Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 14

» Mitigating Service Variability in MapReduce Clusters via Task Cloning: A Competitive Analysis
Abstract:
Measurement traces from real-world production environment show that the execution time of tasks within a MapReduce job varies widely due to the variability in machine service capacity. This variability issue makes efficient job scheduling over large-scale MapReduce clusters extremely challenging. To tackle this problem, we adopt the task cloning approach to mitigate the effect of machine variability and design corresponding scheduling algorithms so as to minimize the overall job flowtime in different scenarios. For offline scheduling where all jobs arrive at the same time, we design an -competitive algorithm, which gives priorities to jobs with small effective workload. We then extend this offline algorithm to yield the so-called Smallest Remaining Effective Workload based -fraction Sharing plus Cloning algorithm (SREW+C()) for the online case. We also show that SREW+C() is -speed -competitive with respect to the sum of job flowtime within a cluster. We demonstrate via trace-driven simul- tions that SREW+C() can significantly reduce the overall job flowtime by cutting down the elapsed time of small jobs substantially. In particular, SREW+C() reduces the total job flowtime by 14, 10 and 11 percent respectively when comparing to Mantri, Dolly and Grass.
Autors: Huanle Xu;Wing Cheong Lau;Zhibo Yang;Gustavo de Veciana;Hanxu Hou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2866 - 2880
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigation Method of the Shaft Voltage According to Parasitic Capacitance of the PMSM
Abstract:
This study proposes the shaft voltage mitigation method according to change in parasitic capacitances of a permanent magnet synchronous motor. To consider the shaft voltage reduction in the initial motor design process without any filter, the parasitic capacitances affecting the shaft voltage are calculated using the motor geometry parameters. Then, the shaft voltage is analyzed according to change in parasitic capacitances using the equivalent circuit model and the torque characteristic is also analyzed to effectively mitigate the shaft voltage. As a result, the rotor-to-winding is determined as an appropriate parameter to mitigate the shaft voltage among the parasitic capacitances, because it affects the shaft voltage and does not affect the output torque. Finally, the shaft voltage mitigation method according to variation of rotor-to-winding capacitance is verified by experiment.
Autors: Jun-kyu Park;Thusitha Randima Wellawatta;Sung-Jin Choi;Jin Hur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4441 - 4449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed-Effect Models for the Analysis and Optimization of Sheet-Metal Assembly Processes
Abstract:
Assembly processes can be affected by various parameters, which is revealed by the measured geometrical characteristics (GCs) of the assembled parts deviating from the nominal values. Here, we propose a mixed-effect model (MEM) application for the purposes of analyzing variations in assembly cells, as well as for screening the input variables and characterization. MEMs make it possible to take into account statistical dependencies that originate from repeated measurements on the same assembly. The desirability functions approach was used to describe how to find corrective or control actions based on the fitted MEM. Objectives: To examine the usefulness of the MEM between the positions of the in-going parts as the input controllable variables and the measured GCs as the outputs. Methods: The data from 34 car frontal cross members (each measured three times) were experimentally collected in a laboratory environment by intentionally changing the positions of the in-going parts, assembling the parts, and subsequently measuring their GCs. A single MEM that completely describes the assembly process was fitted between the GCs and the positions of the in-going parts. Results: We present a modeling technique that can be used to establish which measured GCs are influenced by which controllable variables, and how this occurs. The fitted MEM shows evidence that the variability of some GCs changes over time. The natural variation in the system (i.e., unmodeled variations) is about two times larger than the variation between the assembled cross members. We also present two cases that demonstrate how to use the fitted MEM desirability functions to find corrective or control actions. Conclusion: MEMs are very useful tools for analyzing the assembly processes for car-body parts, which are nonlinear processes with multiple inputs and multiple correlated outputs. MEMs can potentially be applied in numerous industrial- processes, since modern manufacturing plants measure all important process variables, which is the sole prerequisite for MEMs applications.
Autors: Ivan Tomasic;Alf Andersson;Peter Funk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2194 - 2202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Bandwidth Improvement Techniques
Abstract:
The articles in this special section focus on technologies that improve mobile bandwidth. Wireless communication continues to grow, and with limited available spectrum and an ever increasing range of applications demanding access to that limited spectrum, techniques to improve throughput and reliability within existing constraints are being explored from many angles. These methods range from approaches that manage radio transmission (physical domain) such as multitple-input multiple-output and interference alignment, to algorithmic and signal processing techniques, such as different coding methods.
Autors: Vijay K. Gurbani;Salvatore Loreto;Ravi Subramanyan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 118 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Live Video Streaming Optimization via Crowdsourcing Brokerage
Abstract:
Nowadays, people can enjoy a rich real-time sensing cognition of what they are interested in anytime and anywhere by leveraging powerful mobile devices such as smartphones. As a key support for the propagation of these richer live media contents, cellular-based access technologies play a vital role to provide reliable and ubiquitous Internet access to mobile devices. However, these limited wireless network channel conditions vary and fluctuate depending on weather, building shields, congestion, etc., which degrade the quality of live video streaming dramatically. To address this challenge, we propose to use crowdsourcing brokerage in future networks which can improve each mobile user's bandwidth condition and reduce the fluctuation of network condition. Further, to serve mobile users better in this crowdsourcing style, we study the brokerage scheduling problem which aims at maximizing the user's quality of experience satisfaction degree cost effectively. Both offline and online algorithms are proposed to solve this problem. The results of extensive evaluations demonstrate that by leveraging crowdsourcing technique, our solution can cost-effectively guarantee a higher quality view experience.
Autors: Taotao Wu;Wanchun Dou;Qiang Ni;Shui Yu;Guihai Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2267 - 2281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobile Service Amount Based Link Scheduling for High-Mobility Cooperative Vehicular Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates the link scheduling for relay-aided high-mobility vehicular networks, where the vehicles with good vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) links are employed as cooperative relay nodes to help forward information to the ones with poor V2I links over vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) links. To overcome the inefficiency of current instantaneous information rate based link scheduling (IIR-LS) method, especially in high-mobility scenarios, we propose a mobile service amount based link scheduling (MSA-LS) for high-mobility vehicular networks. We formulate an optimization problem to maximize the MSA of MSA-LS by jointly scheduling the V2I and V2V links. Since the resulted combinational optimization problem is too complex to solve, we design an efficient low-complexity algorithm, where Sort-then-Select, Hungarian algorithm, and Bisection search are employed. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed MSA-LS is able to achieve new optimal performance. It is also shown that our proposed MSA-LS is much more efficient for high-mobility vehicular systems, which can improve the system average throughput with increment of about 13% compared with existing IIR-LS and with about 22% increment compared with traditional non-cooperation scheduling.
Autors: Ke Xiong;Yu Zhang;Pingyi Fan;Hong-Chuan Yang;Xianwei Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9521 - 9533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MOCA: Multiobjective Cell Association for Device-to-Device Communications
Abstract:
It is widely accepted that device-to-device (D2D) communication is envisaged to become the key enabler of direct localized communication between mobile nodes in future wireless networks. However, little attention has been paid to an important aspect that can potentially affect both the performance of D2D and cellular transmissions, which is that of the D2D cell association. In this paper, a multiobjective cell association (MOCA) optimization framework for orchestrating a large number of D2D links in a multicell network is introduced. To this end, and without loss of generality, a differentiated Fractional Frequency Reuse (FFR) scheme is considered as the interference-limiting method, especially for cell-edge users, and we assume the provision of different resource pools for D2D and cellular users, which can vary according to their location. Under this assumption, we develop a set of integer linear programming optimization formulations for D2D links, part of which fall within the coverage area of different neighboring base stations. The main purpose is to achieve improved network traffic balancing via an efficient cell association scheme. Furthermore, we provide an iterative randomized resource allocation algorithm (i-RRA ), which roots its logic on the differentiated FFR model in order to increase the overall network throughput. A wide set of numerical investigations demonstrate the benefits offered by MOCA, as well as the throughput gains that can be achieved through i-RRA, compared to existing solutions.
Autors: Christoforos Vlachos;Vasilis Friderikos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9313 - 9327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Predictive Control of a Voltage-Source Inverter With Seamless Transition Between Islanded and Grid-Connected Operations
Abstract:
Inverter-based distributed generation (DG) system is becoming an attractive solution for high penetration of renewable energy sources to the main grid. DG system should be able to supply power to the local loads whenever necessary even in case of utility power outage. Thus, the inverters in DG systems are expected to operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode, where they are acting as a current source for the ac grid and a voltage-source for the load, respectively. Transition between modes of operation is nontrivial and can cause deviations in voltage and current, because of mismatch in frequency, phase, and amplitude between the inverter output voltage and the grid voltage. Thus, it is necessary to have seamless transition between grid-connected and islanded mode. This paper presents a new control strategy with seamless transfer characteristics for a grid-connected voltage-source inverter using model predictive control (MPC) framework. The main objectives of the proposed predictive controller are: 1) decoupled power control in grid-connected mode, which enables the proposed power electronics interface to provide ancillary services such as reactive power compensation; 2) load voltage control in islanded mode; and 3) seamless transition between modes of operation through proposed synchronization and phase adjustment algorithm. The proposed controller features simplicity to implement since only one cost function should be minimized for all modes of operation, and hence no ambiguity in the control algorithm that could cause mode transition problems. An autotuning strategy for weight factors in MPC cost function is proposed to simplify the weight factor tuning strategy. The stability analysis of the proposed controller is provided. Simulation and experimental results validate the expected performance and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Autors: Xiao Li;Haiyu Zhang;Mohammad B. Shadmand;Robert S. Balog;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7906 - 7918
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Lithium Battery Operations in Spot and Frequency Regulation Service Markets in Australia Electricity Market
Abstract:
Renewable share in the global total energy mix is predicted to grow, and this leads to an increase in the required capacity for frequency regulation. While an electric vehicle (EV) is gaining more popularity, a collection of retired EV battery packs provides an economic option for meeting the additional frequency regulation needs. In this paper, a battery market operation model is proposed to maximize financial return, and a battery operation cost estimator is built to evaluate the potential impacts of market operations on the battery lifespan. Specifically, the model is designed for retired EV lithium batteries under the Australian national electricity market framework. It predicts the automatic-generation-control energy due to the frequency regulation service offers. Battery cycle life cost and battery capacity degradation are considered in the model. It can be used to determine multimarket offers based on the expected profit. Nonetheless, the model can be generalized for other electricity market frameworks and battery types.
Autors: Qiwei Zhai;Ke Meng;Zhao Yang Dong;Jin Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2576 - 2586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Noise Sources for Thin-Film Magnetoelectric Sensors Based on the Delta-E Effect
Abstract:
We present a comprehensive noise model for an electromechanical resonator that is utilized as a magnetic field sensor. The cantilever-type sensor is coated with a magnetostrictive film that exhibits a change in elastic modulus E with a magnetic field and therefore detunes the resonator—the so-called delta-E effect. The noise model contains all relevant noise sources from the operational electronics, the wiring, and the sensor itself. Measurements show good agreement up to a certain excitation voltage, where an additional dominant noise source appears. It is identified as originating from the magnetic film. With the results of the model, the operational parameters of such sensors are discussed. The model predicts that the limit of detection at 10 Hz for the present sensors can be improved to 60 pT/(Hz) if the magnetic noise is eliminated.
Autors: Phillip Durdaut;Jens Reermann;Sebastian Zabel;Christine Kirchhof;Eckhard Quandt;Franz Faupel;Gerhard Schmidt;Reinhard Knöchel;Michael Höft;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2771 - 2779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Non-Orthogonal MBMS Transmission in Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
Multimedia broadcast/multicast service (MBMS) transmission, which distributes the media content to multiple users on the same radio resources by using point-to-multipoint communications, is a highly spectrum efficient mechanism for multimedia communications. In this paper, we study the application of power domain non-orthogonal transmission to MBMS enhancements in a -tier heterogeneous network, in order to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for emerging applications and performance requirements. Then, we present non-orthogonal multi-rate MBMS transmission (NOMRMT) and non-orthogonal multi-service MBMS transmission schemes and investigate their performance by using stochastic geometry. A tractable mode is developed to analyze the performance of asynchronous and synchronous non-orthogonal MBMS transmission. Based on this model, analytical expressions for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio coverage probability, average number of served users, and sum rate are derived. The results demonstrate that non-orthogonal MBMS transmission can achieve better performance than the orthogonal one, while synchronous non-orthogonal MBMS transmission is superior to the asynchronous one.
Autors: Zhengquan Zhang;Zheng Ma;Ming Xiao;Gang Liu;Pingzhi Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2221 - 2237
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Assessment Analysis of Various Compensation Topologies in Bidirectional IWPT System for EV Applications
Abstract:
Electric vehicle (EV) can act as an energy consuming device or a distributed energy resource in the concepts known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) and grid-to-vehicle (G2V). The bidirectional wireless power interface is a successful choice for this application, since it provides automatic, reliable, and safe operation. Therefore, this paper presents modeling and assessment analysis for the steady-state performance of bidirectional inductive wireless power transfer system (BIWPTS) in EV implementations. The analysis is presented for the three main compensation configurations: LC-series, LC-parallel, and LCL-topology. Moreover, the steady-state equivalent circuit-based mathematical models for all topologies are developed. These models were used to precisely determine the system response during V2G and G2V operations based on Fourier series. The study presents evident criteria to pick among the different BIWPTS structures in the diverse applications. The proposed analyses were verified both in simulation and experiment. The results demonstrate the ability of the proposed models to provide accurate estimation for BIWPTS performance under various operating and control conditions. Also, the evaluation analysis shows that LCL-topology is more appropriate for the bidirectional operation due to the simple design and control requirements, and being less sensitive to the misalignment.
Autors: Ahmed A. S. Mohamed;Alberto Berzoy;Felipe G. N. de Almeida;Osama Mohammed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4973 - 4984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Control of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Supply With a Small DC-Link Capacitor for Electrolyzers
Abstract:
In this paper, a new feed forward dc-link voltage compensation method is proposed. The target applications are the converters built with diode bridge frontends, small capacitance in the dc-link which feeds a dc/dc converter used for electrolysis. The compensation method can be tuned in a way to minimize the grid side total harmonic distortion (THD) and partial weighted harmonic distortion (PWHD): thus, the converter can comply with the standards with less filtering at the grid side. In order to design the controllers and perform stability analysis, average model has been derived. However, the performance of the proposed control method is a trade-off between the size of the line filter, the value of the line current THD and PWHD, and the amplitude of the load current ripple. The theoretical work has been validated through experiments on a 5 kW dc power supply used for an electrolyzer. In the experiments, the THD of the grid current can be reduced from 30.5% to 29.5% (without filter and including compensation) and 28.5% (with filter and compensation), and the PWHD from 50% to 38.9% by applying the proposed method and also keeping the load current peak-to-peak ripple under 10% of its nominal value.
Autors: Lajos Török;Laszlo Mathe;Carsten Karup Nielsen;Stig Munk-Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4634 - 4643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Mitigation of Static Noise Margin Variation in Subthreshold SRAM Cells
Abstract:
In energy-constrained applications, SRAM systems operating in the subthreshold region are often deployed to reduce power consumption. Subthreshold SRAM designs, however, confront numerous challenges, such as susceptibility to process variation and reduced ON–OFF current ratio. Statistical modeling of the variation in cell stability is critical in SRAM design, especially, for designs operating in the subthreshold region, where the process and temperature variations are the most pronounced. In this paper, statistical models for estimating the static noise margins (SNMs) of SRAM cells are built from the perspective of a shifted voltage transfer characteristic. Read (hold) SNM of a subthreshold 8T cell is analyzed. It is shown that the distribution of a single-sided read SNM is a weighted sum of several normal distributions instead of a regular Gaussian distribution. The proposed statistical model is verified with simulation results in 65-nm technology. Furthermore, to mitigate performance and yield degradation, an adaptive body biasing circuit is developed. It is demonstrated through simulation that, with a negligible area and power overhead, the proposed circuit achieves a 15% improvement in the worst case read SNM.
Autors: Nan Zheng;Pinaki Mazumder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2726 - 2736
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Offset-Free Model Predictive Control of a Hydraulic Mini Excavator
Abstract:
During the virtual development and experimental testing of advanced construction machinery, automation approaches for automated task execution can prove very valuable. In this paper, modeling and automation approaches for a hydraulic mini excavator are developed. In particular, a physical model for detailed system analysis and a simplified Hammerstein model for controller tuning are developed and validated with measurement data from the mini excavator. For attitude estimation of the excavator, inertial measurement units and extended Kalman filters are used in a sensor fusion framework. The control concept for automation is based on a virtual driver consisting of a state machine for task coordination as well as offset-free model predictive controllers (MPCs) for decentralized and robust tracking control of all motion axes. The constrained MPC optimization problems are solved in real time by means of the accelerated proximal gradient method. Experimental results from the mini excavator prove the developed control approach to be valuable for virtual development and automated testing during the commissioning of hydraulic machinery.

Note to Practitioners—In this paper, a hydraulic mini excavator is considered for demonstrating the benefits of automation with regard to the development of advanced mobile machinery. A detailed physical model and a simplified model are introduced for virtual analysis and comissioning of the excavator. This allows for detailed system analysis even at an early development stage. Then, a framework for automated testing of the real prototype is introduced. This concept is based on attitude estimation filters, a state machine, and model predictive controllers and closely resembles the human driver in its behavior, but allows for reproducible testing results and therefore reduces commissioning efforts and development costs. Particular attention is paid to the robustness of the control concept, since the c- upling of the hydraulic axes and digging forces lead to disturbances that need to be compensated. A simple, yet efficient and real-time capable algorithm is provided for numerical optimization. Experimental results show that the developed methods can contribute to the automation of hydraulic machinery, and that the introduced framework can easily be extended in order to automate other types of machinery with simple hydraulics.

Autors: Frank A. Bender;Simon Göltz;Thomas Bräunl;Oliver Sawodny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 1682 - 1694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulating Multiple Failure Masking Enabled by Local Recovery for Stencil-Based Applications at Extreme Scales
Abstract:
Obtaining multi-process hard failure resilience at the application level is a key challenge that must be overcome before the promise of exascale can be fully realized. Previous work has shown that online global recovery can dramatically reduce the overhead of failures when compared to the more traditional approach of terminating the job and restarting it from the last stored checkpoint. If online recovery is performed in a local manner further scalability is enabled, not only due to the intrinsic lower costs of recovering locally, but also due to derived effects when using some application types. In this paper we model one such effect, namely multiple failure masking, that manifests when running Stencil parallel computations on an environment when failures are recovered locally. First, the delay propagation shape of one or multiple failures recovered locally is modeled to enable several analyses of the probability of different levels of failure masking under certain Stencil application behaviors. Our results indicate that failure masking is an extremely desirable effect at scale which manifestation is more evident and beneficial as the machine size or the failure rate increase.
Autors: Marc Gamell;Keita Teranishi;Jackson Mayo;Hemanth Kolla;Michael A. Heroux;Jacqueline Chen;Manish Parashar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2881 - 2895
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling for Partially Spatially Coherent Vortex Beams
Abstract:
We propose a method for modeling a wide class of partially spatially coherent vortex beams. It is shown that any member of such beams can be represented as an incoherent superposition of fully coherent vortex models weighted by a non-negative weighting function. Applying this method, we introduce a new type of partially coherent vortex beams and study its far-field properties.
Autors: Zhangrong Mei;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Back-Gate Effects on Gate-Induced Drain Leakage and Gate Currents in UTB SOI MOSFETs
Abstract:
The back-gate bias-dependent gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) and gate current models of ultrathin body (UTB) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs are proposed. From the experimental data, the GIDL current depends on the back bias due to the electric field change in the channel/drain junction. This effect is modeled using effective gate bias as the threshold voltage shifts. The back-gate bias-dependent gate current is also analyzed and modeled. The voltage across the oxide and available charges for tunneling are the important factors. In accumulation bias condition, the gate leakage is mainly flowing through the overlap region, while in inversion bias condition the current is tunneling from the gate to the channel. Both back bias-dependent GIDL and gate current models are implemented into industry standard compact model Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model-Independent Multi-Gate for UTB SOI transistors. The model is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Autors: Yen-Kai Lin;Pragya Kushwaha;Harshit Agarwal;Huan-Lin Chang;Juan Pablo Duarte;Angada B. Sachid;Sourabh Khandelwal;Sayeef Salahuddin;Chenming Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 3986 - 3990
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Generic Offshore Vessel in Crane Operations With Focus on Strong Rigid Body Connections
Abstract:
Both marine surface vehicles and underwater vehicles are often equipped with cranes, robotic manipulators, or similar equipment. Much attention is given to modeling of both the dynamics of marine vehicles and the dynamics of manipulators, cranes, and other equipment. However, less attention is given to the interconnected behavior of the vehicle and equipment, even though such equipment may have a considerable impact on the vehicle dynamic behavior, and therefore risk, or conversely, the vehicle may have a considerable impact on the equipment dynamic behavior. With main focus on ships equipped with cranes, this paper presents a framework for modeling the interconnected dynamics of rigid body systems, based on Lagrangian dynamics. The resulting equations of motion are implemented as a bond graph template to which any subsystem of interest, such as actuators, hydrodynamics, and controllers, may be interfaced. An example on how this framework can be used to develop a high-fidelity simulator of an offshore installation vessel with a heavy duty crane is presented. This work represents the first bond graph implementation of crane and vessel dynamics where the interconnections are modeled according to true physical rigid body principles without nonphysical limitations such as diagonal mass-inertia matrix.
Autors: Børge Rokseth;Stian Skjong;Eilif Pedersen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 846 - 868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Short-Circuit-Related Thermal Stress in Aged IGBT Modules
Abstract:
In this paper, the thermal stress on bond wires of aged insulated gate bipolar transistor modules under short-circuit conditions has been studied with respect to different solder delamination levels. To ensure repeatable test conditions, ad-hoc direct bond copper samples with delaminated solder layers have been purposely fabricated. The temperature distribution produced by such abnormal conditions has been modeled first by means of finite-element method simulations and then experimentally validated by means of a nondestructive testing technique, including an ultrafast infrared camera. Results demonstrate a significant imbalance in the surface temperature distribution, which confirms the hypothesis that short-circuit events produce significantly uneven stresses on bond wires.
Autors: Amir Sajjad Bahman;Francesco Iannuzzo;Christian Uhrenfeldt;Frede Blaabjerg;Stig Munk-Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4788 - 4795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Space Charge Effects in Intense Electron Beams: Kinetic Equation Method Versus PIC Method
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the simulation results for the most important 1-D problems of current flow in planar vacuum diodes. For the first time, classical problems of vacuum electronics have been solved using the basic principles of nonequilibrium physical kinetics. This approach is based on the accurate numerical solution of the Vlasov–Poisson equation system to find the electron distribution function. We have obtained time-dependent numerical solutions that satisfactorily agree with theoretical approximations and with particle-in-cell simulations as well.
Autors: Vasily Yu. Kozhevnikov;Andrey V. Kozyrev;Natalia S. Semeniuk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2762 - 2766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Viscoelastic Electromechanical Behavior in a Soft Dielectric Elastomer Actuator
Abstract:
Soft dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) exhibit interesting muscle-like behavior for the development of soft robots. However, it is challenging to model these soft actuators due to their material nonlinearity, nonlinear electromechanical coupling, and time-dependent viscoelastic behavior. Most recent studies on DEAs focus on issues of mechanics, physics, and material science, while much less importance is given to quantitative characterization of DEAs. In this paper, we present a detailed experimental investigation probing the voltage-induced electromechanical response of a soft DEA that is subjected to cyclic loading and propose a general constitutive modeling approach to characterize the time-dependent response, based on the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, some of the key observations are found as follows: 1) Creep exhibits the drift phenomenon, and is dominant during the first three cycles. The creep decreases over time and becomes less dominant after the first few cycles; 2) a significant amount of hysteresis is observed during all cycles and it becomes repeatable after the first few cycles; 3) the peak of the displacement is shifted from the peak of the voltage signal and occurs after it. To account for these viscoelastic phenomena, a constitutive model is developed by employing several dissipative nonequilibrium mechanisms. The quantitative comparisons of the experimental and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed model. This modeling approach can be useful for control of a viscoelastic DEA and paves the way to emerging applications of soft robots.
Autors: Guo-Ying Gu;Ujjaval Gupta;Jian Zhu;Li-Min Zhu;Xiangyang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1263 - 1271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Wave Propagation in Isotropic Cold Plasma Using Iterative WLP-FDTD Algorithm
Abstract:
In this letter, an efficient implementation of the iterative unconditionally stable finite-difference time domain (FDTD) based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) algorithm is presented for isotropic cold plasma. The iterative scheme is employed to reduce the splitting error in WLP-FDTD with factorization-splitting procedure. Meanwhile, a stretched-coordinate perfectly matched layer with a complex-frequency-shifted factor is used as the absorbing boundary condition. Numerical example demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Yun Fang;Xiao-Li Xi;Jia-Huan Zheng;Jiang-Fan Liu;Yu-Rong Pu;Jin-Sheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 861 - 863
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Temporal Variability of Thermal Emissions From Row-Planted Scenes Using a Radiosity and Energy Budget Method
Abstract:
Land surface temperature (LST) is often needed for using remotely sensed data to study the surface energy budget and hydrological cycle. However, LST is challenging to measure and simulate because of its high sensitivity to atmospheric instability and solar angle, particularly over large-scale heterogeneous scenes. We propose a model that combines radiosity theory and an energy budget method for surface temperatures; we also explore the anisotropic behavior of row-planted crop emissions. The surface thermodynamic equilibrium state is fulfilled via the interaction between the 3-D radiative transfer calculations of the thermal-region radiosity-graphics combined model and the energy balance equation. Despite its shortcomings, such as the time-consuming calculations, the proposed model is feasible according to the results of an intercomparison and validation analysis. The intercomparison shows that the model exhibits similar performance, in terms of surface temperature calculations, to that of the soil-canopy observation, photochemistry and energy balance model (root-mean-square differences) of 0.59 °C and 1.77 °C for the leaf and soil components, respectively. Excellent agreement with the observed directional variation over summer maize canopies is also obtained, with values exceeding 0.6 and a mean RMSE of 0.32 °C. Thus, we recommend the new combined model as an option for explaining directional anisotropy due to its potential application to 3-D scenes.
Autors: Zunjian Bian;Yongming Du;Hua Li;Biao Cao;Huaguo Huang;Qing Xiao;Qinhuo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 6010 - 6026
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Models and Information Rates for Multiuser Optical Fiber Channels With Nonlinearity and Dispersion
Abstract:
Two discrete-time interference channel models are developed for information transmission over a single span of optical fiber using wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and lumped amplification. The models are derived from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation by including the nonlinear phenomena of self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM), but ignoring four-wave mixing, polarization effects and group velocity dispersion (GVD) within WDM bands. The first model also ignores GVD across WDM bands, referred to as group velocity mismatch (GVM). For the case of two users, a new technique called interference focusing is proposed where each carrier achieves the capacity pre-log 1, thereby doubling the pre-log of 1/2 achieved by using conventional methods. For three users, interference focusing is also useful under certain conditions. The second model captures GVM and the effect of filtering at the receivers in addition to SPM and XPM. In a 3-user system, it is shown that all users can achieve the maximum pre-log factor 1 simultaneously by using interference focusing, a time-limited pulse and a bank of filters at the receivers.
Autors: Hassan Ghozlan;Gerhard Kramer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6440 - 6456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modification of High-Voltage Pulse Waveform by the Spiral and Core-Transformer Ferrite-Filled Lines
Abstract:
The testing results of high-voltage transformer and spiral ferrite-filled lines are presented. The devices convert the envelopes of a bell-shape incident nanosecond pulses with amplitude of about −150 kV. The spiral lines sharpen the front to hundreds of picoseconds, shorten the pulse duration or form an extended continuous pedestal-shape prepulse. The transforming line sharpened a pulse tailing edge from 2 to 1 ns and changed its polarity.
Autors: Marat R. Ulmaskulov;Sergei A. Shunailov;Konstantin A. Sharypov;Michael I. Yalandin;Valery G. Shpak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2707 - 2714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified pq-Theory-Based Control of Solar-PV-Integrated UPQC-S
Abstract:
This paper proposes a modified pq-theory-based control of a solar photovoltaic (PV)-array-integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-UPQC-S). The system incorporates clean energy generation along with power quality improvement, thus increasing functionality of the system. The fundamental-frequency positive-sequence components of voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) are extracted using the generalized cascaded delay signal cancellation technique, which are then used in pq-theory-based control to estimate reference signals for the PV-UPQC-S. This modification in pq theory enables its application for PV-UPQC-S control under conditions of distorted PCC voltages. The series voltage-source converter (VSC) of the PV-UPQC-S operates such that it shares a part of the reactive power of the load even under nominal grid conditions. This increases the utilization of the series VSC while reducing the rating of shunt VSC. The PV array is integrated at the dc bus of the UPQC and provides a part of active load power, thus reducing demand on the supply system. The dynamic performance of the modified pq-theory-based PV-UPQC-S is verified by simulating the system in MATLAB-Simulink with a combination of linear and nonlinear loads. The steady-state and dynamic performances of the system are then experimentally validated through extensive testing on a scaled-down laboratory prototype.
Autors: Sachin Devassy;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 5031 - 5040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified Entropy-Based Fully Polarimetric Target Classification Method for Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR)
Abstract:
Polarimetric scattering characteristics are useful for classifying different radar targets. In particular, the entropy-based H-α classification method has been widely used in remote sensing for classifying land features with different polarimetric scattering properties. However, this method has not been widely adopted in ground penetrating radars (GPR) applications due to the lack of commercial fully polarimetric GPR systems. This paper will demonstrate that the conventional nine-zone H-α classification chart adopted in remote sensing needs to be modified in order to be effective in classifying GPR targets due to the common presence of noise and clutter. The effects of white noise and clutter on H-α features derived from the fully polarimetric scattering data are discussed. This study led to the development of a new four-zone H-α classification chart. The application and effectiveness of classifying linearly polarized and nonpolarized targets using this new chart will be demonstrated via outdoor measurement examples.
Autors: Yue Yu;Chi-Chih Chen;Xuan Feng;Cai Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4304 - 4312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modifying Backoff Freezing Mechanism to Optimize Dense IEEE 802.11 Networks
Abstract:
From experience, it has been well known that the performance of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks significantly drops in dense settings, largely driven by poor capacity of the medium access control (MAC) layer. The current 802.11 MAC mechanism utilizes a contention window (CW) for random access, and the CW size is dictated to take discrete values from a bounded finite set. In this paper, with focus on a saturated network scenario, we closely investigate the impacts of the aforementioned constraint and show that the limitations on the CW size are the main MAC bottleneck in dense conditions. Then, in order to tackle this bottleneck, we propose a new backoff scheme that does not attempt to tune the CW but makes a small modification in the backoff freezing process to determine the optimal configuration. We prove that our backoff scheme can achieve the maximum network throughput even under densely populated networks (i.e., many contenders), while a maximal compliance with the mentioned constraints is maintained. Then, we turn our attention to minimizing the channel access delay, and propose a variant of our backoff algorithm to accomplish this aim. We further present a new result on the theoretical relation between the optimal configurations for which the throughput is maximized and the delay is minimized. Finally, we note that our modified backoff mechanism does not penalize legacy users and is, therefore, practical for implementation in existing networks, which removes co-existence concerns.
Autors: Mehmet Karaca;Saeed Bastani;Bjorn Landfeldt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9470 - 9482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulated Predictive Control for Indirect Matrix Converter
Abstract:
Finite state model predictive control (MPC) has been recently applied to several converter topologies, as it can provide many advantages over other MPC techniques. The advantages of MPC include fast dynamics, multitarget control capability, and relatively easy implementation on digital control platforms. However, its inherent variable switching frequency and lower steady-state waveform quality with respect to standard control, which includes an appropriate modulation technique, represent a limitation to its applicability. Modulated model predictive control (M2 PC) combines all the advantages of MPC with the fixed switching frequency characteristic of pulse-width modulation algorithms. The work presented in this paper focuses on the indirect matrix converter (IMC), where the tight coupling between rectifier stage and inverter stage has to be taken into account in the M2PC design. This paper proposes an M2PC solution, suitable for IMC, with a switching pattern that emulates the desired waveform quality features of space vector modulation for matrix converters. The switching sequences of the rectifier stage and inverter stage are rearranged in order to always achieve zero-current switching on the rectifier stage, thus simplifying the current commutation strategy.
Autors: Luca Tarisciotti;Jiaxing Lei;Andrea Formentini;Andrew Trentin;Pericle Zanchetta;Patrick Wheeler;Marco Rivera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4644 - 4654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modulating Lateral Geniculate Nucleus Neuronal Firing for Visual Prostheses: A Kalman Filter-Based Strategy
Abstract:
Developing visual prostheses that target inner brain structures along the visual pathway represent a new hope for patients with completely damaged early visual pathway sites. One of the major challenges in the development of subcortical and cortical visual prostheses is tuning electrical stimulation that could optimally induce desired visual percepts. In this paper, we propose a Kalman filter-based strategy that could be used to identify electrical stimulation patterns that mimic a specific visual input for thalamic visual prostheses. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed strategy using a population of lateral geniculate nucleus neurons modeled using an adapted generalized non-linear model. A mean correlation of 0.69 is obtained between visually evoked and electrically evoked responses–driven using the proposed strategy–for an optimal electrode-placement setup. In addition, we demonstrate the performance for a random electrode-placement setup in which a mean correlation of 0.26 is obtained. For this latter setup, our analysis reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the obtained correlation and the distance between each neuron and the nearest electrode. The proposed strategy could be thus utilized to tune and enhance the performance of thalamic visual prostheses as well as other prosthesis systems.
Autors: Amr Jawwad;Hossam H. Abolfotuh;Bassem Abdullah;Hani M. K. Mahdi;Seif Eldawlatly;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 1917 - 1927
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monitoring of Gait Quality in Patients With Chronic Pain of Lower Limbs
Abstract:
Severe injuries of lower extremities often lead to chronic pain and reduced walking abilities. We postulated that measuring free-living gait can provide further information about walking ability in complement to clinical evaluations. We sought to validate a method that characterizes free gaits with a wearable sensor. Over one week, 81 healthy controls (HC) and 66 chronic lower limb pain patients (CLLPP) hospitalized for multidisciplinary rehabilitation wore a simple accelerometer (Actigraph). In the acceleration signals, steady 1-min walks detected numbered 7,835 (5,085 in CLLPP and 2,750 in HC). Five gait quality measures were assessed: movement intensity, cadence, stride regularity, and short-term and long-term local dynamic stability. Gait quality variables differed significantly between CLLPP and HC (4%–26%). Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed moderate to high repeatability (0.71–0.91), which suggests that seven days of measurement are sufficient to assess average gait patterns. Regression analyses showed significant association (R2 = 0.44) between the gait quality variables and a clinical evaluation of walking ability, i.e., the 6-min walk test. Overall, the results show that the method is easy to implement, valid (high concurrent validity), and reliable to assess walking abilities ecologically.
Autors: Philippe Terrier;Joane Le Carré;Marie-Laure Connaissa;Bertrand Léger;François Luthi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 1843 - 1852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolayer ZnS as a Promising Candidate for NH3 Sensor: A First-Principle Study
Abstract:
In this paper, the interaction of atmospheric gas molecules (NH3, NO2, SO2, CO, CO2, CH4, O2, and NO) with monolayer graphene-like hexagonal ZnS (g-ZnS) is studied with the first-principle calculations to explore its potential application as gas sensor. Among all the gas molecules, NH3, and SO2, NO2 act as a strong donor and acceptor with apparent charge transfer of 0.200, −0.121, and −0.115 e. We further calculated the current-voltage (I−V) relation using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. It can be indicated from the results that a mark change of the I−V relation before and after the adsorption of NH3, which makes monolayer g-ZnS a prospective gas sensor for NH3. In addition, under the mechanical strain the adsorption is substantially enhanced with significant impact on the properties of adsorbates and g-ZnS layer, especially for the NH3, NO2, and NO-monolayer g-ZnS configurations. The results presented herein demonstrate that monolayer g-ZnS can be the potential gas sensor of NH3 with high sensitivity and selectivity.
Autors: Yixin Xu;Ruishen Meng;Daxi Xiong;Xiang Sun;Shaogang Wang;Jing Xiao;Xianping Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6515 - 6521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monostatic Co-Polarized Full-Duplex Antenna With Left- or Right-Hand Circular Polarization
Abstract:
A monostatic dual-polarized simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) antenna system with high isolation is introduced. A beamforming network (BFN) producing 0°, ±90°, ±180°, and ±270° phase progression is used to feed TX and RX ports of four dual-polarized antenna elements arranged in a sequential rotation array (SRA). Due to the phase progression and geometrical symmetry of SRA, the coupling from TX to RX ports is canceled at the RX port of the BFN; therefore, infinite system isolation is theoretically obtained. Full-wave simulations are used to verify the theory and study effects of element spacing and BFN imbalances. An additional cancelation layer is designed and used to compensate for the imbalances by the BFN and nearby scatterers. The proposed STAR antenna system is prototyped and tested in the 2.4–2.5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical band where the measured isolation and return loss are above 47 and 22 dB, respectively. A dual circularly polarized antenna performance with realized gains above 7 dBic, broadside axial ratio <1.6 dB, and symmetric beams is demonstrated. An ability of the proposed monostatic STAR antenna system to achieve wideband operation is also demonstrated with a quad-ridge horn as an element.
Autors: Jaegeun Ha;Mohamed A. Elmansouri;Prathap Valale Prasannakumar;Dejan S. Filipovic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5103 - 5111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mori: A Modular Origami Robot
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new robotic platform based on origami robots and reconfigurable modular robots. The concept combines the advantages of both robot types into a mobile, quasi-two-dimensional, lattice-type reconfigurable modular origami robot, Mori. A detailed description and analysis of the concept is validated by the presentation of a first prototype that incorporates the key functionalities of the proposed system. The modular robot prototype is mobile, can be connected to other modules of its kind, and fold up to create task-specific three-dimensional reconfigurable structures. Three implementations using the prototype in different configurations are presented in the form of individual modules, modular reconfigurable surfaces, and is applied to closed-loop object manipulation. The experiments highlight the capabilities and advantages of the system with respect to modularity, origami-folding, mobility, and versatility.
Autors: Christoph H. Belke;Jamie Paik;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2153 - 2164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Agent Second Order Average Consensus With Prescribed Transient Behavior
Abstract:
The problem of consensus reaching with prescribed transient behavior for a group of double-integrator agents is addressed. The information exchange of the multi-agent system is described by a static communication network. We initially set time-dependent constraints on the transient response of the relative positions between neighboring agents and we propose a distributed control law consisting of a proportional term of the transformed error and an additional damping term based on absolute velocities measurements. We also design an agreement protocol that can additionally achieve prescribed performance for a combined error of positions and velocities. Under a sufficient condition for the damping gains, the proposed nonlinear time-dependent distributed controllers guarantee that the predefined constraints are not violated and that consensus is achieved with a convergence rate independent of the underlying communication graph. Furthermore, connectivity maintenance can be ensured by appropriately designing the performance bounds. Theoretical results are supported by simulations.
Autors: Luca Macellari;Yiannis Karayiannidis;Dimos V. Dimarogonas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5282 - 5288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Antenna Beamforming Techniques in Full-Duplex and Self-Energy Recycling Systems: Opportunities and Challenges
Abstract:
Full-duplex technique is considered as an essential component of the coming 5G wireless systems. Since the SI from its transmit antennas dominates over the signal received from remote sites, the suppression of SI is the first priority challenge in the design of FD systems, and thus combinations of analog SI cancellation with radio frequency domain approaches are considered. Applying BF techniques with multiple antennas on top of these combined approaches can further strengthen the SI suppression capability so that wireless systems can enjoy the benefit from FD operation without much concern on SI. However, various factors affect the design of BF in FD networks, and hence they provide a set of research challenges. Also, S-ER is an alternative way of utilizing SI in FD networks, where the RF radiation from a node is reused as an energy source. In this article, we go through these opportunities and challenges along with a survey of technical results developed so far in regard to the BF for handling the SI of FD systems. We look at various network models, the strategies for handling the SI, relay protocols, and antenna structure to see how these provide technical challenges for the BF design.
Autors: Duckdong Hwang;Sung Sik Nam;Janghoon Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 160 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Disciplinary Challenges in Tissue Modeling for Wireless Electromagnetic Powering: A Review
Abstract:
Wireless electromagnetic powering of implantable medical devices is a diverse research area, with goals including replacing percutaneous wires, miniaturizing and extending the lifetime of implanted devices, enabling wireless communication, and biosensing, all while maximizing safety and efficiency of wireless power transfer. Many challenges in wireless transcutaneous powering are associated with tissue as an electromagnetic transmission medium. Tissue is lossy and variable, and safety is a concern due to absorption of electromagnetic energy in high-water-content tissue. The purpose of this overview is to summarize reported variability of tissue properties, particularly in the context of electromagnetic safety, with a focus on models of tissue that can represent variability in the design and evaluation of systems for wireless transcutaneous power transfer.
Autors: Kara N. Bocan;Marlin H. Mickle;Ervin Sejdić;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6498 - 6509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Instant Observer Design of Discrete-Time Fuzzy Systems: A Ranking-Based Switching Approach
Abstract:
This paper generalizes recent results on multi-instant observer design for discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems through a valid ranking-based switching approach. The approach hereby develops a concentrated subdivision of spanning space composed of normalized fuzzy weighting functions and then substantially produces a new ranking-based switching mechanism. By taking advantage of this ranking-based switching mechanism, a class of new fuzzy multi-instant observers are achieved and more relaxed design conditions with respect to the recent work can be obtained for ensuring the asymptotically stability of the developed state estimation error system. Two illustrative examples are provided to validate the effectiveness of the result given in this study.
Autors: Xiangpeng Xie;Dong Yue;Chen Peng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1281 - 1292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Level Read/Write Signaling Using Pulse Width Modulation for High Density Perpendicular Magnetic Recording
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a novel read/write (R/W) signal processing method by 3-ary amplitude shift keying for high density perpendicular magnetic recording. We also provide a 3B2T modulation to generate 3-ary signal, which will be converted to a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal, and then recorded on magnetic media. The PWM signal can be simply demodulated to derive the 3-ary signal through a low-pass filter at readback side. The demodulated signal in the presence of intersymbol interference is detected by the Viterbi algorithm as partial response signal. Nonbinary low-density parity-check codes over GF(8) are applied as error correcting codes in our evaluation. Our simulation result shows the proposed R/W method has +4% more user bit density gain than conventional binary recording.
Autors: Kohsuke Harada;Akihiro Yamazaki;Akihiko Takeo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2134 - 2137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Objective Optimization for Distributed MIMO Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the linear transceiver optimization for multiple-inputmultiple-output (MIMO) interference networks, where multiple pairs of multi-antenna source and destination nodes communicate simultaneously. Different from most of existing works, we jointly consider three critical issues of the linear transceiver optimization for MIMO interference networks based on multi-objective optimization theory, i.e., signal transmission, energy and security. Specifically, using the modified weighted Tchebycheff method, we investigate three kinds of multi-objective optimization problems (MOOPs): 1) sum mean square error minimization and harvested energy maximization; 2) transmit power minimization and energy harvesting efficiency maximization; 3) transmit power minimization, energy harvesting efficiency maximization, and physical layer security. Based on the Charnes–Cooper transformation and penalty function method, the formulated MOOPs are transformed into convex optimization problems and thus can be effectively solved. The resulting Pareto optimal solutions set reveals the complicated but important relationships among these involved single objective optimization problems, which are usually individually investigated in the literature. Finally, numerical simulation results demonstrate the performance advantages of the proposed algorithm and corroborate the theoretical analysis.
Autors: Zan Li;Shiqi Gong;Chengwen Xing;Zesong Fei;Xinge Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4247 - 4259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Photon Vertical Cross-Sectional Imaging With a Dynamically-Balanced Thin-Film PZT z-Axis Microactuator
Abstract:
Use of a thin-film piezoelectric microactuator for axial scanning during multi-photon vertical cross-sectional imaging is described. The actuator uses thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate to generate the upward displacement of a central mirror platform micro-machined from a silicon-on-insulator wafer to dimensions compatible with endoscopic imaging instruments. Device modeling in this paper focuses on the existence of frequencies near device resonance producing vertical motion with minimal off-axis tilt, even in the presence of multiple vibration modes and non-uniformity in fabrication outcomes. Operation near rear resonance permits large stroke lengths at low voltages relative to other vertical microactuators. Highly uniform vertical motion of the mirror platform is a key requirement for vertical cross-sectional imaging in the remote scan architecture being used for multi-photon instrument prototyping. The stage is installed in a benchtop testbed in combination with an electrostatic mirror that performs in-plane scanning. Vertical sectional images are acquired from 15- diameter beads and excised mouse colon tissue. [2017-0073]
Autors: Jongsoo Choi;Xiyu Duan;Haijun Li;Thomas D. Wang;Kenn R. Oldham;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1018 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Service System: An Enabler of Flexible 5G Air Interface
Abstract:
A multi-service system is an enabler to flexibly support diverse communication requirements for the next generation wireless communications. In such a system, multiple types of services coexist in one baseband system with each service having its optimal frame structure and low out-of-band emission waveforms operating on the service frequency band to reduce the ISvcBI. In this article, a framework for a multi-service system is established, and the challenges and possible solutions are studied. The multi-service system implementation in both the time and frequency domains is discussed. Two representative SFMC waveforms, F-OFDM and UFMC, are considered in this article. Specifically, the design methodology, criteria, orthogonality conditions, and prospective application scenarios in the context of 5G are discussed. We consider both SR and MR signal processing methods. Compared to the SR system, the MR system has significantly reduced computational complexity at the expense of performance loss due to ISubBI in MR systems. The ISvcBI and ISubBI in MR systems are investigated with proposed low-complexity interference cancellation algorithms to enable multi-service operation in low interference level conditions.
Autors: Lei Zhang;Ayesha Ijaz;Pei Xiao;Rahim Tafazolli;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 152 - 159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Tenant Radio Access Network Slicing: Statistical Multiplexing of Spatial Loads
Abstract:
This paper addresses the slicing of radio access network resources by multiple tenants, e.g., virtual wireless operators and service providers. We consider a criterion for dynamic resource allocation amongst tenants, based on a weighted proportionally fair objective, which achieves desirable fairness/protection across the network slices of the different tenants and their associated users. Several key properties are established, including: the Pareto-optimality of user association to base stations, the fair allocation of base stations’ resources, and the gains resulting from dynamic resource sharing across slices, both in terms of utility gains and capacity savings. We then address algorithmic and practical challenges in realizing the proposed criterion. We show that the objective is NP-hard, making an exact solution impractical, and design a distributed semi-online algorithm, which meets performance guarantees in equilibrium and can be shown to quickly converge to a region around the equilibrium point. Building on this algorithm, we devise a practical approach with limited computational information and handoff overheads. We use detailed simulations to show that our approach is indeed near-optimal and provides substantial gains both to tenants (in terms of capacity savings) and end users (in terms of improved performance).
Autors: Pablo Caballero;Albert Banchs;Gustavo de Veciana;Xavier Costa-Pérez;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 3044 - 3058
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiagent-Based Transactive Energy Framework for Distribution Systems With Smart Microgrids
Abstract:
The increasing population of microgrids with various kinds of plug and play energy resources and rapidly varying demand in distribution systems are multiplying the complexity involved in overall system management. This paper proposes an agent-based transactive energy management framework with a comprehensive energy management system (CEMS) as a solution to address the aggregated complexity induced by microgrids in distribution systems. In this framework, microgrids sell or buy the energy in transactive market, which is an inter-microgrid auction based electricity market, to manage the excess supply or residual demand. CEMS follows a dual phase energy management strategy. In the first stage local auxiliary resources such as demand response and distributed energy storage systems of the microgrids are optimally integrated into system operation to level off the forecasted energy imbalances in microgrids. In the latter stage, the operating configuration of the local auxiliary resources is adjusted in real time along with transactive energy to address the imbalances leftover in the former phase and the forecast errors. The efficacy of the proposed framework and CEMS is verified on a IEEE distribution test feeder system with microgrids.
Autors: H. S. V. S. Kumar Nunna;Dipti Srinivasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2241 - 2250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicast Systems With Fair Scheduling in Non-identically Distributed Fading Channels
Abstract:
Multicasting is emerging as an efficient method to deliver the same data to a group of users, thereby saving network resources. The fairness between different multicast groups is an important quality-of-service (QoS) indication, but it has not been given significant attention. In this paper, we propose a normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-based fair scheduling for multiple multicast groups in multicast systems. The system fairness and capacity are then analyzed and compared for both fair scheduling and greedy scheduling over independent but non-identically distributed (i.n.d.) fading channels. Closed-form expressions in terms of the system spectral efficiency, outage probability, system fairness, and average bit error rate (BER) are derived in an uncoded/coded M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation based adaptive transmission multicast system over i.n.d. Rayleigh fading channels. Numerical results show that compared with greedy scheduling, fair scheduling achieves considerably high fairness at the cost of slight system capacity loss, regardless of the number of multicast groups. Our focus is on the physical layer without rate loss, but we also briefly discuss applications of the proposed scheduling in a cross-layer design subject to the loss rate QoS constraint.
Autors: Hang Li;Xiaojing Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8835 - 8844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicast-Based Optimized Peer Control for Efficient P2P Video Streaming in TDM-PONs
Abstract:
An important issue in network traffic management for Internet service providers is how to efficiently handle a large amount of data traffic generated by peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. This paper discusses the efficiency of P2P video streaming in time-division-multiplexed (TDM) passive optical networks (PONs). We summarize the technical requirements that are required to efficiently serve P2P video streaming in the broadcast-and-select architecture of the TDM-PON. The proposed localized multicast-based P2P (LM-P2P) mechanism controls generation of P2P sessions adaptively based on information about the peer location and multicast efficiency in the optical line termination (OLT) domain. The centralized control node of LM-P2P selects a multicast seeder and recommends it to later clients as a seeder so that the amount of P2P streaming traffic can be minimized both in the inter-OLT domain and in the intra-OLT domain. The efficiency of LM-P2P in allocation of network resources is achieved by optimal migration of the property of P2P streaming on the unique architectural feature of TDM-PON. The efficiencies of typical P2P localization and P2P caching are compared with LM-P2P, and the systematic issues in localization of P2P sessions and management of multicast sessions are also discussed. The efficiencies of the proposed mechanism are validated by numerical analysis and practical test results.
Autors: Hyun-Su Lim;Hong-Shik Park;NamUk Kim;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4507 - 4518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidegree-of-Freedom Motion Platform Based on Spherical Wheels
Abstract:
This paper presents a new concept and design of a multidegree-of-freedom (DOF) motion platform capable of controlling three DOFs rotation and three DOFs translation to provide unlimited rotational range of motion for virtual reality (VR) based on spherical wheels. Multi-DOF motion platforms have been developed for various applications such as motion simulators and game industry. In addition, motion recognition is one of main features for VR with visual display. However, existing motion platforms have critical limits of range of motion in motion realization due to mechanical linkages and their actuating mechanisms. In addition, unnatural motion control causes mismatch in the VR environment. The motion platform developed in this paper can provide six DOFs motion, and in particular, unlimited range of rotation without motion singularity. The design is compact and lightweight offering fast speed of response. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of the platform are investigated to provide a basis of motion control in an open loop. Performance of motion control is demonstrated in real scale size (ride on platform). The experimental results show that the platform is successfully capable of multi-DOF motion control and can be utilized for various applications in future demands.
Autors: Seong-Min Lee;Hungsun Son;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2121 - 2129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidesign Integration Based Adaptive Actuator Failure Compensation Control for Two Linked 2WD Mobile Robots
Abstract:
This paper develops an actuator failure compensation control scheme for two linked mobile robots. The kinematic and dynamic models of two robots with a physical link that is employed to deal with actuator failures for two-wheel drive mobile robots are proposed. Then, a kinematic controller is designed, which is a virtual one. Based on this controller, multiple adaptive dynamic control signals are designed to cover all possible failure cases. By combining these dynamic control signals, the dynamic controller is designed, which ensures desired system stability and asymptotic tracking properties. Finally, simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive actuator failure compensation scheme.
Autors: Yajie Ma;Vincent Cocquempot;Maan El Badaoui El Najjar;Bin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2174 - 2185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer Stolt Migration Algorithm for Subsurface Target Imaging in Oblique Layers
Abstract:
A generalized multilayer Stolt migration (MULSM) method has been developed. The conventional MULSM method can refocus images of buried targets in a layered geometry, but only where the boundaries between the layers are parallel to the air–ground interface. The newly developed algorithm can be applied to an obliquely layered geometry by taking into account the refraction between the layers. Related equations for the method are derived and validated through numerical and experimental investigations. The images refocused by the proposed method are shown to match the actual target positions.
Autors: Haewon Jung;Woong Kang;Kangwook Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4295 - 4303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Converter Based on Cascaded Three-Leg Converters with Reduced Voltage and Current
Abstract:
In this paper, a modularity concept using standard three-leg converters is addressed. Three-phase cascaded topologies composed of standard three-leg converters are investigated. They are composed of three, nine, twenty-one, or three-leg converters. It permits the reduction levels of currents and voltages on switches when compared with a conventional three-phase module or a cascaded H-bridge structure. In this way, three-leg cascaded converters are suitable to be applied in scenarios of high current in which other cascaded topologies become less attractive and high voltage. Furthermore, the proposed arrangement brings advantages such as modularity that leads to convenient construction, easy maintenance, and extension to higher voltage and current levels. A dynamic model is developed and a pulse-width modulation strategy is designed to the converter command accordingly with reference voltage. Discussions about fault tolerance and dc-link capacitor currents are also carried out. Comparisons in terms of converter rating, harmonic distortion, and semiconductor power losses between the proposed and conventional cascaded H-bridge topologies have been carried out. Simulation and experimental results are presented as well.
Autors: Edgard Luiz Lopes Fabricio;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Nady Rocha;Rodrigo Pereira de Lacerda;Maurício Beltrão de Rossiter Corrêa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4682 - 4694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel NoSQL Cache Combining In-NIC and In-Kernel Approaches
Abstract:
Key-value store accelerators based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been proposed to achieve higher performance per watt than software-based processing. However, because their cache capacity is strictly limited by DRAMs implemented on FPGA boards, their application domains are also limited. To address this issue, the authors propose a multilevel NoSQL cache architecture that utilizes both FPGA-based hardware cache and in-kernel software cache in a complementary style. This motivates them to explore various design options. Simulation results show that their design reduces the cache miss ratio and improves the throughput compared to the nonhierarchical design.
Autors: Yuta Tokusashi;Hiroki Matsutani;
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 44 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimode Coplanar Waveguide Cross-Junction: Equivalent Circuit Model and Air-Bridge Free Applications
Abstract:
This paper proposes the use of the coplanar waveguide (CPW) odd mode, also known as the parasitic slotline mode, as a design parameter. It presents a novel equivalent circuit model for the CPW cross-junction, where each CPW has two modes: the even mode, which is the conventional CPW mode also known as the coplanar mode, and the odd mode. The model is simple, intuitive, and physical-based. It can be used in different combinations including the case of slotline cross-junction. The model paves the way to design novel air-bridge free CPW applications. Among them, two are presented in this paper: CPW-to-slotline transition (balun) and Wilkinson power divider. For both applications, closed form expressions for the operating point are derived. Results are verified by EM simulations. An air-bridge free CPW power divider that combines both applications is fabricated and characterized. Simulations and measurements are in a very good agreement.
Autors: Abdelhamid M. H. Nasr;Amr M. E. Safwat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3753 - 3760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipair Two-Way Full-Duplex Relaying With Massive Array and Power Allocation
Abstract:
We consider a multipair two-way full-duplex relay network, where multiple pairs of full-duplex users can exchange information through a common relay station with a single massive array. Each user has one shared-antenna and the relay station has shared-antennas. The relay adopts amplify-and-forward protocol, and the beamforming is performed using maximal-ratio combining/transmission or zero-forcing reception/transmission method. When the number of relay antennas grows to infinity or large enough, we derive the asymptotic transmit power of relay and the asymptotic/approximate spectral efficiency with/without power-scaling. The users’ transmit powers are optimally allocated to maximize the spectral efficiency under the users’ total transmit power constraint. Simulations verify our asymptotic and approximate results with large-scale antenna array, and demonstrate the spectral and energy efficiency with optimal power allocation.
Autors: Pengbo Xing;Ju Liu;Chao Zhai;Xinhua Wang;Xiaoqing Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8926 - 8939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipath Cooperative Communications Networks for Augmented and Virtual Reality Transmission
Abstract:
Augmented and/or virtual reality (AR/VR) are emerging as one of the main applications in future fifth-generation (5G) networks. To meet the requirements of lower latency and massive data transmission in AR/VR applications, a solution with software-defined networking architecture is proposed for 5G small cell networks. On this basis, a multipath cooperative route (MCR) scheme is proposed to facilitate the AR/VR wireless transmissions in 5G small cell networks, in which the delay of the MCR scheme is analytically studied. Furthermore, a service effective energy (SEE) optimization algorithm is developed for AR/VR wireless transmission in 5G small cell networks. Simulation results indicate that both the delay and SEE of the proposed MCR scheme outperform the delay and SEE of the conventional single-path route scheme in 5G small cell networks.
Autors: Xiaohu Ge;Linghui Pan;Qiang Li;Guoqiang Mao;Song Tu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2345 - 2358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipath Multiplexing for Capacity Enhancement in SIMO Wireless Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel and simple orthogonal faster than Nyquist (OFTN) data transmission and detection approach for a single input multiple output system. It is assumed that the signal having a bandwidth is transmitted through a wireless channel with multipath components. Under this assumption, this paper provides a novel and simple OFTN transmission and symbol-by-symbol detection approach that exploits the multiplexing gain obtained by the multipath characteristic of wideband wireless channels. It is shown that the proposed design can achieve a higher transmission rate than the existing one [i.e., orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)]. Furthermore, the achievable rate gap between the proposed approach and that of the OFDM increases as the number of receiver antennas increases for a fixed value of . This implies that the performance gain of the proposed approach can be very significant for a large-scale multi-antenna wireless system. The superiority of the proposed approach is shown theoretically and confirmed via numerical simulations. Specifically, we have found upper-bound average rates of 15 and 28 bps/Hz with the OFDM and proposed approaches, respectively, in a Rayleigh fading channel with 32 receive antennas and signal-to-noise ratio of 15.3 dB. The extension of the proposed approach for different system setups and associated research problems is also discussed.
Autors: Tadilo Endeshaw Bogale;Long Bao Le;Xianbin Wang;Luc Vandendorpe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6895 - 6911
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Chirp Reflectometry for Determination of Fault Direction and Localization in Live Branched Network Cables
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multiple inductive coupler chirp reflectometry system with multiple resolutions that can determine fault direction, and localize fault is proposed to apply the live target cable. The multiple resolution method enables us to detect and localize the faults, regardless of their location. Time delay information from multiple couplers, which is derived from the time-frequency cross correlation, indicates the fault direction and fault distance, even in cable branched network. The multiple inductive couplers system is proposed to obtain the velocity of propagation and fault direction in cable branch. Using the overcomplete wavelet transform, the signal restoration process can be carried out under signal distortion due to the propagation characteristics of the inductive coupler and target cable. In addition, combining notch filtering techniques and chirp reflectometry method is proposed to cancel 60-Hz harmonic noise, which is acquired from the actual substation. Through the experiments, impedance discontinuity localization and direction determination performance of the proposed method and the adaptability of the proposed method in live cable under harmonic noise by comparing with the existing method were verified.
Autors: Seung Jin Chang;Jin Bae Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2606 - 2614
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Perspective-Cuts Outer Approximation Method for Risk-Averse Operational Planning of Regional Energy Service Providers
Abstract:
In the smart grid and future energy internet environment, a regional energy service provider (RESP) may be able to integrate multiple energy resources such as generator units, demand response, electrical vehicle charging/swapping stations, and carbon emission trading to participate in the market. By imploring a well-known portfolio optimization theory conditional value-at-risk to tackle electricity price uncertainty, this paper formulates the risk-averse day-ahead operational planning for such a RESP as a mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming (MIQCP), named as RA-RESP. A global optimization method, named as multiple perspective-cuts outer approximation method (MPC-OAM) is proposed to solve this model efficiently. A remarkable stronger and tighter mixed integer linear programing master problem is designed to accelerate the convergence of the proposed method. Comprehensive simulation results show that, compared with existing day-ahead planning models, the RA-RESP is a good compromise between profit-based models and cost-based ones. The proposed MPC-OAM can solve complicated RA-RESP problem efficiently, and compared with state-of-the-art solution techniques, the MPC-OAM outperforms in both computing speed and solution quality, especially for scenario which includes more nonlinear factors.
Autors: Linfeng Yang;Jinbao Jian;Yan Xu;Zhaoyang Dong;Guodong Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2606 - 2619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Sensor Measurement Updates for the Extended Target Tracking Random Matrix Model
Abstract:
In this paper, multiple sensor measurement update is studied for a random matrix model. Four different updates are presented and evaluated: three updates based on parametric approximations of the extended target state probability density function and one update based on a Rao–Blackwellized (RB) particle approximation of the state density. An extensive simulation study shows that the RB particle approach shows best performance, at the price of higher computational cost, compared to parametric approximations.
Autors: Gemine Vivone;Karl Granström;Paolo Braca;Peter Willett;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2544 - 2558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Image Hiding Based on Cascaded Free-Space Wave Propagation Using the Structured Phase Mask for Lensless Optical Security System
Abstract:
A novel optical multiple-image hiding method is proposed based on two cascaded free-space propagation transforms in this paper. With the use of the structured phase mask in the phase retrieval algorithm, a plain image is encoded to only one statistically independent phase-only mask. All retrieved phase masks are integrated into the noise-like ciphertext by using the phase mask multiplexing technique. When reconstructing an original plain image, the architecture of double random phase encoding system is directly adopted, where the structured phase mask and the corresponding decryption key mask are located at determined positions along the axis of propagation. Besides the propagation distances, the optical parameters such as wavelength, focal length, and topological charge of the structured mask are considered as the security keys to expand the key space. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on employing the structured phase mask in the process of phase retrieval algorithm, which can enhance the level of security greatly. Simulation results have been given to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Liansheng Sui;Xiao Zhang;Ailing Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Layer Power Allocation for Two-User Gaussian Interference Channel
Abstract:
Interference has been a key challenge to wireless networks. As a fundamental transmission unit, the Gaussian interference channel (GIC) provides much insight on understanding the optimal transmission policy and the transmission limit over wireless networks. This paper investigates the multiple-layer power allocation of GIC that maximizes the system sum-rate. First, we derive the optimal signal-layer power allocation and the corresponding sum-rate in closed form for all cases of weak interference GIC based on the rate splitting scheme. Theoretical result indicates that: 1) In low power and asymmetric power regimes, the rate splitting scheme degrades to the pure public or private message transmission at transmitters and simple successive decoding process is efficient enough at receivers and 2) the signal-layer sum-rate is not concave for weak interference GIC and a frequency division scheme brings strict positive sum-rate gain for some power constraints. Second, we specify the relationship between the optimal bandwidth-power allocation of the frequency division scheme and the concave envelope of signal-layer sum-rate in the subband-layer. Finally, considering general GIC with time-varying flat fading, we present an optimal channel-state-layer power allocation associated with rate splitting and frequency division. Numerical results demonstrate that the comprehensive power allocation over the signal-layer, the frequency subbands, and the channel states can largely increase the sum-rate of weak interference GIC in most scenarios.
Autors: Zhengchuan Chen;Yunquan Dong;Pingyi Fan;Dapeng Oliver Wu;Khaled Ben Letaief;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9162 - 9176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Loop Design Technique for High-Performance Low-Dropout Regulator
Abstract:
A new multiple-loop design technique for high-performance low-dropout (LDO) regulator designs has been proposed and successfully implemented in many commercial products for portable smart phone and tablet PC applications. The proposed LDO is composed of five loops that allows designers to obtain a good tradeoff between quiescent current and other performances, such as undershoot, overshoot, and so on. A total of one bandgap reference and 38 LDOs (including n-type and p-type LDOs, which will be named NLDO and PLDO, respectively) were integrated in one power-management IC chip for powering an application processor inside mobile devices. The proposed LDO has been fabricated based on 0.13- CMOS process and supplies various current capacities from 50 to 600 mA; 38 LDOs have been designed and supply different output voltage levels from 0.7 to 3.0 V. One of the proposed NLDOs consumes of the quiescent current and features under 56/24 mV of undershoot/overshoot at VOUT =1V as the load current steps up from 0 to 300 mA with 300 mA/1 on a 1- output capacitor. The measured output load and line regulations are 1.8 and 0.4 mV, respectively. The measured integrated output noise from 10 Hz to 100 kHz at of maximum current shows 80 rms. The package chip size is mm2 with 169 balls.
Autors: Quoc-Hoang Duong;Huy-Hieu Nguyen;Jeong-Woon Kong;Hyun-Seok Shin;Yu-Seok Ko;Hwa-Yeol Yu;Yong-Hee Lee;Chun-Hyeon Bea;Ho-Jin Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2533 - 2549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland
Abstract:
Despite rapid development of marine renewable energy, relatively little is known of the immediate and future impacts on the surrounding ecosystems. Quantifying the behavior and distribution of animals around marine renewable energy devices is crucial for understanding, predicting, and potentially mitigating any threats posed by these installations. The Flow and Benthic Ecology 4D (FLOWBEC) autonomous seabed platform integrated an Imagenex multibeam echosounder and a Simrad EK60 multifrequency echosounder to monitor marine life in a 120 sector over ranges up to 50 m, seven to eight times per second. Established target detection algorithms fail within MRE sites, due to high levels of backscatter generated by the turbulent physical dynamics, limiting and biasing analysis to only periods of low current speed. This study presents novel algorithms to extract diving seabirds, fish, and fish schools from the intense backscatter caused by turbulent dynamics in flows of 4 m s. Filtering, detection, and tracking using a modified nearest neighbor algorithm provide robust tracking of animal behavior using the multibeam echosounder. Independent multifrequency target detection is demonstrated using the EK60 with optimally calculated thresholds, scale-sensitive filters, morphological exclusion, and frequency-response characteristics. This provides sensitive and reliable detection throughout the entire water column and at all flow speeds. Dive profiles, depth preferences, predator–prey interactions, and fish schooling behavior can be analyzed, in conjunction with the hydrodynamic impacts of marine renewable energy devices. Coregistration of targets between the acoustic instruments increases the information available, providing quantitative measure- including frequency response from the EK60, and target morphology and behavioral interactions from the multibeam echosounder. The analyses draw on deployments at a tidal energy site in Scotland to compare the presence and absence of renewable energy structures across a range of physical and trophic levels over complete spring-neap tidal cycles. These results can be used to inform how animals forage in these sites and whether individuals face collision risks. This quantitative information can de-risk the licensing process and, with a greater mechanistic understanding at demonstration scales, its predictive power could reduce the monitoring required at future arrays.
Autors: Benjamin J. Williamson;Shaun Fraser;Philippe Blondel;Paul S. Bell;James J. Waggitt;Beth E. Scott;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 948 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistep Accelerated Aging of Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Nanostructured La–Sr–Mn–O Thin Films
Abstract:
We present results of investigation of accelerated aging influence on electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) of nanostructured La–Sr–Mn–O films used for magnetic field sensors, which could be applied in advanced scientific and industrial devices. The 400-nm-thick manganite films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. To investigate the effectiveness of accelerated aging, the three methods were tested: 1) thermal treatment of the sensor samples at 100 °C temperature in Ar atmosphere when film surface was uncoated; 2) thermal treatment of the samples coated prior to treatment by polymer; and 3) multistep aging including both previous methods: thermal treatment of the samples with uncoated surface in Ar atmosphere and additional thermal treatment of the coated samples. The sensor samples were studied without and in pulsed magnetic field up to 20 T. To describe the underlying processes, the kinetics of resistivity change during accelerated aging was analyzed using a stretched exponent relaxation function. It was found that the best long-term stability of resistivity in time demonstrated samples treated by a multistep accelerated aging method. All three aging methods resulted in minor influence (<1%) on MR of the films in magnetic fields up to 20 T.
Autors: Nerija Žurauskienė;Vakaris Rudokas;Jonas Klimantavičius;Saulius Balevičius;Česlovas Šimkevičius;Skirmantas Keršulis;Voitech Stankevič;Dainius Pavilonis;Remigijus Vasiliauskas;Valentina Pl
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2787 - 2793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multitemporal SAR Image Despeckling Based on Block-Matching and Collaborative Filtering
Abstract:
We propose a despeckling algorithm for multitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on the concepts of block-matching and collaborative filtering. It relies on the nonlocal approach, and it is the extension of SAR-BM3D for dealing with multitemporal data. The technique comprises two passes, each one performing grouping, collaborative filtering, and aggregation. In particular, the first pass performs both the spatial and temporal filtering, while the second pass only the spatial one. To avoid increasing the computational cost of the technique, we resort to lookup tables for the distance computation in the block-matching phases. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm compares favorably with respect to state-of-the-art reference techniques, with better results both on simulated speckled images and on real multitemporal SAR images.
Autors: Giovanni Chierchia;Mireille El Gheche;Giuseppe Scarpa;Luisa Verdoliva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5467 - 5480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multitone ACLR and Its Applications to Linear PA Design
Abstract:
Analysis and measurements results of a multitone frequency spectrum leakage have shown results comparable to those of modulated signals with a similar peak-to-average power ratio. In this brief, the adjacent channel leakage ratio of multitone signals is analyzed, and it is shown that the closed-form result is related to third-order intermodulation distortion that can be obtained by a two-tone test. Such a correlation enables a rough prediction of an RF power amplifier’s (PA) linearity performance through a simple and fast simulation of a two-tone test, thereby shortening the design time. The theoretical analysis is experimentally demonstrated by employing a 1.9-GHz PA fabricated in 40-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Haoyu Qian;Jose Silva-Martinez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1177 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuser Detection for FEC-Coded Massive Spatial Modulation MIMO: An Iterative Interference Rejection Approach
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the issue of multiuser detection (MUD) in a massive spatial modulation (SM) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system, where the base station is equipped with a large number of antennas and each user equipment uses single-carrier SM (SC-SM) for uplink transmission. Unlike the conventional MUD for massive SM-MIMO systems, the application of forward error correction (FEC) coding is explored in our design, which is utilized to combat the impact of multiuser interference (MUI). More specifically, we propose to utilize the soft information from the FEC decoder to iteratively improve the MUI rejection procedure and provide more accurate estimation of the transmitted signals. The soft information is exchanged between the decoder and the MUI cancellation unit, which constitutes a turbo structure and leads to simultaneous improvement of the mean square error and the bit error ratio performance. The performance gain is substantiated by theoretical analysis as well as numerical simulations.
Autors: Longzhuang He;Jintao Wang;Jian Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9567 - 9571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuser Relay Networks Over Unreliable Backhaul Links Under Spectrum Sharing Environment
Abstract:
The effects of unreliable backhaul links on cognitive relay networks with best user selection over Nakagami- fading are investigated. In particular, closed-form expressions for the critical performance metrics are derived along with the asymptotic performance to obtain insights into the impact of the backhaul reliability and multiuser scheduling. Our results demonstrate that backhaul link reliability is a key factor that imposes limitations on the performance of multiuser relay networks.
Autors: Huy T. Nguyen;Trung Q. Duong;Won-Joo Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2314 - 2317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiview Canonical Correlation Analysis Networks for Remote Sensing Image Recognition
Abstract:
In the past decade, deep learning (DL) algorithms have been widely used for remote sensing (RS) image recognition tasks. As the most typical DL model, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) achieves outstand performance for big RS data classification. Recently, a variant of CNN, dubbed canonical correlation analysis network (CCANet), was proposed to abstract the two-view image features. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark databases validate the effectiveness of CCANet. However, the CCANet structure is powerless when the observations arrive from more than two sources. To serve the multiview purpose, in this letter, we propose multiview CCANets (MCCANets). Particularly, the MCCANet model learns the stacked multiperspective filter banks by the MCCA method and builds a deep convolutional structure. In the output stage, the binarization and the blockwise histogram are employed as nonlinear processing and feature pooling, respectively. To access the effectiveness of the MCCANet, we conduct a host of experiments on the RSSCN7 RS database. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the MCCANet outperforms the two-view CCANet.
Autors: Xinghao Yang;Weifeng Liu;Dapeng Tao;Jun Cheng;Shuying Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1855 - 1859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Story with Microwaves [Speaker's Corner]
Abstract:
Reports on the author's experience and involvement in the microwave industry.
Autors: Zhaolong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 148 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NanoBridge-Based FPGA in High-Temperature Environments
Abstract:
The authors demonstrate a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based on NanoBridge, a novel resistive-change switch. NanoBridge, which is integrated in the back end of line (BEOL), features a high on/off conductance ratio, weak temperature dependence of its resistance, nonvolatility, endurance against soft errors, and a small footprint. In place of static RAM (SRAM) and a pass transistor, NanoBridge is utilized as a configuration switch in the FPGA. In this article, the authors evaluate the NanoBridge-based FPGA (NB-FPGA) for applications in harsh environments. Specifically, they implemented NB-FPGA in a humanoid robot and compared its performance with that of the conventional FPGA. Results showed that NB-FPGA exhibits small variation in performance over a wide range of temperature, from −55 to 150 °C, and has high immunity for fluctuations in the power supply voltage.
Autors: Makoto Miyamura;Toshitsugu Sakamoto;Xu Bai;Yukihide Tsuji;Ayuka Morioka;Ryusuke Nebashi;Munehiro Tada;Naoki Banno;Koichiro Okamoto;Noriyuki Iguchi;Hiromitsu Hada;Tadahiko Sugibayashi;Yuya Nagamatsu;Soichi Ookubo;Takuma Shirai;Fumihito Sugai;Masayuki
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 32 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NBTI-Generated Defects in Nanoscaled Devices: Fast Characterization Methodology and Modeling
Abstract:
Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI)-generated defects (GDs) have been widely observed and known to play an important role in device’s lifetime. However, its characterization and modeling in nanoscaled devices is a challenge due to their stochastic nature. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast and accurate technique for characterizing the statistical properties of NBTI aging, which can be completed in one day and thus reduce test time significantly. The fast speed comes from replacing the conventional constant voltage stress by the voltage step stress (VSS), while the accuracy comes from capturing the GDs without recovery. The key advances are twofold: first, we demonstrate that this VSS-GD technique is applicable for nanoscaled devices; second, we verify the accuracy of the statistical model based on the parameters extracted from this technique against independently measured data. The proposed method provides an effective solution for GD evaluation, as required when qualifying a CMOS process.
Autors: Rui Gao;Zhigang Ji;Azrif B. Manut;Jian Fu Zhang;Jacopo Franco;Sharifah Wan Muhamad Hatta;Wei Dong Zhang;Ben Kaczer;Dimitri Linten;Guido Groeseneken;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4011 - 4017
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Chebyshev Pattern for Nonuniformly Spaced Arrays Using Zeros Matching Method
Abstract:
An analytic method is presented to design nonuniformly spaced uniform amplitude antenna arrays (NSUAAs) to have near-Chebyshev radiation pattern. In this method, called zeros matching method (ZMM), the zeros of array factors of NSUAAs are matched with the zeros of the exact-Chebyshev pattern. Some examples are brought to verify the effectiveness of the ZMM approach for both linear and planar NSUAAs.
Autors: Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini;Giuseppe Vecchi;Paola Pirinoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5155 - 5161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Field Full-Waveform Inversion of Ground-Penetrating Radar Data to Monitor the Water Front in Limestone
Abstract:
Limestone has been a widely used building material for many years. Its degradation process has been strongly linked to its water content, to which the radar waves are sensitive. In this paper, the closed-form, near-field full-wave radar model of Lambot et al. is utilized for monitoring water ingress in limestone. This model is based on planar layered media Green's functions combined with an intrinsic representation of the antenna through global reflection and transmission functions. The Jonscher model is used to describe the frequency dependence of the limestone electromagnetic properties. Then, an inversion method based on a genetic algorithm is developed and optimized. The method is numerically validated by simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in medias, using a three-dimensional finite element software, namely high-frequency electromagnetic field simulation. Finally, the method is experimentally validated, with a stepped-frequency radar system and an ultrawide band antenna, during an imbibition process of a limestone slab. Results are compared to gammadensimetry measurements, a nuclear and semidestructive approach, performed as the reference. Analyses of the results show that the average relative difference between the estimated and the reference water front is 2.5%, thereby demonstrating the performance of the proposed nondestructive method.
Autors: Borui Guan;Amine Ihamouten;Xavier Dérobert;David Guilbert;Sébastien Lambot;Géraldine Villain;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4328 - 4336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Threshold RISC-V Core With DSP Extensions for Scalable IoT Endpoint Devices
Abstract:
Endpoint devices for Internet-of-Things not only need to work under extremely tight power envelope of a few milliwatts, but also need to be flexible in their computing capabilities, from a few kOPS to GOPS. Near-threshold (NT) operation can achieve higher energy efficiency, and the performance scalability can be gained through parallelism. In this paper, we describe the design of an open-source RISC-V processor core specifically designed for NT operation in tightly coupled multicore clusters. We introduce instruction extensions and microarchitectural optimizations to increase the computational density and to minimize the pressure toward the shared-memory hierarchy. For typical data-intensive sensor processing workloads, the proposed core is, on average, faster and more energy efficient, thanks to a smart L0 buffer to reduce cache access contentions and support for compressed instructions. Single Instruction Multiple Data extensions, such as dot products, and a built-in L0 storage further reduce the shared-memory accesses by reducing contentions by . With four NT-optimized cores, the cluster is operational from 0.6 to 1.2 V, achieving a peak efficiency of 67 MOPS/mW in a low-cost 65-nm bulk CMOS technology. In a low-power 28-nm FD-SOI process, a peak efficiency of 193 MOPS/mW (40 MHz and 1 mW) can be achieved.
Autors: Michael Gautschi;Pasquale Davide Schiavone;Andreas Traber;Igor Loi;Antonio Pullini;Davide Rossi;Eric Flamand;Frank K. Gürkaynak;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2700 - 2713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Capacitance as Performance Booster for Tunnel FETs and MOSFETs: An Experimental Study
Abstract:
This letter reports for the first time a full experimental study of performance boosting of tunnel FETs (TFETs) and MOSFETs by negative capacitance (NC) effect. We discuss the importance of capacitance matching between a ferroelectric NC and a device capacitance to achieve hysteretic and non-hysteretic characteristics. PZT ferroelectric capacitors are connected to the gate of three terminals TFETs and MOSFETs and partial or full matching NC conditions for amplification and stability are obtained. First, we demonstrate the characteristics of hysteretic and non-hysteretic NC-TFETs. The main performance boosting is obtained for the non-hysteretic NC-TFET, where the ON-current is increased by a factor of 500 times, transconductance is enhanced by three orders of magnitude, and the low slope region is extended. The boosting of performance is moderate in the hysteretic NC-TFET. Second, we investigate the impact of the same NC booster on MOSFETs. Subthreshold swing as steep as 4 mV/decade with a 1.5-V hysteresis is obtained on a commercial device fabricated in 28-nm CMOS technology. Moreover, we demonstrate a non-hysteretic NC-MOSFET with a full matching of capacitances and a reduced subthreshold swing down to 20 mV/decade.
Autors: Ali Saeidi;Farzan Jazaeri;Francesco Bellando;Igor Stolichnov;Gia V. Luong;Qing-Tai Zhao;Siegfried Mantl;Christian C. Enz;Adrian M. Ionescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1485 - 1488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neighbor-Aided Localization in Vehicular Networks
Abstract:
We address the problem of localization in vehicular ad hoc networks. Our goal is to leverage vehicle communications and smartphone sensors to improve the overall localization performance. Assuming vehicles are equipped with the IEEE 802.11p wireless interfaces, we employ a two-stage Bayesian filter to track the vehicle’s position: an unscented Kalman filter for heading estimation using smartphone inertial sensors, and a particle filter that fuses vehicle-to-vehicle signal strength measurements received from mobile anchors whose positions are uncertain, with velocity, GPS position, and map information. Our model leads to a robust localization system and is able to provide useful position information even in the absence of GPS data. We evaluate the algorithm performance using real-world measurements collected from four communicating vehicles in an urban scenario, and considering different combinations of location information sources.
Autors: Susana B. Cruz;Traian E. Abrudan;Zhuoling Xiao;Niki Trigoni;João Barros;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2693 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NELasso: Group-Sparse Modeling for Characterizing Relations Among Named Entities in News Articles
Abstract:
Named entities such as people, locations, and organizations play a vital role in characterizing online content. They often reflect information of interest and are frequently used in search queries. Although named entities can be detected reliably from textual content, extracting relations among them is more challenging, yet useful in various applications (e.g., news recommending systems). In this paper, we present a novel model and system for learning semantic relations among named entities from collections of news articles. We model each named entity occurrence with sparse structured logistic regression, and consider the words (predictors) to be grouped based on background semantics. This sparse group LASSO approach forces the weights of word groups that do not influence the prediction towards zero. The resulting sparse structure is utilized for defining the type and strength of relations. Our unsupervised system yields a named entities' network where each relation is typed, quantified, and characterized in context. These relations are the key to understanding news material over time and customizing newsfeeds for readers. Extensive evaluation of our system on articles from TIME magazine and BBC News shows that the learned relations correlate with static semantic relatedness measures like WLM, and capture the evolving relationships among named entities over time.
Autors: Amara Tariq;Asim Karim;Hassan Foroosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 2000 - 2014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Utility Aware Traffic Load Balancing in Backhaul-Constrained Cache-Enabled Small Cell Networks with Hybrid Power Supplies
Abstract:
Explosive data traffic growth leads to a continuous surge in capacity demands across mobile networks. In order to provision high network capacity, small cell base stations (SCBSs) are widely deployed. Owing to the close proximity to mobile users, SCBSs can effectively enhance the network capacity and offloading traffic load from macro BSs (MBSs). However, the cost-effective backhaul may not be readily available for SCBSs, thus leading to backhaul constraints in small cell networks (SCNs). Enabling cache in BSs may mitigate the backhaul constraints in SCNs. Moreover, the dense deployment of SCBSs may incur excessive energy consumption. To alleviate brown power consumption, renewable energy will be explored to power BSs. In such a network, it is challenging to dynamically balance traffic load among BSs to optimize the network utilities. In this paper, we investigate the traffic load balancing in backhaul-constrained cache-enabled small cell networks powered by hybrid energy sources. We have proposed a network utility aware (NUA) traffic load balancing scheme that optimizes user association to strike a tradeoff between the green power utilization and the traffic delivery latency. On balancing the traffic load, the proposed NUA traffic load balancing scheme considers the green power utilization, the traffic delivery latency in both BSs and their backhaul, and the cache hit ratio. The NUA traffic load balancing scheme allows dynamically adjusting the tradeoff between the green power utilization and the traffic delivery latency. We have proved the convergence and the optimality of the proposed NUA traffic load balancing scheme. Through extensive simulations, we have compared performance of the NUA traffic load balancing scheme with other schemes and showed its advantages in backhaul-constrained cache-enabled small cell networks with hybrid power supplies.
Autors: Tao Han;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 2819 - 2832
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networked Fusion Estimation With Bounded Noises
Abstract:
Most of time-varying systems in fusion estimation are generally modeled without bounded noises. In this paper, we study the distributed fusion estimation problem for networked time-varying systems with bounded noises, where the resource constraints (i.e., bandwidth or energy) and quantization effect are described by a unified model. A new local estimator with time-varying gain is designed by solving a class of convex optimization problems such that the square error of the estimator is bounded. When each local estimate is transmitted to the fusion center over communication networks, the selection probability criterion is derived such that the mean square error of the each compensating state estimate is bounded. Then, a convex optimization problem on the design of an optimal weighting fusion criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved by standard software packages. Target tracking system with time-varying sampling period is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Bo Chen;Daniel W. C. Ho;Wen-An Zhang;Li Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5415 - 5421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neural Network Learning Adaptive Robust Control of an Industrial Linear Motor-Driven Stage With Disturbance Rejection Ability
Abstract:
In this paper, a neural network learning adaptive robust controller (NNLARC) is synthesized for an industrial linear motor stage to achieve good tracking performance and excellent disturbance rejection ability. The NNLARC scheme contains parametric adaption part, robust feedback part, and radial basis function (RBF) neural network (NN) part in a parallel structure. The adaptive part and the robust part are designed based on the system dynamics to meet the challenge of parametric variations and uncertain random disturbances. It must be noted that in actual industrial machining situations, precision motion equipment is always disturbed by unknown factors, which usually cannot be described by mathematical models but affect the tracking accuracy significantly. Therefore, the RBF NN part is employed to further approximate and compensate the complicated disturbances with high reconstructing accuracy and fast training rate. The stability of the proposed NNLARC strategy is analyzed and proved through the Lyapunov theorem. Comparative experiments under various external disturbances such as completely unknown disturbance added by polyfoam are conducted on an industrial linear motor stage. The experimental results consistently validate that the proposed NNLARC control strategy can excellently meet the challenge of complicated disturbance in practical applications. The proposed scheme also provides a guidance for control strategy synthesis with both good tracking performance and disturbance rejection.
Autors: Ze Wang;Chuxiong Hu;Yu Zhu;Suqin He;Kaiming Yang;Ming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2172 - 2183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neurofeedback Control in Parkinsonian Patients Using Electrocorticography Signals Accessed Wirelessly With a Chronic, Fully Implanted Device
Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms such as rigidity and bradykinesia that prevent normal movement. Beta band oscillations (13–30 Hz) in neural local field potentials (LFPs) have been associated with these motor symptoms. Here, three PD patients implanted with a therapeutic deep brain neural stimulator that can also record and wirelessly stream neural data played a neurofeedback game where they modulated their beta band power from sensorimotor cortical areas. Patients’ beta band power was streamed in real-time to update the position of a cursor that they tried to drive into a cued target. After playing the game for 1–2 hours each, all three patients exhibited above chance-level performance regardless of subcortical stimulation levels. This study, for the first time, demonstrates using an invasive neural recording system for at-home neurofeedback training. Future work will investigate chronic neurofeedback training as a potentially therapeutic tool for patients with neurological disorders.
Autors: Preeya Khanna;Nicole C. Swann;Coralie de Hemptinne;Svjetlana Miocinovic;Andrew Miller;Philip A. Starr;Jose M. Carmena;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 1715 - 1724
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Adaptive Multi-Expansion Frequencies Approach for SP-MORe Techniques With Application to the Well-Conditioned Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation
Abstract:
Fast frequency sweep using model order reduction (MORe) techniques is one of the most valuable and efficient features in high-frequency simulators. These techniques usually use a single full solution at a given frequency to build a smaller approximation reduced model, which might be insufficient for wideband and ultrawideband simulations of high quality factor RF and microwave devices. Despite the fact that many computationally reliable error estimate methods have been presented, they all share the same starting point, which is to estimate the residual error between fast sweep solutions and not the actual error. In this paper, we introduce a new accurate and computationally reliable error estimate approach based on the lossless network condition for the automation of single-point MORe. When applied with the well-conditioned asymptotic waveform evaluation, the new approach shows very good performances in terms of accuracy and computation time compared with existing multipoint MORe and commercial EM software.
Autors: Mohamed Jemai;Ammar B. Kouki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3709 - 3719
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Constructions of Asymptotically Optimal Codebooks With Multiplicative Characters
Abstract:
In practical applications, such as direct spread code division multiple access communications, space-time codes and compressed sensing, and codebooks with small inner-product correlation are required. It is extremely difficult to construct codebooks achieving the Levenshtein bound. In this paper, two new constructions of infinitely many codebooks with multiplicative characters of finite fields are presented. These constructions produce complex codebooks asymptotically achieving the Levenshtein bound and codebooks asymptotically achieving the Welch bound. The codebooks presented in this paper have new parameters.
Autors: Ziling Heng;Cunsheng Ding;Qin Yue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6179 - 6187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Distinguished Lecturers for 2018?2020 [Distinguished Lecturers]
Abstract:
Presents information on APS Distinguished Lecturer Series
Autors: Peter de Maagt;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 169 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Electrical Power Supply System for All-Electric Propulsion Spacecraft
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel electrical power supply system architecture (power conditioning and processing unit, PCPU) for high-power all-electric propulsion spacecraft platform with high-voltage power bus (HVBUS) powering thrusters and regulated power bus (VBUS) powering onboard payloads, respectively. The design principle of function modules in PCPU has been analyzed. Besides, the test on electrical characteristic of VBUS and HVBUS in prototyped system proves the stable and reliable work of buses in PCPU.
Autors: Ming Fu;Donglai Zhang;Tiecai Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2157 - 2166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Families of Balanced Quaternary Sequences of Even Period With Three-Level Optimal Autocorrelation
Abstract:
In this letter, we present two new families of balanced quaternary sequences of period with optimal three-level autocorrelation, where is an odd prime and has a quadratic partition of form either ( is even) or ( is odd). Our construction is based on the Chinese remainder theorem and cyclotomic classes of order four.
Autors: Xiumin Shen;Yanguo Jia;Jiaqi Wang;Lichao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2146 - 2149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New General Formulation and Experimental Verification of Harmonic Clipping Contours in High-Frequency Power Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel closed-form solution for the theoretical calculation of harmonic clipping contours when an arbitrary number of harmonics is considered. The clipping contours can be used to design the loads of a high-frequency power device in order to avoid drain current clipping, and hence preventing strong nonlinear effects. For the first time the predicted second harmonic contours are validated thoroughly by means of experimental characterization of GaN HEMT devices. The measured contours result in good agreement with the theory. Moreover, the effect of third harmonic load tuning is also assessed and verified for the first time. These results prove that the clipping contours can be used as a tool for the systematic design of low-distortion power amplifiers.
Autors: Roberto Quaglia;James J. Bell;Steve Cripps;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3903 - 3909
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Phase Error Corrections for PFA with Squinted SAR
Abstract:
The polar format algorithm, while being more efficient than backprojection for synthetic aperture radar image formation, produces images with distortion and defocus. Since these errors are caused by uncompensated phase, a correction may be applied in postprocessing. Recent work utilizes a slow-time Taylor expansion of the differential range to derive the residual quadratic phase error for broadside linear flight paths. In this letter, we extend this approach to squinted linear flight paths and present new distortion and defocus corrections.
Autors: Matthew D. Scherreik;LeRoy A. Gorham;Brian D. Rigling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2637 - 2641
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New products
Abstract:
Rohde & Schwarz has enhanced its R&S Scope Rider, adding triggering and decoding software for the CAN flexible data rate (CAN-FD) and single edge nibble transmission (SENT) bus systems. According to R&S, it is currently the only portable oscilloscope capable of analyzing CAN, LIN, CAN-FD and SENT bus signals, making it useful for troubleshooting automotive and other applications.
Autors: Robert Goldberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 59 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Resonant Gate Driver Circuit for High-Frequency Application of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs
Abstract:
Silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are capable of processing high power at high switching frequencies with less switching losses and conduction losses. The gate driver circuit power consumption is directly proportional to the switching frequency. The power taken from the gate supply is dissipated in the gate resistance of the conventional gate driver (CGD) circuit. Instead of dissipating all the gate driver energy, some energy can be recovered or recycled by utilizing the principle of resonance. This reduces the net power being taken from the gate supply. This paper presents a new resonant gate driver (RGD) circuit which consumes less power compared to the CGD circuit at high switching frequencies. The proposed gate driver is designed for SiC MOSFETs. It can be modified appropriately to suit for insulated-gate bipolar transistors and other MOSFETs also. The performance of the proposed circuit is simulated in LTSpice environment, and an experimental prototype of the proposed circuit is developed to validate its performance. The proposed RGD circuit has achieved nearly 50% reduction in gate driver power consumption compared to the CGD circuit.
Autors: Jaya Venkata Phani Sekhar Chennu;Ramkrishan Maheshwari;Helong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8277 - 8287
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nodes' Evolution Diversity and Link Prediction in Social Networks
Abstract:
Recently, social networks have witnessed a massive surge in popularity. A key issue in social network research is network evolution analysis, which assumes that all the autonomous nodes in a social network follow uniform evolution mechanisms. However, different nodes in a social network should have different evolution mechanisms to generate different edges. This is proposed as the underlying idea to ensure the nodes’ evolution diversity in this paper. Our approach involves identifying the micro-level node evolution that generates different edges by introducing the existing link prediction methods from the perspectives of nodes. We also propose the edge generation coefficient to evaluate the extent to which an edge's generation can be explained by a link prediction method. To quantify the nodes’ evolution diversity, we define the diverse evolution distance. Furthermore, a diverse node adaption algorithm is proposed to indirectly analyze the evolution of the entire network based on the nodes’ evolution diversity. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that the introduction of the nodes’ evolution diversity is important and beneficial for analyzing the network evolution. The diverse node adaption algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art link prediction algorithms in terms of both accuracy and universality. The greater the nodes’ evolution diversity, the more obvious its advantages.
Autors: Huan Wang;Wenbin Hu;Zhenyu Qiu;Bo Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2263 - 2274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Cancelation? Explained!: The Role of Feedback in Noise-Canceling LNAs and Receivers
Abstract:
Inductorless wide-band low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) usually suffer from poor noise performance, mainly due to the high noise contribution of the matching device. Noise canceling (NC) is a technique used in wide-band LNAs [1]-[13] to nullify the noise contribution of the matching device at the output. NC techniques are often explained with the help of the block diagram shown in Figure 1(a), where the input signal from a source of internal impedance Rs is simultaneously fed to a matching amplifier and a voltage sensing amplifier.
Autors: Indrajit Das;Nagarjuna Nallam;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 100 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Effect and Noise-Assisted Ensemble Regression in Power System Online Sensitivity Identification
Abstract:
Recently developed data acquisition equipment and data processing methods have ignited the possibility of power system online sensitivity identification (OSI). Despite the existing OSI algorithms, practical issues such as data collinearity and the noise effect on the identification algorithm must be considered to realize OSI in real-power systems. In this study, the negative and positive aspects of noise to OSI are first studied. Then, under the data collinearity condition and by making use of the positive aspects of noise, a noise-assisted ensemble regression method is proposed to simultaneously solve the data collinearity problem and manage the negative aspects of noise. Moreover, the proposed method is proven equivalent to one of the most effective measures, the norm-2 regularization method, to address the collinearity problem, and therefore provides satisfactory OSI results. The proposed method is tested in an 8-generator 36-node system with original operations data from a real-power system, and the results validate its effectiveness.
Autors: Junbo Zhang;C. Y. Chung;Lin Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2302 - 2310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Radar Approach for Interrogating SAW Sensors Using Software Defined Radio
Abstract:
Passive, wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor systems can be approached from a radar perspective, where the SAW device is thought of as a cooperative target. This paper investigates the use of a commercial-off-the-shelf software defined radio to interrogate wireless SAW sensors with a randomly generated interrogation pulse. The USRP B200mini is utilized as the transceiver platform with custom field-programmable gate array (FPGA) modifications to generate the random interrogation waveform and provide synchronization and buffering to the received signal. Each transmit sample bit in the FPGA is fed by an independent linear-feedback shift register, which generates pseudo-random I and Q samples for the interrogation pulse. An RF daughterboard has also been developed and integrated with the B200mini to increase the transmit power, provide filtering of the RF signals, and switch a signal antenna between the transmit and receive channels. Radio control and matched filter correlator post-processing are accomplished using Python. Design and implementation details for the FPGA modifications, RF daughterboard, and post-processing are discussed. The system is demonstrated by wirelessly interrogating SAW temperature sensors at 915 MHz.
Autors: James R. Humphries;Frederick K. Reed;Christopher P. Carmichael;Peter L. Fuhr;Timothy J. McIntyre;Arthur R. Weeks;Donald C. Malocha;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6760 - 6769
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NOMA in Downlink SDMA With Limited Feedback: Performance Analysis and Optimization
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is investigated and optimized in a downlink space division multiple access network with a multi-antenna base station and randomly deployed users, under a general channel state information (CSI) limited feedback framework. We first propose a dynamic user scheduling and grouping strategy by leveraging limited feedback. Based on that, an analytical framework is proposed to obtain the outage probability of the network in closed form. The diversity order and the impacts of the number of feedback bits on the outage performance of NOMA are analyzed. Furthermore, the net throughput, which captures the network-wide throughput with the uplink feedback cost considered, is maximized by optimizing the number of feedback bits. Numerical results are demonstrated to verify our analytical findings and show that different from the perfect CSI case, there always exists a performance floor of outage probability in the considered network due to limited feedback. Moreover, the optimal number of feedback bits for net throughput maximization increases as the channel coherence time becomes longer.
Autors: Qian Yang;Hui-Ming Wang;Derrick Wing Kwan Ng;Moon Ho Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2281 - 2294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NOMA-Based Multi-Pair Two-Way Relay Networks With Rate Splitting and Group Decoding
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based multi-pair two-way relay (TWR) network, in which a rate splitting scheme and a successive group decoding strategy are employed. By exploiting the interference signals received from neighbor users with the leverage of the full-duplex technique, we enhance the decoding ability of each user and further achieve an effective multiuser interference management for the network. We propose different decoding strategies for different types of nodes by processing the received signals with only local incoming channel state information in different manners. Moreover, under the limited group decoding size, each individual node decodes its own desired messages along with a fraction of the interference successively. We further investigate the joint uplink and downlink fair rate allocation problem based on the max–min criterion, and the solution to which also contains the optimal group decoding schedule. Simulation results in terms of ergodic rate and outrage probability corroborate the superiority of our NOMA-based multi-pair TWR network over the OMA-based counterpart.
Autors: Beixiong Zheng;Xiaodong Wang;Miaowen Wen;Fangjiong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2328 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Autonomous Coverage Control With Diffusive Evolving Density
Abstract:
We consider nonuniform coverage optimization with respect to a non-autonomous coverage metric by spatially deploying a platoon of mobile agents in a planar region. Conventional coverage metrics usually encode a density field that weights points in the workspace. We consider a time-varying diffusive density that evolves according to a conservation law, and the induced time-varying coverage. Boundary conditions can model a time-varying flux across the boundary, and/or a time varying boundary density. We propose a decentralized state-feedback control law that maximizes the generalized non-autonomous coverage metric. The current approach of nonuniform deployment of autonomous agents applies to environmental monitoring and intervention, with deployment of mobile sensors in areas affected by penetration of substances governed by diffusion mechanisms, as for example oil in a marine environment, that pose immediate or long-term threats. We establish asymptotic convergence results illustrated by simulations.
Autors: Suruz Miah;Mostafa M. H. Fallah;Davide Spinello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5262 - 5268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Based Integrated Terrestrial-Satellite Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the downlink transmission of a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based integrated terrestrial-satellite network, in which the NOMA-based terrestrial networks and the satellite cooperatively provide coverage for ground users while reusing the entire bandwidth. For both terrestrial networks and the satellite network, multi-antennas are equipped and beamforming techniques are utilized to serve multiple users simultaneously. A channel quality-based scheme is proposed to select users for the satellite, and we then formulate the terrestrial user pairing as a max–min problem to maximize the minimum channel correlation between users in one NOMA group. Since the terrestrial networks and the satellite network will cause interference to each other, we first investigate the capacity performance of the terrestrial networks and the satellite networks separately, which can be decomposed into the designing of beamforming vectors and the power allocation schemes. Then, a joint iteration algorithm is proposed to maximize the total system capacity, where we introduce the interference temperature limit for the satellite since the satellite can cause interference to all base station users. Finally, numerical results are provided to evaluate the user paring scheme as well as the total system performance, in comparison with some other proposed algorithms and existing algorithms.
Autors: Xiangming Zhu;Chunxiao Jiang;Linling Kuang;Ning Ge;Jianhua Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2253 - 2267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for High-Reliable and Low-Latency V2X Communications in 5G Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a dense vehicular communication network where each vehicle broadcasts its safety information to its neighborhood in each transmission period. Such applications require low latency and high reliability, and thus, we exploit non-orthogonal multiple access to reduce the access latency and to improve the packet reception probability. In the proposed two-fold scheme, the BS performs semi-persistent scheduling and allocates time-frequency resources in a non-orthogonal manner while the vehicles autonomously perform distributed power control with iterative signaling control. We formulate the centralized scheduling and resource allocation problem as equivalent to a multi-dimensional stable roommate matching problem, in which the users and time/frequency resources are considered as disjoint sets of objects to be matched with each other. We then develop a novel rotation matching algorithm, which converges to an -rotation stable matching after a limited number of iterations. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the traditional orthogonal multiple access scheme in terms of the access latency and reliability.
Autors: Boya Di;Lingyang Song;Yonghui Li;Geoffrey Ye Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2383 - 2397
Publisher: IEEE
 

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