Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 12

» Multi-Disciplinary Challenges in Tissue Modeling for Wireless Electromagnetic Powering: A Review
Abstract:
Wireless electromagnetic powering of implantable medical devices is a diverse research area, with goals including replacing percutaneous wires, miniaturizing and extending the lifetime of implanted devices, enabling wireless communication, and biosensing, all while maximizing safety and efficiency of wireless power transfer. Many challenges in wireless transcutaneous powering are associated with tissue as an electromagnetic transmission medium. Tissue is lossy and variable, and safety is a concern due to absorption of electromagnetic energy in high-water-content tissue. The purpose of this overview is to summarize reported variability of tissue properties, particularly in the context of electromagnetic safety, with a focus on models of tissue that can represent variability in the design and evaluation of systems for wireless transcutaneous power transfer.
Autors: Kara N. Bocan;Marlin H. Mickle;Ervin Sejdić;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6498 - 6509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Instant Observer Design of Discrete-Time Fuzzy Systems: A Ranking-Based Switching Approach
Abstract:
This paper generalizes recent results on multi-instant observer design for discrete-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems through a valid ranking-based switching approach. The approach hereby develops a concentrated subdivision of spanning space composed of normalized fuzzy weighting functions and then substantially produces a new ranking-based switching mechanism. By taking advantage of this ranking-based switching mechanism, a class of new fuzzy multi-instant observers are achieved and more relaxed design conditions with respect to the recent work can be obtained for ensuring the asymptotically stability of the developed state estimation error system. Two illustrative examples are provided to validate the effectiveness of the result given in this study.
Autors: Xiangpeng Xie;Dong Yue;Chen Peng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1281 - 1292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Level Read/Write Signaling Using Pulse Width Modulation for High Density Perpendicular Magnetic Recording
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a novel read/write (R/W) signal processing method by 3-ary amplitude shift keying for high density perpendicular magnetic recording. We also provide a 3B2T modulation to generate 3-ary signal, which will be converted to a pulse width modulation (PWM) signal, and then recorded on magnetic media. The PWM signal can be simply demodulated to derive the 3-ary signal through a low-pass filter at readback side. The demodulated signal in the presence of intersymbol interference is detected by the Viterbi algorithm as partial response signal. Nonbinary low-density parity-check codes over GF(8) are applied as error correcting codes in our evaluation. Our simulation result shows the proposed R/W method has +4% more user bit density gain than conventional binary recording.
Autors: Kohsuke Harada;Akihiro Yamazaki;Akihiko Takeo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2134 - 2137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Photon Vertical Cross-Sectional Imaging With a Dynamically-Balanced Thin-Film PZT z-Axis Microactuator
Abstract:
Use of a thin-film piezoelectric microactuator for axial scanning during multi-photon vertical cross-sectional imaging is described. The actuator uses thin-film lead-zirconate-titanate to generate the upward displacement of a central mirror platform micro-machined from a silicon-on-insulator wafer to dimensions compatible with endoscopic imaging instruments. Device modeling in this paper focuses on the existence of frequencies near device resonance producing vertical motion with minimal off-axis tilt, even in the presence of multiple vibration modes and non-uniformity in fabrication outcomes. Operation near rear resonance permits large stroke lengths at low voltages relative to other vertical microactuators. Highly uniform vertical motion of the mirror platform is a key requirement for vertical cross-sectional imaging in the remote scan architecture being used for multi-photon instrument prototyping. The stage is installed in a benchtop testbed in combination with an electrostatic mirror that performs in-plane scanning. Vertical sectional images are acquired from 15- diameter beads and excised mouse colon tissue. [2017-0073]
Autors: Jongsoo Choi;Xiyu Duan;Haijun Li;Thomas D. Wang;Kenn R. Oldham;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1018 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiagent-Based Transactive Energy Framework for Distribution Systems With Smart Microgrids
Abstract:
The increasing population of microgrids with various kinds of plug and play energy resources and rapidly varying demand in distribution systems are multiplying the complexity involved in overall system management. This paper proposes an agent-based transactive energy management framework with a comprehensive energy management system (CEMS) as a solution to address the aggregated complexity induced by microgrids in distribution systems. In this framework, microgrids sell or buy the energy in transactive market, which is an inter-microgrid auction based electricity market, to manage the excess supply or residual demand. CEMS follows a dual phase energy management strategy. In the first stage local auxiliary resources such as demand response and distributed energy storage systems of the microgrids are optimally integrated into system operation to level off the forecasted energy imbalances in microgrids. In the latter stage, the operating configuration of the local auxiliary resources is adjusted in real time along with transactive energy to address the imbalances leftover in the former phase and the forecast errors. The efficacy of the proposed framework and CEMS is verified on a IEEE distribution test feeder system with microgrids.
Autors: H. S. V. S. Kumar Nunna;Dipti Srinivasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2241 - 2250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicast-Based Optimized Peer Control for Efficient P2P Video Streaming in TDM-PONs
Abstract:
An important issue in network traffic management for Internet service providers is how to efficiently handle a large amount of data traffic generated by peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. This paper discusses the efficiency of P2P video streaming in time-division-multiplexed (TDM) passive optical networks (PONs). We summarize the technical requirements that are required to efficiently serve P2P video streaming in the broadcast-and-select architecture of the TDM-PON. The proposed localized multicast-based P2P (LM-P2P) mechanism controls generation of P2P sessions adaptively based on information about the peer location and multicast efficiency in the optical line termination (OLT) domain. The centralized control node of LM-P2P selects a multicast seeder and recommends it to later clients as a seeder so that the amount of P2P streaming traffic can be minimized both in the inter-OLT domain and in the intra-OLT domain. The efficiency of LM-P2P in allocation of network resources is achieved by optimal migration of the property of P2P streaming on the unique architectural feature of TDM-PON. The efficiencies of typical P2P localization and P2P caching are compared with LM-P2P, and the systematic issues in localization of P2P sessions and management of multicast sessions are also discussed. The efficiencies of the proposed mechanism are validated by numerical analysis and practical test results.
Autors: Hyun-Su Lim;Hong-Shik Park;NamUk Kim;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4507 - 4518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer Stolt Migration Algorithm for Subsurface Target Imaging in Oblique Layers
Abstract:
A generalized multilayer Stolt migration (MULSM) method has been developed. The conventional MULSM method can refocus images of buried targets in a layered geometry, but only where the boundaries between the layers are parallel to the air–ground interface. The newly developed algorithm can be applied to an obliquely layered geometry by taking into account the refraction between the layers. Related equations for the method are derived and validated through numerical and experimental investigations. The images refocused by the proposed method are shown to match the actual target positions.
Autors: Haewon Jung;Woong Kang;Kangwook Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4295 - 4303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Converter Based on Cascaded Three-Leg Converters with Reduced Voltage and Current
Abstract:
In this paper, a modularity concept using standard three-leg converters is addressed. Three-phase cascaded topologies composed of standard three-leg converters are investigated. They are composed of three, nine, twenty-one, or three-leg converters. It permits the reduction levels of currents and voltages on switches when compared with a conventional three-phase module or a cascaded H-bridge structure. In this way, three-leg cascaded converters are suitable to be applied in scenarios of high current in which other cascaded topologies become less attractive and high voltage. Furthermore, the proposed arrangement brings advantages such as modularity that leads to convenient construction, easy maintenance, and extension to higher voltage and current levels. A dynamic model is developed and a pulse-width modulation strategy is designed to the converter command accordingly with reference voltage. Discussions about fault tolerance and dc-link capacitor currents are also carried out. Comparisons in terms of converter rating, harmonic distortion, and semiconductor power losses between the proposed and conventional cascaded H-bridge topologies have been carried out. Simulation and experimental results are presented as well.
Autors: Edgard Luiz Lopes Fabricio;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Nady Rocha;Rodrigo Pereira de Lacerda;Maurício Beltrão de Rossiter Corrêa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4682 - 4694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel NoSQL Cache Combining In-NIC and In-Kernel Approaches
Abstract:
Key-value store accelerators based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have been proposed to achieve higher performance per watt than software-based processing. However, because their cache capacity is strictly limited by DRAMs implemented on FPGA boards, their application domains are also limited. To address this issue, the authors propose a multilevel NoSQL cache architecture that utilizes both FPGA-based hardware cache and in-kernel software cache in a complementary style. This motivates them to explore various design options. Simulation results show that their design reduces the cache miss ratio and improves the throughput compared to the nonhierarchical design.
Autors: Yuta Tokusashi;Hiroki Matsutani;
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 44 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimode Coplanar Waveguide Cross-Junction: Equivalent Circuit Model and Air-Bridge Free Applications
Abstract:
This paper proposes the use of the coplanar waveguide (CPW) odd mode, also known as the parasitic slotline mode, as a design parameter. It presents a novel equivalent circuit model for the CPW cross-junction, where each CPW has two modes: the even mode, which is the conventional CPW mode also known as the coplanar mode, and the odd mode. The model is simple, intuitive, and physical-based. It can be used in different combinations including the case of slotline cross-junction. The model paves the way to design novel air-bridge free CPW applications. Among them, two are presented in this paper: CPW-to-slotline transition (balun) and Wilkinson power divider. For both applications, closed form expressions for the operating point are derived. Results are verified by EM simulations. An air-bridge free CPW power divider that combines both applications is fabricated and characterized. Simulations and measurements are in a very good agreement.
Autors: Abdelhamid M. H. Nasr;Amr M. E. Safwat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3753 - 3760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipath Cooperative Communications Networks for Augmented and Virtual Reality Transmission
Abstract:
Augmented and/or virtual reality (AR/VR) are emerging as one of the main applications in future fifth-generation (5G) networks. To meet the requirements of lower latency and massive data transmission in AR/VR applications, a solution with software-defined networking architecture is proposed for 5G small cell networks. On this basis, a multipath cooperative route (MCR) scheme is proposed to facilitate the AR/VR wireless transmissions in 5G small cell networks, in which the delay of the MCR scheme is analytically studied. Furthermore, a service effective energy (SEE) optimization algorithm is developed for AR/VR wireless transmission in 5G small cell networks. Simulation results indicate that both the delay and SEE of the proposed MCR scheme outperform the delay and SEE of the conventional single-path route scheme in 5G small cell networks.
Autors: Xiaohu Ge;Linghui Pan;Qiang Li;Guoqiang Mao;Song Tu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2345 - 2358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multipath Multiplexing for Capacity Enhancement in SIMO Wireless Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel and simple orthogonal faster than Nyquist (OFTN) data transmission and detection approach for a single input multiple output system. It is assumed that the signal having a bandwidth is transmitted through a wireless channel with multipath components. Under this assumption, this paper provides a novel and simple OFTN transmission and symbol-by-symbol detection approach that exploits the multiplexing gain obtained by the multipath characteristic of wideband wireless channels. It is shown that the proposed design can achieve a higher transmission rate than the existing one [i.e., orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)]. Furthermore, the achievable rate gap between the proposed approach and that of the OFDM increases as the number of receiver antennas increases for a fixed value of . This implies that the performance gain of the proposed approach can be very significant for a large-scale multi-antenna wireless system. The superiority of the proposed approach is shown theoretically and confirmed via numerical simulations. Specifically, we have found upper-bound average rates of 15 and 28 bps/Hz with the OFDM and proposed approaches, respectively, in a Rayleigh fading channel with 32 receive antennas and signal-to-noise ratio of 15.3 dB. The extension of the proposed approach for different system setups and associated research problems is also discussed.
Autors: Tadilo Endeshaw Bogale;Long Bao Le;Xianbin Wang;Luc Vandendorpe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6895 - 6911
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Chirp Reflectometry for Determination of Fault Direction and Localization in Live Branched Network Cables
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multiple inductive coupler chirp reflectometry system with multiple resolutions that can determine fault direction, and localize fault is proposed to apply the live target cable. The multiple resolution method enables us to detect and localize the faults, regardless of their location. Time delay information from multiple couplers, which is derived from the time-frequency cross correlation, indicates the fault direction and fault distance, even in cable branched network. The multiple inductive couplers system is proposed to obtain the velocity of propagation and fault direction in cable branch. Using the overcomplete wavelet transform, the signal restoration process can be carried out under signal distortion due to the propagation characteristics of the inductive coupler and target cable. In addition, combining notch filtering techniques and chirp reflectometry method is proposed to cancel 60-Hz harmonic noise, which is acquired from the actual substation. Through the experiments, impedance discontinuity localization and direction determination performance of the proposed method and the adaptability of the proposed method in live cable under harmonic noise by comparing with the existing method were verified.
Autors: Seung Jin Chang;Jin Bae Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2606 - 2614
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Perspective-Cuts Outer Approximation Method for Risk-Averse Operational Planning of Regional Energy Service Providers
Abstract:
In the smart grid and future energy internet environment, a regional energy service provider (RESP) may be able to integrate multiple energy resources such as generator units, demand response, electrical vehicle charging/swapping stations, and carbon emission trading to participate in the market. By imploring a well-known portfolio optimization theory conditional value-at-risk to tackle electricity price uncertainty, this paper formulates the risk-averse day-ahead operational planning for such a RESP as a mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming (MIQCP), named as RA-RESP. A global optimization method, named as multiple perspective-cuts outer approximation method (MPC-OAM) is proposed to solve this model efficiently. A remarkable stronger and tighter mixed integer linear programing master problem is designed to accelerate the convergence of the proposed method. Comprehensive simulation results show that, compared with existing day-ahead planning models, the RA-RESP is a good compromise between profit-based models and cost-based ones. The proposed MPC-OAM can solve complicated RA-RESP problem efficiently, and compared with state-of-the-art solution techniques, the MPC-OAM outperforms in both computing speed and solution quality, especially for scenario which includes more nonlinear factors.
Autors: Linfeng Yang;Jinbao Jian;Yan Xu;Zhaoyang Dong;Guodong Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2606 - 2619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Sensor Measurement Updates for the Extended Target Tracking Random Matrix Model
Abstract:
In this paper, multiple sensor measurement update is studied for a random matrix model. Four different updates are presented and evaluated: three updates based on parametric approximations of the extended target state probability density function and one update based on a Rao–Blackwellized (RB) particle approximation of the state density. An extensive simulation study shows that the RB particle approach shows best performance, at the price of higher computational cost, compared to parametric approximations.
Autors: Gemine Vivone;Karl Granström;Paolo Braca;Peter Willett;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2544 - 2558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Image Hiding Based on Cascaded Free-Space Wave Propagation Using the Structured Phase Mask for Lensless Optical Security System
Abstract:
A novel optical multiple-image hiding method is proposed based on two cascaded free-space propagation transforms in this paper. With the use of the structured phase mask in the phase retrieval algorithm, a plain image is encoded to only one statistically independent phase-only mask. All retrieved phase masks are integrated into the noise-like ciphertext by using the phase mask multiplexing technique. When reconstructing an original plain image, the architecture of double random phase encoding system is directly adopted, where the structured phase mask and the corresponding decryption key mask are located at determined positions along the axis of propagation. Besides the propagation distances, the optical parameters such as wavelength, focal length, and topological charge of the structured mask are considered as the security keys to expand the key space. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on employing the structured phase mask in the process of phase retrieval algorithm, which can enhance the level of security greatly. Simulation results have been given to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Liansheng Sui;Xiao Zhang;Ailing Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Loop Design Technique for High-Performance Low-Dropout Regulator
Abstract:
A new multiple-loop design technique for high-performance low-dropout (LDO) regulator designs has been proposed and successfully implemented in many commercial products for portable smart phone and tablet PC applications. The proposed LDO is composed of five loops that allows designers to obtain a good tradeoff between quiescent current and other performances, such as undershoot, overshoot, and so on. A total of one bandgap reference and 38 LDOs (including n-type and p-type LDOs, which will be named NLDO and PLDO, respectively) were integrated in one power-management IC chip for powering an application processor inside mobile devices. The proposed LDO has been fabricated based on 0.13- CMOS process and supplies various current capacities from 50 to 600 mA; 38 LDOs have been designed and supply different output voltage levels from 0.7 to 3.0 V. One of the proposed NLDOs consumes of the quiescent current and features under 56/24 mV of undershoot/overshoot at VOUT =1V as the load current steps up from 0 to 300 mA with 300 mA/1 on a 1- output capacitor. The measured output load and line regulations are 1.8 and 0.4 mV, respectively. The measured integrated output noise from 10 Hz to 100 kHz at of maximum current shows 80 rms. The package chip size is mm2 with 169 balls.
Autors: Quoc-Hoang Duong;Huy-Hieu Nguyen;Jeong-Woon Kong;Hyun-Seok Shin;Yu-Seok Ko;Hwa-Yeol Yu;Yong-Hee Lee;Chun-Hyeon Bea;Ho-Jin Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2533 - 2549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multisensor Acoustic Tracking of Fish and Seabird Behavior Around Tidal Turbine Structures in Scotland
Abstract:
Despite rapid development of marine renewable energy, relatively little is known of the immediate and future impacts on the surrounding ecosystems. Quantifying the behavior and distribution of animals around marine renewable energy devices is crucial for understanding, predicting, and potentially mitigating any threats posed by these installations. The Flow and Benthic Ecology 4D (FLOWBEC) autonomous seabed platform integrated an Imagenex multibeam echosounder and a Simrad EK60 multifrequency echosounder to monitor marine life in a 120 sector over ranges up to 50 m, seven to eight times per second. Established target detection algorithms fail within MRE sites, due to high levels of backscatter generated by the turbulent physical dynamics, limiting and biasing analysis to only periods of low current speed. This study presents novel algorithms to extract diving seabirds, fish, and fish schools from the intense backscatter caused by turbulent dynamics in flows of 4 m s. Filtering, detection, and tracking using a modified nearest neighbor algorithm provide robust tracking of animal behavior using the multibeam echosounder. Independent multifrequency target detection is demonstrated using the EK60 with optimally calculated thresholds, scale-sensitive filters, morphological exclusion, and frequency-response characteristics. This provides sensitive and reliable detection throughout the entire water column and at all flow speeds. Dive profiles, depth preferences, predator–prey interactions, and fish schooling behavior can be analyzed, in conjunction with the hydrodynamic impacts of marine renewable energy devices. Coregistration of targets between the acoustic instruments increases the information available, providing quantitative measure- including frequency response from the EK60, and target morphology and behavioral interactions from the multibeam echosounder. The analyses draw on deployments at a tidal energy site in Scotland to compare the presence and absence of renewable energy structures across a range of physical and trophic levels over complete spring-neap tidal cycles. These results can be used to inform how animals forage in these sites and whether individuals face collision risks. This quantitative information can de-risk the licensing process and, with a greater mechanistic understanding at demonstration scales, its predictive power could reduce the monitoring required at future arrays.
Autors: Benjamin J. Williamson;Shaun Fraser;Philippe Blondel;Paul S. Bell;James J. Waggitt;Beth E. Scott;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 948 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistep Accelerated Aging of Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Nanostructured La–Sr–Mn–O Thin Films
Abstract:
We present results of investigation of accelerated aging influence on electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) of nanostructured La–Sr–Mn–O films used for magnetic field sensors, which could be applied in advanced scientific and industrial devices. The 400-nm-thick manganite films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. To investigate the effectiveness of accelerated aging, the three methods were tested: 1) thermal treatment of the sensor samples at 100 °C temperature in Ar atmosphere when film surface was uncoated; 2) thermal treatment of the samples coated prior to treatment by polymer; and 3) multistep aging including both previous methods: thermal treatment of the samples with uncoated surface in Ar atmosphere and additional thermal treatment of the coated samples. The sensor samples were studied without and in pulsed magnetic field up to 20 T. To describe the underlying processes, the kinetics of resistivity change during accelerated aging was analyzed using a stretched exponent relaxation function. It was found that the best long-term stability of resistivity in time demonstrated samples treated by a multistep accelerated aging method. All three aging methods resulted in minor influence (<1%) on MR of the films in magnetic fields up to 20 T.
Autors: Nerija Žurauskienė;Vakaris Rudokas;Jonas Klimantavičius;Saulius Balevičius;Česlovas Šimkevičius;Skirmantas Keršulis;Voitech Stankevič;Dainius Pavilonis;Remigijus Vasiliauskas;Valentina Pl
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 45, issue:10, pages: 2787 - 2793
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multitemporal SAR Image Despeckling Based on Block-Matching and Collaborative Filtering
Abstract:
We propose a despeckling algorithm for multitemporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images based on the concepts of block-matching and collaborative filtering. It relies on the nonlocal approach, and it is the extension of SAR-BM3D for dealing with multitemporal data. The technique comprises two passes, each one performing grouping, collaborative filtering, and aggregation. In particular, the first pass performs both the spatial and temporal filtering, while the second pass only the spatial one. To avoid increasing the computational cost of the technique, we resort to lookup tables for the distance computation in the block-matching phases. The experiments show that the proposed algorithm compares favorably with respect to state-of-the-art reference techniques, with better results both on simulated speckled images and on real multitemporal SAR images.
Autors: Giovanni Chierchia;Mireille El Gheche;Giuseppe Scarpa;Luisa Verdoliva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5467 - 5480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multitone ACLR and Its Applications to Linear PA Design
Abstract:
Analysis and measurements results of a multitone frequency spectrum leakage have shown results comparable to those of modulated signals with a similar peak-to-average power ratio. In this brief, the adjacent channel leakage ratio of multitone signals is analyzed, and it is shown that the closed-form result is related to third-order intermodulation distortion that can be obtained by a two-tone test. Such a correlation enables a rough prediction of an RF power amplifier’s (PA) linearity performance through a simple and fast simulation of a two-tone test, thereby shortening the design time. The theoretical analysis is experimentally demonstrated by employing a 1.9-GHz PA fabricated in 40-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Haoyu Qian;Jose Silva-Martinez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1177 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuser Relay Networks Over Unreliable Backhaul Links Under Spectrum Sharing Environment
Abstract:
The effects of unreliable backhaul links on cognitive relay networks with best user selection over Nakagami- fading are investigated. In particular, closed-form expressions for the critical performance metrics are derived along with the asymptotic performance to obtain insights into the impact of the backhaul reliability and multiuser scheduling. Our results demonstrate that backhaul link reliability is a key factor that imposes limitations on the performance of multiuser relay networks.
Autors: Huy T. Nguyen;Trung Q. Duong;Won-Joo Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2314 - 2317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiview Canonical Correlation Analysis Networks for Remote Sensing Image Recognition
Abstract:
In the past decade, deep learning (DL) algorithms have been widely used for remote sensing (RS) image recognition tasks. As the most typical DL model, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) achieves outstand performance for big RS data classification. Recently, a variant of CNN, dubbed canonical correlation analysis network (CCANet), was proposed to abstract the two-view image features. Extensive experiments conducted on several benchmark databases validate the effectiveness of CCANet. However, the CCANet structure is powerless when the observations arrive from more than two sources. To serve the multiview purpose, in this letter, we propose multiview CCANets (MCCANets). Particularly, the MCCANet model learns the stacked multiperspective filter banks by the MCCA method and builds a deep convolutional structure. In the output stage, the binarization and the blockwise histogram are employed as nonlinear processing and feature pooling, respectively. To access the effectiveness of the MCCANet, we conduct a host of experiments on the RSSCN7 RS database. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the MCCANet outperforms the two-view CCANet.
Autors: Xinghao Yang;Weifeng Liu;Dapeng Tao;Jun Cheng;Shuying Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1855 - 1859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Story with Microwaves [Speaker's Corner]
Abstract:
Reports on the author's experience and involvement in the microwave industry.
Autors: Zhaolong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 148 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NanoBridge-Based FPGA in High-Temperature Environments
Abstract:
The authors demonstrate a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based on NanoBridge, a novel resistive-change switch. NanoBridge, which is integrated in the back end of line (BEOL), features a high on/off conductance ratio, weak temperature dependence of its resistance, nonvolatility, endurance against soft errors, and a small footprint. In place of static RAM (SRAM) and a pass transistor, NanoBridge is utilized as a configuration switch in the FPGA. In this article, the authors evaluate the NanoBridge-based FPGA (NB-FPGA) for applications in harsh environments. Specifically, they implemented NB-FPGA in a humanoid robot and compared its performance with that of the conventional FPGA. Results showed that NB-FPGA exhibits small variation in performance over a wide range of temperature, from −55 to 150 °C, and has high immunity for fluctuations in the power supply voltage.
Autors: Makoto Miyamura;Toshitsugu Sakamoto;Xu Bai;Yukihide Tsuji;Ayuka Morioka;Ryusuke Nebashi;Munehiro Tada;Naoki Banno;Koichiro Okamoto;Noriyuki Iguchi;Hiromitsu Hada;Tadahiko Sugibayashi;Yuya Nagamatsu;Soichi Ookubo;Takuma Shirai;Fumihito Sugai;Masayuki
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 32 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NBTI-Generated Defects in Nanoscaled Devices: Fast Characterization Methodology and Modeling
Abstract:
Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI)-generated defects (GDs) have been widely observed and known to play an important role in device’s lifetime. However, its characterization and modeling in nanoscaled devices is a challenge due to their stochastic nature. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast and accurate technique for characterizing the statistical properties of NBTI aging, which can be completed in one day and thus reduce test time significantly. The fast speed comes from replacing the conventional constant voltage stress by the voltage step stress (VSS), while the accuracy comes from capturing the GDs without recovery. The key advances are twofold: first, we demonstrate that this VSS-GD technique is applicable for nanoscaled devices; second, we verify the accuracy of the statistical model based on the parameters extracted from this technique against independently measured data. The proposed method provides an effective solution for GD evaluation, as required when qualifying a CMOS process.
Autors: Rui Gao;Zhigang Ji;Azrif B. Manut;Jian Fu Zhang;Jacopo Franco;Sharifah Wan Muhamad Hatta;Wei Dong Zhang;Ben Kaczer;Dimitri Linten;Guido Groeseneken;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4011 - 4017
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Chebyshev Pattern for Nonuniformly Spaced Arrays Using Zeros Matching Method
Abstract:
An analytic method is presented to design nonuniformly spaced uniform amplitude antenna arrays (NSUAAs) to have near-Chebyshev radiation pattern. In this method, called zeros matching method (ZMM), the zeros of array factors of NSUAAs are matched with the zeros of the exact-Chebyshev pattern. Some examples are brought to verify the effectiveness of the ZMM approach for both linear and planar NSUAAs.
Autors: Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini;Giuseppe Vecchi;Paola Pirinoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5155 - 5161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Field Full-Waveform Inversion of Ground-Penetrating Radar Data to Monitor the Water Front in Limestone
Abstract:
Limestone has been a widely used building material for many years. Its degradation process has been strongly linked to its water content, to which the radar waves are sensitive. In this paper, the closed-form, near-field full-wave radar model of Lambot et al. is utilized for monitoring water ingress in limestone. This model is based on planar layered media Green's functions combined with an intrinsic representation of the antenna through global reflection and transmission functions. The Jonscher model is used to describe the frequency dependence of the limestone electromagnetic properties. Then, an inversion method based on a genetic algorithm is developed and optimized. The method is numerically validated by simulating electromagnetic wave propagation in medias, using a three-dimensional finite element software, namely high-frequency electromagnetic field simulation. Finally, the method is experimentally validated, with a stepped-frequency radar system and an ultrawide band antenna, during an imbibition process of a limestone slab. Results are compared to gammadensimetry measurements, a nuclear and semidestructive approach, performed as the reference. Analyses of the results show that the average relative difference between the estimated and the reference water front is 2.5%, thereby demonstrating the performance of the proposed nondestructive method.
Autors: Borui Guan;Amine Ihamouten;Xavier Dérobert;David Guilbert;Sébastien Lambot;Géraldine Villain;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4328 - 4336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Threshold RISC-V Core With DSP Extensions for Scalable IoT Endpoint Devices
Abstract:
Endpoint devices for Internet-of-Things not only need to work under extremely tight power envelope of a few milliwatts, but also need to be flexible in their computing capabilities, from a few kOPS to GOPS. Near-threshold (NT) operation can achieve higher energy efficiency, and the performance scalability can be gained through parallelism. In this paper, we describe the design of an open-source RISC-V processor core specifically designed for NT operation in tightly coupled multicore clusters. We introduce instruction extensions and microarchitectural optimizations to increase the computational density and to minimize the pressure toward the shared-memory hierarchy. For typical data-intensive sensor processing workloads, the proposed core is, on average, faster and more energy efficient, thanks to a smart L0 buffer to reduce cache access contentions and support for compressed instructions. Single Instruction Multiple Data extensions, such as dot products, and a built-in L0 storage further reduce the shared-memory accesses by reducing contentions by . With four NT-optimized cores, the cluster is operational from 0.6 to 1.2 V, achieving a peak efficiency of 67 MOPS/mW in a low-cost 65-nm bulk CMOS technology. In a low-power 28-nm FD-SOI process, a peak efficiency of 193 MOPS/mW (40 MHz and 1 mW) can be achieved.
Autors: Michael Gautschi;Pasquale Davide Schiavone;Andreas Traber;Igor Loi;Antonio Pullini;Davide Rossi;Eric Flamand;Frank K. Gürkaynak;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2700 - 2713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Capacitance as Performance Booster for Tunnel FETs and MOSFETs: An Experimental Study
Abstract:
This letter reports for the first time a full experimental study of performance boosting of tunnel FETs (TFETs) and MOSFETs by negative capacitance (NC) effect. We discuss the importance of capacitance matching between a ferroelectric NC and a device capacitance to achieve hysteretic and non-hysteretic characteristics. PZT ferroelectric capacitors are connected to the gate of three terminals TFETs and MOSFETs and partial or full matching NC conditions for amplification and stability are obtained. First, we demonstrate the characteristics of hysteretic and non-hysteretic NC-TFETs. The main performance boosting is obtained for the non-hysteretic NC-TFET, where the ON-current is increased by a factor of 500 times, transconductance is enhanced by three orders of magnitude, and the low slope region is extended. The boosting of performance is moderate in the hysteretic NC-TFET. Second, we investigate the impact of the same NC booster on MOSFETs. Subthreshold swing as steep as 4 mV/decade with a 1.5-V hysteresis is obtained on a commercial device fabricated in 28-nm CMOS technology. Moreover, we demonstrate a non-hysteretic NC-MOSFET with a full matching of capacitances and a reduced subthreshold swing down to 20 mV/decade.
Autors: Ali Saeidi;Farzan Jazaeri;Francesco Bellando;Igor Stolichnov;Gia V. Luong;Qing-Tai Zhao;Siegfried Mantl;Christian C. Enz;Adrian M. Ionescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1485 - 1488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neighbor-Aided Localization in Vehicular Networks
Abstract:
We address the problem of localization in vehicular ad hoc networks. Our goal is to leverage vehicle communications and smartphone sensors to improve the overall localization performance. Assuming vehicles are equipped with the IEEE 802.11p wireless interfaces, we employ a two-stage Bayesian filter to track the vehicle’s position: an unscented Kalman filter for heading estimation using smartphone inertial sensors, and a particle filter that fuses vehicle-to-vehicle signal strength measurements received from mobile anchors whose positions are uncertain, with velocity, GPS position, and map information. Our model leads to a robust localization system and is able to provide useful position information even in the absence of GPS data. We evaluate the algorithm performance using real-world measurements collected from four communicating vehicles in an urban scenario, and considering different combinations of location information sources.
Autors: Susana B. Cruz;Traian E. Abrudan;Zhuoling Xiao;Niki Trigoni;João Barros;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2693 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NELasso: Group-Sparse Modeling for Characterizing Relations Among Named Entities in News Articles
Abstract:
Named entities such as people, locations, and organizations play a vital role in characterizing online content. They often reflect information of interest and are frequently used in search queries. Although named entities can be detected reliably from textual content, extracting relations among them is more challenging, yet useful in various applications (e.g., news recommending systems). In this paper, we present a novel model and system for learning semantic relations among named entities from collections of news articles. We model each named entity occurrence with sparse structured logistic regression, and consider the words (predictors) to be grouped based on background semantics. This sparse group LASSO approach forces the weights of word groups that do not influence the prediction towards zero. The resulting sparse structure is utilized for defining the type and strength of relations. Our unsupervised system yields a named entities' network where each relation is typed, quantified, and characterized in context. These relations are the key to understanding news material over time and customizing newsfeeds for readers. Extensive evaluation of our system on articles from TIME magazine and BBC News shows that the learned relations correlate with static semantic relatedness measures like WLM, and capture the evolving relationships among named entities over time.
Autors: Amara Tariq;Asim Karim;Hassan Foroosh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 2000 - 2014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Utility Aware Traffic Load Balancing in Backhaul-Constrained Cache-Enabled Small Cell Networks with Hybrid Power Supplies
Abstract:
Explosive data traffic growth leads to a continuous surge in capacity demands across mobile networks. In order to provision high network capacity, small cell base stations (SCBSs) are widely deployed. Owing to the close proximity to mobile users, SCBSs can effectively enhance the network capacity and offloading traffic load from macro BSs (MBSs). However, the cost-effective backhaul may not be readily available for SCBSs, thus leading to backhaul constraints in small cell networks (SCNs). Enabling cache in BSs may mitigate the backhaul constraints in SCNs. Moreover, the dense deployment of SCBSs may incur excessive energy consumption. To alleviate brown power consumption, renewable energy will be explored to power BSs. In such a network, it is challenging to dynamically balance traffic load among BSs to optimize the network utilities. In this paper, we investigate the traffic load balancing in backhaul-constrained cache-enabled small cell networks powered by hybrid energy sources. We have proposed a network utility aware (NUA) traffic load balancing scheme that optimizes user association to strike a tradeoff between the green power utilization and the traffic delivery latency. On balancing the traffic load, the proposed NUA traffic load balancing scheme considers the green power utilization, the traffic delivery latency in both BSs and their backhaul, and the cache hit ratio. The NUA traffic load balancing scheme allows dynamically adjusting the tradeoff between the green power utilization and the traffic delivery latency. We have proved the convergence and the optimality of the proposed NUA traffic load balancing scheme. Through extensive simulations, we have compared performance of the NUA traffic load balancing scheme with other schemes and showed its advantages in backhaul-constrained cache-enabled small cell networks with hybrid power supplies.
Autors: Tao Han;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 2819 - 2832
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networked Fusion Estimation With Bounded Noises
Abstract:
Most of time-varying systems in fusion estimation are generally modeled without bounded noises. In this paper, we study the distributed fusion estimation problem for networked time-varying systems with bounded noises, where the resource constraints (i.e., bandwidth or energy) and quantization effect are described by a unified model. A new local estimator with time-varying gain is designed by solving a class of convex optimization problems such that the square error of the estimator is bounded. When each local estimate is transmitted to the fusion center over communication networks, the selection probability criterion is derived such that the mean square error of the each compensating state estimate is bounded. Then, a convex optimization problem on the design of an optimal weighting fusion criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved by standard software packages. Target tracking system with time-varying sampling period is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Bo Chen;Daniel W. C. Ho;Wen-An Zhang;Li Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5415 - 5421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neural Network Learning Adaptive Robust Control of an Industrial Linear Motor-Driven Stage With Disturbance Rejection Ability
Abstract:
In this paper, a neural network learning adaptive robust controller (NNLARC) is synthesized for an industrial linear motor stage to achieve good tracking performance and excellent disturbance rejection ability. The NNLARC scheme contains parametric adaption part, robust feedback part, and radial basis function (RBF) neural network (NN) part in a parallel structure. The adaptive part and the robust part are designed based on the system dynamics to meet the challenge of parametric variations and uncertain random disturbances. It must be noted that in actual industrial machining situations, precision motion equipment is always disturbed by unknown factors, which usually cannot be described by mathematical models but affect the tracking accuracy significantly. Therefore, the RBF NN part is employed to further approximate and compensate the complicated disturbances with high reconstructing accuracy and fast training rate. The stability of the proposed NNLARC strategy is analyzed and proved through the Lyapunov theorem. Comparative experiments under various external disturbances such as completely unknown disturbance added by polyfoam are conducted on an industrial linear motor stage. The experimental results consistently validate that the proposed NNLARC control strategy can excellently meet the challenge of complicated disturbance in practical applications. The proposed scheme also provides a guidance for control strategy synthesis with both good tracking performance and disturbance rejection.
Autors: Ze Wang;Chuxiong Hu;Yu Zhu;Suqin He;Kaiming Yang;Ming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2172 - 2183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Adaptive Multi-Expansion Frequencies Approach for SP-MORe Techniques With Application to the Well-Conditioned Asymptotic Waveform Evaluation
Abstract:
Fast frequency sweep using model order reduction (MORe) techniques is one of the most valuable and efficient features in high-frequency simulators. These techniques usually use a single full solution at a given frequency to build a smaller approximation reduced model, which might be insufficient for wideband and ultrawideband simulations of high quality factor RF and microwave devices. Despite the fact that many computationally reliable error estimate methods have been presented, they all share the same starting point, which is to estimate the residual error between fast sweep solutions and not the actual error. In this paper, we introduce a new accurate and computationally reliable error estimate approach based on the lossless network condition for the automation of single-point MORe. When applied with the well-conditioned asymptotic waveform evaluation, the new approach shows very good performances in terms of accuracy and computation time compared with existing multipoint MORe and commercial EM software.
Autors: Mohamed Jemai;Ammar B. Kouki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3709 - 3719
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Constructions of Asymptotically Optimal Codebooks With Multiplicative Characters
Abstract:
In practical applications, such as direct spread code division multiple access communications, space-time codes and compressed sensing, and codebooks with small inner-product correlation are required. It is extremely difficult to construct codebooks achieving the Levenshtein bound. In this paper, two new constructions of infinitely many codebooks with multiplicative characters of finite fields are presented. These constructions produce complex codebooks asymptotically achieving the Levenshtein bound and codebooks asymptotically achieving the Welch bound. The codebooks presented in this paper have new parameters.
Autors: Ziling Heng;Cunsheng Ding;Qin Yue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6179 - 6187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Distinguished Lecturers for 2018?2020 [Distinguished Lecturers]
Abstract:
Presents information on APS Distinguished Lecturer Series
Autors: Peter de Maagt;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 169 - 171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Electrical Power Supply System for All-Electric Propulsion Spacecraft
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel electrical power supply system architecture (power conditioning and processing unit, PCPU) for high-power all-electric propulsion spacecraft platform with high-voltage power bus (HVBUS) powering thrusters and regulated power bus (VBUS) powering onboard payloads, respectively. The design principle of function modules in PCPU has been analyzed. Besides, the test on electrical characteristic of VBUS and HVBUS in prototyped system proves the stable and reliable work of buses in PCPU.
Autors: Ming Fu;Donglai Zhang;Tiecai Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2157 - 2166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Families of Balanced Quaternary Sequences of Even Period With Three-Level Optimal Autocorrelation
Abstract:
In this letter, we present two new families of balanced quaternary sequences of period with optimal three-level autocorrelation, where is an odd prime and has a quadratic partition of form either ( is even) or ( is odd). Our construction is based on the Chinese remainder theorem and cyclotomic classes of order four.
Autors: Xiumin Shen;Yanguo Jia;Jiaqi Wang;Lichao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2146 - 2149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New General Formulation and Experimental Verification of Harmonic Clipping Contours in High-Frequency Power Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel closed-form solution for the theoretical calculation of harmonic clipping contours when an arbitrary number of harmonics is considered. The clipping contours can be used to design the loads of a high-frequency power device in order to avoid drain current clipping, and hence preventing strong nonlinear effects. For the first time the predicted second harmonic contours are validated thoroughly by means of experimental characterization of GaN HEMT devices. The measured contours result in good agreement with the theory. Moreover, the effect of third harmonic load tuning is also assessed and verified for the first time. These results prove that the clipping contours can be used as a tool for the systematic design of low-distortion power amplifiers.
Autors: Roberto Quaglia;James J. Bell;Steve Cripps;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3903 - 3909
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Phase Error Corrections for PFA with Squinted SAR
Abstract:
The polar format algorithm, while being more efficient than backprojection for synthetic aperture radar image formation, produces images with distortion and defocus. Since these errors are caused by uncompensated phase, a correction may be applied in postprocessing. Recent work utilizes a slow-time Taylor expansion of the differential range to derive the residual quadratic phase error for broadside linear flight paths. In this letter, we extend this approach to squinted linear flight paths and present new distortion and defocus corrections.
Autors: Matthew D. Scherreik;LeRoy A. Gorham;Brian D. Rigling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2637 - 2641
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New products
Abstract:
Rohde & Schwarz has enhanced its R&S Scope Rider, adding triggering and decoding software for the CAN flexible data rate (CAN-FD) and single edge nibble transmission (SENT) bus systems. According to R&S, it is currently the only portable oscilloscope capable of analyzing CAN, LIN, CAN-FD and SENT bus signals, making it useful for troubleshooting automotive and other applications.
Autors: Robert Goldberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 59 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Resonant Gate Driver Circuit for High-Frequency Application of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs
Abstract:
Silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are capable of processing high power at high switching frequencies with less switching losses and conduction losses. The gate driver circuit power consumption is directly proportional to the switching frequency. The power taken from the gate supply is dissipated in the gate resistance of the conventional gate driver (CGD) circuit. Instead of dissipating all the gate driver energy, some energy can be recovered or recycled by utilizing the principle of resonance. This reduces the net power being taken from the gate supply. This paper presents a new resonant gate driver (RGD) circuit which consumes less power compared to the CGD circuit at high switching frequencies. The proposed gate driver is designed for SiC MOSFETs. It can be modified appropriately to suit for insulated-gate bipolar transistors and other MOSFETs also. The performance of the proposed circuit is simulated in LTSpice environment, and an experimental prototype of the proposed circuit is developed to validate its performance. The proposed RGD circuit has achieved nearly 50% reduction in gate driver power consumption compared to the CGD circuit.
Autors: Jaya Venkata Phani Sekhar Chennu;Ramkrishan Maheshwari;Helong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8277 - 8287
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nodes' Evolution Diversity and Link Prediction in Social Networks
Abstract:
Recently, social networks have witnessed a massive surge in popularity. A key issue in social network research is network evolution analysis, which assumes that all the autonomous nodes in a social network follow uniform evolution mechanisms. However, different nodes in a social network should have different evolution mechanisms to generate different edges. This is proposed as the underlying idea to ensure the nodes’ evolution diversity in this paper. Our approach involves identifying the micro-level node evolution that generates different edges by introducing the existing link prediction methods from the perspectives of nodes. We also propose the edge generation coefficient to evaluate the extent to which an edge's generation can be explained by a link prediction method. To quantify the nodes’ evolution diversity, we define the diverse evolution distance. Furthermore, a diverse node adaption algorithm is proposed to indirectly analyze the evolution of the entire network based on the nodes’ evolution diversity. Extensive experiments on disparate real-world networks demonstrate that the introduction of the nodes’ evolution diversity is important and beneficial for analyzing the network evolution. The diverse node adaption algorithm outperforms other state-of-the-art link prediction algorithms in terms of both accuracy and universality. The greater the nodes’ evolution diversity, the more obvious its advantages.
Autors: Huan Wang;Wenbin Hu;Zhenyu Qiu;Bo Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2263 - 2274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Cancelation? Explained!: The Role of Feedback in Noise-Canceling LNAs and Receivers
Abstract:
Inductorless wide-band low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) usually suffer from poor noise performance, mainly due to the high noise contribution of the matching device. Noise canceling (NC) is a technique used in wide-band LNAs [1]-[13] to nullify the noise contribution of the matching device at the output. NC techniques are often explained with the help of the block diagram shown in Figure 1(a), where the input signal from a source of internal impedance Rs is simultaneously fed to a matching amplifier and a voltage sensing amplifier.
Autors: Indrajit Das;Nagarjuna Nallam;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 100 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Effect and Noise-Assisted Ensemble Regression in Power System Online Sensitivity Identification
Abstract:
Recently developed data acquisition equipment and data processing methods have ignited the possibility of power system online sensitivity identification (OSI). Despite the existing OSI algorithms, practical issues such as data collinearity and the noise effect on the identification algorithm must be considered to realize OSI in real-power systems. In this study, the negative and positive aspects of noise to OSI are first studied. Then, under the data collinearity condition and by making use of the positive aspects of noise, a noise-assisted ensemble regression method is proposed to simultaneously solve the data collinearity problem and manage the negative aspects of noise. Moreover, the proposed method is proven equivalent to one of the most effective measures, the norm-2 regularization method, to address the collinearity problem, and therefore provides satisfactory OSI results. The proposed method is tested in an 8-generator 36-node system with original operations data from a real-power system, and the results validate its effectiveness.
Autors: Junbo Zhang;C. Y. Chung;Lin Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2302 - 2310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Radar Approach for Interrogating SAW Sensors Using Software Defined Radio
Abstract:
Passive, wireless surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor systems can be approached from a radar perspective, where the SAW device is thought of as a cooperative target. This paper investigates the use of a commercial-off-the-shelf software defined radio to interrogate wireless SAW sensors with a randomly generated interrogation pulse. The USRP B200mini is utilized as the transceiver platform with custom field-programmable gate array (FPGA) modifications to generate the random interrogation waveform and provide synchronization and buffering to the received signal. Each transmit sample bit in the FPGA is fed by an independent linear-feedback shift register, which generates pseudo-random I and Q samples for the interrogation pulse. An RF daughterboard has also been developed and integrated with the B200mini to increase the transmit power, provide filtering of the RF signals, and switch a signal antenna between the transmit and receive channels. Radio control and matched filter correlator post-processing are accomplished using Python. Design and implementation details for the FPGA modifications, RF daughterboard, and post-processing are discussed. The system is demonstrated by wirelessly interrogating SAW temperature sensors at 915 MHz.
Autors: James R. Humphries;Frederick K. Reed;Christopher P. Carmichael;Peter L. Fuhr;Timothy J. McIntyre;Arthur R. Weeks;Donald C. Malocha;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6760 - 6769
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NOMA in Downlink SDMA With Limited Feedback: Performance Analysis and Optimization
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is investigated and optimized in a downlink space division multiple access network with a multi-antenna base station and randomly deployed users, under a general channel state information (CSI) limited feedback framework. We first propose a dynamic user scheduling and grouping strategy by leveraging limited feedback. Based on that, an analytical framework is proposed to obtain the outage probability of the network in closed form. The diversity order and the impacts of the number of feedback bits on the outage performance of NOMA are analyzed. Furthermore, the net throughput, which captures the network-wide throughput with the uplink feedback cost considered, is maximized by optimizing the number of feedback bits. Numerical results are demonstrated to verify our analytical findings and show that different from the perfect CSI case, there always exists a performance floor of outage probability in the considered network due to limited feedback. Moreover, the optimal number of feedback bits for net throughput maximization increases as the channel coherence time becomes longer.
Autors: Qian Yang;Hui-Ming Wang;Derrick Wing Kwan Ng;Moon Ho Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2281 - 2294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NOMA-Based Multi-Pair Two-Way Relay Networks With Rate Splitting and Group Decoding
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based multi-pair two-way relay (TWR) network, in which a rate splitting scheme and a successive group decoding strategy are employed. By exploiting the interference signals received from neighbor users with the leverage of the full-duplex technique, we enhance the decoding ability of each user and further achieve an effective multiuser interference management for the network. We propose different decoding strategies for different types of nodes by processing the received signals with only local incoming channel state information in different manners. Moreover, under the limited group decoding size, each individual node decodes its own desired messages along with a fraction of the interference successively. We further investigate the joint uplink and downlink fair rate allocation problem based on the max–min criterion, and the solution to which also contains the optimal group decoding schedule. Simulation results in terms of ergodic rate and outrage probability corroborate the superiority of our NOMA-based multi-pair TWR network over the OMA-based counterpart.
Autors: Beixiong Zheng;Xiaodong Wang;Miaowen Wen;Fangjiong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2328 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Autonomous Coverage Control With Diffusive Evolving Density
Abstract:
We consider nonuniform coverage optimization with respect to a non-autonomous coverage metric by spatially deploying a platoon of mobile agents in a planar region. Conventional coverage metrics usually encode a density field that weights points in the workspace. We consider a time-varying diffusive density that evolves according to a conservation law, and the induced time-varying coverage. Boundary conditions can model a time-varying flux across the boundary, and/or a time varying boundary density. We propose a decentralized state-feedback control law that maximizes the generalized non-autonomous coverage metric. The current approach of nonuniform deployment of autonomous agents applies to environmental monitoring and intervention, with deployment of mobile sensors in areas affected by penetration of substances governed by diffusion mechanisms, as for example oil in a marine environment, that pose immediate or long-term threats. We establish asymptotic convergence results illustrated by simulations.
Autors: Suruz Miah;Mostafa M. H. Fallah;Davide Spinello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5262 - 5268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Based Integrated Terrestrial-Satellite Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the downlink transmission of a non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)-based integrated terrestrial-satellite network, in which the NOMA-based terrestrial networks and the satellite cooperatively provide coverage for ground users while reusing the entire bandwidth. For both terrestrial networks and the satellite network, multi-antennas are equipped and beamforming techniques are utilized to serve multiple users simultaneously. A channel quality-based scheme is proposed to select users for the satellite, and we then formulate the terrestrial user pairing as a max–min problem to maximize the minimum channel correlation between users in one NOMA group. Since the terrestrial networks and the satellite network will cause interference to each other, we first investigate the capacity performance of the terrestrial networks and the satellite networks separately, which can be decomposed into the designing of beamforming vectors and the power allocation schemes. Then, a joint iteration algorithm is proposed to maximize the total system capacity, where we introduce the interference temperature limit for the satellite since the satellite can cause interference to all base station users. Finally, numerical results are provided to evaluate the user paring scheme as well as the total system performance, in comparison with some other proposed algorithms and existing algorithms.
Autors: Xiangming Zhu;Chunxiao Jiang;Linling Kuang;Ning Ge;Jianhua Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2253 - 2267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access for High-Reliable and Low-Latency V2X Communications in 5G Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a dense vehicular communication network where each vehicle broadcasts its safety information to its neighborhood in each transmission period. Such applications require low latency and high reliability, and thus, we exploit non-orthogonal multiple access to reduce the access latency and to improve the packet reception probability. In the proposed two-fold scheme, the BS performs semi-persistent scheduling and allocates time-frequency resources in a non-orthogonal manner while the vehicles autonomously perform distributed power control with iterative signaling control. We formulate the centralized scheduling and resource allocation problem as equivalent to a multi-dimensional stable roommate matching problem, in which the users and time/frequency resources are considered as disjoint sets of objects to be matched with each other. We then develop a novel rotation matching algorithm, which converges to an -rotation stable matching after a limited number of iterations. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the traditional orthogonal multiple access scheme in terms of the access latency and reliability.
Autors: Boya Di;Lingyang Song;Yonghui Li;Geoffrey Ye Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2383 - 2397
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Parametric Approach of Video Capsule Endoscope Localization Using Suboptimal Method of Position Bounded CWCL
Abstract:
For proper diagnosis, location of the wireless video capsule endoscope is required to be known by the physicians. In this paper, we propose an algorithm of localizing the capsule using path loss-based calibrated weighted centroid localization (CWCL). The main challenge in path loss-based localization is the highly randomness of measured path loss due to shadow fading and multi-path propagation effects of human body channel. To address the randomness in the measured path loss, we propose two methods of path loss estimation using Gaussian weighted average filter and the multiple input multiple output diversity scheme. Then, we calculate the weight of the sensor receiver position using the estimated path loss. Finally, the position of the capsule is estimated using position-bounded CWCL. We propose a realistic suboptimal method of estimating the calibration coefficient and also compute the optimal value of coefficient to set the benchmark. Additionally, we propose two boundary conditions on the estimated positions to improve the localization accuracy. We simulate our proposed algorithms using MATLAB to validate the accuracy and observe significant improvements without any prior knowledge of channel parameters. The proposed algorithms improve the accuracy up to 5.14-mm root mean square error and outperform the existing literature.
Autors: Umma Hany;Lutfa Akter;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6806 - 6815
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Stationary Rician Noise Estimation in Parallel MRI Using a Single Image: A Variance-Stabilizing Approach
Abstract:
Parallel magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) techniques have gained a great importance both in research and clinical communities recently since they considerably accelerate the image acquisition process. However, the image reconstruction algorithms needed to correct the subsampling artifacts affect the nature of noise, i.e., it becomes non-stationary. Some methods have been proposed in the literature dealing with the non-stationary noise in pMRI. However, their performance depends on information not usually available such as multiple acquisitions, receiver noise matrices, sensitivity coil profiles, reconstruction coefficients, or even biophysical models of the data. Besides, some methods show an undesirable granular pattern on the estimates as a side effect of local estimation. Finally, some methods make strong assumptions that just hold in the case of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which limits their usability in real scenarios. We propose a new automatic noise estimation technique for non-stationary Rician noise that overcomes the aforementioned drawbacks. Its effectiveness is due to the derivation of a variance-stabilizing transformation designed to deal with any SNR. The method was compared to the main state-of-the-art methods in synthetic and real scenarios. Numerical results confirm the robustness of the method and its better performance for the whole range of SNRs.
Autors: Tomasz Pieciak;Santiago Aja-Fernández;Gonzalo Vegas-Sánchez-Ferrero;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 2015 - 2029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoherent Alamouti Phase-Shift Keying With Full-Rate Encoding and Polynomial-Complexity Maximum-Likelihood Decoding
Abstract:
We consider Alamouti encoding that draws symbols from phase-shift keying and develop a new differential modulation scheme that attains full rate for any constellation order. In contrast to past work, the proposed scheme guarantees that the encoded matrix maintains the characteristics of the initial codebook and, at the same time, attains full rate so that all possible sequences of space-time matrices become valid. Surprisingly, although the validity of all sequences could be thought as a drawback with respect to the cost of noncoherent sequence decoding, in fact it turns out to be an advantage. Based on recent results in the context of quadratic-form maximization over finite alphabets, we exploit the full-rate property of the proposed scheme to develop a polynomial-complexity maximum-likelihood noncoherent sequence decoder whose order is solely determined by the number of receive antennas. Numerical studies show the superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with contemporary alternatives in terms of encoding rate, decoding complexity, bandwidth efficiency, and throughput.
Autors: Panos P. Markopoulos;George N. Karystinos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6688 - 6697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoherent Radar Detection in Correlated Pareto Distributed Clutter
Abstract:
Radar detection in the presence of spatially correlated Pareto distributed clutter is examined. It is shown how an order-statistic-based sliding window detection process must have its threshold set in order to achieve a constant false alarm rate. A particular multivariate Pareto distribution is constructed, based upon a compound Gaussian model with inverse gamma texture, whose pairwise marginal distributions have a general correlation. A specific example is then used for performance analysis.
Autors: Graham Victor Weinberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2628 - 2636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncontact 3-D Speckle Contrast Diffuse Correlation Tomography of Tissue Blood Flow Distribution
Abstract:
Recent advancements in near-infrared diffuse correlation techniques and instrumentation have opened the path for versatile deep tissue microvasculature blood flow imaging systems. Despite this progress there remains a need for a completely noncontact, noninvasive device with high translatability from small/testing (animal) to large/target (human) subjects with trivial application on both. Accordingly, we discuss our newly developed setup which meets this demand, termed noncontact speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography (nc_scDCT). The nc_scDCT provides fast, continuous, portable, noninvasive, and inexpensive acquisition of 3-D tomographic deep (up to 10 mm) tissue blood flow distributions with straightforward design and customization. The features presented include a finite-element-method implementation for incorporating complex tissue boundaries, fully noncontact hardware for avoiding tissue compression and interactions, rapid data collection with a diffuse speckle contrast method, reflectance-based design promoting experimental translation, extensibility to related techniques, and robust adjustable source and detector patterns and density for high resolution measurement with flexible regions of interest enabling unique application-specific setups. Validation is shown in the detection and characterization of both high and low contrasts in flow relative to the background using tissue phantoms with a pump-connected tube (high) and phantom spheres (low). Furthermore, in vivo validation of extracting spatiotemporal 3-D blood flow distributions and hyperemic response during forearm cuff occlusion is demonstrated. Finally, the success of instrument feasibility in clinical use is examined through the intraoperative imaging of mastectomy skin flap.
Autors: Chong Huang;Daniel Irwin;Mingjun Zhao;Yu Shang;Nneamaka Agochukwu;Lesley Wong;Guoqiang Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 2068 - 2076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonconvex Penalty Based Low-Rank Representation and Sparse Regression for eQTL Mapping
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of accounting for confounding factors and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping in the study of SNP-gene associations. The existing convex penalty based algorithm has limited capacity to keep main information of matrix in the process of reducing matrix rank. We present an algorithm, which use nonconvex penalty based low-rank representation to account for confounding factors and make use of sparse regression for eQTL mapping (NCLRS). The efficiency of the presented algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results of 18 synthetic datasets given by NCLRS and presented algorithm, respectively. The experimental results or biological dataset show that our approach is an effective tool to account for non-genetic effects than currently existing methods.
Autors: Lin Yuan;Lin Zhu;Wei-Li Guo;Xiaobo Zhou;Youhua Zhang;Zhenhua Huang;De-Shuang Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1154 - 1164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoplanar Geometry for Mobile NLOS MIMO Ultraviolet Communication With Linear Complexity Signal Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, we take a first step toward the mobile support for nonline-of-sight ultraviolet (UV) links by introducing a mesh UV network framework. Spatial multiplexing noncoplanar multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) UV system architecture is designed geometrically for the mobile mesh network to overcome the data rate bottleneck induced by scattered UV channel. Based on the MIMO UV channel characteristics, we further propose a modified sphere decoding (SD) method to accomplish MIMO signal detection in practical spatial correlated channels at a linear computational complexity. We evaluate mobile MIMO channel responses under various geometric parameters and the feasibility of this system geometry in and cases. Comparison of the bit error rates (BERs) between the modified SD, zero forcing, and SD is also done. Numerical results demonstrate that compared with the traditional linear array system structure, fully multiplexing is much easier via the noncoplanar MIMO geometry under very realistic parameters and the modified SD significantly improves the MIMO signal detection complexity with bit BER performance loss.
Autors: Heng Qin;Yong Zuo;Feiyu Li;Risheng Cong;Lingchao Meng;Jian Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nondestructive Testing for Multi-Layer Metal-Metal Bonded Structure by Using Inductive Lock-In Thermograhy
Abstract:
Multilayer materials with metal-metal bonded structure have been widely applied in aviation, aerospace and nuclear industrial fields. The presence of inner defects such as debonding, air gaps leads to significant degradation of the load capacity and mechanical behaviors. Due to their complex structure, debonding detection in metal-metal structure inherently remains challenge. This paper proposes a feasibility study of non-destructive inspection of debonding defect in lead-steel sample by using inductive lock-in thermography (ILT). The detectability validation is carried out based on experimental studies. Theoretical analysis, excitation source and system design as well as various influence parameters of ILT are discussed and optimized. Fourier-transform based post-processing has been investigated to analyze both magnitude and phase images for defects identification. The obtained results have been promising validated and it indicated the ability to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The comparative experiment using different methods (ILT, ECPT, and OLT) has been carried out. The results have revealed that the ILT has advantages and could be served as a strong candidate for practical adoption in debonding defect inspection in metal-metal bonded sample.
Autors: Yuyu Zhu;Bin Gao;Gui Yun Tian;Wai Lok Woo;Guangping Tang;Chaoming Sun;Jianwen Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6716 - 6723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Analysis of Microwave Limiter Using Field-Circuit Coupling Algorithm Based on Time-Domain Volume-Surface Integral Method
Abstract:
This letter presents the nonlinear analysis of the physical characteristic of a microwave positive intrinsic-negative diode limiter using the field-circuit coupling algorithm based on a time-domain volume-surface integral equation method. In order to accelerate the Newton iteration solution of the nonlinear field-circuit coupling equations, an improved solution scheme of a matrix equation is used here. Moreover, the basic diode charge-control model employed contains both a forward and reverse process as well as emitter recombination. Experimental and numerical results are given to demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method for the nonlinear analysis of commercial limiter.
Autors: Shitao Chen;Dazhi Ding;Zhenhong Fan;Rushan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 864 - 866
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Compensation of Multi-CAP VLC System Employing Clustering Algorithm Based Perception Decision
Abstract:
Nonlinearities induced by the electrical amplifiers and the optoelectronic devices can be detrimental effects in visible light communication (VLC) systems. In this paper, clustering algorithm based perception decision (CAPD) is proposed to mitigate the nonlinear distortion in a VLC system. Aided by CAPD nonlinear compensation, we experimentally demonstrate a multiband CAP modulated VLC system consisting of a red light-emitting diode as a transmitter and a p-i-n photodiode based differential receiver. The system performances including the Q factor, bit error rate (BER), and computational complexity are thoroughly investigated when using a pure linear blind equalization scheme (modified cascaded multimodulus algorithm, M-CMMA) and when using hybrid linear and nonlinear equalizers (M-CMMA + Volterra series based nonlinear equalizer). The experiment results show that compared to pure linear equalizer case, the measured BER can be enhanced up to 1e−6, correspondingly the Q factor of each subband can be improved for around 1.6–2.5 dB by employing CAPD. The CAPD method can outperform the Volterra series based nonlinear equalizer with a lower BER value (at least 10% reduction) and relatively lower complexity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the clustering algorithm in machine learning is successfully applied to VLC systems.
Autors: Xingyu Lu;Kaihui Wang;Liang Qiao;Wen Zhou;Yiguang Wang;Nan Chi;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Look-Up Table Predistortion and Chromatic Dispersion Precompensation for IM/DD PAM-4 Transmission
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate 10 GBaud intensity modulation direct detection pulse amplitude modulation 4 transmission over 48-km single mode fiber (SMF). Look-up table predistortion and chromatic dispersion precompensation are employed to mitigate channel bandwidth constraint and nonlinear impairment. At the receiver side, decision-directed least mean square and cascaded multimodule algorithm are employed to improve the decision precision. By combining these techniques, link budgets of 5.3 and 4 dB are achieved at bit error rate of 1 × 10−3 for the back-to-back case and after transmission over 48-km SMF, respectively.
Autors: Pengqi Gou;Li Zhao;Kaihui Wang;Wen Zhou;Jianjun Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear MIMO Transceivers Improve Wireless-Powered and Self-Interference-Aided Relaying
Abstract:
This paper investigates the design of robust nonlinear transceivers conceived for multiple-input multiple-output full-duplex wireless-powered relay networks in the face of realistic imperfect channel state information (CSI). A novel self-energy recycling aided relaying protocol is employed, whereby the relay node benefits from energy harvesting (EH) gleaned from the self-interfering link in addition to its primary energy. The proposed nonlinear transceiver relies on a Tomlinson-Harashima (TH) precoder along with an amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying matrix and a linear receiver, where the TH precoder is composed of a feedback matrix and a source precoding matrix. Two different criteria are considered for the robust design of the nonlinear transceiver in the presence of channel estimation errors modeled by the Gaussian distribution. The first one aims to minimize the mean-squared-error (MSE) at the destination subject to a transmit power constraint at the source and an EH constraint at the relay. The resultant optimization problem is converted to four subproblems and solved via an alternating optimization (AO) algorithm that iteratively updates the transceiver coefficients by sequentially addressing each subproblem, while keeping the other matrix variables fixed. The second design criterion aims to minimize the transmit power at the source under both MSE and EH constraints. Similarly, an AO-based iterative algorithm is proposed for solving this problem. Our simulation results show that the robust design advocated is capable of alleviating the effects of CSI errors, hence improving the robustness of the system over that of the corresponding linear designs.
Autors: Lei Zhang;Yunlong Cai;Minjian Zhao;Benoit Champagne;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6953 - 6966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonsequential Speckle Reduction Method by Generating Uncorrelated Laser Subbeams With Equivalent Intensity Using a Reflective Spatial Light Modulator
Abstract:
Sequential speckle reduction methods demand the usage of fast modulators due to the short integration period of human eyes. Here, a nonsequential speckle reduction method by splitting one laser beam with short coherence length into uncorrelated laser subbeams (LSBs) is reported. In order to realize the most efficient speckle reduction, with the help of a polarization beam splitter, we have programmed a reflective spatial light modulator to make the LSBs intensities equivalent. Three uncorrelated LSBs with equivalent light intensity are designed to demonstrate this idea; the speckle contrast ratio is reduced to 0.55, which closes to the expected value of 0.58. This nonsequential speckle reduction method has no requirement of the modulators speed; thus, it has obvious merit comparing with the sequential speckle reduction methods.
Autors: Zhaomin Tong;Shaohua Song;Suotang Jia;Xuyuan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NoSE: Schema Design for NoSQL Applications
Abstract:
Database design is critical for high performance in relational databases and a myriad of tools exist to aid application designers in selecting an appropriate schema. While the problem of schema optimization is also highly relevant for NoSQL databases, existing tools for relational databases are inadequate in that setting. Application designers wishing to use a NoSQL database instead rely on rules of thumb to select an appropriate schema. We present a system for recommending database schemas for NoSQL applications. Our cost-based approach uses a novel binary integer programming formulation to guide the mapping from the application's conceptual data model to a database schema. We implemented a prototype of this approach for the Cassandra extensible record store. Our prototype, the NoSQL Schema Evaluator (NoSE) is able to capture rules of thumb used by expert designers without explicitly encoding the rules. Automating the design process allows NoSE to produce efficient schemas and to examine more alternatives than would be possible with a manual rule-based approach.
Autors: Michael Joseph Mior;Kenneth Salem;Ashraf Aboulnaga;Rui Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:10, pages: 2275 - 2289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Notes on Stability of Time-Delay Systems: Bounding Inequalities and Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii Functionals
Abstract:
The bounding inequalities and the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) are important for the stability analysis of time-delay systems. Much attention has been paid to develop tighter inequalities for improving stability criteria, while the contribution of the LKFs has not been considered when discussing the relationship between the tightness of inequalities and the conservatism of criteria. This note is concerned with this issue. Firstly, it is proved that, when a simple LKF is applied, the stability criteria obtained by the Wirtinger-based inequality and the Jensen inequality are equivalent although the Wirtinger-based inequality is tighter. It means that the tighter inequality does not always lead to a less conservative criterion. Secondly, it is found that a suitable augmented LKF with necessary integral vectors in its derivative is required to achieve the advantage of the Wirtinger-based inequality. Based on this observation, two delay-product-type terms are introduced into the LKF to establish new stability criteria. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the equivalence statements and to show the benefit of the proposed criteria.
Autors: Chuan-Ke Zhang;Yong He;Lin Jiang;Min Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5331 - 5336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel In Situ Boundary Detection Algorithm for Horizon Control in Longwall Mining
Abstract:
Real-time horizon control of the cutting head is very important in longwall mining for maximizing production, minimizing wear, and reducing postimpurity processing cost. If the horizon control sensor has to be mounted directly onto the cutting drum, then it needs to withstand the impacts from mining debris as well as shock and vibration at an average level of 26 Gs and a peak level of 100-G force. A single-frequency boundary detection sensor has been developed for this purpose for its simple design and extremely high measurement rate compared to other more sophisticated pulsed or swept-frequency radar sensors, and thus is more suitable for fast rotating cutting drums. However, the accuracy and effectiveness of this method in practice are severely limited by: 1) the interference of the much stronger reflection arising from the air–ground interface and 2) the uncertainty of the permittivity and conductivity of the ground. These two issues are alleviated by the proposed practical in situ calibration procedure discussed in this letter. This procedure only requires more than four calibration control cuts prior to the normal longwall mining cuts. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated in this letter via both simulated and experimental data.
Autors: Jiu-Kun Che;Chi-Chih Chen;Larry G. Stolarczyk;Joseph T. Duncan;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1875 - 1879
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Compact and Low-Cost Ultraweak Fabry–Perot Interferometer as a Highly Sensitive Refractive Index Sensor
Abstract:
A novel compact refractive index (RI) sensor based on an ultra-weak intrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed and demonstrated, which is simply fabricated by splicing a tiny section of thin-core fiber to a single-mode fiber. Such an FPI exhibits an average RI sensitivity of 240dB/RIU over a wide RI range of 1.3326–1.4305, with a maximum sensitivity of 1110.7dB/RIU at the RI of 1.4305. In addition, the FPI can also achieve the simultaneous measurement of the RI and temperature.
Autors: Pengcheng Chen;Xuewen Shu;Haoran Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Decoupling Concept for Strongly Coupled Frequency-Dependent Antenna Arrays
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel wideband decoupling network for strongly frequency-dependent antenna couplings. The network consists of directional couplers, a transmission line, and a parallel resonant circuit. It cancels mutual coupling by the superposition of a designed coupling with the same magnitude as the original coupling but the opposite phase. Further, the proposed approach accommodates variations in the coupling magnitude and large group delays in the coupling phase. Therefore, it is easy to apply the approach to wideband applications. The design formulas are also derived. With these formulas, the computational results show that the resultant coupling with the proposed technique is 26.4 dB smaller than that of the original coupling at 12.2% bandwidth with a large group delay. Moreover, this paper also describes a technique for practical implementation using short stubs. The resultant coupling with the fabricated multiantenna is 12.6 dB smaller than the original, over the entire 12.2% frequency range. The degradation of radiation efficiency by the proposed circuit is sufficiently small and the enhancement of signal-to-noise ratio is demonstrated.
Autors: Hidetoshi Makimura;Kengo Nishimoto;Takashi Yanagi;Toru Fukasawa;Hiroaki Miyashita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5147 - 5154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Design of Ultrabroadband Radar Cross Section Reduction Surfaces Using Artificial Magnetic Conductors
Abstract:
A novel technique for designing ultrabroadband radar cross section (RCS) reduction surfaces using artificial magnetic conductors (AMCs) is proposed in this paper. This technique overcomes the fundamental limitation of the conventional checkerboard design where the reflection phase difference of (180±37)° is required to achieve 10-dB RCS reduction. Initially, a planar surface for broadband RCS reduction is designed with two properly selected AMCs in a blended checkerboard architecture. A 10-dB RCS reduction is observed for more than 83% of the bandwidth (3.9–9.45 GHz) with this blended checkerboard design. After modifying the blended checkerboard design using the proposed novel technique, the 10-dB RCS reduction bandwidth increased to 91% fractional bandwidth (3.75–10 GHz) as the criteria of (180 ± 37)° reflection phase difference is no longer required. Measured data show an excellent agreement between the predicted, simulated, and measured data. Bistatic performance of the surface at various frequencies is also presented. Key steps for designing ultrabroadband RCS reduction checkerboard surface are summarized.
Autors: Anuj Y. Modi;Constantine A. Balanis;Craig R. Birtcher;Hussein N. Shaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5406 - 5417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Electrically Tunable Microwave Solenoid Inductor and Compact Phase Shifter Utilizing Permaloy and PZT Thin Films
Abstract:
A Permalloy (Py) thin film enabled tunable 3-D solenoid inductor is designed and fabricated. The special configuration of magnetic core is discussed and by selectively patterning Py thin film, the proposed tunable inductor can work at frequency up to several GHz range. The inductance of the solenoid inductor can be electrically tuned by dc current and the tunability is above 10%. Utilizing the implemented Py enabled tunable solenoid inductor and Lead Zirconate Titanate thin film enabled metal-insulator-metal capacitor, a compact fully electrically tunable lumped elements phase shifter is achieved. The tunable phase shifter has both inductive and capacitive tunability and the dual tunability significantly improves the tuning range and design flexibility. Moreover, the dual tunability is able to retain the equivalent characteristic impedance of the device in the process of the phase being tuned. The phase of the device can be tuned by fully electrical methods and when dc current and dc voltage are provided, the length normalized phase tunability is up to 210°/cm.
Autors: Tengxing Wang;Wei Jiang;Ralu Divan;Daniel Rosenmann;Leonidas E. Ocola;Yujia Peng;Guoan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3569 - 3577
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Integrated Helical Design of Single Optic Fiber for Shape Sensing of Flexible Robot
Abstract:
With the evolution of technology, it is now possible to build more flexible surgical instruments with multiple degrees of freedom that can be deployed in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery, further reducing tissue damage, blood loss, and recovery time. However, the limits of flexible robots are mainly represented by the lack of accurate position feedback during the surgical procedure. The most critical problems of shape sensors are size and quantity limits, as well as sterilizability. This paper presents a novel helical configuration of single optic fiber with multiple fiber Bragg grating sensors to measure the shape of flexible robots. Detailed design of helix parameters, simulation and verification experiments were performed. We have shown the feasibility of helical configuration to reduce the effect of temperature, and detect the torsion and bending of the flexible shaft. The experimental results demonstrated the potential to provide a shape detection for flexible robot.
Autors: Junbo Wei;Shuxin Wang;Jinhua Li;Siyang Zuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6627 - 6636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Method for Predicting Limit Performance of Bus-Transfer Switching by Disconnectors
Abstract:
In order to accurately predict the performance of disconnectors conducting bus-transfer switching in gas insulated substations, the influencing factors of the switching process itself as well as the reignition characteristics need to be analyzed. For this, an LC-oscillating ac current source in combination with a nonstandardized full bus-transfer loop was built. Based on experiment data from a total of 347 reignitions and 570 extinctions, the reignition characteristic of the disconnector at current zero was investigated. Thereby, the derivation of a reignition criterion depending exclusively on the prediction of the instantaneous recovery voltage and the prospective arc voltage was possible. Using this criterion, time-dependent simulations of the bus-transfer process can be made to predict the performance of disconnectors for a wide variety of scenarios such as worst case bus-transfer current for varying circuit parameters and ratings. This minimizes the need for extensive testing during substation planning or disconnector development.
Autors: Andreas Ritter;Ueli Straumann;Christian Michael Franck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2210 - 2217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Programmable Passive Intermodulation Generator Using Nonlinear Rotating Disk
Abstract:
This letter presents a programmable passive intermodulation (PIM) generator with 50-dB-dynamic range using nonlinear mechanical rotating disk. Its implementation is based on a strip-line structured configuration; a nickel-plated disk is inserted into polytetrafluoroethylene substrate through the slots on upper and central conductor. The partly nickel coated copper disk works as an artificial nonlinear sources. Through rotating this disk using stepper motor controlled by micro control unit, PIM product can be automatically tuned by regulating the electromagnetic exposure area on the nickel-plated region. A rational PIM quantization method for nickel-plated nonlinear region is propounded. The experiments demonstrate this PIM generator can perform controllable PIM level, ranges from −127 to −77.4 dBm at dBm, while its finest step can be smaller than 0.3 dB. This letter demonstrates a solution to realize a tunable PIM standard for potential PIM dynamic calibration application.
Autors: Xiong Chen;Yongning He;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 945 - 947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Reception and Transmission Calibration Technique for Active Antenna Array Based on Phase Center Estimation
Abstract:
This paper presents an on-site calibration technique and significant results obtained from the compensation of errors and mutual coupling. The proposed algorithm deals with the problem of calibration of active antenna arrays at reception and transmission, proposing an on-site calibration technique. The proposed on-site calibration technique starts with the application of an off-line calibration algorithm of which two different techniques are proposed. These techniques are based on the direct estimation of the phase center from the active element pattern measured, and the phase center estimation based on the active element pattern suggested. The expansion of equations of the proposed off-line calibration algorithms is also presented. These algorithms deal with the compensation of mutual coupling effect and together with gain, phase, and location errors.
Autors: Miguel A. Salas-Natera;Ramón Martínez Rodríguez-Osorio;Leandro de Haro Ariet;Manuel Sierra-Pérez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5511 - 5522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Solutions of a Delta–Sigma-Based Rectifying Encoder
Abstract:
This brief presents novel low-complexity designs of rectifying encoders for direct processing of the first-order delta–sigma modulated pulse streams. The first solution consists of a D flip-flop and an XOR gate. The second solution incorporates a sign detector. Our results are compared and contrasted with theory and with results found in the literature such as waveform shapes and signal-to-noise ratios. Analytical models, numerical simulations, and experimental measurement results are presented.
Autors: Djuro Zrilic;Grozdan Petrovic;Wei Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1242 - 1246
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Structure for Area-Efficient Implementation of FIR Filters
Abstract:
It is observed that in multiplierless implementation of transposed direct form finite impulse response (FIR) filters, the adders in the product-accumulation block, which are called structural adders (SAs), contribute the major part of the overall logic complexity. A novel FIR filter structure is therefore proposed to reduce the hardware complexity of the product-accumulation block. In the proposed structure, half of the long word-length SAs are replaced by adders, which are called pre-SAs, which have a relatively shorter word length. The filter coefficients are carefully grouped to take advantage of the symmetric impulse response of linear phase FIR filters. Analysis and experimental results show that the overall area complexity and power consumption can be reduced at the expense of negligible delay overhead. The average area and power reduction over existing techniques can be as much as 23.8% and 25.4%. The overall area-delay performance and power-delay performance of the proposed implementation is superior to existing techniques.
Autors: Xin Lou;Pramod Kumar Meher;Yajun Yu;Wenbin Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1212 - 1216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel TDR Test Method for Diagnosis of Interconnect Failures Using Automatic Test Equipment
Abstract:
This paper suggests a novel efficient interconnect failure diagnosis method, which is dubbed as “time of propagation delay pass fail (TPDPF),” employing time domain reflectometry (TDR). The proposed TPDPF has been applied to diagnose the interconnect failures in a high parallelism probe card with the TDR function of automatic test equipment (ATE), which has been exclusively used in calibrating the channel length skews. It has been shown that the TPDPF method could be very efficient in the diagnosis of the interconnect failures with the help of a short-end fixture (a metal wafer), which is also proposed in this paper. To check the validity of the proposed TPDPF method, an automatic probe card diagnosis system was constructed, and it turned out to take only a few minutes to diagnose the whole interconnects in a high parallelism probe card. Furthermore, the implemented diagnosis system does not require skilled hands due to its automatic execution, and it enables about a enhancement of the efficiency of the probe card management and wafer testing.
Autors: Gyu-Yeol Kim;Shin-Ho Kang;Wansoo Nah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2638 - 2646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Three-Point Interpolation DFT Method for Frequency Measurement of Sine-Wave
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel three-point interpolation discrete Fourier transform for accurate power system frequency measurement. The accurate formula of the proposed frequency measurement method is derived by using the maximum sidelobe decay windows. Moreover, the influence of white noise on the proposed frequency measurement is analyzed by deducing the expression of frequency measurement variance. The systematic errors and variances of frequency measurement are analyzed by simulation.
Autors: He Wen;Chengcheng Li;Lu Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2333 - 2338
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Scattering From a Moving Target by the Lorentz Precise Integration Time-Domain Method
Abstract:
A novel numerical method, referred to as Lorentz precise integration time-domain (Lorentz-PITD) method, is proposed to deal with the scattering problem from a moving conducting slab. Both the overset grid generation technique and the Lorentz transformation are employed in this method. By using the Lorentz transformation and the linear interpolation technique, the incident plane wave in the rest frame is introduced to the moving frame; the scattered fields are transformed from the moving frame to the rest frame. Numerical experiments validate the Lorentz-PITD method and show that the Lorentz-PITD method is more computationally efficient compared with the Lorentz finite-difference time-domain method. An accompanied find is that there must be a tradeoff between the applicable frequency range and the computation cost in the proposed method.
Autors: Jinghui Shao;Xikui Ma;Zhen Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5649 - 5653
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Analysis of Large-Scale Finite Periodic Arrays Using a Macro Block-Characteristic Basis Function Method
Abstract:
Numerical analysis of a large-scale finite periodic array is accurate but quite costly when the array is analyzed as a finite array. The computational cost for the numerical analysis can be reduced greatly when the array is approximated as an infinite periodic structure. However, the edge effect that strongly affects the active impedance or current distribution of the array elements near the edge is neglected. In this paper, a macro block-characteristic basis function method (MB-CBFM) for numerical analysis of a large-scale finite periodic array with a uniform amplitude and linear phased excitation is proposed. The MB-CBFM utilizes blocks and macro blocks to group the elements in order to reduce its computational cost without degrading accuracy. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the CPU time and computer memory of the MB-CBFM are when the size of array is sufficiently large.
Autors: Keisuke Konno;Qiang Chen;Robert J. Burkholder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5348 - 5355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Modeling and High-Speed Parallel Computing: New Perspectives on Tomographic Microwave Imaging for Brain Stroke Detection and Monitoring.
Abstract:
This article deals with microwave tomography for brain stroke imaging using state-of-the-art numerical modeling and massively parallel computing. Iterative microwave tomographic imaging requires the solution of an inverse problem based on a minimization algorithm (e.g., gradient based) with successive solutions of a direct problem such as the accurate modeling of a whole-microwave measurement system. Moreover, a sufficiently high number of unknowns is required to accurately represent the solution. As the system will be used for detecting a brain stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) as well as for monitoring during the treatment, the running times for the reconstructions should be reasonable. The method used is based on high-order finite elements, parallel preconditioners from the domain decomposition method and domain-specific language with the opensource FreeFEM++ solver.
Autors: Pierre-Henri Tournier;Marcella Bonazzoli;Victorita Dolean;Francesca Rapetti;Frederic Hecht;Frederic Nataf;Iannis Aliferis;Ibtissam El Kanfoud;Claire Migliaccio;Maya de Buhan;Marion Darbas;Serguei Semenov;Christian Pichot;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 98 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Temperature Analysis of Magnetic Hyperthermia Considering Nanoparticle Clustering and Blood Vessels
Abstract:
Magnetic fluid hyperthermia can ablate malignant cells by using heat from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) when subjected to an alternating magnetic field. In comparison with other types of MNPs, the ones with low Curie temperature (LCT) have the characteristic of temperature self-regulation, which contributes to its choice for hyperthermia therapy. To validate the advantages of LCT MNPs over MNPs with high Curie temperature, this paper proposes a complex geometric model based on the prototype of a human liver, in which blood vessels (BVs) and nanoparticle clustering are considered. In this paper, the temperature fields of tumor tissue with different MNPs are predicted by solving the Pennes bioheat transfer equation, while the effect of BVs is taken into account by solving the Navier–Stokes equation. Simulation results demonstrate that MNP systems with LCT can have better therapeutic effect than the Fe3O4 MNPs if the power dissipation is increased with respect to its critical value. Higher thermal energy absorbing from magnetic field not only increases the uniformity of the temperature field, but also can shorten the startup time in MNP systems with LCT, which does not occur in Fe3O4 MNPs systems. Such advantages of LCT MNPs are observed for minimizing the undesirable effects of both BVs and MNP clustering.
Autors: Yundong Tang;Tao Jin;Rodolfo C. C. Flesch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NVM Way Allocation Scheme to Reduce NVM Writes for Hybrid Cache Architecture in Chip-Multiprocessors
Abstract:
Hybrid cache architectures (HCAs) containing both SRAM and non-volatile memory (NVM) have been proposed to overcome the disadvantages of NVM-based cache architecture. Most previous works have concentrated on managing write-intensive blocks by storing these blocks to SRAM to reduce the number of the write operations to NVM. However, they have not focused on reducing linefill operations which also occupy a large portion of overall NVM write counts in chip-multiprocessor (CMP) environments. This paper proposes an NVM way allocation scheme, taking into account the NVM linefill counts as well as cache miss rate and the NVM write hit counts during victim selection. Three metrics are introduced to estimate the effectiveness of NVM way allocation: Miss counts change (), write counts change (), and NVM write counts change (). An algorithm to minimize the write counts of NVM based on these metrics is proposed as well. Our experimental results show that dynamic energy consumption is reduced by 37.5 percent on average.
Autors: Ju-Hee Choi;Gi-Ho Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2896 - 2910
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observations of Water Column and Bathymetric Effects on the Incident Acoustic Field Associated With Shallow-Water Reverberation Experiments
Abstract:
As a part of the 2013 Targets and Reverberation Experiment (TREX13), measurements of the acoustic field generated by a source used in midfrequency (1.8–3.6 kHz) reverberation experiments are studied at 5 and 6 km range. The TREX13 reverberation sources were placed off the coast of Panama City, FL, USA, in waters ∼20 m deep, and data discussed here are from a 2-h period in the late afternoon on April 28, 2013. The observed coda of the source signal is partitioned into an initial primary arrival, and a distinct second arrival delayed by roughly 2 s. Characteristics of the two arrivals are studied in terms of the effective number of modes, interference features, and the direction of acoustic intensity, which was directly measured by a vector sensor located at 5 km range. A shift in frequency within the primary arrival is observed over the 2-h measurement period. Frequency shifts are related to a change in range of dislocations, defined as points of complete destructive interference in the acoustic field, that modulate with tidal variation in the sound-speed profile. Precise frequencies are identified with the vector property called circularity, a nondimensional measure of acoustic intensity curl, that is maximal within the vortex-like intensity field within a dislocation. Using the waveguide invariant β, the frequency shift is used to estimate the tidal change in the thermocline depth. These interference features are absent in the second arrival, which is postulated to be an acoustic path horizontally refracted by the gently sloping bathymetry (∼0.4°) forming the coastal environment. A description of the refraction using modal rays is developed, and the transition of the mode from being trapped to leaky is handled as a transition to a virtual mode near the cutoff depth. Models of the primary and refracted arrivals are presented to support the conclusions.
Autors: David R. Dall'Osto;Peter H. Dahl;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 1146 - 1161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observer-Based Fault-Tolerant Attitude Control for Rigid Spacecraft
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of robust fault-tolerant control of spacecraft attitude stabilization in the presence of model uncertainties, actuator failures, and external disturbances simultaneously. Utilizing the fast nonsingular terminal sliding mode control technique, a novel finite-time extended state observer is first proposed to estimate and compensate for the specified synthetic uncertainties derived from actuator failures and/or model deviations. And also the detailed derivations of the observer are provided, along with a thorough analysis for the associated ultimately bounded stability and estimation error convergence property in the sense of finite-time control. Then, with the reconstructed information achieving from the finite-time observer, an adaptive robust sliding mode based fault-tolerant control approach is developed to ensure that the closed-loop attitude control system reach the real sliding mode surface in finite time. Meanwhile, the chattering problem has been restrained via the modified gain adjusting law. The key feature of the proposed strategies is that the whole closed-loop fault-tolerant control system can be guaranteed theoretically to be finite-time stable by the development of Lyapunov methodology. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate and highlight the fine performance benefits obtained using the proposed schemes.
Autors: Bo Li;Qinglei Hu;Yanbo Yu;Guangfu Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2572 - 2582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Offloading Collective Operations to Programmable Logic
Abstract:
The authors describe their architecture and implementation for offloading collective operations to programmable logic in the communication substrate. Collective operations are widely used in parallel processing. Their design and implementation strategies affect the performance of many high-performance computing applications that utilize them. Collectives are central to the message passing interface (MPI) programming model. The programmable logic provided by field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) is a powerful option for creating task-specific logic to aid applications. The authors’ approach is applicable in scenarios where there is programmable logic in the communication pipeline and can be used to accelerate various network-based operations. In this article, the authors present a general collective offloading framework for use in applications using MPI. They evaluate their approach on the Xilinx Zynq system on a chip and an FPGA-based network interface card called the NetFPGA. Results are presented both from microbenchmarks and a benchmark scientific application using MPI.
Autors: Omer Arap;Lucas R.B. Brasilino;Ezra Kissel;Alexander Shroyer;Martin Swany;
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 37, issue:5, pages: 52 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Offloading in HCNs: Congestion-Aware Network Selection and User Incentive Design
Abstract:
To accommodate exponentially increasing traffic demands, operators are seeking to offload cellular traffic to small base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs), which is promising in alleviating traffic congestion. In HCNs, operators are eager to balance the traffic globally, where users may be pushed to less preferred small BSs, resulting in possible conflict with user local preference. Thus, it is a big challenge to achieve dynamic load balancing for operators and provide participation incentive for users simultaneously. Due to the dynamics of network state and user traffic demand, we are inspired to utilize Lyapunov optimization to develop a congestion-aware cellular offloading scheme. Specifically, an operator profit maximization problem involving network selection and rate control is formulated. To achieve long-term network stability, we propose a congestion-aware network selection algorithm, obtaining the BS alternative set that maintains traffic congestion constraint. By exploring the heterogeneity of user quality sensitivity, we devise the optimal quality-price contract, which maximizes operator profit. With effective pricing and resource allocation, users are motivated to make proper association strategy chosen from the BS alternative set. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme in improving operator profit. User incentive and network stability are also validated.
Autors: Yuqing Li;Bingyu Shen;Jinbei Zhang;Xiaoying Gan;Jingchao Wang;Xinbing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6479 - 6492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Offset Aperture-Coupled Double-Cylinder Dielectric Resonator Antenna With Extended Wideband
Abstract:
A compact dielectric resonator antenna for ultrawideband vehicular communication applications is proposed. Two cylindrical dielectric resonators are asymmetrically located with respect to the center of an offset rectangular coupling aperture, through which they are fed. Optimizing the design parameters results in an impedance bandwidth of 21%, covering the range from 5.9 to 7.32 GHz in the lower band and a 53% relative bandwidth from 8.72 to 15 GHz in the upper band. The maximum achieved gain is 12 dBi. Design details of the proposed antenna and the results of both simulations and experiment are presented and discussed.
Autors: C.-E. Zebiri;M. Lashab;D. Sayad;I. T. E. Elfergani;K. H. Sayidmarie;F. Benabdelaziz;R. A. Abd-Alhameed;J. Rodriguez;J. M. Noras;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5617 - 5622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Offshore Metallic Platforms Observation Using Dual-Polarimetric TS-X/TD-X Satellite Imagery: A Case Study in the Gulf of Mexico
Abstract:
Satellite-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been proven to be an effective tool for ship monitoring. Offshore platforms monitoring is a key topic for both safety and security of the maritime domain. However, the scientific literature oriented to the observation of offshore platforms using SAR imagery is very limited. This study is mostly focused on the analysis and understanding of the multipolarization behavior of platforms’ backscattering using dual-polarization X-band SAR imagery. This study is motivated by the fact that under low incidence angle and moderate wind conditions, copolarized channels may fail in detecting offshore platforms even when fine-resolution imagery is considered. This behavior has been observed on both medium- and high-resolution TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X SAR imagery, despite the fact that platforms consist of large metallic structures. Hence, a simple multipolarization model is proposed to analyze the platform backscattering. Model predictions are verified on TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X SAR imagery, showing that for acquisitions under low incidence angle, the platforms result in a reduced copolarized backscattered intensity even when fine resolution imagery is considered. Finally, several solutions to tackle this issue are proposed with concluding remark that the performance of offshore observation.
Autors: Armando Marino;Domenico Velotto;Ferdinando Nunziata;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4376 - 4386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On a Low-Frequency and Refinement Stable PMCHWT Integral Equation Leveraging the Quasi-Helmholtz Projectors
Abstract:
Classical Poggio–Miller–Chan–Harrington–Wu–Tsai (PMCHWT) formulations for modeling radiation and scattering from penetrable objects suffer from ill-conditioning when the frequency is low or when the mesh density is high. The most effective techniques to solve these problems, unfortunately, either require the explicit detection of the so-called global loops of the structure, or suffer from numerical cancellation at extremely low frequency. In this contribution, a novel regularization method for the PMCHWT equation is proposed, which is based on the quasi-Helmholtz projectors. This method not only solves both the low frequency and the dense mesh ill-conditioning problems of the PMCHWT, but it is immune from low-frequency numerical cancellations and it does not require the detection of global loops. This is obtained by projecting the range space of the PMCHWT operator onto a dual basis, by rescaling the resulting quasi-Helmholtz components, by replicating the strategy in the dual space, and finally, by combining the primal and the dual equations in a Calderón-like fashion. Implementation-related treatments and details alternate the theoretical developments in order to maximize impact and practical applicability of the approach. Finally, numerical results corroborate the theory and show the effectiveness of the new schemes in real case scenarios.
Autors: Yves Beghein;Rajendra Mitharwal;Kristof Cools;Francesco P. Andriulli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5365 - 5375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Combining Social Media and Spatial Technology for POI Cognition and Image Localization
Abstract:
With fast development of information engineering and social network, people’s locations can be conveniently sensed by spatial technology, such as global positioning systems (GPS), base stations, Wi-Fi access points and even from the appearances of the photos they have taken. The social networks and the online shopping platforms have been gathering billions of users, who share a large amount of images taken in places they live in and visit. We can leverage the social networks to express our opinions about the services and places of interest (POIs). The interactions among users, and user and POIs or services generate big social media data, which have rich information for user, location, and service cognition. Many real-time network applications rely heavily on the accurate social users’ locations. How to sense the locations from multisource social media data is very important and challenging. Thus, in this paper, we give a systematic review of the works that combine social media and spatial technology for POI cognition and image localization.
Autors: Xueming Qian;Xiaoqiang Lu;Junwei Han;Bo Du;Xuelong Li;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 105, issue:10, pages: 1937 - 1952
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Developing One-Chip Integration of 1.2 kV SiC MOSFET and JBS Diode (JBSFET)
Abstract:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of the SiC JBSFET (junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diode integrated MOSFET). The fabrication of the JBSFET adopted a novel single metal, single thermal treatment process to simultaneously form ohmic contacts on n+, p+ implanted regions, and Schottky contact on the n-4H-SiC epilayer. The presented SiC JBSFET uses 40% smaller wafer area because the diode and MOSFET share the edge termination as well as the current conducting drift region. The proposed single chip solution of MOSFET/JBS diode functionalities eliminates the parasitic inductance between separately packaged devices allowing a higher frequency operation in a power converter.
Autors: Woongje Sung;B. J. Baliga;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8206 - 8212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Dual-Band Amplifications Using Dual Two-Tones: Clarifications and Discussion
Abstract:
A significant development of recent research in nonlinear distortion is the expansion of the conventional two-tone test for power amplifiers to the concurrent dual-band transmitters, by Amin et al. A general framework using dual two-tones is developed, which shows that the output signal is affected not only by intermodulation (IM) products but also by cross-modulation (CM) products. In this paper, we will make a number of clarifications to Amin et al.’s paper. The effects of IM and CM in passband will be discussed, IM represents a reduction for compressive devices, and CM reflects an interference caused by the signal from the other band, and followed by the analysis of out-of-band IM. It was concluded that out-of-band IM needs to be taken into consideration for the design of power amplifiers when two bands are very close.
Autors: Siyuan Yan;Xianzhen Yang;Xiao Li;Fu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2792 - 2794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Efficient and Robust Anonymization for Privacy Protection on Massive Streaming Categorical Information
Abstract:
Protecting users' privacy when transmitting a large amount of data over the Internet is becoming increasingly important nowadays. In this paper, we focus on the streaming categorical information and propose a novel anonymization technique for providing a strong privacy protection to safeguard against privacy disclosure and information tampering. Our technique utilizes an innovative two-phase anonymization approach which is very easy to implement, highly efficient in terms of speed and communication and is robust against possible tampering from adversaries. Extensive experimental evaluation that is conducted demonstrates that our technique is very efficient and more robust than the existing method.
Autors: Ji Zhang;Hongzhou Li;Xuemei Liu;Yonglong Luo;Fulong Chen;Hua Wang;Liang Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 507 - 520
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Existence of Equilibria of Multi-Port Linear AC Networks With Constant-Power Loads
Abstract:
In this paper we give an answer to the following question. Given a multi-port, linear ac network with instantaneous constant-power loads identify a set of active and reactive load powers for which there is no steady-state operating condition of the network—in this case, we say that the power load is inadmissible. The identification is given in terms of feasibility of simple linear matrix inequalities, and hence it can be easily verified with existing software. For one- or two-port networks, the proposed feasibility test is necessary and sufficient for load power admissibility with the test for the former case depending only on the network data. Two benchmark numerical examples illustrate our results.
Autors: Juan E. Machado;Robert Griñó;Nikita Barabanov;Romeo Ortega;Boris Polyak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2772 - 2782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Feasibility of Interference Alignment in Full-Duplex-Based Small Cell Networks
Abstract:
As an appealing interference management approach, interference alignment (IA) has not been intensively studied in full-duplex (FD)-based multi-cells. In this letter, based on Bezout’s theorem, we explore the feasibility conditions of IA in small cell networks, where base stations are equipped with FD hardware. The comparison of IA performance between FD and traditional half-duplex small cells in terms of the total degrees of freedom (DoFs) is also conducted. We find that the IA performance with FD is limited by the number of antennas at users. Furthermore, we verify that IA with opportunistic FD can be implemented to achieve higher total DoFs of the network.
Autors: Momiao Zhou;Hongyan Li;Jiandong Li;Long Suo;Weidong Shao;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2294 - 2297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Max-SIR Time–Frequency Packing for Multicarrier Faster-Than-Nyquist Signaling
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel maximizing signal-to-interference ratio (max-SIR) time–frequency packing scheme for multicarrier faster-than-Nyquist signaling is proposed. The proposed scheme is based on the low complexity symbol-by-symbol detector. Specifically, we optimize the time–frequency spacing under the given signaling efficiency to maximize the SIR, i.e., the ratio between the energy of useful signal and the intersymbol interference and intercarrier interference introduced by time–frequency packing. We show that the proposed max-SIR time–frequency packing outperforms other time–frequency packing schemes for both the symbol-by-symbol detection and coupled with successive interference cancellation.
Autors: Siming Peng;Aijun Liu;Xinhai Tong;Ke Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2142 - 2145
Publisher: IEEE
 

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