Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 4

» Benefiting From Kinematic Redundancy Alongside Mono- and Biarticular Parallel Compliances for Energy Efficiency in Cyclic Tasks
Abstract:
In this paper, we answer two interleaved questions. The first one is, having a redundant serial manipulator with a given cyclic task, how can we benefit simultaneously from both natural dynamics modification (NDM) and kinematic redundancy resolution to reduce the actuators’ torque? Here, the NDM is done by devising parallel nonlinear monoarticular compliances (MACs), which span one joint, and nonlinear biarticular compliances (BACs), which pass over two joints. We take advantage of kinematic redundancy to exploit the robot's natural dynamics. The second question is how do kinematic redundancy resolution and the NDM interact to minimize the cost? To answer these questions, we cast the problem of simultaneous modification and exploitation of natural dynamics into a constrained multiobjective optimization problem. We show that the set of optimal compliances has an analytical solution as a parametric function of joint trajectories. Accordingly, we study how the components of cost function affect the profile of optimal compliant elements. The proposed method is implemented on a simulated planar 3-DoF manipulator and a simulated nonplanar 4-DoF manipulator for three different tasks. The results shed light on how kinematic redundancy resolution influences efficiency of using MACs and BACs and, consequently, increases attainable gains from the NDM. Moreover, analysis of the results specifies the roles of mono- and BACs and especially explains the reason behind the particular importance of having BACs to reduce the actuation cost.
Autors: Hamed Jalaly Bidgoly;Atoosa Parsa;Mohammad Javad Yazdanpanah;Majid Nili Ahmadabadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1088 - 1102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beyond Trace Ratio: Weighted Harmonic Mean of Trace Ratios for Multiclass Discriminant Analysis
Abstract:
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most important supervised linear dimensional reduction techniques which seeks to learn low-dimensional representation from the original high-dimensional feature space through a transformation matrix, while preserving the discriminative information via maximizing the between-class scatter matrix and minimizing the within class scatter matrix. However, the conventional LDA is formulated to maximize the arithmetic mean of trace ratios which suffers from the domination of the largest objectives and might deteriorate the recognition accuracy in practical applications with a large number of classes. In this paper, we propose a new criterion to maximize the weighted harmonic mean of trace ratios, which effectively avoid the domination problem while did not raise any difficulties in the formulation. An efficient algorithm is exploited to solve the proposed challenging problems with fast convergence, which might always find the globally optimal solution just using eigenvalue decomposition in each iteration. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to illustrate the effectiveness and superiority of our method over both of synthetic datasets and real-life datasets for various tasks, including face recognition, human motion recognition and head pose recognition. The experimental results indicate that our algorithm consistently outperforms other compared methods on all of the datasets.
Autors: Zhihui Li;Feiping Nie;Xiaojun Chang;Yi Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2100 - 2110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biased Run-Length Coding of Bilevel Classification Label Maps of Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:
For efficient coding of bilevel sources with some dominant symbols often found in classification label maps of hyperspectral images, we proposed a novel biased run-length (BRL) coding method, which codes the most probable symbols separately from other symbols. To determine the conditions in which the BRL coding method would be effective, we conducted an analysis of the method using statistical models. We first analyzed the effect of 2-D blocking of pixels, which were assumed to have generalized Gaussian distributions. The analysis showed that the resulting symbol blocks tended to have lower entropies than the original source without symbol blocking. We then analyzed the BRL coding method applied on the sequence of block symbols characterized by a first-order Markov model. Information-theoretic analysis showed that the BRL coding method tended to generate codewords that have lower entropies than the conventional run-length coding method. Furthermore, numerical simulations on lossless compression of actual data showed improvement of the state of the art. Specifically, end-to-end implementation integrating symbol blocking, BRL, and Huffman coding achieved up to 4.3% higher compression than the JBIG2 standard method and up to 3.2% higher compression than the conventional run-length coding method on classification label maps of the widely used “Indian Pines” dataset.
Autors: Amir Leon Liaghati;W. David Pan;Zhuocheng Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4580 - 4588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bidirectional Polarized Reflectance Factors of Vegetation Covers: Influence on the BRF Models Results
Abstract:
In this paper, we performed multiangular measurements spanning a wide viewing range in a hemisphere space for three types of vegetation cover and analyzed the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) measurements based on basic physical reflectance mechanisms to ensure the accuracy of the data. The measurements and the results with the best fitted model parameters were evaluated to determine whether the BRF models produce vegetation cover reflectance factor values that are qualitatively the same as the measured values. These models effectively characterized the BRF of the vegetation cover at most of the selected wavelengths (565, 670, and 865 nm). However, for planophile vegetation cover with smooth leaves, the current BRF models did not produce accurate values in the selected visible wavelength range; the average relative difference was approximately 0.3 at 670 nm. Subsequently, we subtracted the specular reflectance factor (calculated using the bidirectional polarized reflectance factors) from the total BRF and compared these data with the modeled results. The difference between the measured and modeled BRFs was notably decreased when we separated the specular reflectance factor at 670 nm for the planophile vegetation cover with smooth leaves. Moreover, there was a different degree of improvement in the agreement between the measured and modeled results, which depended on the wavelength and the type of vegetation cover. These results indicated that the subtraction of the specular reflectance factor effectively improved the capability of the BRF models to calculate the diffuse portion of the BRF of the vegetation cover.
Autors: Zhongqiu Sun;Di Wu;Yunfeng Lv;Yunsheng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5687 - 5701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Big data at work: the practitioners' point of view
Abstract:
Big Data is one of the many hyper-hyped topics on which the Information Technology industry feeds itself. One can track its origins to visionary and provocative works such as the famous 2008 The End of Theory paper by Chris Anderson, in which the author argues that large enough amounts of data can effectively dilute and finally eliminate the conceptual difference between correlation and causation, favoring the former and rendering substantially useless the research of the latter [1]. More recently, less ambitious and more pragmatic approaches have been proposed, mostly elaborating on the 3-V model originally introduced by Gartner in 2012 [2]. According to this newer perspective, Big Data is about management of data involving combinations of Volumes, Velocity, and Variety that transcend the levels traditionally addressed by IT. A fourth V was later added, bringing in the additional important element of Veracity.
Autors: Francesco Mari;Paolo Masini;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 13 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Big data in I&M [Editorial]
Abstract:
Who could have imagined in the year 1950, when the first mainframes were introduced and data was stored on paper cards, that now we would each have our own personal computer with several gigabytes of memory storage?
Autors: Wendy Van Moer;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 2 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Big Data in Instrumentation and Measurement [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
The recent rapid growth of information-gathering technologies—from health tracking sensors to smartphones and satellites—produce massive amounts of data from the real world. Similarly, a huge amount of data is steadily collected from the cyber world as a result of internet technologies. In such a context, the “Big Data” phenomenon is expected to have a dramatic impact on society. Indeed, evidence resulting from Big Data is going to support decisions that have the potential to solve big societal problems, boost billion dollar businesses or simply make our everyday lives easier. However, ensuring and understanding the quality of data is crucial to achieve these goals. On one hand, metrology— a science of information quality—is at the very heart of data science. On the other hand, data science could open a new era for measurement science.
Autors: Dario Petri;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Big data or big (privacy) problem?
Abstract:
Nowadays, almost all of us transfer data (especially personal data) to someone or something (usually through web pages), and we do not precisely know how those data are managed. All of those data, considered altogether, represent what is generally called “Big Data.”
Autors: Veronica Scotti;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 23 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Binary Frequency Shift Keying for Continuous Waveform Radar
Abstract:
A new binary frequency-shift keying (BFSK) waveform is suggested for continuous wave radar. It provides ideal periodic autocorrelation (PAC) when processed by a matched filter, and perfect periodic cross-correlation (PCC) when processed by a mismatched filter. Ideal PAC implies a uniform sidelobe level, whose ratio to the PAC peak is equal to the inverse of the code length. Perfect PCC implies zero sidelobes. BFSK is relatively spectrum efficient. Design details and processing issues are discussed.
Autors: Nadav Levanon;Itzik Izchak Cohen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2462 - 2468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bioinspired Control of Walking With Toe-Off, Heel-Strike, and Disturbance Rejection for a Biped Robot
Abstract:
Human-like features, like toe-off, heel-strike, and disturbance rejection, can enhance the performance of bipedal robots. However, the required control strategies for these motions influence each other, and few studies have considered them simultaneously. Humans can walk stably with toe-off and heel-strike even after experiencing disturbances. Thus, we can study human control strategies, and then, apply them to a bipedal robot. This paper proposes a bioinspired control method to realize stable walking with toe-off and heel-strike for a bipedal robot even after disturbances. First, we analyze human walking and obtain some control strategies. Then, we propose a pattern generator and a walking controller to mimic these strategies. The pattern generator can predefine the zero-moment-point to plan the center of mass trajectory and determine appropriate foot placement. The controller adjusts torso acceleration to make the support leg compliant with the external disturbances. The controller also achieves toe-off and heel-strike in cooperation with the pattern generator. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is confirmed through simulations and experiments.
Autors: Xuechao Chen;Zhangguo Yu;Weimin Zhang;Yu Zheng;Qiang Huang;Aiguo Ming;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7962 - 7971
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Birefringence Variation Independent Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Using Real-Time SOP Measurement
Abstract:
We propose a birefringence variation independent fiber-optic current sensor based on polarization diversity and a real-time state of polarization measurement technique. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the compensation for the degradation of Faraday effect due to the variation in birefringence of the sensing fiber. In experiment, a maximally two times higher sensitivity was achieved compared with that of the conventional one. We investigated temperature dependence of proposed method and the observed maximal variation in sensitivity is as small as 6%. The proposed method exhibits good immunity to the random variation of birefringence and the real rotation angle due to the Faraday effect can be accurately detected.
Autors: Yinping Liu;Lin Ma;Zuyuan He;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Black-Box Phase Error Compensation for Digital Phase-Shifting Profilometry
Abstract:
Due to the nonlinear response of digital phase-shifting profilometry (PSP), phase errors are inevitable in the retrieved 3-D profiles and result in negative impacts on the measurement accuracy of the PSP system. A novel method is presented in this paper to reduce the impact. Instead of compensating phase errors in the retrieved 3-D profile, specific harmonics are superimposed upon the initial fringe pattern actively to adjust the amplitudes of the harmonics in the captured fringe image with the intention to suppress the phase error, and all nonlinear response of the PSP system can be compensated in theory. Furthermore, it does not consume additional time in the 3-D profile reconstruction process. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the validity of the method.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Liandong Yu;Weishi Li;Haojie Xia;Huaxia Deng;Jin Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2755 - 2761
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Quality Assessment of Fused WorldView-3 Images by Using the Combinations of Pansharpening and Hypersharpening Paradigms
Abstract:
WorldView 3 (WV-3) is the first commercially deployed super-spectral, very high-resolution (HR) satellite. However, the resolution of the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands is much lower than that of the other bands. In this letter, we describe four different approaches, which are combinations of pansharpening and hypersharpening methods, to generate HR SWIR images. Since there are no ground truth HR SWIR images, we also propose a new picture quality predictor to assess hypersharpening performance, without the need for reference images. We describe extensive experiments using actual WV-3 images that demonstrate that some approaches can yield better performance than others, as measured by the proposed blind image quality assessment model of hypersharpened SWIR images.
Autors: Chiman Kwan;Bence Budavari;Alan C. Bovik;Giovanni Marchisio;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1835 - 1839
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blockchain world - Do you need a blockchain? This chart will tell you if the technology can solve your problem
Abstract:
According to a study released this July by Juniper Research, more than half the world's largest companies are now researching blockchain technologies with the goal of integrating them into their products. Projects are already under way that will disrupt the management of health care records, property titles, supply chains, and even our online identities. But before we remount the entire digital ecosystem on blockchain technology, it would be wise to take stock of what makes the approach unique and what costs are associated with it. Blockchain technology is, in essence, a novel way to manage data. As such, it competes with the data-management systems we already have. Relational databases, which orient information in updatable tables of columns and rows, are the technical foundation of many services we use today. Decades of market exposure and well-funded research by companies like Oracle Corp. have expanded the functionality and hardened the security of relational databases. However, they suffer from one major constraint: They put the task of storing and updating entries in the hands of one or a few entities, whom you have to trust won't mess with the data or get hacked.
Autors: Morgen E. Peck;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 54, issue:10, pages: 38 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blockchain world - Feeding the blockchain beast if bitcoin ever does go mainstream, the electricity needed to sustain it will be enormous
Abstract:
Bitcoin "miners" are electromagnetic alchemists, effectively turning megawatt-hours of electricity into the world's fastest-growing currency. Their intensive computational activity cryptographically secures the virtual currency, approves transactions, and, in the process, creates new bitcoins for the miners, as payment. And it does another thing, too: It uses an absolutely stunning amount of power. The ever-expanding racks of processors used by miners already consume as much electricity as a small city. It's a problem that experts say is bad and getting worse. "The concern that people continue to debate is, where does this end?" says Michael Reed, head of blockchain technology for Intel. The Bitcoin leech sucking on the world's power grids has been held in check, so far, by rapid gains in the energy efficiency of mining hardware. But energy and blockchain analysts are worried about the possibility of a perfect storm: Those efficiency gains are slowing while bitcoin value is rising fast-and its potential transaction growth is immense.
Autors: Peter Fairley;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 54, issue:10, pages: 36 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blockchains: How they work and why they'll change the world
Abstract:
Bitcoin was hatched as an act of defiance. Unleashed in the wake of the Great Recession, the cryptocurrency was touted by its early champions as an antidote to the inequities and corruption of the traditional financial system. They cherished the belief that as this parallel currency took off, it would compete with and ultimately dismantle the institutions that had brought about the crisis. Bitcoin's unofficial catchphrase, "In cryptography we trust," left no doubt about who was to blame: It was the middlemen, the bankers, the "trusted" third parties who actually couldn't be trusted. These humans simply got in the way of other humans, skimming profits and complicating transactions.
Autors: Morgen E. Peck;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 54, issue:10, pages: 26 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Reviews [7 Reviews]
Abstract:
The following books are reviewed: Computational Intelligence Applications in Smart Grids by A.F. Zobaa and A. Vaccaro; Tailoring of Nanocomposite Dielectrics by T. Tanaka and A.S. Vaughan; Smart Microgrids-Lessons from Campus Microgrid Design and Implementation by H. Farhangi; Principles and Applications of Ubiquitous Sensing by W. Dargie; Understanding Symmetrical Components for Power System Modeling by J.C. Das; Internet of Things and Data Analytics Handbook by H. Geng; Physics of Digital Photography by A. Rowlands
Autors: John J. Shea;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 56 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boosting the Accuracy of Multispectral Image Pansharpening by Learning a Deep Residual Network
Abstract:
In the field of multispectral (MS) and panchromatic image fusion (pansharpening), the impressive effectiveness of deep neural networks has recently been employed to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional linear models and boost the fusion accuracy. However, the existing methods are mainly based on simple and flat networks with relatively shallow architectures, which severely limits their performance. In this letter, the concept of residual learning is introduced to form a very deep convolutional neural network to make the full use of the high nonlinearity of the deep learning models. Through both quantitative and visual assessments on a large number of high-quality MS images from various sources, it is confirmed that the proposed model is superior to all the mainstream algorithms included in the comparison, and achieves the highest spatial–spectral unified accuracy.
Autors: Yancong Wei;Qiangqiang Yuan;Huanfeng Shen;Liangpei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1795 - 1799
Publisher: IEEE
 
» BRAIN: A Low-Power Deep Search Engine for Autonomous Robots
Abstract:
Autonomous robots are actively studied for many unmanned applications, however, the heavy computational costs and limited battery capacity make it difficult to implement intelligent decision making in robots. In this article, the authors propose a low-power deep search engine (code-named “BRAIN”) for real-time path planning of intelligent autonomous robots. To achieve low power consumption while maintaining high performance, BRAIN adopts a multithreaded core architecture with a transposition table cache to detect and avoid duplicated searches between the processors at the deeper level of the search tree. In addition, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling is adopted to minimize power consumption without any loss of performance because the workload is gradually decreasing while approaching the target position. BRAIN achieves fast search speed (470,000 searches per second) and low energy consumption (79 nJ per search), and it is successfully applied to the robots for autonomous navigation without any collision in dynamic environments.
Autors: Youchang Kim;Dongjoo Shin;Jinsu Lee;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 11 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging the Gap Between OpenMP and Task-Based Runtime Systems for the Fast Multipole Method
Abstract:
With the advent of complex modern architectures, the low-level paradigms long considered sufficient to build High Performance Computing (HPC) numerical codes have met their limits. Achieving efficiency, ensuring portability, while preserving programming tractability on such hardware prompted the HPC community to design new, higher level paradigms while relying on runtime systems to maintain performance. However, the common weakness of these projects is to deeply tie applications to specific expert-only runtime system APIs. The OpenMP specification, which aims at providing common parallel programming means for shared-memory platforms, appears as a good candidate to address this issue thanks to the latest task-based constructs introduced in its revision 4.0. The goal of this paper is to assess the effectiveness and limits of this support for designing a high-performance numerical library, ScalFMM, implementing the fast multipole method (FMM) that we have deeply re-designed with respect to the most advanced features provided by OpenMP 4. We show that OpenMP 4 allows for significant performance improvements over previous OpenMP revisions on recent multicore processors and that extensions to the 4.0 standard allow for strongly improving the performance, bridging the gap with the very high performance that was so far reserved to expert-only runtime system APIs.
Autors: Emmanuel Agullo;Olivier Aumage;Berenger Bramas;Olivier Coulaud;Samuel Pitoiset;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2794 - 2807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging the Gap Between Ultrapure Water and Reference Materials in Electrolytic Conductivity Measurements
Abstract:
This paper reports a closed-flow-loop electrolytic conductivity measurement system enabling calibration of conductivity sensors from the conductivity level of ultrapure water (UPW) at /m up till the range of 10 to 140 mS/m, where stable certified reference materials (CRMs) for conductivity are available. The system is traceable to the SI unit system. A comparison made with another electrolytic conductivity measurement system, which is based on Jones-type conductivity cells designed to be used primarily for conductivities larger than ~10 mS/m, shows an agreement better than 0.1%. The most commonly used calibration method of conductivity sensors is based on CRMs and the extrapolation of the data to low conductivity values (/m). In contrast, the present closed-flow-loop electrolytic conductivity measurement system is based on the measurements made at conductivity levels where the sensor is used; it is, therefore, a better alternative.
Autors: Carsten Thirstrup;Alan Snedden;Hans D. Jensen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2745 - 2754
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Brillouin Backscattering Light Properties of Chaotic Laser Injecting Into an Optical Fiber
Abstract:
Laser diode-based optical chaos is attractive for the fundamental physics as well as practical tasks in such as secure communications, random number generation, and fiber sensing. The characteristics of Brillouin backscattering light generated by injecting a chaotic laser into a single mode fiber have been investigated experimentally. The Brillouin backscattering light still has the chaotic properties, and the position of the chaotic anti-Stokes frequency appears a dip, which has never been reported before. The power and linewidth variations of the Brillouin Stokes light and anti-Stokes light along with the input optical power also are analyzed. Particularly, we investigate the differences of Brillouin backscattering light between chaotic laser and narrow-linewidth laser, and analyze the interacted optical spectra when the chaotic laser and the narrow-linewidth laser inject into the 10 km single mode fiber simultaneously. With detailed analysis and experimental validation, we demonstrate that due to the chaotic self-similarity property, the chaotic laser at the location of anti-Stokes frequency transforms into the Stokes light in the stimulated Brillouin scattering process, which leads to the appearing of the dip.
Autors: Mingjiang Zhang;Hui Liu;Jianzhong Zhang;Yi Liu;Ruixia Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Decoupling Network for Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antennas
Abstract:
Microstrip antenna (MSA) has become one of the most popular techniques in the modern communication systems because of its potentials in diversities of operating band and polarization. With the development of highly compact circuits, the isolation between each terminal of a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system becomes more and more important to reach high system accuracy. Here, we propose an innovative approach of decoupling for a dual-band MSA, in which the isolation is achieved through two kinds of transmission lines based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and miniaturized spoof surface plasmon polariton (SSPP). Both SIW and SSPP transmission lines have been used in functional devices and could be considered as part of radio frequency front-end circuits. Using the proposed method, the isolation between two ports of MSA is achieved without occupying extra space. A prototype is fabricated on the basis of a triple-layer dual-band MSA, each port of which is connected to one of the novel transmission lines. Combining the perfectly high-pass SIW and low-pass SSPP, the proposed feeding network could provide broadband decoupling without influencing the property of the antenna. We show that the mutual coupling between two ports is decreased by almost 20 dB within a wide frequency band. Such a design could meet the needs in application of multiantenna or tunable system without further alteration in dimensions and has potential to play an important role in the future communication systems.
Autors: Bai Cao Pan;Tie Jun Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5595 - 5598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Measurement Methodology for Specific Absorption Rates Above 300 MHz
Abstract:
Specific absorption rate (SAR) is an indicator of biological effects on human tissue caused by exposure to microwave radiation. An electric field probe scanning method has been traditionally used for SAR evaluation. However, since the electric field probe exhibits strong frequency dependence, it is difficult to evaluate SAR continuously in the broadband. In addition, preparing a physically different SAR measurement methodology from the electric field probe is an important task for validating measurement standards or regulations. Therefore, the authors developed a thermal SAR measurement method using optical fiber thermal sensors. In the present paper, we present a thermal SAR evaluation methodology that can be used in the broadband from 300 MHz to 6 GHz, which is frequently used by mobile devices. It was confirmed for the first time that SAR showed the peak with this continuous broadband measurement around 1.8 GHz. In addition, as a comparison measurement result with the electric field probe system and the proposed system, the mean value of each measured datum showed a deflection of approximately 10% to 20% in the whole frequency range.
Autors: Yoshinobu Okano;Ryo Shimofusa;Mitsuki Anbai;Kaoru Someno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2693 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband Tunable Add/Drop Filters Based on Dielectric Double-Disk Microcavities
Abstract:
Herein, we present a spectrally tunable add/drop filter based on a dielectric double-disk microcavity. Numerical simulation shows that a whispering gallery mode of this filter has a very large wavelength tuning range of 103 nm for a 20 nm change of an air slot between the double disks. Based on this mechanism, broadband wavelength tuning and on/off switching are demonstrated in this paper. Under the resonance condition, drop power and through power at gap size of 10 nm were obtained as 0.87 and 0.0036, while the on/off ratios of the signal at the through port and the drop port were 35:1 and 105:1, respectively.
Autors: Young Jin Lee;Da Eun Lee;Soon-Hong Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadbeam Cross-Dipole Antenna for GPS Applications
Abstract:
A broadbeam cross-dipole antenna with improved low-elevation gain for global positioning system (GPS) applications is reported. The cross-dipole consists of two perpendicular dipoles, which are printed on two separate substrates that are vertically placed inside a cylindrical back cavity. Circularly polarized fields are generated by applying two quadrature signals with equal amplitude to the dipoles. To enhance the low-elevation gain, circular dipoles, curved ground planes, and corrugated back cavity are deployed in our design. A prototype operating in GPS L1 band (1.575 GHz) was designed with ANSYS HFSS, and measurement was done to verify the simulations. The reflection coefficient, axial ratio (AR), radiation pattern, antenna gain, and antenna efficiency are studied. It is found that the antenna has a wide 3 dB AR beamwidth of over 230° and a 3 dB gain beamwidth of 150°. The measured and simulated antenna gains at are 0.11 and 0.68 dBic, respectively, which are higher than those of existing designs.
Autors: Yu-Xiang Sun;Kwok Wa Leung;Kai Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5605 - 5610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buried and Surface Mine Detection From Thermal Image Time Series
Abstract:
Millions of buried and surface landmines throughout the world will continue to kill and injure people for many decades. Reliable landmine detection systems, especially those that do not require that an operator enters a minefield, are demanded. In such systems, data are captured by sensors and processed with signal-processing techniques. In recent studies, ground-penetrating radars, ultrasound transducers, metal detectors, and infrared sensors have been used to capture data as individual images or image time series. Bare soil and mines have different thermal characteristics, and this difference can be observed on the soil surface with thermal sensors. Since this is a dynamic behavior driven by radiation from the sun and changes with temperature during the day, it can be observed better in thermal image time series. In the proposed method, a two-step approach is adopted: pixelwise classification followed by mine detection. In the first step, a specific spatial filter is applied on images and the filtered image series is classified pixelwise using supervised classification. In the second step, the classified pixels are combined after a smoothing operation to detect mines. The types of the detected mines can also be determined. The method is tested on real data to quantify its classification and detection performance. The results are quite promising. Among the classifiers tested in this paper, the quadratic discriminate function classifier produces the best results.
Autors: Serkan Kaya;Ugur Murat Leloglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4544 - 4552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Caching Placement with Recommendation Systems for Cache-Enabled Mobile Social Networks
Abstract:
Caching popular contents at user devices and sharing the cached content among users is one promising solution to alleviate the heavy base station burden in mobile social networks. In this letter, we investigate social relationships and physical coupling among users, and, then, choose one important user (IU) as a helper to cache target contents and other users can get contents from IUs devices. In particular, because users tend to pay more attention to contents they interested in, a recommendation system with caching placement is proposed to maximize the offloading probability for mobile social networks. We then improve the system to combine three operations: pre-filtering, collaborative filtering algorithm, and latent factor algorithm. Finally, simulation results show the proposed recommendation system-based caching placement scheme achieves a great performance gain over existing approaches, and indicate that important user devices should cache files that recommended most to users.
Autors: Yanfeng Wang;Mingyang Ding;Zhiyong Chen;Ling Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2266 - 2269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calculating the Phase Center of an Antenna: A Simple Experimental Method Based on Linear Near-Field Measurements. [Measurements Corner]
Abstract:
In this article, a simple experimental method based on linear near-field (NF) measurements for finding the real position of the phase center of an antenna is presented. To do that, measurements along both principal axes of the antenna are carried out. Then, each set of data is treated individually to determine the phase center for each principal plane. In this method, the measured phase is expressed in terms of the relative position to the axis as a quadratic expression, in which the independent term gives the perpendicular distance from the points of the measurement to the estimated phase center. Thus, this value is obtained by adjusting a second-order polynomial expression to the curve of the measured phase. The operational limits of the method are generally determined by the amplitude variation of the measured field. To establish these limits and verify their functionality, a series of simulations is carried out. Finally, the method is used to characterize some real antennas.
Autors: Enrique G. Plaza;German Leon;Susana Loredo;Luis F. Herran;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 130 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calculation of Touch Voltage Based on Physical Distribution of Earth Fault Current
Abstract:
In this paper, the finite-elements method was used to analyze the approximation being typically used in the international standards for the calculation of the touch voltage, appearing at earth faults in power networks. The calculations in this paper were performed on the series of earthing systems applied in practice and the results are compared with the results of the widely accepted approximate method from standards. The origin of discrepancy in the results is analyzed and evaluated. The outcome of this paper is the justification of the application of Thevenin's theorem and the development of the higher accuracy equations for the resistance between feet and remote earth in case of the application of high resistivity additional surface material.
Autors: Stevan Stanisic;Zoran Radakovic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2246 - 2254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calibration With a Monocone on a Ground Plane
Abstract:
Calibration with a monocone on a ground plane (CALMOPLA) is a tool for the calibration of low-sensitivity and ultrawideband (UWB) electric or magnetic field probes. It consists of a small conical monopole (D-dot), positioned in the center of a ground plane and emitting electromagnetic waves. Close to the reference plane, the radiated signals are quasi-spherical waves which can be described by well-known analytical expressions. The originality of the CALMOPLA calibration method consists in radiating at once spherical waves at UWB frequencies (from several tens of megahertz to several gigahertz) with a unique emitter, in free-field (377- impedance), in delivering a signal amplitude usable for low-sensitivity sensor calibration, and this with reasonable geometrical dimensions. A vector network analyzer is sufficient to cover the frequency range of most of the sensors to be calibrated. Nevertheless, the use of a low-noise amplifier and a low-frequency power amplifier allows the measurement range to be extended to a very low-sensitivity sensor anywhere on CALMOPLA.
Autors: Francois Bieth;Philippe Delmote;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2744 - 2747
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CAN With eXtensible In-Frame Reply: Protocol Definition and Prototype Implementation
Abstract:
Controller area network (CAN) has been the de facto standard in the automotive industry for the past two decades. Recently, CAN with flexible data-rate (CAN FD) has been standardized, which achieves noticeably higher throughput. Further improvements are still possible for CAN, by exploiting its peculiar physical layer to carry out distributed operations among network nodes, implemented as atomic transactions mapped on quasi-conventional frame exchanges. In this paper, a proposal is made for an extension to the CAN protocol, termed CAN with eXtensible in-frame Reply (CAN XR), which enables upper protocol layers to define new custom services devoted to, e.g., network management, application-specific functions, and high-efficiency data transfer. The key point is that CAN XR retains full backward compatibility with CAN, therefore, there is no need to change the protocol specification once again.
Autors: Gianluca Cena;Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti;Tingting Hu;Adriano Valenzano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2436 - 2446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cancer Subtype Discovery Based on Integrative Model of Multigenomic Data
Abstract:
One major goal of large-scale cancer omics study is to understand molecular mechanisms of cancer and find new biomedical targets. To deal with the high-dimensional multidimensional cancer omics data (DNA methylation, mRNA expression, etc.), which can be used to discover new insight on identifying cancer subtypes, clustering methods are usually used to find an effective low-dimensional subspace of the original data and then cluster cancer samples in the reduced subspace. However, due to data-type diversity and big data volume, few methods can integrate these data and map them into an effective low-dimensional subspace. In this paper, we develop a dimension-reduction and data-integration method for indentifying cancer subtypes, named Scluster. First, Scluster, respectively, projects the different original data into the principal subspaces by an adaptive sparse reduced-rank regression method. Then, a fused patient-by-patient network is obtained for these subgroups through a scaled exponential similarity kernel method. Finally, candidate cancer subtypes are identified using spectral clustering method. We demonstrate the efficiency of our Scluster method using three cancers by jointly analyzing mRNA expression, miRNA expression, and DNA methylation data. The evaluation results and analyses show that Scluster is effective for predicting survival and identifies novel cancer subtypes of large-scale multi-omics data.
Autors: Shu-Guang Ge;Junfeng Xia;Wen Sha;Chun-Hou Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1115 - 1121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity and Expressiveness of Genomic Tandem Duplication
Abstract:
The majority of the human genome consists of repeated sequences. An important type of repeated sequences common in the human genome are tandem repeats, where identical copies appear next to each other. For example, in the sequence , is a tandem repeat, that may be generated from by a tandem duplication of length 2. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of generating a large number of sequences from a seed, i.e. a small initial string, by tandem duplications of bounded length. We study the capacity of such a system, a notion that quantifies the system’s generating power. Our results include exact capacity values for certain tandem duplication string systems. In addition, motivated by the role of DNA sequences in expressing proteins via RNA and the genetic code, we define the notion of the expressiveness of a tandem duplication system as the capability of expressing arbitrary substrings. We then completely characterize the expressiveness of tandem duplication systems for general alphabet sizes and duplication lengths. In particular, based on a celebrated result by Axel Thue from 1906, presenting a construction for ternary squarefree sequences, we show that for alphabets of size 4 or larger, bounded tandem duplication systems, regardless of the seed and the bound on duplication length, are not fully expressive, i.e. they cannot generate all strings even as substrings of other strings. Note that the alphabet of size 4 is of particular interest as it pertains to the genomic alphabet. Building on this result, we also show that these systems do not have full capacity. In general, our results illustrate that duplication len- ths play a more significant role than the seed in generating a large number of sequences for these systems.
Autors: Siddharth Jain;Farzad Farnoud Hassanzadeh;Jehoshua Bruck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6129 - 6138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Bounds for the $K$ -User Gaussian Interference Channel
Abstract:
The capacity region of the -user Gaussian interference channel (GIC) is a long-standing open problem and even capacity outer bounds are little known in general. A significant progress on degrees-of-freedom (DoF) analysis, a first-order capacity approximation, for the -user GIC has provided new important insights into the problem of interest in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limit. However, such capacity approximation has been observed to have some limitations in predicting the capacity at finite SNR. In this paper, we develop a new upper-bounding technique that utilizes a new type of genie signal and applies time sharing to genie signals at receivers. Based on this technique, we derive new upper bounds on the sum capacity of the three-user GIC with constant, complex channel coefficients and then generalize to the -user case to better understand sum-rate behavior at finite SNR. We also provide closed-form expressions of our upper bounds on the capacity of the -user symmetric GIC easily computable for any . From the perspectives of our results, some sum-rate behavior at finite SNR is in line with the insights given by the known DoF results, while some others are not. In particular, the well-known DoF achievable for almost all constant real channel coefficients turns out to be not embodied as a substantial performance gain over a certain range of the cross-channel coefficient in the $K$ -user symmetric real case especially for large . We further investigate the impact of phase offset between the direct-channel coefficient and the cross-channel coefficients on the sum-rate upper bound for the three-user complex GIC. As a consequence, we aim to provide new findings that could not be predicted by the prior works on DoF of GICs.
Autors: Junyoung Nam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6416 - 6439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Comparison Between MIMO-NOMA and MIMO-OMA With Multiple Users in a Cluster
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of multiple-input multiple-output non-orthogonal multiple access (MIMO-NOMA) is investigated, when multiple users are grouped into a cluster. The superiority of MIMO-NOMA over MIMO-OMA in terms of both sum channel capacity and ergodic sum capacity is proved analytically. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the more users are admitted to a cluster, the lower is the achieved sum rate, which illustrates the tradeoff between the sum rate and maximum number of admitted users. On this basis, a user admission scheme is proposed, which is optimal in terms of both sum rate and the number of admitted users when the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio thresholds of the users are equal. When these thresholds are different, the proposed scheme still achieves good performance in balancing both criteria. Moreover, under certain conditions, it maximizes the number of admitted users. In addition, the complexity of the proposed scheme is linear in the number of users per cluster. Simulation results verify the superiority of MIMO-NOMA over MIMO-OMA in terms of both sum rate and user fairness, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed user admission scheme.
Autors: Ming Zeng;Animesh Yadav;Octavia A. Dobre;Georgios I. Tsiropoulos;H. Vincent Poor;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2413 - 2424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity Statistics Evaluation for Next Generation Broadband MEO Satellite Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of a reference medium earth orbit (MEO) satellite constellation system operating at Ka-band and employing single links to ground is compared with next generation advanced systems in higher RF or optical bands employing multiple diversity links. The fill rate of existing MEO constellations offering broadband and trunking services in Ka-band is growing fast, rendering the search for additional spectrum of vital importance. Therefore, this paper reports on the results of a system study investigating the option of using Q/V-band, or even optical wavelengths, instead of Ka-band, to deliver substantially higher system capacity. The system study takes a holistic approach covering from atmospheric channel impairments to waveform optimization and system analysis for realistic assumptions. After proposing a sophisticated channel model to generate spatio-temporal time series of atmospheric attenuation, an optimization of the performance at physical layer is performed to derive the inputs necessary to the system analysis. Five different advanced high frequency RF and optical systems are compared in terms of outage capacity and availability for various locations of single ground stations, multiple ground stations (site diversity) and from multiple satellites (orbital diversity). For maximizing the realism of the comparison, similar on board satellite resources (mass, power) are assumed for all scenarios.
Autors: Charilaos I. Kourogiorgas;Nikolaos Lyras;Athanasios D. Panagopoulos;Daniele Tarchi;Alessandro Vanelli-Coralli;Alessandro Ugolini;Giulio Colavolpe;Pantelis-Daniel Arapoglou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2344 - 2358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capless LDO Regulator Achieving −76 dB PSR and 96.3 fs FOM
Abstract:
The performance of switching devices such as display driver ICs is degraded by large power supply noise at switching frequencies from a few hundreds of kilohertz to a few megahertz. In order to minimize the power supply noise, a low-dropout (LDO) regulator with higher power supply rejection (PSR) is essential. In this brief, a capless LDO regulator with a negative capacitance circuit and voltage damper is proposed for enhancing PSR and figure of merit (FOM), respectively, in switching devices. The proposed LDO regulator is fabricated in a CMOS. Measurement results show that the proposed LDO regulator achieves −76 dB PSR at 1 MHz and 96.3 fs FOM with a total on-chip capacitance of as small as 12.7 pF.
Autors: Seong Jin Yun;Jeong Seok Yun;Yong Sin Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1147 - 1151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Having Segregated Network Structure for Wearable Thermotherapy Application
Abstract:
Multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/silicone composites having segregated MWNT network and micro-void structure were developed for wearable thermotherapy application. The nano-composites could be quickly fabricated from instant evaporation of aqueous medium during spray coating process. Fast electric heating behavior (4.8 °C/s) was demonstrated, in comparison with that (1.4 °C/s) of conventional silicone rubber composites having no void. Long-term stability was also verified with thermal aging and thermal cycling tests up to 100 h.
Autors: Dongouk Kim;Sang-Eui Lee;Kunmo Chu;Sung-Hoon Park;Yoonchul Sohn;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1489 - 1491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Career Management: Ten Important Things to Keep in Mind
Abstract:
Your career can serve as an expression of who you are, what values you have, and what you seek to accomplish. Certainly compensation is a consideration. However, in my over 30 years as an engineer, manager, and executive in the electric utility industry, the most fulfilled, engaging, and passionate individuals I have met, regardless of "rank," have been those whose work was most closely aligned with their personal interests and beliefs.
Autors: Christopher E. Root;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 13 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carrier Recovery Schemes for Submillimeter Wave Wireless Transmission
Abstract:
By moving carrier frequencies to higher and higher frequency bands, larger bandwidths can be provided for data-hungry wireless applications. The submillimeter wave region is a promising candidate for future systems. In order to accommodate sophisticated modulation formats, coherent local oscillators in the transmitter (TX) and the receiver (RX) are needed for efficient operation. However, traditional methods of analog carrier recovery (e.g., narrowband filtering of the residual carrier and reamplification) fail at such high frequencies and for many modulation formats. Also, digital carrier recovery algorithms used in conjunction with free-running oscillators are too power hungry and hard to realize for high data rates above 10 Gb/s. In this paper, carrier recovery schemes based on the parallel transmission of a reference frequency together with the payload data suitable for high data rates in the submillimeter waveband are proposed. They are demonstrated at 300-GHz carrier frequency. The corresponding electronic circuits for the TX and the RX are designed, manufactured, and characterized.
Autors: Niels Neumann;Martin Laabs;Torge B. Keuter;Dirk Plettemeier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3633 - 3639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Case Study of a Hybrid Optoelectronic Limiting Receiver
Abstract:
The systematic design analysis of a hybrid optoelectronic limiting receiver is presented. The limiting receiver was designed in the IBM 130-nm CMOS process and side-by-side wire bonded to a commercial high-speed InGaAs/InP PIN photodiode. The CMOS die and the optical die were chip-on-board (COB) mounted on the Printed Circuit Board. Partition between small signal in the linear region and large-signal in the limiting region is emphasized. The signal edges can get sharpened in the limiting region although the front-end circuit is bandwidth-limited. When tested with a PRBS-31 pattern, the prototype achieved a bit-error rate of at the sensitivity level of −3.2-dBm Mach-Zehnder Modulator optical modulation amplitude at 4 Gb/s. Conclusions derived from this paper can provide insights to guide other optical limiting receiver design and testing at higher speeds.
Autors: Kehan Zhu;Vishal Saxena;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2797 - 2805
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Case-Based Regression Models Defining the Relationships Between Moisture Content and Shortwave Infrared Reflectance of Beach Sands
Abstract:
To study the relationship between the short-wavelength infrared reflectance and the moisture content in the beach, we conducted a rigorous analysis using regression models under different parameter settings defined by band selection, average grain size, and sand mineralogy. The spectral reflectance data were collected by a hand-held spectrometer with 3–6 nm spectral resolution. The grain sizes measured from 0.15 to 0.92 mm, with an average of 0.75 mm. The mineral components were Quartz–Alkali Feldspar–Plagioclase and Calcite-Quartz-Alkali Feldspar-Plagioclase. We found the best spectral bands were located at 1400, 1900, and 2200 nm. The regression model on these selected bands yielded an R-squared over 0.74 and RMSE lower than 0.05. We expect this study to contribute toward understanding the spectral response of beach sand with regard to its moisture content more clearly as we also consider its mineral composition and grain size.
Autors: Haein Shin;Jaehyung Yu;Yongsik Jeong;Lei Wang;Dong-Yoon Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4512 - 4521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cavity-Backed Proximity-Coupled Reconfigurable Microstrip Antenna With Agile Polarizations and Steerable Beams
Abstract:
A major challenge for a combined reconfigurable antenna is to realize both polarization switching and beam steering independently in a compact antenna structure. A cavity-backed proximity-coupled reconfigurable microstrip antenna proposed in this communication provides an efficient solution. Beam lead p-i-n diodes DSM8100–000 are employed as switching elements to achieve reconfiguration. Three different linear polarizations (0°, 45°, and 90°) are realized by switching the diodes on a proximity-coupled feed network. For each polarization state, the main beam can be steered to three directions by using a reconfigurable parasitic-element network. The parasitic-element network is printed on the same plane of the radiating patch, thereby making the antenna compact. This antenna has nine different working modes, and for all the working modes, the reflection coefficients are below −10 dB with the measured realized gains ranging from 7.2 to 8.1 dBi.
Autors: Shu-Lin Chen;Pei-Yuan Qin;Can Ding;Y. Jay Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5553 - 5558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Celestial Signals: Are Low-Noise Amplifiers the Future for Millimeter-Wave Radio Astronomy Receivers?
Abstract:
In this article, we compare LNA and SIS mixer technologies, specifically addressing the frequency range of 75-110 GHz (designated the W-band), which is of relevance to ALMA and also for wider use. We briefly describe the principles of operation for each technology as well as typical instrumentation specifications such as device and system noise, bandwidth, and stability.
Autors: David Cuadrado-Calle;Danielle George;Brian Ellison;Gary A. Fuller;Keiran Cleary;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 90 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Challenge Your Limits [Pathways]
Abstract:
Discusses the importance of an education despite the challenges that people may face in order to achieve their career goals.
Autors: David Eng;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 76 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Change Detection Based on Deep Siamese Convolutional Network for Optical Aerial Images
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a novel supervised change detection method based on a deep siamese convolutional network for optical aerial images. We train a siamese convolutional network using the weighted contrastive loss. The novelty of the method is that the siamese network is learned to extract features directly from the image pairs. Compared with hand-crafted features used by the conventional change detection method, the extracted features are more abstract and robust. Furthermore, because of the advantage of the weighted contrastive loss function, the features have a unique property: the feature vectors of the changed pixel pair are far away from each other, while the ones of the unchanged pixel pair are close. Therefore, we use the distance of the feature vectors to detect changes between the image pair. Simple threshold segmentation on the distance map can even obtain good performance. For improvement, we use a -nearest neighbor approach to update the initial result. Experimental results show that the proposed method produces results comparable, even better, with the two state-of-the-art methods in terms of F-measure.
Autors: Yang Zhan;Kun Fu;Menglong Yan;Xian Sun;Hongqi Wang;Xiaosong Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1845 - 1849
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Capacity Approach to Hyperspectral Band Subset Selection
Abstract:
This paper develops an information theoretical approach using channel capacity as a criterion for band subset selection (BSS). It formulates a BSS problem as a channel capacity problem by constructing a band channel with the original full band set as a channel input space, a selected band subset as a channel output space and the channel transition specified by band discrimination between original bands and selected bands. Then BSS is selected by Blahut's algorithm that iteratively finds a best possible input space that yields the maximal channel capacity. As a result, there is no need of band prioritization and interband decorrelation generally required by traditional band selection (BS). Two iterative algorithms are developed for finding an optimal BSS, sequential channel capacity BSS (SQ-CCBSS) and successive CCBSS (SC-CCBSS), both of which avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subset combinations. Experimental results demonstrate that using CCBSS-selected band subsets produce quite different and interesting results from multiple bands selected by traditional single BS (SBS) based methods.
Autors: Chein-I Chang;Li-Chien Lee;Bai Xue;Meiping Song;Jian Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4630 - 4644
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Detection in Coded Communication
Abstract:
The problem of block-coded communication where in each block the channel law belongs to one of two disjoint sets is considered. The decoder is aimed to decode only messages that have undergone a channel from one of the sets, and thus has to detect the set which contains the underlying channel. The simplified case where each of the sets is a singleton is studied first. The decoding error, false alarm, and misdetection probabilities of a given code are defined, and the optimum detection/decoding rule in a generalized Neyman-Pearson sense is derived. Sub-optimal detection/decoding rules are also introduced which are simpler to implement. Then, various achievable bounds on the error exponents are derived, including the exact single-letter characterization of the random coding exponents for the optimal detector/decoder. The random coding analysis is then extended to general sets of channels, and an asymptotically optimal detector/decoder under a worst case formulation of the error probabilities is derived, as well as its random coding exponents. The case of a pair of binary symmetric channels is discussed in detail.
Autors: Nir Weinberger;Neri Merhav;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6364 - 6392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Equalization and Interference Analysis for Uplink Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT)
Abstract:
We derive the uplink system model for In-band and Guard-band narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT). The results reveal that the actual channel frequency response (CFR) is not a simple Fourier transform of the channel impulse response, due to sampling rate mismatch between the NB-IoT user and long term evolution (LTE) base station. Consequently, a new channel equalization algorithm is proposed based on the derived effective CFR. In addition, the interference is derived analytically to facilitate the co-existence of NB-IoT and LTE signals. This letter provides an example and guidance to support network slicing and service multiplexing in the physical layer.
Autors: Lei Zhang;Ayesha Ijaz;Pei Xiao;Rahim Tafazolli;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2206 - 2209
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Equalization and Phase Noise Compensation Free DAPSK-OFDM Transmission for Coherent PON System
Abstract:
Channel equalization and phase noise compensation are required in coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) transmission systems for reliable performance. In general, redundant data such as training symbols and pilot tones are necessary for channel and phase noise estimation in quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) based CO-OFDM systems, which reduces the spectral efficiency of the system. Especially, in the coherent passive optical network (PON), the redundancy increases as the number of subscribers increases. In this letter, we propose a differential amplitude shift keying (DAPSK)-based CO-OFDM transmission for PON system, which does not require channel equalization and phase noise compensation processes. The proposed DAPSK-based CO-OFDM transmission was experimentally demonstrated, and the performance according to receiver launched power and the number of subcarriers was compared with QAM-based CO-OFDM.
Autors: Kyoung-Hak Mun;Sang-Min Jung;Soo-Min Kang;Sang-Kook Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Estimation for Optical-OFDM-Based Multiuser MISO Visible Light Communication
Abstract:
A least squares-based channel estimation algorithm is proposed for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based multiuser multiple input single output visible light communications. The pilot sequence and pilot tones are optimized to derive the minimum-mean-square error of the channel estimation. Each user estimates the channel independently, and sends the estimates of the channels to the transmitter. Based on the estimated channels, zero-forcing precoding is applied at the transmitter to achieve the spatial multiplexing gain. The simulated performances of channel estimation and data detection are provided.
Autors: Liang Wu;Julian Cheng;Zaichen Zhang;Jian Dang;Huaping Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:20, pages: 1727 - 1730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Selection for Secondary Users in Decentralized Network of Unknown Size
Abstract:
In this letter, the challenge of optimal channel selection among the non-cooperative and unknown number of secondary (i.e., unlicensed) users (SUs) in the decentralized network is addressed. The proposed scheme consists of two phases: estimation and ranking (ER) phase and high throughput (HT) phase. In the ER phase, each SU chooses the channel randomly. Based on the sensing and collision outcomes, the proposed mathematical expression allows the SUs to independently estimate the channel ranking and the number of active SUs, . In the HT phase, the SUs follow collision-free hopping to exploit top channels. An upper bound on the time required for the SU orthogonalization in the HT phase, loss in throughput, and number of channel switchings are derived. Theoretical analysis and simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed scheme over existing state-of-the-art schemes.
Autors: Rohit Kumar;Sumit J. Darak;Ankit Yadav;Ajay K. Sharma;Rajiv K. Tripathi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2186 - 2189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of Doped n+ GaAs Thermopile-Based RF MEMS Power Sensors for MMIC Applications
Abstract:
This letter presents characteristics of thermopile-based radio frequency microelectromechanical system (RF MEMS) power sensors with different doped n+ GaAs concentrations, in order to improve sensitivity and signal-noise ratio (SNR). These sensors employ the conversion principle of RF power-heat-electricity, where two materials of AuGeNi/Au and n+ GaAs are designed to constitute two arms of the thermopile. The effects of four doping concentrations of n+ GaAs on the sensitivity and SNR of the power sensors are investigated. The RF MEMS power sensors are fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC)-compatible process. Experiments show that these power sensors produce return losses of less than −28.3 dB up to 20 GHz. For the doped n+ GaAs concentrations of , , , and cm−3, measured sensitivities are about 84.10, 101.04, 209.82, and /mW at 1 GHz and about 45.87, 54.11, 104.15, and /mW at 20 GHz, respectively, while the resulting SNR are about , , at 1 GHz and about , , and at 20 GHz, respectively. With the decrease of doping concentration, the sensitivity increases but the SNR decreases first and then increases.
Autors: Zhiqiang Zhang;Xiaoping Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1473 - 1476
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of Electromagnetic Disturbance for Intelligent Component Due to Switching Operations via a 1100 kV AC GIS Test Circuit
Abstract:
Switching operation of the disconnector in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) results in very fast transient overvoltage in GIS pipes. In a smart substation, this process induces disturbance voltage on the port of the intelligent component fixed on GIS pipes or placed in the local cabinet nearby, which then may lead to the failure of the equipment. The experimental results of the port disturbance voltage during the switching operation via a 1100 kV test circuit are first reported in this paper. The test arrangement, including both 70 opening operations and 70 closing operations, had been performed. The influences of different grounding schemes of cable shield on port disturbance had been investigated. Three different cases of the terminal load had also been considered: open circuit, short circuit, and 50 Ω. Over 100 000 micro-pulses had been extracted from the disturbance voltage waveforms. The waveform characteristics including peak voltage, rise-time, oscillation frequency, and decaying had been obtained by statistical analysis of these micro-pulses. Furthermore, the differences between measured waveforms and the IEC 61000-4-18 immunity test standard waveform had been discussed.
Autors: Heng-Tian Wu;Xiang Cui;Xiao-Fan Liu;Chong-Qing Jiao;Rong Hu;Wei-Jiang Chen;Lei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2228 - 2237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization and Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art 3.3-kV 400-A SiC MOSFETs
Abstract:
Since their introduction, the SiC-based semiconductors have been of special interest to the field of power electronics, enabling increase in system efficiency, maximum operating temperature, and power density. In higher voltage range, these semiconductors are at early stage of development and yet are not commercialized. This paper investigates state-of-the-art noncommercialized 3.3-kV 400-A full-SiC MOSFETs where for the first time such MOSFETs are thoroughly characterized and their performance is evaluated and compared against similar rating Si counterparts. Extensive static and dynamic characterizations are done with emphasize on enabling conduction and switching loss calculation in any target application. I-V curves for MOSFET and Shottky-barrier diode (SBD), RDSon, C-V curves and threshold voltages are addressed by measurement at different temperatures. Moreover, the SiC MOSFETs are tested in chopper circuit with an inductive load for measurement of switching losses. This is done at 2-kV bus voltage from 50 up to 400 A load current. Finally, simulations are done in MATLAB/Simulink to evaluate the performance of 3.3-kV 400-A modules in medium-voltage high-power industrial drive application. The case study shows advantages of the 3.3-kV SiC MOSFET technology over 3.3-kV Si IGBTs and 1.7-kV SiC MOSFETs from efficiency, installed die area and power density points of view.
Autors: Alinaghi Marzoughi;Jun Wang;Rolando Burgos;Dushan Boroyevich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8247 - 8257
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of $\gamma $ -Ray Cross Talk in Cherenkov-Based Detectors for Active Interrogation Imaging Applications
Abstract:
In imaging arrays, the sensors are typically packed as tightly as possible to maximize spatial resolution, which leads to detector-to-detector scatter, or cross talk, adding to image noise and hindering contrast. In this paper, we compare custom-made quartz-based Cherenkov detectors with an inherent energy threshold to low-energy photons to standard sodium iodide detectors, which are typically used for x-ray detection due to their efficiency and spectroscopic capabilities. In particular, we evaluate pulse pileup and cross talk effects in high-flux applications. The quartz detectors, while having reduced intrinsic efficiency, outperform the sodium iodide with regards to pileup and cross talk. Simulation further shows that even at a 4 mm edge-to-edge separation, cross talk contributes less than 2% of the total signal in Cherenkov detectors.
Autors: Joseph Harms;Paul B. Rose;Anna Erickson;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6707 - 6715
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of CMOS-MEMS Resonant Pressure Sensors
Abstract:
Comprehensive characterization results of CMOS-microelectromechanical systems resonant pressure sensor are presented. We have extensively evaluated the key performance parameters of our device in terms of quality factor () variations under variable conditions of temperature and pressure, characterized by Knudsen number (). The fundamental frequency of the reported device is 104.3 kHz. Over the full-scale pressure range of 0.1 to 100 kPa and a temperature range of −10 °C to 85 °C, from 450 to 62.6 have been obtained. Besides, static variations of the device capacitance have been measured and analyzed with temperature to evaluate the spring softening and the pull-in effects. A nonlinearity analysis has been performed to assess the device stability. Furthermore, a statistical mismatch analysis has been carried out to determine the deviation of resonance with etching time and ascertain maximum device yield. With our in-house back-end of line metal-layer release, this sensor can be monolithically embedded in the same substrate as standard CMOS integrated circuits, resulting in a significant cost and area reduction.
Autors: Saoni Banerji;Daniel Fernández;Jordi Madrenas;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6653 - 6661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Seafloor Roughness to Support Modeling of Midfrequency Reverberation
Abstract:
A seafloor laser scanner was deployed in the Gulf of Mexico during the 2013 Target and Reverberation Experiment (TREX13). This system collected digital elevation maps at 14 locations along the main reverberation track, and these measurements provide roughness power spectra for modeling seafloor acoustic scattering. The spectra were divided into two regimes according to the mid and high-frequency acoustic measurements made during the experiment. For the wave numbers corresponding to the midfrequency regime (2–4 kHz), the spectra could be approximated using the mean spectral exponent derived from the all of the spectra. With this spectral exponent, the best fit spectral strengths were found to be negatively correlated to the backscatter levels measured at 400 kHz using a multibeam echosounder (MBES). While the scattering mechanisms at 400 kHz are not influenced by the roughness at these low wave numbers, this correlation may be indirectly related to the bioturbation and the spatial variation of the shell content. A more pronounced correlation was found for the high wave numbers, where again a single spectral exponent could be used to a good approximation. In this case, the spectral strengths were also linearly related to the MBES backscattering level but with a positive correlation. For these wave numbers, the roughness is largely influenced by the shell content, which is also the dominant scattering mechanism at 400 kHz. The correlations between the roughness and the MBES measurements provide a means to approximate the seafloor roughness parameters in both wave number regimes throughout the experiment site. For the low wave number spectrum, an alternative approach is also proposed, which uses the spectral parameters for the mean spectrum to approximate the roughness throughout the TREX13 site.
Autors: Brian T. Hefner;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 1110 - 1124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of the CVD Graphene Monolayer as an Active Element of a One-Port Microwave Device
Abstract:
The one-port configuration of a microwave device is the simplest architecture for graphene ultrafast (photo-)resistors, (photo-)diodes, sensors, and photodetectors. Here, this configuration is realized by a segment of coplanar waveguide (CPW) loaded with a CVD graphene monolayer shorted to the ground. The magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient ( parameter) measured in the GHz frequency range are presented for undisturbed structures as well as for structures illuminated by white light and electrostatically polarized with the backgate. A simple and robust de-embedding procedure based on the signal flow graph and allowing for a simultaneous extraction of the parameters characterizing the CPW segment and the graphene monolayer is proposed. The graphene impedance at microwave frequencies is in good agreement with the value of dc sheet resistance obtained from van der Pauw measurements. The back-gate voltage modulation is an efficient way to modulate both the dc sheet resistance and the impedance. In particular, the Dirac point can be achieved both at microwave frequencies and at dc. An equivalent circuit model consists of only the resistance and capacitance connected in parallel, because of good quality ohmic contacts and a negligible inductance as a result of low-current flow in high-resistance graphene samples.
Autors: Jarosław Judek;Mariusz Zdrojek;Jan Sobieski;Aleksandra Przewłoka;Jerzy K. Piotrowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4340 - 4345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Y-Bias Ferrite Materials for Tunable Antenna Applications Using a Partially Filled Rectangular Waveguide
Abstract:
A methodology for measuring the constitutive parameters of a ferrite material is presented. This method can be used to assist the prediction of the properties of tunable antennas that use ferrite material as a substrate or tuning component. A nontraditional characterization method is required due to the general unavailability of samples of a sufficient size to fill the entire cross sections of waveguides appropriate for lower frequencies where gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, and the difficulty of predicting or approximating the applied bias magnetic field. The proposed method overcomes the limitation of sample size by requiring only partial filling of a rectangular waveguide. It overcomes a lack of knowledge of the bias field by including the field as an unknown to be determined by the extraction process. The required theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients of the partially filled waveguide are determined using a mode-matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters and the bias field using optimization algorithms in MATLAB. The extracted parameters of a representative commercial ferrite obtained from multiple experimental configurations are compared with the values provided by the sample manufacturer to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique.
Autors: Junyan Tang;Amin Tayebi;Benjamin Crowgey;Edward J. Rothwell;Balasubramaniam Shanker;Leo C. Kempel;Michael J. Havrilla;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5279 - 5288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterizing Transmission Loss Variability During the Target and Reverberation Experiment 2013
Abstract:
A significant driver of uncertainty in sonar performance is the variability in underwater acoustical propagation caused by environmental fluctuations and uncertainty in the position of sources, targets, and receivers. A set of echo-repeat experiments was conducted during the Target and Reverberation Experiment 2013 (TREX13), a sea trial that took place in April to May 2013 in the Gulf of Mexico near Panama City, FL, USA. The variability in measured transmission loss (TL) was characterized using two different methods: Variability with respect to a mean observed TL, and variability with respect to modeled TL. Both one-way and quasi-reciprocal two-way TL measurements at 2250 and 7500 Hz were analyzed to characterize the variability at timescales ranging from less than one second to several days, with the results indicating that the acoustic propagation fluctuates stochastically on all these time scales. The results of statistical tests suggest that the TL variability can be treated as Gaussian fluctuations about a central TL obtained from an acoustic propagation model, with standard deviations of 5 dB over timescales up to one day, or 10 dB over timescales from one to six days.
Autors: Cristina D. S. Tollefsen;Sean P. Pecknold;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 1135 - 1145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Charge-Controlled Oscillators and Their Application in Frequency Synthesis
Abstract:
A tunable oscillator, whose frequency is a function of the total charge in the oscillating nodes, is introduced in this brief. Three variants of charge-controlled oscillators (QCOs) that oscillate around 3.6 GHz are presented. The figure-of-merits (FoMs) of these oscillators, obtained from simulation, are 169, 172, and 178 dB, respectively. The measured FoM of the third QCO is 179 dB. We also show that the use of a QCO in a frequency synthesizer eliminates the requirement of an explicit loop filter. Furthermore, an example of an all-digital phase-locked loop based on a QCO is shown.
Autors: Roohie Kaushik;Shouri Chatterjee;G. S. Visweswaran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1127 - 1131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chip Averaging Chaotic ON–OFF Keying: A New Non-Coherent Modulation for Ultra Wide Band Direct Chaotic Communication
Abstract:
This letter proposes a new adaptive threshold modulation scheme, called chip averaging chaotic ON–OFF keying (CA-COOK). This new scheme is applied to non-coherent modulations in ultra-wideband direct chaotic communication. Mainly, the proposed method deals with the “estimation problem” caused by the bit energy variation of the chaotic carrier signal. This is completed by adopting the Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate paradigm used in radar, and each bit period is divided into several chips, where one of those chips is bearing the information. Bit-error-rate performance in additive-white-Gaussian-noise, two-path Rayleigh, and IEEE802.15.4a office NLOS channel models, is analyzed and compared with well-known and challenging chaos-based communication systems. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed CA-COOK.
Autors: Ammar Mesloub;Arezki Boukhelifa;Omar Merad;Said Saddoudi;Arezki Younsi;Mustapha Djeddou;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2166 - 2169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chip-Scale Near-Field Resonant Power Transfer via Elastic Waves
Abstract:
This paper reports on the proof-of-concept demonstration of an approach for the synthesis of a through package charging and authenticating communication link enabled by GHz-range aluminum nitride (AlN) piezoelectric transducers. The acoustic link is formed by two thickness-mode acoustic transducers placed on the two sides of a packaging substrate. The link leverages the enhancement of energy transfer that occurs at resonance; 1--thick (2.7 GHz) and 6--thick (500 MHz) AlN acoustic links are demonstrated showing substantial enhancement of power transfer efficiencies (PTE) when using thicker AlN substrates. PTEs of −8 dB at 2.7 GHz and −2 dB at 500 MHz are measured for transducers’ size of and through 700- and 500--thick silicon substrates, respectively. The experimental values are in very close agreement with the analytical model of the acoustic link. The potential misalignment between the two transducers is the main limitation of this approach. To overcome this challenge, acoustic phased arrays are devised to enable steering of the transmitted beam. Preliminary results on the steering capability demonstrate about 8 dB of improvement in PTE via a two-element array when dealing with a 100- misalignment. This paper is the first step toward the development of next-generation high-efficiency and micro-scale power transfer - nits that could energize chips through packages. [2017-0010]
Autors: Emad Mehdizadeh;Gianluca Piazza;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1155 - 1164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ciphertext-Only Attack on Phase-Shifting Interferometery-Based Encryption
Abstract:
The phase-shifting interferometry-based (PSI-based) encryption is one of most typical optical encryption systems. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to ciphertext-only attack (COA) on PSI-based encryption, revealing that there is serious security risk in PSI-based encryption. With the proposed COA approach, an opponent can crack the ciphertexts directly without use of the keys of the system. This demonstration, as far as our best knowledge, shows the PSI technique is vulnerable to COA for the first time. A series of attack results are shown to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the attack method. Our study reveals a critical security issue that should be taken in to account when designing an optical information security system.
Autors: Tuo Li;Zongcheng Miao;Yishi Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of Protein Structure Classes on Flexible Neutral Tree
Abstract:
Accurate classification on protein structural is playing an important role in Bioinformatics. An increase in evidence demonstrates that a variety of classification methods have been employed in such a field. In this research, the features of amino acids composition, secondary structure's feature, and correlation coefficient of amino acid dimers and amino acid triplets have been used. Flexible neutral tree (FNT), a particular tree structure neutral network, has been employed as the classification model in the protein structures’ classification framework. Considering different feature groups owing diverse roles in the model, impact factors of different groups have been put forward in this research. In order to evaluate different impact factors, Impact Factors Scaling (IFS) algorithm, which aim at reducing redundant information of the selected features in some degree, have been put forward. To examine the performance of such framework, the 640, 1189, and ASTRAL datasets are employed as the low-homology protein structure benchmark datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed method is better than the other methods in the low-homology protein tertiary structures.
Autors: Wenzheng Bao;Dong Wang;Yuehui Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1122 - 1133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of Schizophrenia Based on Individual Hierarchical Brain Networks Constructed From Structural MRI Images
Abstract:
With structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, conventional methods for the classification of schizophrenia (SCZ) and healthy control (HC) extract cortical thickness independently at different regions of interest (ROIs) without considering the correlation between these regions. In this paper, we proposed an improved method for the classification of SCZ and HC based on individual hierarchical brain networks constructed from structural MRI images. Our method involves constructing individual hierarchical networks where each node and each edge in these networks represents a ROI and the correlation between a pair of ROIs, respectively. We demonstrate that edge features make significant improvement in performance of SCZ/HC classification, when compared with only node features. Classification performance is further investigated by combining edge features with node features via a multiple kernel learning framework. The experimental results show that our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 88.72% and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.9521 for SCZ/HC classification, which demonstrate that our proposed method is efficient and promising for clinical applications for the diagnosis of SCZ via structural MRI images. Therefore, this paper provides an alternative method for extracting high-order cortical thickness features from structural MRI images for classification of neurodegenerative diseases such as SCZ.
Autors: Jin Liu;Min Li;Yi Pan;Fang-Xiang Wu;Xiaogang Chen;Jianxin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 600 - 608
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Form BER Expressions of QPSK Constellation for Uplink Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access
Abstract:
Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is an attractive multiple access technique to achieve the optimal system capacity region. A great deal of recent attention has been devoted to the study of the NOMA system capacity performance. However, the exact bit error rate (BER) expressions of NOMA systems have not been derived yet. We provide the exact closed-form BER expressions of the QPSK constellation for an uplink NOMA system over an additive white Gaussian noise channel. Finally, the validity of our derived BER expressions is verified through simulations.
Autors: Xiaolu Wang;Fabrice Labeau;Lin Mei;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2242 - 2245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Form SER Expression for APSK Based on the Kite Structure
Abstract:
In communication systems, amplitude phase shift keying (APSK) arises as a potential solution to mitigate performance degradations due to channel non-linearities. Since it combines the characteristics of PSK and those of amplitude shift keying (ASK), APSK is also likely to be robust in systems influenced by phase noise. It is, therefore, solicited in cascaded systems involving visible light communications (VLC) as the second communication technology. This letter proposes the design of an APSK constellation, based on the kite structure, suitable for such cascaded systems. The constellation design is detailed and the symbol error probability is derived in closed-form. The bit error rate performance is compared with those of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and PSK. Findings reveal that for ( being the common number of symbols per ring), the proposed APSK scheme has similar performance with PSK and 4QAM, and, for , the APSK scheme outperforms the corresponding PSK, making it a good candidate for cascaded VLC systems. Even though the proposed scheme is outperformed by QAM, it gains up to about 5 dB over the PSK for an error rate of .
Autors: Alain Richard Ndjiongue;Hendrik C. Ferreira;Telex M. N. Ngatched;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2182 - 2185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Loop Neurostimulators: A Survey and A Seizure-Predicting Design Example for Intractable Epilepsy Treatment
Abstract:
First, existing commercially available open-loop and closed-loop implantable neurostimulators are reviewed and compared in terms of their targeted application, physical size, system-level features, and performance as a medical device. Next, signal processing algorithms as the primary strength point of the closed-loop neurostimulators are reviewed, and various design and implementation requirements and trade-offs are discussed in details along with quantitative examples. The review results in a set of guidelines for algorithm selection and evaluation. Second, the implementation of an inductively-powered seizure-predicting microsystem for monitoring and treatment of intractable epilepsy is presented. The miniaturized system is comprised of two miniboards and a power receiver coil. The first board hosts a 24-channel neurostimulator system on chip [15] fabricated in a CMOS technology and performs neural recording, on-chip digital signal processing, and electrical stimulation. The second board communicates recorded brain signals as well as signal processing results wirelessly. The multilayer flexible coil receives inductively-transmitted power. The system is sized at 2 2 0.7 and weighs 6 g. The approach is validated in the control of chronic seizures in vivo in freely moving rats.
Autors: Hossein Kassiri;Sana Tonekaboni;M. Tariqus Salam;Nima Soltani;Karim Abdelhalim;Jose Luis Perez Velazquez;Roman Genov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1026 - 1040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cloud-Based Malware Detection Game for Mobile Devices with Offloading
Abstract:
As accurate malware detection on mobile devices requires fast process of a large number of application traces, cloud-based malware detection can utilize the data sharing and powerful computational resources of security servers to improve the detection performance. In this paper, we investigate the cloud-based malware detection game, in which mobile devices offload their application traces to security servers via base stations or access points in dynamic networks. We derive the Nash equilibrium (NE) of the static malware detection game and present the existence condition of the NE, showing how mobile devices share their application traces at the security server to improve the detection accuracy, and compete for the limited radio bandwidth, the computational and communication resources of the server. We design a malware detection scheme with Q-learning for a mobile device to derive the optimal offloading rate without knowing the trace generation and the radio bandwidth model of other mobile devices. The detection performance is further improved with the Dyna architecture, in which a mobile device learns from the hypothetical experience to increase its convergence rate. We also design a post-decision state learning-based scheme that utilizes the known radio channel model to accelerate the reinforcement learning process in the malware detection. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes improve the detection accuracy, reduce the detection delay, and increase the utility of a mobile device in the dynamic malware detection game, compared with the benchmark strategy.
Autors: Liang Xiao;Yanda Li;Xueli Huang;XiaoJiang Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 2742 - 2750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cluster Synchronization of Coupled Genetic Regulatory Networks With Delays via Aperiodically Adaptive Intermittent Control
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the cluster synchronization of coupled genetic regulatory networks with time-varying delays via aperiodically adaptive intermittent control on some nodes. The network is intermittently coupled and the intra-cluster coupling strength is adaptively adjusted. The graph of the coupling topology of each cluster is only required to have a directed spanning tree. Two cases of delays are considered. In the first case, by using the switching Lyapunov-based function and Razumikhin-type technique, the cluster synchronization criterion is presented which indicates that the cluster synchronization is realized via the aperiodically adaptive intermittent control. The second case is investigated by using the switching Lyapunov functional. Both the cluster synchronization criteria are established by the Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), the lower bound of the aperiodical time span, and the maximum uncontrolled ratio. It is shown that the results are applicable to both the situations that the upper bound of the delay is larger and smaller than the lower bound of the aperiodical coupling and control width. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results.
Autors: Zhi-Hong Guan;Dandan Yue;Bin Hu;Tao Li;Feng Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 585 - 599
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cluster-Aware Virtual Machine Collaborative Migration in Media Cloud
Abstract:
Media cloud has become a promising paradigm for deploying large-scale streaming media applications at a reduced cost. Due to dynamic and diverse demands of users, media cloud presents two crucial characteristics: high resource consumption and dynamic traffic among media servers. Consequently, Virtual Machine (VM) migration in media cloud is highly required to suit varying resource requirements and the dynamic traffic patterns. Moreover, migration of such bandwidth-intensive media applications in media cloud needs cautious handling, especially for the internal traffic of Data Center Networks (DCN). However, existing media cloud resource management schemes or traffic-aware VM deployment approaches are insufficient for media cloud, ignoring the characteristics of either cloud infrastructure or media streaming requirements. In this paper, we propose a cluster-aware VM collaborative migration scheme for media cloud, tightly integrating clustering, placement, and dynamic migration process. The scheme employs a clustering algorithm and a placement algorithm to obtain ideal migration strategies for newly perceived media server clusters, and a migration algorithm to effectively accomplish the migration process of media servers. Evaluation results demonstrate that our scheme can effectively migrate virtual media servers in media cloud, while reducing the total internal traffic in DCN under the resource consumption constraints of media streaming applications.
Autors: Weizhan Zhang;Yuxuan Chen;Xiang Gao;Zhichao Mo;Qinghua Zheng;Zongqing Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2808 - 2822
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clustered Voltage Balancing Mechanism and Its Control Strategy for Star-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge STATCOM
Abstract:
To explore the clustered voltage balancing mechanism of the star-connected cascaded H-Bridge (SCHB) STATCOM, this paper analyzes the relationship between the active power and the control variables-modulation reference voltages in a dq frame through positive and negative sequence component decomposition. The derived relationship in the dq frame reveals that the negative sequence modulation reference voltage is capable of redistributing the active power among three phases and also the SCHB STATCOM features the clustered voltage self-stabilizing without any additional clustered voltage balancing control. To eliminate the differences of three clustered voltages, a new clustered voltage balancing control is proposed by regulating negative sequence modulation reference voltage in the dq frame. Its balancing mechanism is analyzed in detail and a simple implementation is presented as well. The effectiveness of the proposed control is verified by experimental results on a 400 V/15 kvar SCHB STATCOM.
Autors: Daorong Lu;Jiangfeng Wang;Jianhui Yao;Sen Wang;Jianxin Zhu;Haibing Hu;Li Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7623 - 7633
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CMOS Ultralow Power Brain Signal Acquisition Front-Ends: Design and Human Testing
Abstract:
Two brain signal acquisition (BSA) front-ends incorporating two CMOS ultralow power, low-noise amplifier arrays and serializers operating in mosfet weak inversion region are presented. To boost the amplifier's gain for a given current budget, cross-coupled-pair active load topology is used in the first stages of these two amplifiers. These two BSA front-ends are fabricated in 130 and 180 nm CMOS processes, occupying 5.45 mm and 0.352 mm of die areas, respectively (excluding pad rings). The CMOS 130-nm amplifier array is comprised of 64 elements, where each amplifier element consumes 0.216 W from 0.4 V supply, has input-referred noise voltage (IRNoise) of 2.19 V corresponding to a power efficiency factor (PEF) of 11.7, and occupies 0.044 mm of die area. The CMOS 180 nm amplifier array employs 4 elements, where each element consumes 0.69 W from 0.6 V supply with IRNoise of 2.3 V (corresponding to a PEF of 31.3) and 0.051 mm of die area. Noninvasive electroencephalographic and invasive electrocorticographic signals were recorded real time directly on able-bodied human subjects, showing feasibility of using these analog front-ends for futur- fully implantable BSA and brain– computer interface systems.
Autors: Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi;Omid Malekzadeh-Arasteh;Mao-Cheng Lee;Colin M. McCrimmon;Po T. Wang;Akshay Mahajan;Charles Yu Liu;Zoran Nenadic;An H. Do;Payam Heydari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1111 - 1122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Co-Design of Controller and Communication Topology for Vehicular Platooning
Abstract:
Small inter-vehicle distances can increase traffic throughput on highways. Human drivers are not able to drive safely under such conditions. To this aim, cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems have been developed, which require vehicles to communicate with each other through a wireless communication network. By communicating control-relevant information, the vehicles equipped with the CACC system are able to react more quickly to disturbances caused by preceding vehicles and, therefore, are able to maintain the desired (small) inter-vehicle distance while avoiding string instability. String stability relates to the propagation of the effect of disturbance on system states over the vehicle string. Commonly used approaches to design controllers yielding string stability, involve an iterative process requiring an a priori designed controller with a priori defined communication topology. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a synthesis strategy for both local controllers and the communication structure, while guaranteeing string stability for infinite-length vehicular strings. The obtained results are illustrated by model-based case studies.
Autors: Amir Firooznia;Jeroen Ploeg;Nathan van de Wouw;Hans Zwart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2728 - 2739
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coastal Sea-Level Measurements Based on GNSS-R Phase Altimetry: A Case Study at the Onsala Space Observatory, Sweden
Abstract:
The characterization of global mean sea level is important to predict floods and to quantify water resources for human use and irrigation, especially in coastal regions. Recently, the application of global navigation satellite system reflectometry (GNSS-R) for water level monitoring has been successfully demonstrated. This paper focuses on the retrieval of sea surface height within a field experiment that was conducted at the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) using the phase-based altimetry method. A continuous phase tracking algorithm, which relies on the GNSS amplitude and phase observations is proposed and works even under rough sea conditions at OSO’s coast. Factors impacting the phase-based altimetry model, i.e., atmospheric propagation effects of the GNSS signals and influence of the GNSS-R observation instrument, are discussed. The relationship between the yield of coherent GNSS-R compared to the overall recorded events and the wind speed is investigated in detail. Ground-based sea-level measurements from June 10 to July 3, 2015 demonstrate that altimetric information about the reflecting water surface can be obtained with a root mean square error of 4.37 cm with respect to a reference tide gauge (TG) data set. The sea surface changes, derived from our field experiment and the reference TG, are highly correlated with a correlation coefficient of 0.93. The altimetric information can be retrieved even when the sea surface is very rough, corresponding to wind speeds up to 13 m/s. Moreover, the use of inexpensive conventional GNSS antennas shows that the system is useful for future large-scale sea level monitoring applications including numerous low-cost coastal ground stations.
Autors: Wei Liu;Jamila Beckheinrich;Maximilian Semmling;Markus Ramatschi;Sibylle Vey;Jens Wickert;Thomas Hobiger;Rüdiger Haas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5625 - 5636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coding for Interactive Communication Correcting Insertions and Deletions
Abstract:
We consider the question of interactive communication, in which two remote parties perform a computation, while their communication channel is (adversarially) noisy. We extend here the discussion into a more general and stronger class of noise, namely, we allow the channel to perform insertions and deletions of symbols. These types of errors may bring the parties “out of sync,” so that there is no consensus regarding the current round of the protocol. In this more general noise model, we obtain the first interactive coding scheme that has a constant rate and tolerates noise rates of up to . To this end, we develop a novel primitive we name edit-distance tree code. The edit-distance tree code is carefully designed to replace the Hamming distance constraints in Schulman’s tree codes (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 1996), with a stronger edit-distance requirement.
Autors: Mark Braverman;Ran Gelles;Jieming Mao;Rafail Ostrovsky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6256 - 6270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coding for the Large-Alphabet Adversarial Channel
Abstract:
We consider the problem of encoding an i.i.d. source into a set of symbols or messages that may be altered by an adversary while en route to the decoder. We focus in particular on the regime in which the number of messages is fixed while the blocklength of the source and the size of each message tend to infinity. For this fixed-blocklength, “large alphabet” channel, we show that combining an optimal rate-distortion code with an optimal error-correction code yields an optimal overall code for Gaussian sources with quadratic distortion and binary uniform sources with Hamming distortion but that it can be suboptimal by an arbitrarily large factor in general. We also consider the scenario in which the distortion constraint that the decoder must satisfy depends on the number of errors that occur. We show that the problem can be reduced operationally to one with erasures instead of errors in two special cases: one involving lossless reproduction of functions of the source and one in which the encoder and decoder share common randomness.
Autors: Ebad Ahmed;Aaron B. Wagner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6347 - 6363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coding, Multicast, and Cooperation for Cache- Enabled Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks
Abstract:
Caching at the wireless edge is a promising approach to dealing with massive content delivery in heterogeneous wireless networks, which have high demands on backhaul. In this paper, a typical cache-enabled small cell network under heterogeneous file and network settings is considered using maximum distance separable (MDS) codes for content restructuring. Unlike those in the literature considering online settings with the assumption of perfect user request information, we estimate the joint user requests using the file popularity information and aim to minimize the long-term average backhaul load for fetching content from external storage subject to the overall cache capacity constraint by optimizing the content placement in all the cells jointly. Both multicast-aware caching and cooperative caching schemes with optimal content placement are proposed. In order to combine the advantages of multicast content delivery and cooperative content sharing, a compound caching technique, which is referred to as multicast-aware cooperative caching, is then developed. For this technique, a greedy approach and a multicast-aware in-cluster cooperative approach are proposed for the small-scale networks and large-scale networks, respectively. Mathematical analysis and simulation results are presented to illustrate the advantages of MDS codes, multicast, and cooperation in terms of reducing the backhaul requirements for cache-enabled small cell networks.
Autors: Jialing Liao;Kai-Kit Wong;Yangyang Zhang;Zhongbin Zheng;Kun Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6838 - 6853
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coherence in Multielement-Phased Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser Arrays Using Resonance Tuning
Abstract:
We show that optical coupling can be achieved reproducibly and with high yield by resonance tuning the elements of substrate-emitting and top-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser arrays. The resonance tuning is enabled by electrical isolation of the lasing elements in the array, which in this paper is done by post fabrication processing. Prior to electrical isolation, the laser arrays exhibit incoherent optical properties. Using resonance tuning, both in-phase and out-of-phase coherent modes are observed.
Autors: Bradley J. Thompson;Zihe Gao;Stewart T. M. Fryslie;Matthew T. Johnson;Dominic F. Siriani;Kent D. Choquette;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coherent Summation of Radiation From Four-Channel Shock-Excited RF Source Operating at 4 GHz and a Repetition Rate of 1000 Hz
Abstract:
Testing results of a generator based on the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with saturated ferrite are presented. Practically identical and stable RF-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels. The pulse amplitude reaches −175 kV at a modulation depth of RF oscillations to 50% and an effective frequency ~4 GHz. Power in the packet operation mode with a 1-s packet duration at pulse repetition frequencies up to 1000 Hz (in packet) was supplied by a solid-state driver. The electric field strength achieved 250 kV/m at a distance of 3 m from antennas.
Autors: Marat R. Ul’maskulov;Sergei A. Shunailov;Konstantin A. Sharypov;Michael I. Yalandin;Valery G. Shpak;Maxim S. Pedos;Sergei N. Rukin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2623 - 2628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coiling Size Dependence of Group Delay Spread in Coupled Multicore Fibers Without Intentional Twisting
Abstract:
Coiling size dependence of group delay spread (GDS) in coupled multicore fibers (MCFs) without intentional twisting is investigated by using a coupled-wave theory. It is shown that the GDS does not simply decrease with increasing bending radius and the optimum coiling size to decrease GDS depends on a core-to-core distance of MCFs. It is also found that a coupled MCF with a trench-assisted profile is suitable for realizing lower GDS with higher spatial density compared with a coupled MCF with a step-index profile.
Autors: Kunimasa Saitoh;Takeshi Fujisawa;Takanori Sato;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4559 - 4566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Collaborative Multi-Tier Caching in Heterogeneous Networks: Modeling, Analysis, and Design
Abstract:
To deal with the explosive growth in multimedia service requests in mobile networks, caching contents at the cells (base stations) is regarded as an effective emerging technique to reduce the duplicated transmissions of content downloads, while heterogeneous networks (HetNets) are regarded as an effective technique to increase the network capacity. Yet, the combination of content caching and HetNets for future networks (i.e., 5G) is still not well explored. In this paper, we propose an efficient collaborative multi-tier caching framework in Het-Nets. In particular, based on patterns of user requests, link capacities, heterogenous cache sizes, and the derived system topology, we focus on exploring the maximum capacity of the network infrastructure so as to offload the network traffic and support users’ content requests locally. Due to the NP-hardness of the complex multi-tier caching problem, we approximately decompose it into some subproblems that focus on the caching cooperation at different tiers by utilizing the derived system topology. Our proposed framework is low-complexity and distributed, and can be used for practical engineering implementation. Trace-based simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
Autors: Xiuhua Li;Xiaofei Wang;Keqiu Li;Zhu Han;Victor C. M. Leung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6926 - 6939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Collaborators & Friends: The General Meeting Brings Us Together [Leader's Corner]
Abstract:
Presents highlights of the PES society 2017 General Meeting.
Autors: Jessica Bian;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 10 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Colloidal CdSe Quantum Dots and PQT-12-Based Low-Temperature Self-Powered Hybrid Photodetector
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel dual junction self-powered hybrid photodetector is proposed using colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as an active layer (~50-nm thickness), and PQT-12 polymer as filter layer subsequently deposited on an ITO-coated glass substrate by the spin coating method. The colloidal CdSe QDs are deposited on the PQT-12 film at 80 °C, which is much smaller than the growth temperature (usually >300 °C) of the inorganic layer of other reported hybrid self-powered detectors. The Au metal dots are deposited on the CdSe QD layer for anode electrodes while the ITO acts as the cathode electrode of the device. Two asymmetric depletion widths formed at PQT-12/CdSe and Au/CdSe junctions at two sides of the active layer controls the operation of the proposed detector. The photodetector shows band-pass response over the visible spectrum with a sharp cutoff for higher wavelengths at ~610 nm. The maximum responsivity and detectivity of the self-powered photodetector are achieved to be ~3.3 mA/W and cmHz, respectively, at a wavelength of ~420 nm under the optical power density of /cm2. The rise time and fall time of the device are found to be ~12.01 and ~15.32 ms, respectively.
Autors: Hemant Kumar;Yogesh Kumar;Gopal Rawat;Chandan Kumar;Bratindranath Mukherjee;Bhola N. Pal;Satyabrata Jit;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:20, pages: 1715 - 1718
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combination of SHE- and SHM-PWM Techniques for VSI DC-Link Current Harmonics Control in Railway Applications
Abstract:
The paper presents an innovative concept of applying a combination of well-known selective harmonic elimination (SHE) and selective harmonics mitigation (SHM) methods to shape a spectrum of catenary current harmonics, generated by a traction drive system equipped with a voltage source inverter. Application of this method allows for reducing distorting influence of a modern rolling stock supplied by a 3 kV dc catenary on the railway signaling, command, and control systems. The efficiency of the proposed method is independent of synchronization of a vehicle's inverters and of load balance of traction motors, which makes it more reliable than as it is proposed in the literature. Results of computer simulations were presented and compared with laboratory measurements. The obtained dc-link current spectrum using the proposed SHE/SHM method was compared with spectra received using synchronized and unsynchronized sinusoidal pulse-width modulations (SPWMs). Based on the conducted tests, it was shown that the proposed method of control, which was implemented in a laboratory drive system, is effective in reducing dc side current harmonics in a frequency range of 1300-3100 Hz, which is used by track circuits on railway lines, e.g., in Poland. The technique proposed by the authors allows taking into account any restrictions arising from the technical nature of low-frequency traction drives.
Autors: Marcin Steczek;Piotr Chudzik;Adam Szeląg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7666 - 7678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combined Pulse-Echo Ultrasound and Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography With a Multi-Segment Detector Array
Abstract:
The high complementarity of ultrasonography and optoacoustic tomography has prompted the development of combined approaches that utilize the same transducer array for detecting both optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound responses from tissues. Yet, due to the fundamentally different physical contrast and image formation mechanisms, the development of detection technology optimally suited for image acquisition in both modalities remains a major challenge. Herein, we introduce a multi-segment detector array approach incorporating array segments of linear and concave geometry to optimally support both ultrasound and optoacoustic image acquisition. The various image rendering strategies are tested and optimized in numerical simulations and calibrated tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. We subsequently demonstrate real-time hybrid optoacoustic ultrasound image acquisition in a healthy volunteer. The new approach enables the acquisition of high-quality anatomical data by both modalities complemented by functional information on blood oxygenation status provided by the multispectral optoacoustic tomography.
Autors: Elena Merčep;Xosé Luís Deán-Ben;Daniel Razansky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 2129 - 2137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Command and Control for Multifunction Phased Array Radar
Abstract:
We discuss the challenge of managing the Multifunction Phased Array Radar (MPAR) timeline to satisfy the requirements of its multiple missions, with a particular focus on weather surveillance. This command and control (C2) function partitions the available scan time among these missions, exploits opportunities to service multiple missions simultaneously, and utilizes techniques for increasing scan rate where feasible. After reviewing the candidate MPAR architectures and relevant previous research, we describe a specific C2 framework that is consistent with a demonstrated active array architecture using overlapped subarrays to realize multiple, concurrent receive beams. Analysis of recently articulated requirements for near-airport and national-scale aircraft surveillance indicates that with this architecture, 40–60% of the MPAR scan timeline would be available for the high-fidelity weather observations currently provided by the Weather Service Radar (WSR-88D) network. We show that an appropriate use of subarray generated concurrent receive beams, in concert with previously documented, complementary techniques to increase the weather scan rate, could enable MPAR to perform full weather volume scans at a rate of 1 per minute. Published observing system simulation experiments, human-in-the-loop studies and radar-data assimilation experiments indicate that high-quality weather radar observations at this rate may significantly improve the lead time and reliability of severe weather warnings relative to current observation capabilities.
Autors: Mark E. Weber;John Y. N. Cho;Henry G. Thomas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5899 - 5912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comments on “Tracking Control of Robotic Manipulators With Uncertain Kinematics and Dynamics”
Abstract:
This letter considers the paper entitled “Tracking Control of Robotic Manipulators With Uncertain Kinematics and Dynamics” by B. Xiao, S. Yin, and O. Kaynak [IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 6439–6449, Oct. 2016], where the authors meant to provide an effective control for finite-time tracking of robot manipulators with both kinematic and dynamic uncertainties. This letter points out several flaws leading to the ineffectiveness of the main result in the paper. A correction is proposed.
Autors: Yuxin Su;Chunhong Zheng;Paolo Mercorelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8187 - 8189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comments on “Interference-Based Capacity Analysis of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks”
Abstract:
A new effective interference-based capacity model was proposed for vehicular ad hoc network safety message broadcast scenario in M. Ni et al. (Commun. Lett., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 621–624, Apr. 2015). This letter is a reconsideration and extension of the model in Ni et al.. First, we point out that the analysis in Ni et al. is incomplete and show a new derivation of the node transmission probability and the SIR distribution accounting for the impact of asynchronous timing of hidden terminals and all possible interference occurrence cases. Second, the analysis is extended to the derivation of other important quality of service metrics, such as packet reception probability, packet reception ratio, and transmission capacity. The proposed analysis is cross validated by MATLAB, PYTHON, and NS2 simulations.
Autors: Xiaomin Ma;Hualin Lu;Jing Zhao;Yanbin Wang;Jingyu Li;Minming Ni;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2322 - 2325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Communication With Imperfectly Shared Randomness
Abstract:
Communication complexity investigates the amount of communication needed for two or more players to determine some joint function of their private inputs. For many interesting functions, the communication complexity can be much smaller than basic information theoretic measures associated with the players’ inputs such as the input length, the entropy, or even the conditional entropy. Communication complexity of many functions reduces further when the players share randomness. Classical works studied the communication complexity of functions when the interacting players share randomness perfectly, i.e., they get identical copies of randomness from a common source. This paper considers the variant of this question when the players share randomness imperfectly, i.e., when they get noisy copies of the randomness produced by some common source. Our main result shows that any function that can be computed by a -bit protocol in the perfect sharing model has a -bit protocol in the setting of imperfectly shared randomness and such an exponential growth is necessary. Our upper bound relies on ideas from locality sensitive hashing, while lower bounds rely on hypercontractivity and a new invariance principle tailored for communication protocols.
Autors: Clément L. Canonne;Venkatesan Guruswami;Raghu Meka;Madhu Sudan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6799 - 6818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact and High-Gain UHF/UWB RFID Reader Antenna
Abstract:
A linearly polarized, dual-port, and dual-band radio frequency identification reader antenna is designed to simultaneously operate at ultrahigh frequency (UHF) and ultra-wideband bands for positioning systems. A hybrid design using patch and slot structures within a shared radiating aperture is proposed and demonstrated to achieve a high gain and wideband operation with a limited profile. The size of the total antenna is 200 mm mm mm. The measured impedance bandwidth of the UHF antenna ranges from 0.890 to 0.907 GHz with a minimum antenna gain of 9 dBi. The measured impedance bandwidth of the ultra-wideband antenna can cover the frequency band from 3 to 4.99 GHz with a minimum antenna gain of 9 dBi. The antenna gains near two WLAN bands are less than −15 dBi at 2.45 GHz and −5 dBi at 5.8 GHz, respectively. The mutual coupling between the two ports is less than −30 dB over the two bands.
Autors: Jun Zhang;Zhongxiang Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5002 - 5010
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact and Low-Cost Optical Fiber Respiratory Monitoring Sensor Based on Intensity Interrogation
Abstract:
In this paper, a plastic optical fiber sensor for respiratory monitoring purposes is presented. The sensor was integrated into a small, robust, and flexible package to be attached directly on a wide variety of positions on the upper body to monitor the motion induced by breathing. The sensor's operating principle is based on the variation in the intensity of the optical coupling intensity ratio between an input and a set of aligned output optical fibers. The system is demonstrated to be able to track the time-varying breathing signal when the sensor is placed at four different positions of the torso (including diaphragmatic and upper costal). The accuracy of the device is confirmed by a simultaneous comparison of the results with a commercial respiratory monitoring device. Measurement of breathing rate on four different healthy subjects showed excellent agreement with the measurement from the commercial respiratory monitoring device. The proposed fiber optic respiration sensor provides the advantages of being relatively low cost, compact, and simple in construction compared to the conventional existing respiration sensors.
Autors: Wern Kam;Waleed Soliman Mohammed;Gabriel Leen;Mary O'Keeffe;Kieran O'Sullivan;Sinead O'Keeffe;Elfed Lewis;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4567 - 4573
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Differential Wideband Bandpass Filters Based on Half-Wavelength Lines
Abstract:
A compact differential wideband bandpass filter is proposed based on three half-wavelength transmission lines. The main advantages of small size and simple configuration are achieved. The improved design with two cascaded quarter-wavelength coupled lines can further improve the bandwidth of common-mode (CM) suppression and frequency selectivity. Two prototypes centered at 1.8 GHz with the size of is the guided wavelength at the center frequency ) and are designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results of Design I (Design II) exhibit the minimum insertion loss of 0.27 dB (0.6 dB), 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 57.8% (52%), and the bandwidth of 20-dB CM suppression of .
Autors: Jun Qiang;Jin Shi;Qinghua Cao;Zhidan Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 906 - 908
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact On-Chip Bandpass Filter With Improved In-Band Flatness and Stopband Attenuation in 0.13- $\mu \text{m}$ (Bi)-CMOS Technology
Abstract:
In this letter, an on-chip miniaturized bandpass filter (BPF) is presented, which is based on a grounded center-tapped ring resonator (CTRR) with shunt capacitive loading. To analyze the principle of this design, a simple but effective equivalent circuit model is provided. Using this model, it is easy to show that the CTRR-based approach has a potential to generate two transmission poles within the passband. Compared with the conventional single-pole-based approach, this dual-pole design not only possesses a flexibility of controlling the passband width, but also has better flatness of insertion loss in the passband. In addition, this approach is able to significantly improve the stopband performance. To further demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in practice, the structure is implemented and fabricated in a commercial 0.13- (Bi)-CMOS SiGe technology. The measured results show that the BPF has a center frequency at 33 GHz with a bandwidth of 42.4%. The minimum insertion loss is 2.6 dB, while the stopband rejection is maintained to be better than 20 dB beyond 58 GHz. The chip, excluding the pads, is very compact at only 0.03 mm2 ( mm.
Autors: Yang Yang;Hang Liu;Zhang Ju Hou;Xi Zhu;Eryk Dutkiewicz;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1359 - 1362
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Polygonal Active-Mirror Laser With Composite Nd:YAG/YAG Gain Medium
Abstract:
A compact polygonal active-mirror (PAM) laser with composite Nd: YAG/YAG multithin-disk gain medium has been demonstrated with total internal reflection scheme. Five Nd:YAG thin disks with a neodymium concentration of 0.7 at.% and thickness of ∼0.2 mm were bonded to five different surfaces of a hexagonal YAG substrate. With no heat sink, output power of 1.03 W at 1064 nm and beam quality of M2 = 1.21 was obtained from a short-cavity oscillator based on the PAM architecture, under an absorption pump power of 2.30 W, with a slope efficiency and optical to optical efficiency of 55.8% and 44.8%, respectively.
Autors: Yanzhong Chen;Ye Lang;Lifen Liao;Zhongwei Fan;Jianguo He;Guangyan Guo;Weiran Lin;Yunfeng Ma;Hongbo Zhang;Jian Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 

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