DTF copes with large Doppler centroid variations and executes range cell migration correction, secondary range compression, azimuth compression, and higher order effects. A fourth-order (DTF4) and fifth-order (DTF5) algorithms have been implemented using segmented block processing. It is shown that the DTF4 yields high quality 3-look target responses at azimuth resolution 0.3 m and range resolution 0.5 m at low squint (yaw = 0.3°) for X-band. At higher squint (yaw = 7.5°) the DTF5 has to be used to obtain adequate image quality.
Autors: Knut Eldhuset;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2187 - 2198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Temperature Characteristics of 3-kV 4H-SiC Reverse Blocking MOSFET for High-Performance Bidirectional Switch
Abstract:
Novel 3-kV 4H-SiC reverse blocking (RB) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been demonstrated for high-voltage bidirectional switching applications. To achieve RB capability, a series Schottky barrier diode structure was introduced onto the backside of the 4H-SiC MOSFET. The developed SiC RB MOSFET exhibits bidirectional blocking voltage over 3 kV and a differential specific on-resistance of 20 cm2 at room temperature. In an inductive-load switching measurement, the RB MOSFET showed good turn-ON/-OFF characteristics at 1 kV. The bidirectional switch configured by the developed RB MOSFETs exhibited lower ON-state power loss than the series connection of the standard SiC MOSFETs at wide range of temperature and operation current, demonstrating the advantage of the SiC RB MOSFET as a high-performance bidirectional switch.
Autors: Seigo Mori;Masatoshi Aketa;Takui Sakaguchi;Yuichiro Nanen;Hirokazu Asahara;Takashi Nakamura;Tsunenobu Kimoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4167 - 4174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient and Reliable SiC-Based DC–DC Converter for Smart Transformer
Abstract:
The series-resonant converter (SRC) has been used in several application and it recently became popular for smart transformers (STs). In this application, the efficiency and reliability are of paramount importance. Although many papers have addressed the design challenges to improve the converter efficiency, discussions about the reliability are still missing in the literature. In this context, this paper presents a design procedure focusing on the efficiency and reliability improvement of the SRC for ST application. High efficiency is achieved through the use of silicon-carbide MOSFETs, reducing conduction and switching losses, and the detail design procedure based on accurate losses modeling. High reliability is achieved through a fault-tolerant topology and reliability-oriented design of the resonant circuit passive components. Experimental results obtained for the optimized 10 kW SRC has shown an efficiency of 98.61%.
Autors: Levy Ferreira Costa;Giampaolo Buticchi;Marco Liserre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8383 - 8392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Chip-Scale Package LED Based on Surface Patterning
Abstract:
Chip-scale package (CSP) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered as the next generation of highly efficient package LED. However, they suffer from total internal reflection that limits their light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this letter, surface patterning, in terms of microstructures, as a well-controlled surface roughness method is designed and applied on CSP-LED to improve the LEE. Based on simulation results, pyramid and flat top pyramid structures have been designed and optimized. Four types of layouts, including tightly, interlaced, distant and chessboard layout, are also compared. A LEE enhancement of more than 20% is achieved. Furthermore, the four layouts with pyramid structures are fabricated using nano-imprint technology. The experimental results match the simulated results well with only a mismatch of 2.9%. The fabricated layout shows an enhancement of 20.31% when pyramid structures are fully filling the surface. Surface patterned CSP-LED, therefore, exhibits a great potential for high efficient LED.
Autors: Tianqi Zhang;Haodong Tang;Shang Li;Zuoliang Wen;Xiangtian Xiao;Yulong Zhang;Fei Wang;Kai Wang;Dan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:20, pages: 1703 - 1706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Microfluidic Chip Sensor for Biochemical Detection
Abstract:
Chip calorimetry offers a power tool for fast and high throughput analysis of biochemical process. However, it is challenging to realize an inexpensive, easy to fabricate microfluidic chip-based calorimeter with high sensitivity. This paper describes the design of a novel, highly sensitive, and continuous flow microfluidic chip sensor with an integrated antimony (Sb)–bismuth (Bi) thin-film thermopile heat detection element. The geometry and the design of the microfluidic device facilitate hydrodynamic flow focusing, and the integration and design of the thermopile sensor into the microfluidic device eliminates the need for reference temperature control. The device contains a single flow channel that is high and 10-mm wide with two fluid inlets and one fluid outlet. An Sb-Bi thin film thermopile is fabricated on the inner surface of the bottom channel wall using thermal evaporation and was passivized with a SU-8 photoresist layer. The device has been successfully used to measure the dynamic temperature changes resulting from heat generation following the mixing of glycerol and water. The effect of flow rates on the sensor’s response was measured. The sensor can detect dynamic temperature changes in the order of 10-6 K. The limit of detection of heat power of the device was calculated to be 8.8 pW. With the obtained remarkable sensitivity and heat power detection limit, the microfluidic chip sensor can potentially be used to investigate biochemical processes, such as enzyme-catalysed reactions, and metabolic activity of cells.
Autors: Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy;Eric J. Guilbeau;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6510 - 6514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Stable Atomic Layer Deposited Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Incorporating Triple O2 Annealing
Abstract:
Top-gate zinc oxide thin-film transistors have been fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition, and the effective process steps to improve the device stability have been investigated in detail. In particular, the incorporation of triple rapid thermal annealing steps in oxygen ambient has been proposed to shift the turn-ON voltage toward the positive direction, reduce interface defects, and suppress gate leakage current. Such devices exhibited near zero turn-ON voltage and significantly enhanced electrical and environmental stability. Repeated – sweeping over 900 times in air ambient only caused a shift of the transfer characteristics as low as 0.08 V. Both positive and negative gate bias stress tests on such devices exhibited superior stability performance. Furthermore, ring oscillators based on these devices were found to be capable of highly stable continuous operation over 10 000 s, indicating the devices’ suitability for practical circuits-on-glass applications.
Autors: Zhi Ye;Hua Xu;Tengfei Liu;Ni Liu;Ying Wang;Ning Zhang;Yang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4114 - 4122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Historical-Data-Based Energy Management in a Microgrid With a Hybrid Energy Storage System
Abstract:
In a microgrid, due to potential reverse power profiles between the renewable energy source (RES) and the loads, energy storage devices are employed to achieve high self-consumption of RES and to minimize power surplus flowing back into the main grid. This paper proposes a variable charging/discharging threshold method to manage the energy storage system. In addition, an adaptive intelligence technique (AIT) is put forward to raise the power management efficiency. A battery–ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS) with merits of high energy and power density is used to evaluate the proposed method with on-site-measured RES output data. Compared with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on the precise predicted data of the load and the RES, the results show that the proposed method can achieve better load smoothing and self-consumption of the RES without the requirement of precise load and RES forecasting.
Autors: Ke Jia;Yiru Chen;Tianshu Bi;Yaoqi Lin;David Thomas;Mark Sumner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2597 - 2605
Publisher: IEEE
 
» History of the Endoscope [Scanning Our Past]
Abstract:
Endoscopy is a technique allowing inspection, manipulation, and treatment of internal organs using devices to enhance visualization from a distance of the target organs without the need of an incision large enough to allow the hand or fingers of the surgeon to enter the surgical field. As can be expected, endoscopy developed in areas where hollow organs were connected to the exterior via natural orifices: the urethra, the vagina, the rectum, the ear canal, and the throat and pharynx. Entry of natural orifices was safe, devoid of wounds, and thus with little risk of infection and death. As also can be expected in the early days without radio, TV, telephone, or internet, numerous physicians and nonphysician scientists invented smaller or larger contributions to the field, sometimes at the same time unaware of the inventions of others. Not all who contributed published their inventions or the application of their inventions, and for others records were lost or destroyed at times of war. As a result the history of the endoscope is not an exact science where each advancement can be placed on a reputable time line and assigned with confidence to a single inventor. The limited space assigned to this summary of the history of the endoscope will not allow any details or nuances; instead it will focus on a number of well-regarded and generally accepted important contributions and its inventors in the early phases of endoscopy and mostly on the technology of the more recent history of endoscopy (Table 1). In addition, rather than focus on the people behind the inventions, this history is aimed mostly at the engineering concepts and subsequent applications in the medical field. For those who desire a more detailed and nuanced history of endoscopy, the reader is referred to books, manuscripts, and websites that cover the entire field or specific subspecialty areas: there are many including cystoscopy, colposcopy, bronchosco- y, thoracoscopy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, laparoscopy, arthroscopy, laryngoscopy, and otoscopy [1][10].
Autors: Piet C. De Groen;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 105, issue:10, pages: 1987 - 1995
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Histotripsy Treatment of S. Aureus Biofilms on Surgical Mesh Samples Under Varying Pulse Durations
Abstract:
Prior studies demonstrated that histotripsy generated by high-intensity tone bursts to excite a bubble cloud adjacent to a medical implant can destroy the bacteria biofilm responsible for the infection. The goal of this paper was to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms on surgical mesh samples while varying the number of cycles in the tone burst to minimize collateral tissue damage while maximizing therapy effectiveness. S. aureus biofilms were grown on 1-cm square surgical mesh samples. The biofilms were then treated in vitro using a spherically focused transducer (1.1 MHz, 12.9-cm focal length, 12.7-cm diameter) using either a sham exposure or histotripsy pulses with tone burst durations of 3, 5, or 10 cycles (pulse repetition frequency of 333 Hz, peak compressional pressure of 150 MPa, peak rarefactional pressure of 17 MPa). After treatment, the number of colony forming units (CFUs) on the mesh and the surrounding gel was independently determined. The number of CFUs remaining on the mesh for the sham exposure (4.8 ± 0.9–log10) (sample mean ± sample standard deviation-log10 from 15 observations) was statistically significantly different from the 3-cycle (1.9 ± 1.5–log10), 5-cycle (2.2 ± 1.1–log10), and 10-cycle exposures (1 ± 1.5–log10) with an average reduction in the number of CFUs of 3.1–log10. The numbers of CFUs released into the gel for both the sham and exposure groups were the same within a bound of 0.86–log10, but this interval was too large to deduce the fate of the bacteria in the biofilm following the treatment.
Autors: Timothy A. Bigelow;Clayton L. Thomas;Huaiqing Wu;Kamal M. F. Itani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1420 - 1428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» hMuLab: A Biomedical Hybrid MUlti-LABel Classifier Based on Multiple Linear Regression
Abstract:
Many biomedical classification problems are multi-label by nature, e.g., a gene involved in a variety of functions and a patient with multiple diseases. The majority of existing classification algorithms assumes each sample with only one class label, and the multi-label classification problem remains to be a challenge for biomedical researchers. This study proposes a novel multi-label learning algorithm, hMuLab, by integrating both feature-based and neighbor-based similarity scores. The multiple linear regression modeling techniques make hMuLab capable of producing multiple label assignments for a query sample. The comparison results over six commonly-used multi-label performance measurements suggest that hMuLab performs accurately and stably for the biomedical datasets, and may serve as a complement to the existing literature.
Autors: Pu Wang;Ruiquan Ge;Xuan Xiao;Manli Zhou;Fengfeng Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1173 - 1180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homogeneous Rational Lyapunov Functions for Performance Analysis of Switched Systems With Arbitrary Switching and Dwell Time Constraints
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problems of determining the norm and the root mean square (RMS) gain of continuous-time switched linear systems. A novel class of Lyapunov functions is proposed for reaching this goal, called homogeneous rational Lyapunov functions (HRLFs). It is shown that sufficient conditions for establishing upper bounds of the sought performance indexes in the case of arbitrary switching can be given in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility tests by searching for an HRLF of chosen degree. Moreover, it is shown that these conditions are also necessary by searching for an HRLF of degree sufficiently large. It is worth mentioning that necessary and sufficient LMI conditions have not been proposed yet in the literature for the considered problems. Hence, the paper continues by considering the case of switching with dwell time constraints, showing that analogous LMI conditions can be obtained for this case by searching for a family of HRLFs mutually constrained by the dwell time specification. Some numerical examples illustrate the proposed methodology and highlight the advantages with respect to the existing works.
Autors: Graziano Chesi;Patrizio Colaneri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5124 - 5137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homography Propagation and Optimization for Wide-Baseline Street Image Interpolation
Abstract:
Wide-baseline street image interpolation is useful but very challenging. Existing approaches either rely on heavyweight 3D reconstruction or computationally intensive deep networks. We present a lightweight and efficient method which uses simple homography computing and refining operators to estimate piecewise smooth homographies between input views. To achieve the goal, we show how to combine homography fitting and homography propagation together based on reliable and unreliable superpixel discrimination. Such a combination, other than using homography fitting only, dramatically increases the accuracy and robustness of the estimated homographies. Then, we integrate the concepts of homography and mesh warping, and propose a novel homography-constrained warping formulation which enforces smoothness between neighboring homographies by utilizing the first-order continuity of the warped mesh. This further eliminates small artifacts of overlapping, stretching, etc. The proposed method is lightweight and flexible, allows wide-baseline interpolation. It improves the state of the art and demonstrates that homography computation suffices for interpolation. Experiments on city and rural datasets validate the efficiency and effectiveness of our method.
Autors: Yongwei Nie;Zhensong Zhang;Hanqiu Sun;Tan Su;Guiqing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2328 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Horizontal Directional Coupler Formed With Waveguides of Different Heights for Mode-Division Multiplexing
Abstract:
We propose a horizontal directional coupler formed with two parallel waveguides of different heights. By breaking the symmetry in both the horizontal and the vertical direction, this directional coupler can be designed to allow us coupling between any two spatial modes of a few-mode waveguide, regardless of their symmetry properties, whereas a conventional directional coupler formed with planar waveguides of equal heights only allows us coupling between two spatial modes of the same symmetry in the vertical direction. As an example, we design and fabricate such a directional coupler with polymer material for the (de)multiplexing of the LP01 and the LP11b mode, which have a symmetric and an antisymmetric field distribution in the vertical direction, respectively. Our typical fabricated device shows a coupling ratio higher than 95% in the wavelength range from 1530 to 1560 nm. The insertion losses for the LP01 and LP11b modes are 9.6 and 12.8 dB, respectively. The performance of the device is weakly sensitive to temperature variations. The proposed directional coupler is easy to fabricate and can be used as a basic structure for the implementation of mode-controlling devices for mode-division-multiplexing applications.
Autors: Wei Ke Zhao;Kai Xin Chen;Jie Yun Wu;Kin Seng Chiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How synchronization evolved from analog to digital in the TLC world
Abstract:
We are back in the 1960s and 1970s, and the world is still analog: the home phone, with its reliable “hard dialer” that most people today have probably never seen (Fig. 1), is connected with a twisted pair cable to the public exchange. In Italy, it was the Società Italiana per l’Esercizio Telefonico (SIP Society), which has now become Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM). If we try to connect with a client on the same exchange, our call will be handled by a Strowger switch, from the inventor Almon Brown Strowger, which connects us directly to the desired subscriber (Fig. 2).
Autors: Franco Baroncini;Simona Salicone;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 30 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HRO-OFDM Scheme Design and Optimization for a Hybrid RF/VLC Baseband System
Abstract:
A hybrid radio frequency (RF) and visible light communication (VLC) system can provide better data rate performance and user experience, and only the hybrid RF/VLC systems that use independent RF access points (APs) and VLC APs have been currently considered. However, a hybrid design in baseband can more centrally allocate various resources. In this paper, a new hybrid RF/VLC orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) baseband is presented. Different from conventional OFDM baseband, the new baseband combines both RF link and VLC link in the physical layer. IQ modulation is used in RF link, whereas intensity modulation and direct detection are used in VLC link. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid of radio and optical OFDM (HRO-OFDM) scheme can better combine the different features in RF and VLC link. Based on the new hybrid baseband and HRO-OFDM, we improve the conventional optimization and consider both power allocation and bandwidth allocation. Compared with some conventional designs like RF OFDM baseband design, VLC OFDM baseband design and hybrid RF/VLC design, results show that our new design can achieve better performance and adaptively allocate bandwidth in RF/VLC links under the different distances between user and the baseband.
Autors: Fangzhou Wu;Li Chen;Weidong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Backscatter Communication for Wireless-Powered Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose hybrid backscatter communication for wireless-powered communication networks (WPCNs) to increase transmission range and provide uniform rate distribution in the heterogeneous network (HetNet) environment. In such HetNet, where the TV tower or high-power base station (macrocell) coexists with densely deployed small-power access points (e.g., small-cells or WiFi), users can operate in either bistatic scatter or ambient backscatter, or a hybrid of them, given that the harvested energy from the dedicated or ambient RF signals may not be sufficient enough to support the existing harvest-then-transmit protocol for WPCN, which is extended to the wireless-powered heterogeneous network (WPHetNet). Considering the hybrid and dual mode operation, we formulate a throughput maximization problem depending on the user location, namely Macro-zone or WiFi-zone. After performing the optimal time allocation for the above operation, we show that the proposed hybrid backscatter communication can increase the transmission range of WPHetNet, while achieving uniform rate distribution.
Autors: Sung Hoon Kim;Dong In Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6557 - 6570
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid CS-DMRI: Periodic Time-Variant Subsampling and Omnidirectional Total Variation Based Reconstruction
Abstract:
Compressive sensing (CS) has been used to accelerate dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI). Currently, the online CS-DMRI is faster, whereas the offline CS-DMRI provides higher accuracy for image reconstruction. To achieve good image reconstruction performance in terms of both speed and accuracy, we propose a hybrid CS-DMRI method using periodic time-variant subsampling for different frames. In each period, there is one reference frame that is sampled at a higher subsampling ratio. The two nearby reference frames with good reconstruction quality can be used to provide rough predictions of the other frames between them. To finely recover the current frame, one structural regularization in the optimization model for reconstruction is a 2-D omnidirectional total variation (OTV) for exploiting the sparsity of the difference between the predicted and estimated frames, and the other is a 3-D OTV as a regularization term for exploiting the bilateral spatio-temporal coherence between the forward reference frame, current frame, and backward reference frame. Compared with classical total variation, the proposed OTV fully utilizes the correlations of all the possible directions of the data. The formulated optimization model can be solved using iterative reweighted least squares with the pre-conditioned conjugate gradient method. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has better reconstruction accuracy than all the existing methods and low computational complexity that is comparable to the existing online methods.
Autors: Yipeng Liu;Shan Wu;Xiaolin Huang;Bing Chen;Ce Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 2148 - 2159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Dynamic Moving Obstacle Avoidance Using a Stochastic Reachable Set-Based Potential Field
Abstract:
One of the primary challenges for autonomous robotics in uncertain and dynamic environments is planning and executing a collision-free path. Hybrid dynamic obstacles present an even greater challenge as the obstacles can change dynamics without warning and potentially invalidate paths. Artificial potential field (APF)-based techniques have shown great promise in successful path planning in highly dynamic environments due to their low cost at runtime. We utilize the APF framework for runtime planning but leverage a formal validation method, Stochastic Reachable (SR) sets, to generate accurate potential fields for moving obstacles. A small number of SR sets are computed a priori, then used to generate a potential field that represents the obstacle's stochastic motion for online path planning. Our method is novel and scales well with the number of obstacles, maintaining a relatively high probability of reaching the goal without collision, as compared to other traditional Gaussian APF methods. Here, we demonstrate our method with up to 900 hybrid dynamic obstacles and show that it outperforms the traditional Gaussian APF method by up to 60% in the holonomic case and up to 20% in the unicycle case.
Autors: Nick Malone;Hao-Tien Chiang;Kendra Lesser;Meeko Oishi;Lydia Tapia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1124 - 1138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Fuzzy Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Unmeasured States
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid adaptive output feedback fault-tolerant control is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unmeasured states. The generalized fuzzy hyperbolic model is used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, and the fuzzy state estimator (FSE) is established for estimating the unmeasured states. Based on the backstepping and dynamic surface control technique, a novel adaptive control method is proposed by introducing the prediction errors between FSE and serial–parallel estimation model. It is proved that all the variables of the closed-loop systems are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded by Lyapunov approach, and the tracking errors can converge to a small neighborhood. Two simulation examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Autors: Huaguang Zhang;Yang Cui;Yingchun Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1041 - 1050
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Robust Boundary and Fuzzy Control for Disturbance Attenuation of Nonlinear Coupled ODE-Beam Systems With Application to a Flexible Spacecraft
Abstract:
This paper introduces a hybrid robust boundary and fuzzy control design for disturbance attenuation of a class of coupled systems described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and two nonlinear beam equations. Initially, a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) model is employed to exactly represent the nonlinear ODE subsystem. Then, a fuzzy controller is designed for the ODE subsystem based on the T–S fuzzy model, and a robust boundary controller via beam boundary measurements is proposed for the nonlinear beam subsystem. Such a hybrid robust boundary and fuzzy controller is developed in terms of a set of space-dependent bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs) by Lyapunov's direct method, which can exponentially stabilize the coupled system in the absence of disturbances and achieve an prescribed performance of disturbance attenuation in the presence of disturbances. Furthermore, in order to make the level of disturbance attenuation as small as possible, a suboptimal control problem is formulated as a BMI optimization problem. A two-step procedure is subsequently presented to solve this BMI optimization problem by the existing linear matrix inequality optimization techniques. Finally, the proposed control method is applied to the control of a flexible spacecraft to illustrate its effectiveness.
Autors: Shuang Feng;Huai-Ning Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1293 - 1305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Thin Film Antenna for Automotive Radar at 79 GHz
Abstract:
A novel hybrid approach to designing multilayer antennas for automotive radar using a thin single layer printed circuit board and multilayer thin films is presented in this paper. A new substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) slot fed stacked grid antenna element is designed using this approach. The flexibility of this approach in designing antenna arrays is shown by integrating the same antenna element with three different feed networks based on SIW, grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW), and microstrip (MS) transmission lines. The antenna is designed to operate in the frequency band between 77 and 81 GHz for automotive radar. Measurement results on arrays show an impedance matching bandwidth and a realized gain of 7.8% (76.3–82.5 GHz) and 9.2 dBi, respectively, for SIW feed antenna, 11.3% (76.3–85.5 GHz) and 10.7 dBi, respectively, for GCPW feed antenna, and 11.3% (75.7–84.8 GHz) and 12.1 dBi, respectively, for MS feed antennas. The proposed antenna can be used for medium- and short-range automotive radar applications.
Autors: Osama Khan;Johannes Meyer;Klaus Baur;Christian Waldschmidt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5076 - 5085
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Wavelength Switched-TDMA High Port Count All-Optical Data Centre Switch
Abstract:
The physical layer data plane design of an all-optical network switch capable of scaling to 1024 ports at 25 Gb/s per port is presented and experimentally evaluated. Fast-tuning DSDBR lasers modulated with line-coded bipolar data allow combined wavelength switching and time-division multiple access to provide packet switch-like functionality with over 2 Tb/s of total switch bandwidth. A passive fiber star coupler core with high sensitivity DSP-free coherent receivers creates a low complexity easily upgradeable building block for data center networks.
Autors: Adam Christopher Funnell;Kai Shi;Paolo Costa;Philip Watts;Hitesh Ballani;Benn Charles Thomsen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4438 - 4444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral and Multispectral Image Fusion Based on Local Low Rank and Coupled Spectral Unmixing
Abstract:
Hyperspectral images (HSIs) usually have high spectral and low spatial resolution. Conversely, multispectral images (MSIs) usually have low spectral and high spatial resolution. The fusion of HSI and MSI aims to create spectral images with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a fusion algorithm by combining linear spectral unmixing with the local low-rank property. By taking advantage of the local low-rank property, we first partition the corresponding spectral image into patches. For each patch pair, we cast the fusion problem as a coupled spectral unmixing problem that extracts the abundance and the endmembers of MSI and HSI, respectively. It then updates the abundance and the endmember through an alternating update algorithm. In fact, the convergence of the alternative update algorithm can be mathematically and empirically supported. We also propose a multiscale postprocessing procedure to combine fusion results obtained under different patch sizes. In experiments on three data sets, the proposed fusion algorithms outperformed state-of-the-art fusion algorithms in both spatial and spectral domains.
Autors: Yuan Zhou;Liyang Feng;Chunping Hou;Sun-Yuan Kung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5997 - 6009
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection With Attribute and Edge-Preserving Filters
Abstract:
A novel method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images is proposed. The method is based on two ideas. First, compared with the surrounding background, objects with anomalies usually appear with small areas and distinct spectral signatures. Second, for both the background and the objects with anomalies, pixels in the same class are usually highly correlated in the spatial domain. In this paper, the pixels with specific area property and distinct spectral signatures are first detected with attribute filtering and a Boolean map-based fusion approach in order to obtain an initial pixel-wise detection result. Then, the initial detection result is refined with edge-preserving filtering to make full use of the spatial correlations among adjacent pixels. Compared with other widely used anomaly detection methods, the experimental results obtained on real hyperspectral data sets including airport, beach, and urban scenes demonstrate that the performance of the proposed method is quite competitive in terms of computing time and detection accuracy.
Autors: Xudong Kang;Xiangping Zhang;Shutao Li;Kenli Li;Jun Li;Jón Atli Benediktsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5600 - 5611
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Restoration Using Low-Rank Tensor Recovery
Abstract:
This paper studies the hyperspectral image (HSI) denoising problem under the assumption that the signal is low in rank. In this paper, a mixture of Gaussian noise and sparse noise is considered. The sparse noise includes stripes, impulse noise, and dead pixels. The denoising task is formulated as a low-rank tensor recovery (LRTR) problem from Gaussian noise and sparse noise. Traditional low-rank tensor decomposition methods are generally NP-hard to compute. Besides, these tensor decomposition based methods are sensitive to sparse noise. In contrast, the proposed LRTR method can preserve the global structure of HSIs and simultaneously remove Gaussian noise and sparse noise.The proposed method is based on a new tensor singular value decomposition and tensor nuclear norm. The NP-hard tensor recovery task is well accomplished by polynomial time algorithms. The convergence of the algorithm and the parameter settings are also described in detail. Preliminary numerical experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective for low-rank tensor recovery from Gaussian noise and sparse noise. Experimental results also show that the proposed LRTR method outperforms other denoising algorithms on real corrupted hyperspectral data.
Autors: Haiyan Fan;Yunjin Chen;Yulan Guo;Hongyan Zhang;Gangyao Kuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4589 - 4604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Super-Resolution by Spectral Difference Learning and Spatial Error Correction
Abstract:
A hyperspectral image (HSI) super-resolution (SR) is a highly attractive topic in computer vision. However, most existed methods require an auxiliary high-resolution (HR) image with respect to the input low-resolution (LR) HSI. This limits the practicability of these HSI SR methods. Moreover, these methods often destroy the important spectral information. This letter presents a deep spectral difference convolutional neural network (SDCNN) with the combination of a spatial-error-correction (SEC) model for HSI SR. This method allows for full exploration of the spectral and spatial correlations, which achieves a good spatial information enhancement and spectral information preservation. In the proposed method, the key band is automatically selected and super-resolved with the boundary bands. Meanwhile, spectral difference mapping between the LR and HR HSIs can be learned by the SDCNN, and then be transformed according to the SEC model, which aims at correcting the spatial error while preserving the spectral information. The rest nonkey bands will be super-resolved under the guidance of the transformed spectral difference. Experimental results on synthesized and real-scenario HSIs suggest that the proposed method: 1) achieves comparable performance without requiring any auxiliary images of the same scene and 2) requires less computation time than the state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Jing Hu;Yunsong Li;Weiying Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1825 - 1829
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Annual Meeting: Colocation with ECCE [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 4 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ICESAT/GLAS Altimetry Measurements: Received Signal Dynamic Range and Saturation Correction
Abstract:
NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), which operated between 2003 and 2009, made the first satellite-based global lidar measurement of earth’s ice sheet elevations, sea-ice thickness, and vegetation canopy structure. The primary instrument on ICESat was the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which measured the distance from the spacecraft to the earth’s surface via the roundtrip travel time of individual laser pulses. GLAS utilized pulsed lasers and a direct detection receiver consisting of a silicon avalanche photodiode and a waveform digitizer. Early in the mission, the peak power of the received signal from snow and ice surfaces was found to span a wider dynamic range than anticipated, often exceeding the linear dynamic range of the GLAS 1064-nm detector assembly. The resulting saturation of the receiver distorted the recorded signal and resulted in range biases as large as ~50 cm for ice- and snow-covered surfaces. We developed a correction for this “saturation range bias” based on laboratory tests using a spare flight detector, and refined the correction by comparing GLAS elevation estimates with those derived from Global Positioning System surveys over the calibration site at the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. Applying the saturation correction largely eliminated the range bias due to receiver saturation for affected ICESat measurements over Uyuni and significantly reduced the discrepancies at orbit crossovers located on flat regions of the Antarctic ice sheet.
Autors: Xiaoli Sun;James B. Abshire;Adrian A. Borsa;Helen Amanda Fricker;Donghui Yi;John P. DiMarzio;Fernando S. Paolo;Kelly M. Brunt;David J. Harding;Gregory A. Neumann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5440 - 5454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification and Experimental Validation of an Induction Motor Thermal Model for Improved Drivetrain Design
Abstract:
The ability of an electric powertrain to perform according to mechanical specifications is equally important as assessing its thermal protection limits, which are affected by its electrical and thermal properties. Although rated parameters (such as power, torque, etc.) are easily accessible in catalogs of equipment producers, more specific properties like mass/length of copper winding, heat dissipation factor, etc., are not available to customers. Therefore, an effective selection of drivetrain components is limited due to the lack of sufficient data and the need to consult critical design decisions with suppliers. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method to estimate the temperature rise of motor drives based on popular loadability curves, which are provided in catalogs. A simple first-order thermal model is applied to represent heating/cooling phenomenon of motor drives. The parameters’ identification process is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved using commercial software products. Within the proposed approach, it becomes possible to include the effect of reduced torque availability at low speeds in self-ventilated motors during design of electric actuation systems. Contrary to using a discrete set of permissible overload conditions from the catalogs, the current methodology allows for evaluating a temperature rise of a motor drive for any overload magnitude, duty cycle, and ambient temperature. This greatly improves flexibility of the design process and facilitates communication in a supplier–customer dialog. The discussed method is verified against reference overload recommendations, yielding the same thermal protection levels, and validated using the experimental results, producing identical motor temperature rise profiles as the ones measured on the laboratory test bench.
Autors: Witold Pawlus;Jan Thomas Birkeland;Huynh Van Khang;Michael R. Hansen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4288 - 4297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of partial discharges in power transformers: An approach driven by practical experience
Abstract:
High voltage power transformers are the most challenging equipment for asset managers in that their failures are often due to thermal, electrical, ambient, and mechanical stresses that interact in a synergic way. An accurate failure mode analysis is often prevented by the compound nature of the insulation (partly solid, partly liquid, self-regenerative, and highly flammable) and by the high probability that failures involve explosions. Insulation failure is, by far, the costlier event with an average cost of about $150,000 (1999) per outage [1]. Therefore, it is worthwhile to understand better the symptoms that indicate an imminent failure. The aim of this article is to provide practical information for partial discharge source identification for oil-immersed transformers. The features of some common manufacturing defects rarely discussed in the literature are presented. Creeping discharges are also investigated through a setup intended to improve partial discharge identification.
Autors: S. Ganeshan;J. Murugesan;A. Cavallini;F. Negri;B. Valecillos;U. Piovan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 23 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of the Uncertainty Structure to Estimate the Acoustic Release of Chemotherapeutics From Polymeric Micelles
Abstract:
This paper estimates the acoustic drug release from micelles after accurately identifying the underlying statistical noise characteristics in experimental data. The drug release is measured as a change in fluorescence as ultrasound is applied. First, the noise structure affecting the process dynamics and the measurement process is identified in terms of statistical covariance of the aforementioned quantities. Then, the identified covariance magnitudes are utilized to estimate the dynamics of drug release. The performance of different filters is investigated. The identified a priori knowledge is used to implement an optimal Kalman filter, a multi-hypothesis Kalman filter, and a variant of the full information estimator (moving horizon estimator) to the problem at hand. The proposed algorithms are initially deployed in a simulation environment, and then the experimental data sets are fed into the algorithms to validate their performance. Experiments span a number of ultrasonic power densities for both non-targeted and targeted polymeric micelles (the targeting being accomplished using the folate moiety). The results suggest that the proposed algorithm, the optimal Kalman filter, performs better than the other two in all tests performed.
Autors: Ali Wadi;Mamoun Abdel-Hafez;Ghaleb A. Husseini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 609 - 617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Stages of Kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma by Combining Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Data
Abstract:
In this study, in order to take advantage of complementary information from different types of data for better disease status diagnosis, we combined gene expression with DNA methylation data and generated a fused network, based on which the stages of Kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) can be better identified. It is well recognized that a network is important for investigating the connectivity of disease groups. We exploited the potential of the network's features to identify the KIRC stage. We first constructed a patient network from each type of data. We then built a fused network based on network fusion method. Based on the link weights of patients, we used a generalized linear model to predict the group of KIRC subjects. Finally, the group prediction method was applied to test the power of network-based features. The performance (e.g., the accuracy of identifying cancer stages) when using the fused network from two types of data is shown to be superior to that when using two patient networks from only one data type. The work provides a good example for using network based features from multiple data types for a more comprehensive diagnosis.
Autors: Su-Ping Deng;Shaolong Cao;De-Shuang Huang;Yu-Ping Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1147 - 1153
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on the IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 136 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Technical Talk at Al Ain University [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
On 1 June 2016, the College of Engineering at Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU), in conjunction with the Joint Chapter of the UAE IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society and IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society along with the IEEE AAU student branch, organized a technical talk, "The Engineering of the Human Joint: Advances in Orthopedics Research and Computer Navigation" presented by Dr. Farid Amirouche of the University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 139 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Matting for Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:
Features used in the classification of targets are generally based on the shape or gray-level information of the preprocessed target chip. Consequently, the performance of an automatic target recognition (ATR) system critically depends on the preprocessing result. In this paper, we propose to apply recent advances in image matting to address these challenges. First, a trimap is automatically generated in an adaptive manner to assign appropriate known foreground and background constraints. Then modified geometric clustering, which estimates the target center robustly, is performed on the estimated trimap. Then propagation-based matting is used to remove nontarget regions while retaining target information. The proposed framework is evaluated using visual examination, ATR performance comparison, and constraints dependency analysis. Our method has robust capabilities and outperforms conventional schemes.
Autors: Hyun-Woong Cho;Young-Rae Cho;Woo-Jin Song;Byoung-Kwang Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2233 - 2250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Registration and Change Detection under Rolling Shutter Motion Blur
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the problem of registering a distorted image and a reference image of the same scene by estimating the camera motion that had caused the distortion. We simultaneously detect the regions of changes between the two images. We attend to the coalesced effect of rolling shutter and motion blur that occurs frequently in moving CMOS cameras. We first model a general image formation framework for a 3D scene following a layered approach in the presence of rolling shutter and motion blur. We then develop an algorithm which performs layered registration to detect changes. This algorithm includes an optimisation problem that leverages the sparsity of the camera trajectory in the pose space and the sparsity of changes in the spatial domain. We create a synthetic dataset for change detection in the presence of motion blur and rolling shutter effect covering different types of camera motion for both planar and 3D scenes. We compare our method with existing registration methods and also show several real examples captured with CMOS cameras.
Autors: Vijay Rengarajan;Ambasamudram Narayanan Rajagopalan;Rangarajan Aravind;Guna Seetharaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 1959 - 1972
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Retrieval in Spatial and Temporal Domains With a Quadrant Detector
Abstract:
To retrieve an N pixel image of a scene, conventional digital cameras record the information using an N pixelated detector with one measurement, while single-pixel imaging achieves it by sampling the image in a particular basis and recording the light intensities of N temporal measurements with a single-pixel detector. Besides these two schemes, it is also possible to obtain the same spatial information with an X pixels detector and N/X measurements, where the pressure of information retrieval is distributed to both spatial and temporal domains, rather than condensed in one domain. In this paper, we investigate this possibility and present a 4-pixels imaging scheme, which retrieves an image partially in spatial domain and partially in temporal domain, by adopting a quadrant detector to a single-pixel imaging system. While yielding images with equal quality, the proof-of-principle system we built is four times faster than a standard single-pixel imaging system, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Our work exploits the flexibility of space-time information retrieval and can be useful for applications where comprise between spatial and temporal domains is needed.
Autors: Ming-Jie Sun;Wen Chen;Teng-Fei Liu;Li-Jing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Segmentation Using Linked Mean-Shift Vectors and Global/Local Attributes
Abstract:
This paper proposes novel noniterative mean-shift-based image segmentation that uses global and local attributes. The existing mean-shift-based methods use a fixed range bandwidth, and hence their accuracy is dependent on the range spectrum of an image. To resolve this dependency, this paper proposes to modify the range kernel in the mean-shift process to be anisotropic. The modification is conducted using a global attribute defined as the range covariance matrix of the image. Further, to alleviate oversegmentation, the proposed method merges the segments having similar local attributes more aggressively than other segments. The local attribute for each segment is defined as the sum of the variances of the chromatic components. Finally, to expedite the processing, the proposed method uses a region adjacency graph (RAG) for the merging process, thus differing from the existing linked mean-shift-based methods. In the experiments on the Berkeley segmentation data set, the use of the global and local attributes improved segmentation accuracy; the proposed method outperformed the state-of-the-art linked mean-shift-based method by showing an improvement of 2.15%, 3.16%, 3.32%, and 1.90% in probability rand index, segmentation covering, variation of information, and F-measure, respectively. Further, compared with the benchmark method, which uses the dilating and merging scheme, the proposed method improved the speed of the merging process 42 times by applying the RAG.
Autors: Hanjoo Cho;Suk-Ju Kang;Young Hwan Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2132 - 2140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imbalance Learning Machine-Based Power System Short-Term Voltage Stability Assessment
Abstract:
In terms of machine learning-based power system dynamic stability assessment, it is feasible to collect learning data from massive synchrophasor measurements in practice. However, the fact that instability events rarely occur would lead to a challenging class imbalance problem. Besides, short-term feature extraction from scarce instability seems extremely difficult for conventional learning machines. Faced with such a dilemma, this paper develops a systematic imbalance learning machine for online short-term voltage stability assessment. A powerful time series shapelet (discriminative subsequence) classification method is embedded into the machine for sequential transient feature mining. A forecasting-based nonlinear synthetic minority oversampling technique is proposed to mitigate the distortion of class distribution. Cost-sensitive learning is employed to intensify bias toward those scarce yet valuable unstable cases. Furthermore, an incremental learning strategy is put forward for online monitoring, contributing to adaptability and reliability enhancement along with time. Simulation results on the Nordic test system illustrate the high performance of the proposed learning machine and of the assessment scheme.
Autors: Lipeng Zhu;Chao Lu;Zhao Yang Dong;Chao Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2533 - 2543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of 2D-Graphene on SiN Passivated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs Under Mist Exposure
Abstract:
The effect of a 2D graphene layer (GL) on top of the silicon nitride (SiN) passivation layer of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors has been systematically analyzed. Results showed that in the devices without the GL, the maximum drain current density () and the maximum transconductance () decreased gradually as the mist exposure time increased, up to 23% and 10%, respectively. Moreover, the gate lag ratio increased around 10% during mist exposure. In contrast, devices with a GL showed a robust behavior and not significant changes in the electrical characteristics in both dc and pulsed conditions. The origin of these behaviors has been discussed and the results pointed to the GL as the key factor for improving the moisture resistance of the SiN passivation layer.
Autors: M. Fátima Romero;Alberto Boscá;Jorge Pedrós;Javier Martínez;Rajveer Fandan;Tomás Palacios;Fernando Calle;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1441 - 1444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Interface Traps and Surface Roughness on the Device Performance of Stacked-Nanowire FETs
Abstract:
In stacked-nanowire field-effect transistors (stacked-NW FETs), the effect of nanowire surface roughness (NWSR) and random interface traps (RIT) on device performance variation is investigated. The 3-D NWSR profile is applied to the surface of the nanowires, and then, the interface traps are generated and randomly placed in the interfacial layer between the silicon and high-k. First, the interaction between NWSR and RIT in a single-NW FET is investigated; the NWSR-induced performance varia- tion is not independent on the RIT-induced variation. Then, the correlation of NWSR profiles and RIT in stacked-NW FETs is explored. The degree of correlation between the NWSR profiles of stacked-NWs is varied in three cases: 1) positively correlated; 2) negatively correlated; and 3) uncorrelated. Without RITs, the NWSR-induced performance variation of the stacked-NW FETs dramatically increases as the NWSR profiles of the nanowires become positively correlated. However, with RITs, the more positively correlated the NWSR profiles of the nanowires, the larger is the variation that the interface traps induce. Interface traps barely affect the variation of the negatively correlated NWSR profiles. The variation of current slightly decreases because interface charge scattering degrades the mobility of the carriers.
Autors: Jinyoung Park;Changhwan Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4025 - 4030
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact-Time-Control Guidance Law With Constraints on Seeker Look Angle
Abstract:
An impact-time-control guidance (ITCG) law is required for simultaneous attack of multiple missiles. In application of ITCG, the limit of seeker look angle should be regarded as an important factor in homing engagement scenarios. To avoid the loss of target tracking during engagement, the seeker's look angle should be confined to the seeker's field-of-view limit. This paper suggests a new ITCG law for a realistic situation with constraints on seeker look angle driven by the exact nonlinear equations of motion in plane. The proposed guidance law ensures the seeker's look angle to reduce monotonically from the initial value to zero at the intercept point. The resulting solution is presented in the form of proportional navigation guidance law with a time-varying navigation gain. The closed-form navigation gain can be obtained from information on the current missile-to-target range and heading angle.
Autors: In-Soo Jeon;Jin-Ik Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2621 - 2627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impedance-Dependent Wideband Digital Predistortion of Solid-State Radar Amplifiers
Abstract:
Spectral regrowth and waveform distortion caused by wideband signals input into active phased array antenna systems is the problem this paper addresses. The paper's unique contribution is the development of the impedance-dependent memory polynomial model, capable of solving nonlinear predistortion model parameters for a solid-state high power amplifier with varying load impedance resulting from active electronic beamsteering. Wideband load impedance mismatched tests demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on a 2.7 GHz, 8 W amplifier.
Autors: Zachary Dunn;Mark Yeary;Caleb Fulton;Rafael Rincon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2290 - 2303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of an 8-bit ADC using successive subtraction technique
Abstract:
In this article, an 8-bit ADC circuit is proposed, using op amps in successive subtraction method. This circuit does not require any clock signal, internal DAC or decoder, etc. because it performs the conversion process completely in the analog domain. Applying a supply voltage of ±6 V, it consumes 242 mW power and the settling time is measured as 156 μs.
Autors: Sayantan Sinha;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 35 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of an Active-Clamped Current-Fed Push–Pull Converter Employing Parallel-Inductor to Extend ZVS Range for Fuel Cell Application
Abstract:
This paper proposes a wide-range zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) active-clamped current-fed push-pull converter for fuel cell application. The presented converter achieves ZVS for all of the primary switches and ZCS for secondary diodes from rated load to 10% full load over the wide input voltage variation, improving the overall efficiency. The ZVS of switches is realized by the energy stored in the transformer leakage inductance aided by the secondary parallel inductor. An additional active clamping circuit suppresses the voltage spike as well as assists in realizing ZVS of switches. Low-voltage-rated switches with low on-state resistance can be used. Moreover, the voltage-doubler rectifier is adopted to release the reverse-recovery problem of rectifier diodes and reduce turns ratio of the high-frequency transformer. Detailed steady-state operation, analysis, design, control, comparative study, and experimental results are discussed in depth in this paper. Finally, a 200-W prototype has been built in the laboratory to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
Autors: Qunfang Wu;Qin Wang;Jialin Xu;Lan Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7919 - 7929
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of High-Precision Quadrature Control for Single-Stage SECS
Abstract:
In this paper, a high precision quadrature control for a single-stage solar energy conversion system (SECS) is presented with power quality improvement capabilities. The SECS uses a voltage source converter (VSC) which performs multifunctions. It harvests maximum energy from the solar photovoltaic (SPV) string and it integrates the extracted energy to the grid. In addition, it utilizes a SPV feed-forward loop to improve the dynamic response and reduces the burden on the proportional-integral controller by regulating dc bus voltage. To control the switching sequences of VSC, a high precision quadrature control is used which extracts the fundamental current from the contaminated load current. The mathematical formulation of quadrature control is corroborated by the experimental results of SECS under different operating conditions.
Autors: Shailendra Kumar;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2726 - 2734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Lower Bounds on the Size of Balls Over Permutations With the Infinity Metric
Abstract:
We study the size (or volume) of balls in the metric space of permutations, , under the infinity metric. We focus on the regime of balls with radius , , i.e., a radius that is a constant fraction of the maximum possible distance. We provide new lower bounds on the size of such balls. These new lower bounds reduce the asymptotic gap to the known upper bounds to at most 0.029 bits per symbol. Additionally, they imply an improved ball-packing bound for error-correcting codes, and an improved upper bound on the size of optimal covering codes.
Autors: Moshe Schwartz;Pascal O. Vontobel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6227 - 6239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Model Based on the Modified Steinmetz Equation for Predicting the Magnetic Losses in Non-Oriented Electrical Steels That is Valid for Elevated Temperatures and Frequencies
Abstract:
In this paper, four different grades of fully finished, non-oriented (NO) electrical steels, i.e., M530-50A, M400-50A, M350-50A, and M290-50A, were selected. Their measured magnetic properties were the basis for the derived and validated magnetic-loss prediction model. Based on the experimental data and the modified Steinmetz equation, a simplified predictive model valid at temperatures up to 230 °C, in the frequency range 30–2000 Hz, and magnetic flux densities up to 1.0 T, is proposed. The model’s prediction coefficients are proposed for the eddy current, hysteresis, and excess loss components. An empirical equation for predicting the magnetic losses, valid up to 1.0 T, highlighting the changes in the magnetic losses with temperature is derived. The equation leads to excellent agreement between the measured and predicted magnetic losses for four grades of NO electrical steel.
Autors: G. Novak;J. Kokošar;M. Bricelj;M. Bizjak;D. Steiner Petrovič;A. Nagode;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Modeling of Geomagnetically Induced Currents Utilizing Derivation Techniques for Substation Grounding Resistance
Abstract:
This paper focuses on estimating the substation grounding resistance to improve the modeling of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Grounding resistances are not included in the standard power flow models, and their approximate values are often used for performing GIC studies. This paper provides an algorithm to estimate the resistances from the GIC measurements. This algorithm calculates the linear sensitivity factors of the GICs around the local grounding resistive components and uses linear regression to solve for the resistances. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using both a small test case as well as a 62 500-bus model of the North American Eastern Interconnection.
Autors: Maryam Kazerooni;Hao Zhu;Thomas J. Overbye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2320 - 2328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Multitrack Detection With Hybrid 2-D Equalizer and Modified Viterbi Detector
Abstract:
Increasing track density in magnetic recording systems increases inter-track interference (ITI). One way to handle the increased ITI is to apply 2-D equalization to the signals from multiple tracks. Usually the equalizer coefficients and the corresponding partial response (PR) targets are fixed after training using a pseudo-random bit sequence. We denote such an equalizer as a fixed equalizer. In this paper, we propose and investigate a variable 2-D equalizer for bit patterned media recording (BPMR). In the proposed approach, the equalizer coefficients and corresponding PR targets vary with ITI patterns. These variable equalizer coefficients are determined and stored by training with sequences representing different ITI patterns. In the proposed approach for BPMR, during data detection, these variable equalizer coefficients and corresponding PR targets are embedded into the parallel branches of a modified Viterbi (MV) detector in response to estimated ITI patterns. We term this new approach as V2DEMV [i.e., variable 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector] algorithm. Furthermore, we propose to simplify the implementation of the V2DEMV algorithm by identifying the survivor branch among the branches corresponding to the dominant erroneous ITI patterns. Then this survivor branch and other branches corresponding to remaining possible ITI patterns are processed by an F2DEMV (i.e., fixed 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector) algorithm to estimate the bits. We term this reduced-complexity approach as an H2DEMV (i.e., hybrid 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector) algorithm. Our simulations indicate that for both two readers detecting two tracks and three readers detecting three tracks, at target bit error rate of , the proposed H2DEMV algorithm can provide noticeable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains com- ared to F2DE1DV algorithm (i.e., fixed 2-D equalizer with 1-D PR target followed by 1-D Viterbi detector) and F2DEMV algorithm.
Autors: Yao Wang;B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Neutral Current Compensation With a Four-Leg PV Smart VSI in a LV Residential Network
Abstract:
Loads in low voltage (LV) residential areas are mainly single-phase types which are supplied from a delta/wye connected distribution transformer with a grounded neutral conductor creating a three-phase (3P) four-wire (4W) distribution system. The unbalanced single-phase load distributions in traditional 3P-4W LV networks cause significant neutral currents which can result in the overloading of the neutral conductor and electrical safety concerns for customers. In this paper, the dependency of the load generated neutral current on the distribution line variable zero sequence R/X ratios is developed, and a new decentralized robust active neutral compensation method is proposed using a multifunctional transformerless 3P four-leg (4L) photovoltaic (PV) smart voltage source inverter (SVSI). System stability is verified from the bode analysis and the improved neutral compensation is evaluated from the circuitry model analysis. Actual single-phase customer loads with real sun irradiance and temperature profiles are used with an urban 3P-4W LV network model from Australia and implemented in simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC software to verify the efficacy of the proposed controller in real world distribution networks. Different transient faults analyses and point of common coupling dynamic voltage regulation are also performed and faster fault recovery, better neutral compensation, and optimized voltage profile are achieved from the designed PV-SVSI.
Autors: Fida Hasan Md Rafi;M. Jahangir Hossain;Junwei Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2291 - 2302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Single-Element Resistive Sensor-to-Microcontroller Interface
Abstract:
Direct resistive sensor interface to a microcontroller has several advantages but has one prominent disadvantage, namely, the measurement is affected by the resistances of: 1) wires that connect the sensor to the port pins and 2) the internal resistances of the port pins of the microcontroller. A direct sensor-to-microcontroller interface scheme that compensates the effect due not only to resistances of lead wires but also the effect of microcontroller port pin’s internal resistance and any offset present in those pins is presented in this paper. Since the resistances of lead wires are compensated, automatic temperature compensation (temperature effect of lead wires) is also obtained. Simulation study and results obtained from a prototype built and tested establish the efficacy of the proposed method. A maximum error of 0.06% was observed from the prototype developed, when it was tested under room temperature, after interfacing it with the sensor Pt100, with a lead wire resistance . The error increased to a maximum of 0.08%, when the varied from 0 to . When the same prototype was tested under elevated room temperature of 30 °C to 100 °C, the maximum error observed was 0.18%.
Autors: Ponnalagu Ramanathan Nagarajan;Boby George;V. Jagadeesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2736 - 2744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement in Device Performance of Vertical Thin-Film Transistors Using Atomic Layer Deposited IGZO Channel and Polyimide Spacer
Abstract:
Technical strategies for improving the device characteristics of the In–Ga–Zn-O (IGZO) vertical channel thin-film transistors (VTFTs) were presented and investigated. The vertical sidewall was constructed by dry-etch process and subsequently covered with IGZO, Al2O3, and AZO as active, gate insulator, and gate electrode layers by means of conformal atomic-layer-deposition. An abrupt profile and flat back-channel were achieved by employing the spin-coated polyimide (PI) spacer. The Off-current was additionally alleviated simply by cutting the area of an active layer. The fabricated IGZO VTFT using PI spacer with an “active-cut” structure exhibited an On/off ratio of , a linear mobility of 7.1 cm2/Vs, and a subthreshold swing of 1.2 V/decade.
Autors: Yeo-Myeong Kim;Han-Byeol Kang;Gi-Heon Kim;Chi-Sun Hwang;Sung-Min Yoon;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1387 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Back-EMF Self-Sensing For Induction Machines When Using Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control
Abstract:
Back-electromotive force (back-EMF) self-sensing is commonly used in induction machine (IM) drive systems for its maintenance cost and safety considerations. In recent years, compared with standard indirect field oriented control, deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) has been shown to be a highly effective method for IM control with a fixed switching frequency. It has advantages such as fast torque dynamics with one step dynamic response for torque and flux with no current regulator. This paper evaluates the synergy between back-EMF self-sensing technology and DB-DTFC for IM drive systems. In this paper, an observer-based closed-loop back-EMF tracking self-sensing control in an IM DB-DTFC drive system is presented. It includes a back-EMF state filter, back-EMF tracking observer, and cascaded motion observer. Back-EMF harmonic decoupling is explored to improve the low-speed performance. The band-pass filter method (BPF) for back-EMF self-sensing is also presented. Finally, the closed loop system dynamic stiffness at very low speeds, with and without the BPF method, is experimentally evaluated.
Autors: Kang Wang;Robert D. Lorenz;Noor Aamir Baloch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4569 - 4578
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Device Reliability by Introducing a BEOL-Compatible TiN Barrier Layer in CBRAM
Abstract:
Negative-SET behavior, induced by nano-filament overgrowth phenomenon, takes major responsibility to the reset failure phenomenon in conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM). The unexpected negative-SET behavior in CBRAM devices can result in serious reliability issues and has been an obstacle on the way to mass production. In this letter, we have proposed a back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible TiN barrier layer to improve the device reliability in CBRAM devices by eliminating the nano-filament overgrowth phenomenon and negative-SET behavior. Thus, a higher reset voltage can be applied to the TiN barrier layer devices to achieve more complete reset process and obtain better resistive switching performance. The results show that the Cu/HfO2/TiN/Ru device with one transistor structure has excellent comprehensive memory properties, including high reliability, fast switching speed, high resistance state uniformity, high endurance, long retention, and multi-level storage ability.
Autors: Rongrong Cao;Sen Liu;Qi Liu;Xiaolong Zhao;Wei Wang;Xumeng Zhang;Facai Wu;Quantan Wu;Yan Wang;Hangbing Lv;Shibing Long;Ming Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1371 - 1374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Lake Ice Thickness Retrieval From MODIS Satellite Data Using a Thermodynamic Model
Abstract:
Observations of ice thickness are limited in high latitude regions, at a time when they are increasingly being requested by operational ice centers. This study aims to improve the retrieval of lake ice thickness using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA’s Aqua (P.M.) and Terra (A.M.) satellites. The accuracy of ice thickness retrievals based on MODIS lake ice surface temperature (LIST) is investigated using a commonly used heat balance equation and the retrieved ice thicknesses are compared to in situ measurements from the Canadian Ice Service. The accuracy of ice thickness estimates is improved when using snow depth from the 1-D thermodynamic lake ice model Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) rather than an empirical relationship between snow depth and ice thickness utilized in the recent investigations. Taking into account all data over the study period (2002–2014), the mean bias error and the root-mean-square error are reduced from −0.42 to 0.07 m and 0.58 to 0.17 m, respectively, with the novel approach proposed herein. However, this approach is limited to ice thickness estimations of less than ca. 1.7 m.
Autors: Homa Kheyrollah Pour;Claude R. Duguay;K. Andrea Scott;Kyung-Kuk Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5956 - 5965
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z