Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 11

» High-Performance of Al Nanoparticle Enhanced 4H-SiC MSM Photodiodes for Deep Ultraviolet Detection
Abstract:
The size controlled Al nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequent rapid thermal annealing. Significant deep ultraviolet (DUV) detection enhancement is demonstrated on 4H-SiC metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) ultraviolet photodiodes (PDs) by introducing the coupling of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from Al NPs. The peak responsivity of 165 mA/W and quantum efficiency of 93% at 220-nm wavelength are achieved under deuterium lamp illumination when 10-V bias is applied, which is 3.93 times than that without Al NPs. LSPR at wavelength as low as 220 nm is the shortest one ever reported in Al NPs.
Autors: Shao-Xiong Liu;Tao Wang;Zhi-Zhan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1405 - 1408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power and High-Efficiency Millimeter-Wave Harmonic Oscillator Design, Exploiting Harmonic Positive Feedback in CMOS
Abstract:
Based on time-variant behavior of metal-oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors in large-signal operations, harmonic translations and their mutual effects are analyzed. Large amplitudes at terminal voltages of these transistors push them into different regions of operation. In this paper, harmonic translations are derived as a result of such changes in operation region of transistors. Operation in triode region for a portion of oscillation cycle results in iterative harmonic translations between fundamental frequency and second harmonic. They boost each other constructively for significantly stronger oscillation, more second harmonic output power, and enhanced dc-to-RF efficiency. Based on this analysis, a 215-GHz signal source, implemented in a TSMC 65-nm CMOS LP is presented. The proposed oscillator achieves a maximum output power of 5.6 dBm and a dc-to-RF efficiency of 4.6%. The measured phase noise is −94.6 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The proposed oscillator occupies only 0.08 mm2 of chip area.
Autors: Rouzbeh Kananizadeh;Omeed Momeni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3922 - 3936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power Narrow-Linewidth Tunable 670.8-nm Master Oscillator Power Amplifier With High Efficiency
Abstract:
A highly efficient 670.8-nm high-power narrow-linewidth wavelength-tunable laser source with master oscillator power amplifier structure is demonstrated, which yielded CW output power of 4.5 W with spectral linewidth of 0.3 pm and mode-hop free tuning range of 52 pm (35 GHz). The total conversion efficiency of 20% was achieved. The developed narrow-linewidth tunable laser source can provide better performance than others ever reported at 670.8 nm for many applications, such as laser isotope separation, Bose–Einstein condensation experiments, and mid-infrared laser generation.
Autors: Hao Wu;Hangyu Peng;Jun Zhang;Jinlong Zhang;Hongbo Zhu;Yongqiang Ning;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision Hydraulic Pressure Control Based on Linear Pressure-Drop Modulation in Valve Critical Equilibrium State
Abstract:
High precision and fast response are of great significance for hydraulic pressure control in automotive braking systems. In this paper, a novel sliding mode control based high-precision hydraulic pressure feedback modulation is proposed. Dynamical models of the hydraulic brake system including valve dynamics are established. An open loop load pressure control based on the linear relationship between the pressure-drop and coil current in valve critical open equilibrium state is proposed, and also experimentally validated on a hardware-in-the-loop test rig. The control characteristics under different input pressures and varied coil currents are investigated. Moreover, the sensitivity of the proposed modulation on valve's key structure parameters and environmental temperatures are explored with some unexpected drawbacks. In order to achieve better robustness and precision, a sliding mode control based closed loop scheme is developed for the linear pressure-drop modulation. Comparative tests between this method and the existing methods are carried out. The results validate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed closed loop modulation method.
Autors: Chen Lv;Hong Wang;Dongpu Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7984 - 7993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision Printing Force Control System for Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing
Abstract:
High-precision printing machines are essential for the fabrication of more sophisticated printed electronics. In particular, roll-to-roll printing with flexible substrates and nonideal rolls, which exhibit cylindricity, misalignment, and run-outs, produces nonlinear effects that are hard to manage with conventional control systems. For instance, printing rolls with cylindricity and run-outs cause large perturbations in the printing forces. In this paper, we propose a hybrid printing force control system that provides uniform printing conditions in the regions where printing occurs. The unique parallel arrangement of two force components provides excellent regulation of the printing force; this system also consumes less power. Our experimental results verify that the force control performance of the hybrid force control system is better than that of a conventional system. We also report the results of in situ printing quality tests with a pressure-sensitive film that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Autors: Young-Man Choi;Dongwoo Kang;Sungsoo Lim;Moon Gu Lee;Seung-Hyun Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2351 - 2358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Quality Plane Wave Compounding Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
Single plane wave (PW) imaging produces ultrasound images of poor quality at high frame rates (ultrafast). High-quality PW imaging usually relies on the coherent compounding of several successive steered emissions (typically more than ten), which in turn results in a decreased frame rate. We propose a new strategy to reduce the number of emitted PWs by learning a compounding operation from data, i.e., by training a convolutional neural network to reconstruct high-quality images using a small number of transmissions. We present experimental evidence that this approach is promising, as we were able to produce high-quality images from only three PWs, competing in terms of contrast ratio and lateral resolution with the standard compounding of 31 PWs ( speedup factor).
Autors: Maxime Gasse;Fabien Millioz;Emmanuel Roux;Damien Garcia;Hervé Liebgott;Denis Friboulet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1637 - 1639
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-R Poly Resistance Deviation Improvement From Suppressions of Back-End Mechanical Stresses
Abstract:
This paper investigates techniques for N-type high-resistance polysilicon resistors to reduce the resistance deviation which is caused by the back-end mechanical stress. In the back-end layers of the wafer, a top metal thickness equal to is provided to increase the heat allowing current density in the metal routes of power ICs. The top metal processing yields the mechanical stress to increase the resistance by the piezoresistance effect. To eliminate the mechanical stresses, a new layout is proposed with the full passivation cutting (FPC). The resistor with an FPC uses the passivation film separation to create a physical empty room for suppressing the mechanical stresses on the polysilicon. The proposed layout has been verified in the 0.4- bipolar-CMOS-DMOS process, and the resistance shifts were compared with other four-type layouts. Compared to those original layouts, the proposed layout exhibits the improvements in the resistance deviation reduction in the maximum ratio 20.80%.
Autors: Tingyou Lin;Yingchieh Ho;Chauchin Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4233 - 4241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Real-Time Underwater 3-D Acoustical Imaging Through Designing Ultralarge Ultrasparse Ultra-Wideband 2-D Arrays
Abstract:
Acoustical imaging systems are an important kind of instrumentation for underwater investigation. Currently, angular resolutions of most existing real-time underwater 3-D imaging systems are around 1°, which cannot meet the high-quality imaging requirement in a relatively far distance. Enhancing the angular resolution of a real-time 3-D imaging system needs enlarging the aperture size of its receiving 2-D array. However, the huge number of elements is not affordable for a traditional fully sampled uniform large 2-D array with half-wavelength interelement spacing to achieve a high angular resolution. This paper proposes the concept of ultralarge ultrasparse ultra-wideband (UUU) 2-D arrays for achieving the high angular resolution of underwater 3-D acoustical imaging systems. The design method of UUU 2-D arrays is demonstrated through the example of designing an annular 2-D array with only 100 elements. The capabilities of the designed annular UUU 2-D array are evaluated, showing that it can achieve a 0.1° angular resolution and a −32 dB maximum sidelobe level. The imaging simulations of complicated targets also demonstrate that the designed annular UUU 2-D array can satisfy the requirement of high-resolution underwater 3-D acoustical imaging. The element number of the designed annular UUU 2-D array is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that of a fully sampled uniform 2-D array, which provides a viable choice for developing high-resolution real-time underwater 3-D acoustical imaging systems.
Autors: Cheng Chi;Zhaohui Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2647 - 2657
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution SAR ADC With Enhanced Linearity
Abstract:
This brief proposes two digital-to-analog converter switching techniques for binary-weighted capacitor array successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), rotating&averaging without redundancy technique and rotating&averaging with redundancy technique. The rotating&averaging without redundancy technique can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of conventional SAR ADCs by averaging four samples for one input voltage, while the rotating&averaging with redundancy has better static linearity improvement but less SNR improvement than the rotating&averaging without redundancy technique. The application of these two methods to 14-bit SAR ADC is demonstrated by Monte-Carlo runs, results show that with a mismatch error typical of modern technology, the proposed rotating&averaging with redundancy scheme can improve the root-mean-square of integral nonlinearity from 2.08 to 0.57 LSB, and the SFDR is more than 15 dB better. On the other hand, the averaged SNR of 7.7 dB is improved by using the proposed rotating&averaging without redundancy technique for a 14-bit SAR ADC. Furthermore, the schemes proposed require only small additional circuit on a typical SAR ADC configuration, which are more feasible to implement high-resolution SAR ADC compared with the traditional calibration schemes.
Autors: Hua Fan;Franco Maloberti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1142 - 1146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Satellite Observations of a New Hazard of Golden Tides Caused by Floating Sargassum in Winter in the Yellow Sea
Abstract:
A new marine hazard of golden tides caused by floating brown macroalgae-Sargassum occurred in the Yellow Sea in December 2016. An economic loss of 0.5 billion CNY (about U.S. $73 million) was estimated due to the damaged seaweed aquaculture in the Jiangsu Shoal, China. In this letter, images from the new Chinese satellite of Gaofen (GF) with high-resolution optical cameras are used to retrieve the drifting path of floating Sargassum and its origin. A southward drifting path of floating Sargassum in the western Yellow Sea is identified for the first time, and the initial site of bloom occurrence is near the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, China, implying the origin of this hazard of floating Sargassum. The scale of this Sargassum bloom event in the Jiangsu Shoal is also evaluated using a linear-mixing model suitable for high-resolution images. The result shows that the total area of Sargassum-containing pixels in the GF-1 wide-field-of-view images on December 31, 2016 was more than 46 km2, and according to the estimation by the linear-mixing model, the total area of sea surface completely covered by Sargassum was above 8.8 km2. The approach and the results presented in this letter should contribute to the future study and management of golden tides in Chinese coastal waters.
Autors: Qianguo Xing;Ruihong Guo;Lingling Wu;Deyu An;Ming Cong;Song Qin;Xuerong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1815 - 1819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution Spaceborne SAR Processing Using the Decomposed Transfer Function
Abstract:
In this paper, a new analytic decomposed transfer function (DTF) for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar processing is calculated using the stationary phase approximation and Taylor's series expansion. The DTF copes with large Doppler centroid variations and executes range cell migration correction, secondary range compression, azimuth compression, and higher order effects. A fourth-order (DTF4) and fifth-order (DTF5) algorithms have been implemented using segmented block processing. It is shown that the DTF4 yields high quality 3-look target responses at azimuth resolution 0.3 m and range resolution 0.5 m at low squint (yaw = 0.3°) for X-band. At higher squint (yaw = 7.5°) the DTF5 has to be used to obtain adequate image quality.
Autors: Knut Eldhuset;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2187 - 2198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Temperature Characteristics of 3-kV 4H-SiC Reverse Blocking MOSFET for High-Performance Bidirectional Switch
Abstract:
Novel 3-kV 4H-SiC reverse blocking (RB) metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been demonstrated for high-voltage bidirectional switching applications. To achieve RB capability, a series Schottky barrier diode structure was introduced onto the backside of the 4H-SiC MOSFET. The developed SiC RB MOSFET exhibits bidirectional blocking voltage over 3 kV and a differential specific on-resistance of 20 cm2 at room temperature. In an inductive-load switching measurement, the RB MOSFET showed good turn-ON/-OFF characteristics at 1 kV. The bidirectional switch configured by the developed RB MOSFETs exhibited lower ON-state power loss than the series connection of the standard SiC MOSFETs at wide range of temperature and operation current, demonstrating the advantage of the SiC RB MOSFET as a high-performance bidirectional switch.
Autors: Seigo Mori;Masatoshi Aketa;Takui Sakaguchi;Yuichiro Nanen;Hirokazu Asahara;Takashi Nakamura;Tsunenobu Kimoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4167 - 4174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient and Reliable SiC-Based DC–DC Converter for Smart Transformer
Abstract:
The series-resonant converter (SRC) has been used in several application and it recently became popular for smart transformers (STs). In this application, the efficiency and reliability are of paramount importance. Although many papers have addressed the design challenges to improve the converter efficiency, discussions about the reliability are still missing in the literature. In this context, this paper presents a design procedure focusing on the efficiency and reliability improvement of the SRC for ST application. High efficiency is achieved through the use of silicon-carbide MOSFETs, reducing conduction and switching losses, and the detail design procedure based on accurate losses modeling. High reliability is achieved through a fault-tolerant topology and reliability-oriented design of the resonant circuit passive components. Experimental results obtained for the optimized 10 kW SRC has shown an efficiency of 98.61%.
Autors: Levy Ferreira Costa;Giampaolo Buticchi;Marco Liserre;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8383 - 8392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Efficient Chip-Scale Package LED Based on Surface Patterning
Abstract:
Chip-scale package (CSP) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered as the next generation of highly efficient package LED. However, they suffer from total internal reflection that limits their light extraction efficiency (LEE). In this letter, surface patterning, in terms of microstructures, as a well-controlled surface roughness method is designed and applied on CSP-LED to improve the LEE. Based on simulation results, pyramid and flat top pyramid structures have been designed and optimized. Four types of layouts, including tightly, interlaced, distant and chessboard layout, are also compared. A LEE enhancement of more than 20% is achieved. Furthermore, the four layouts with pyramid structures are fabricated using nano-imprint technology. The experimental results match the simulated results well with only a mismatch of 2.9%. The fabricated layout shows an enhancement of 20.31% when pyramid structures are fully filling the surface. Surface patterned CSP-LED, therefore, exhibits a great potential for high efficient LED.
Autors: Tianqi Zhang;Haodong Tang;Shang Li;Zuoliang Wen;Xiangtian Xiao;Yulong Zhang;Fei Wang;Kai Wang;Dan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 29, issue:20, pages: 1703 - 1706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Microfluidic Chip Sensor for Biochemical Detection
Abstract:
Chip calorimetry offers a power tool for fast and high throughput analysis of biochemical process. However, it is challenging to realize an inexpensive, easy to fabricate microfluidic chip-based calorimeter with high sensitivity. This paper describes the design of a novel, highly sensitive, and continuous flow microfluidic chip sensor with an integrated antimony (Sb)–bismuth (Bi) thin-film thermopile heat detection element. The geometry and the design of the microfluidic device facilitate hydrodynamic flow focusing, and the integration and design of the thermopile sensor into the microfluidic device eliminates the need for reference temperature control. The device contains a single flow channel that is high and 10-mm wide with two fluid inlets and one fluid outlet. An Sb-Bi thin film thermopile is fabricated on the inner surface of the bottom channel wall using thermal evaporation and was passivized with a SU-8 photoresist layer. The device has been successfully used to measure the dynamic temperature changes resulting from heat generation following the mixing of glycerol and water. The effect of flow rates on the sensor’s response was measured. The sensor can detect dynamic temperature changes in the order of 10-6 K. The limit of detection of heat power of the device was calculated to be 8.8 pW. With the obtained remarkable sensitivity and heat power detection limit, the microfluidic chip sensor can potentially be used to investigate biochemical processes, such as enzyme-catalysed reactions, and metabolic activity of cells.
Autors: Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy;Eric J. Guilbeau;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6510 - 6514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Stable Atomic Layer Deposited Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Incorporating Triple O2 Annealing
Abstract:
Top-gate zinc oxide thin-film transistors have been fabricated by thermal atomic layer deposition, and the effective process steps to improve the device stability have been investigated in detail. In particular, the incorporation of triple rapid thermal annealing steps in oxygen ambient has been proposed to shift the turn-ON voltage toward the positive direction, reduce interface defects, and suppress gate leakage current. Such devices exhibited near zero turn-ON voltage and significantly enhanced electrical and environmental stability. Repeated – sweeping over 900 times in air ambient only caused a shift of the transfer characteristics as low as 0.08 V. Both positive and negative gate bias stress tests on such devices exhibited superior stability performance. Furthermore, ring oscillators based on these devices were found to be capable of highly stable continuous operation over 10 000 s, indicating the devices’ suitability for practical circuits-on-glass applications.
Autors: Zhi Ye;Hua Xu;Tengfei Liu;Ni Liu;Ying Wang;Ning Zhang;Yang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4114 - 4122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Historical-Data-Based Energy Management in a Microgrid With a Hybrid Energy Storage System
Abstract:
In a microgrid, due to potential reverse power profiles between the renewable energy source (RES) and the loads, energy storage devices are employed to achieve high self-consumption of RES and to minimize power surplus flowing back into the main grid. This paper proposes a variable charging/discharging threshold method to manage the energy storage system. In addition, an adaptive intelligence technique (AIT) is put forward to raise the power management efficiency. A battery–ultra-capacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS) with merits of high energy and power density is used to evaluate the proposed method with on-site-measured RES output data. Compared with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on the precise predicted data of the load and the RES, the results show that the proposed method can achieve better load smoothing and self-consumption of the RES without the requirement of precise load and RES forecasting.
Autors: Ke Jia;Yiru Chen;Tianshu Bi;Yaoqi Lin;David Thomas;Mark Sumner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2597 - 2605
Publisher: IEEE
 
» History of the Endoscope [Scanning Our Past]
Abstract:
Endoscopy is a technique allowing inspection, manipulation, and treatment of internal organs using devices to enhance visualization from a distance of the target organs without the need of an incision large enough to allow the hand or fingers of the surgeon to enter the surgical field. As can be expected, endoscopy developed in areas where hollow organs were connected to the exterior via natural orifices: the urethra, the vagina, the rectum, the ear canal, and the throat and pharynx. Entry of natural orifices was safe, devoid of wounds, and thus with little risk of infection and death. As also can be expected in the early days without radio, TV, telephone, or internet, numerous physicians and nonphysician scientists invented smaller or larger contributions to the field, sometimes at the same time unaware of the inventions of others. Not all who contributed published their inventions or the application of their inventions, and for others records were lost or destroyed at times of war. As a result the history of the endoscope is not an exact science where each advancement can be placed on a reputable time line and assigned with confidence to a single inventor. The limited space assigned to this summary of the history of the endoscope will not allow any details or nuances; instead it will focus on a number of well-regarded and generally accepted important contributions and its inventors in the early phases of endoscopy and mostly on the technology of the more recent history of endoscopy (Table 1). In addition, rather than focus on the people behind the inventions, this history is aimed mostly at the engineering concepts and subsequent applications in the medical field. For those who desire a more detailed and nuanced history of endoscopy, the reader is referred to books, manuscripts, and websites that cover the entire field or specific subspecialty areas: there are many including cystoscopy, colposcopy, bronchosco- y, thoracoscopy, gastrointestinal endoscopy, laparoscopy, arthroscopy, laryngoscopy, and otoscopy [1][10].
Autors: Piet C. De Groen;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 105, issue:10, pages: 1987 - 1995
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Histotripsy Treatment of S. Aureus Biofilms on Surgical Mesh Samples Under Varying Pulse Durations
Abstract:
Prior studies demonstrated that histotripsy generated by high-intensity tone bursts to excite a bubble cloud adjacent to a medical implant can destroy the bacteria biofilm responsible for the infection. The goal of this paper was to treat Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms on surgical mesh samples while varying the number of cycles in the tone burst to minimize collateral tissue damage while maximizing therapy effectiveness. S. aureus biofilms were grown on 1-cm square surgical mesh samples. The biofilms were then treated in vitro using a spherically focused transducer (1.1 MHz, 12.9-cm focal length, 12.7-cm diameter) using either a sham exposure or histotripsy pulses with tone burst durations of 3, 5, or 10 cycles (pulse repetition frequency of 333 Hz, peak compressional pressure of 150 MPa, peak rarefactional pressure of 17 MPa). After treatment, the number of colony forming units (CFUs) on the mesh and the surrounding gel was independently determined. The number of CFUs remaining on the mesh for the sham exposure (4.8 ± 0.9–log10) (sample mean ± sample standard deviation-log10 from 15 observations) was statistically significantly different from the 3-cycle (1.9 ± 1.5–log10), 5-cycle (2.2 ± 1.1–log10), and 10-cycle exposures (1 ± 1.5–log10) with an average reduction in the number of CFUs of 3.1–log10. The numbers of CFUs released into the gel for both the sham and exposure groups were the same within a bound of 0.86–log10, but this interval was too large to deduce the fate of the bacteria in the biofilm following the treatment.
Autors: Timothy A. Bigelow;Clayton L. Thomas;Huaiqing Wu;Kamal M. F. Itani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1420 - 1428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» hMuLab: A Biomedical Hybrid MUlti-LABel Classifier Based on Multiple Linear Regression
Abstract:
Many biomedical classification problems are multi-label by nature, e.g., a gene involved in a variety of functions and a patient with multiple diseases. The majority of existing classification algorithms assumes each sample with only one class label, and the multi-label classification problem remains to be a challenge for biomedical researchers. This study proposes a novel multi-label learning algorithm, hMuLab, by integrating both feature-based and neighbor-based similarity scores. The multiple linear regression modeling techniques make hMuLab capable of producing multiple label assignments for a query sample. The comparison results over six commonly-used multi-label performance measurements suggest that hMuLab performs accurately and stably for the biomedical datasets, and may serve as a complement to the existing literature.
Autors: Pu Wang;Ruiquan Ge;Xuan Xiao;Manli Zhou;Fengfeng Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1173 - 1180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homogeneous Rational Lyapunov Functions for Performance Analysis of Switched Systems With Arbitrary Switching and Dwell Time Constraints
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problems of determining the norm and the root mean square (RMS) gain of continuous-time switched linear systems. A novel class of Lyapunov functions is proposed for reaching this goal, called homogeneous rational Lyapunov functions (HRLFs). It is shown that sufficient conditions for establishing upper bounds of the sought performance indexes in the case of arbitrary switching can be given in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) feasibility tests by searching for an HRLF of chosen degree. Moreover, it is shown that these conditions are also necessary by searching for an HRLF of degree sufficiently large. It is worth mentioning that necessary and sufficient LMI conditions have not been proposed yet in the literature for the considered problems. Hence, the paper continues by considering the case of switching with dwell time constraints, showing that analogous LMI conditions can be obtained for this case by searching for a family of HRLFs mutually constrained by the dwell time specification. Some numerical examples illustrate the proposed methodology and highlight the advantages with respect to the existing works.
Autors: Graziano Chesi;Patrizio Colaneri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5124 - 5137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homography Propagation and Optimization for Wide-Baseline Street Image Interpolation
Abstract:
Wide-baseline street image interpolation is useful but very challenging. Existing approaches either rely on heavyweight 3D reconstruction or computationally intensive deep networks. We present a lightweight and efficient method which uses simple homography computing and refining operators to estimate piecewise smooth homographies between input views. To achieve the goal, we show how to combine homography fitting and homography propagation together based on reliable and unreliable superpixel discrimination. Such a combination, other than using homography fitting only, dramatically increases the accuracy and robustness of the estimated homographies. Then, we integrate the concepts of homography and mesh warping, and propose a novel homography-constrained warping formulation which enforces smoothness between neighboring homographies by utilizing the first-order continuity of the warped mesh. This further eliminates small artifacts of overlapping, stretching, etc. The proposed method is lightweight and flexible, allows wide-baseline interpolation. It improves the state of the art and demonstrates that homography computation suffices for interpolation. Experiments on city and rural datasets validate the efficiency and effectiveness of our method.
Autors: Yongwei Nie;Zhensong Zhang;Hanqiu Sun;Tan Su;Guiqing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2328 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Horizontal Directional Coupler Formed With Waveguides of Different Heights for Mode-Division Multiplexing
Abstract:
We propose a horizontal directional coupler formed with two parallel waveguides of different heights. By breaking the symmetry in both the horizontal and the vertical direction, this directional coupler can be designed to allow us coupling between any two spatial modes of a few-mode waveguide, regardless of their symmetry properties, whereas a conventional directional coupler formed with planar waveguides of equal heights only allows us coupling between two spatial modes of the same symmetry in the vertical direction. As an example, we design and fabricate such a directional coupler with polymer material for the (de)multiplexing of the LP01 and the LP11b mode, which have a symmetric and an antisymmetric field distribution in the vertical direction, respectively. Our typical fabricated device shows a coupling ratio higher than 95% in the wavelength range from 1530 to 1560 nm. The insertion losses for the LP01 and LP11b modes are 9.6 and 12.8 dB, respectively. The performance of the device is weakly sensitive to temperature variations. The proposed directional coupler is easy to fabricate and can be used as a basic structure for the implementation of mode-controlling devices for mode-division-multiplexing applications.
Autors: Wei Ke Zhao;Kai Xin Chen;Jie Yun Wu;Kin Seng Chiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How synchronization evolved from analog to digital in the TLC world
Abstract:
We are back in the 1960s and 1970s, and the world is still analog: the home phone, with its reliable “hard dialer” that most people today have probably never seen (Fig. 1), is connected with a twisted pair cable to the public exchange. In Italy, it was the Società Italiana per l’Esercizio Telefonico (SIP Society), which has now become Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM). If we try to connect with a client on the same exchange, our call will be handled by a Strowger switch, from the inventor Almon Brown Strowger, which connects us directly to the desired subscriber (Fig. 2).
Autors: Franco Baroncini;Simona Salicone;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 30 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HRO-OFDM Scheme Design and Optimization for a Hybrid RF/VLC Baseband System
Abstract:
A hybrid radio frequency (RF) and visible light communication (VLC) system can provide better data rate performance and user experience, and only the hybrid RF/VLC systems that use independent RF access points (APs) and VLC APs have been currently considered. However, a hybrid design in baseband can more centrally allocate various resources. In this paper, a new hybrid RF/VLC orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) baseband is presented. Different from conventional OFDM baseband, the new baseband combines both RF link and VLC link in the physical layer. IQ modulation is used in RF link, whereas intensity modulation and direct detection are used in VLC link. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid of radio and optical OFDM (HRO-OFDM) scheme can better combine the different features in RF and VLC link. Based on the new hybrid baseband and HRO-OFDM, we improve the conventional optimization and consider both power allocation and bandwidth allocation. Compared with some conventional designs like RF OFDM baseband design, VLC OFDM baseband design and hybrid RF/VLC design, results show that our new design can achieve better performance and adaptively allocate bandwidth in RF/VLC links under the different distances between user and the baseband.
Autors: Fangzhou Wu;Li Chen;Weidong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Behavior Recognition Using Wi-Fi CSI: Challenges and Opportunities
Abstract:
Human behavior recognition (HBR) has emerged as a core research area in human-computer interaction. In this article, we give a comprehensive introduction to HBR using Wi-Fi channel state information. We first comprehensively review the state-of-art of HBR, based on the two techniques that drove recent progress in Wi-Fi channel-state-information-based HBR -- fingerprint-based and model-based. Specifically, we describe their corresponding characteristics, general architectures, and provide a performance comparison of the two mechanisms. We then provide insights into the future directions of HBR research, and propose two possible new schemes, and the technical challenges coming with them.
Autors: Lili Chen;Xiaojiang Chen;Ligang Ni;Yao Peng;Dingyi Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Backscatter Communication for Wireless-Powered Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose hybrid backscatter communication for wireless-powered communication networks (WPCNs) to increase transmission range and provide uniform rate distribution in the heterogeneous network (HetNet) environment. In such HetNet, where the TV tower or high-power base station (macrocell) coexists with densely deployed small-power access points (e.g., small-cells or WiFi), users can operate in either bistatic scatter or ambient backscatter, or a hybrid of them, given that the harvested energy from the dedicated or ambient RF signals may not be sufficient enough to support the existing harvest-then-transmit protocol for WPCN, which is extended to the wireless-powered heterogeneous network (WPHetNet). Considering the hybrid and dual mode operation, we formulate a throughput maximization problem depending on the user location, namely Macro-zone or WiFi-zone. After performing the optimal time allocation for the above operation, we show that the proposed hybrid backscatter communication can increase the transmission range of WPHetNet, while achieving uniform rate distribution.
Autors: Sung Hoon Kim;Dong In Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6557 - 6570
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid conventional and quantum security for software defined and virtualized networks
Abstract:
Today's networks are quickly evolving toward more dynamic and flexible infrastructures and architectures. This software-based evolution has seen its peak with the development of the software-defined networking (SDN) and network functions virtualization (NFV) paradigms. These new concepts allow operators to automate the setup of services, thus reducing costs in deploying and operating the required infrastructure. On the other hand, these novel paradigms expose new vulnerabilities, as critical information travels through the infrastructure fromcentral offices, down to remote data centers and network devices. Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a state-of-the-art technology that can be seen as a source of symmetric keys in two separated domains. It is immune to any algorithmic cryptanalysis and is thus suitable for long-term security. This technology is based on the laws of physics, which forbids us from copying the quantum states exchanged between two endpoints from which a secret key can be extracted. Thus, even though it has some limitations, a correct implementation can deliver keys of the highest security. In this paper, we propose the integration of QKDsystems with well-known protocols and methodologies to secure the network’s control plane in an SDN and NFV environment. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate a workflow where QKD keys are used together with classically generated keys to encrypt communications between cloud and SDN platforms for setting up a service via secure shell, while showcasing the applicability to other cryptographic protocols.
Autors: Alejandro Aguado;Victor Lopez;Jesus Martinez-Mateo;Thomas Szyrkowiec;Achim Autenrieth;Momtchil Peev;Diego Lopez;Vicente Martin;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:10, pages: 819 - 825
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid CS-DMRI: Periodic Time-Variant Subsampling and Omnidirectional Total Variation Based Reconstruction
Abstract:
Compressive sensing (CS) has been used to accelerate dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI). Currently, the online CS-DMRI is faster, whereas the offline CS-DMRI provides higher accuracy for image reconstruction. To achieve good image reconstruction performance in terms of both speed and accuracy, we propose a hybrid CS-DMRI method using periodic time-variant subsampling for different frames. In each period, there is one reference frame that is sampled at a higher subsampling ratio. The two nearby reference frames with good reconstruction quality can be used to provide rough predictions of the other frames between them. To finely recover the current frame, one structural regularization in the optimization model for reconstruction is a 2-D omnidirectional total variation (OTV) for exploiting the sparsity of the difference between the predicted and estimated frames, and the other is a 3-D OTV as a regularization term for exploiting the bilateral spatio-temporal coherence between the forward reference frame, current frame, and backward reference frame. Compared with classical total variation, the proposed OTV fully utilizes the correlations of all the possible directions of the data. The formulated optimization model can be solved using iterative reweighted least squares with the pre-conditioned conjugate gradient method. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed method has better reconstruction accuracy than all the existing methods and low computational complexity that is comparable to the existing online methods.
Autors: Yipeng Liu;Shan Wu;Xiaolin Huang;Bing Chen;Ce Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 2148 - 2159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Dynamic Moving Obstacle Avoidance Using a Stochastic Reachable Set-Based Potential Field
Abstract:
One of the primary challenges for autonomous robotics in uncertain and dynamic environments is planning and executing a collision-free path. Hybrid dynamic obstacles present an even greater challenge as the obstacles can change dynamics without warning and potentially invalidate paths. Artificial potential field (APF)-based techniques have shown great promise in successful path planning in highly dynamic environments due to their low cost at runtime. We utilize the APF framework for runtime planning but leverage a formal validation method, Stochastic Reachable (SR) sets, to generate accurate potential fields for moving obstacles. A small number of SR sets are computed a priori, then used to generate a potential field that represents the obstacle's stochastic motion for online path planning. Our method is novel and scales well with the number of obstacles, maintaining a relatively high probability of reaching the goal without collision, as compared to other traditional Gaussian APF methods. Here, we demonstrate our method with up to 900 hybrid dynamic obstacles and show that it outperforms the traditional Gaussian APF method by up to 60% in the holonomic case and up to 20% in the unicycle case.
Autors: Nick Malone;Hao-Tien Chiang;Kendra Lesser;Meeko Oishi;Lydia Tapia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1124 - 1138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Fuzzy Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Control for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Unmeasured States
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid adaptive output feedback fault-tolerant control is investigated for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unmeasured states. The generalized fuzzy hyperbolic model is used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, and the fuzzy state estimator (FSE) is established for estimating the unmeasured states. Based on the backstepping and dynamic surface control technique, a novel adaptive control method is proposed by introducing the prediction errors between FSE and serial–parallel estimation model. It is proved that all the variables of the closed-loop systems are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded by Lyapunov approach, and the tracking errors can converge to a small neighborhood. Two simulation examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Autors: Huaguang Zhang;Yang Cui;Yingchun Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1041 - 1050
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Robust Boundary and Fuzzy Control for Disturbance Attenuation of Nonlinear Coupled ODE-Beam Systems With Application to a Flexible Spacecraft
Abstract:
This paper introduces a hybrid robust boundary and fuzzy control design for disturbance attenuation of a class of coupled systems described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and two nonlinear beam equations. Initially, a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) model is employed to exactly represent the nonlinear ODE subsystem. Then, a fuzzy controller is designed for the ODE subsystem based on the T–S fuzzy model, and a robust boundary controller via beam boundary measurements is proposed for the nonlinear beam subsystem. Such a hybrid robust boundary and fuzzy controller is developed in terms of a set of space-dependent bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs) by Lyapunov's direct method, which can exponentially stabilize the coupled system in the absence of disturbances and achieve an prescribed performance of disturbance attenuation in the presence of disturbances. Furthermore, in order to make the level of disturbance attenuation as small as possible, a suboptimal control problem is formulated as a BMI optimization problem. A two-step procedure is subsequently presented to solve this BMI optimization problem by the existing linear matrix inequality optimization techniques. Finally, the proposed control method is applied to the control of a flexible spacecraft to illustrate its effectiveness.
Autors: Shuang Feng;Huai-Ning Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1293 - 1305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Thin Film Antenna for Automotive Radar at 79 GHz
Abstract:
A novel hybrid approach to designing multilayer antennas for automotive radar using a thin single layer printed circuit board and multilayer thin films is presented in this paper. A new substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) slot fed stacked grid antenna element is designed using this approach. The flexibility of this approach in designing antenna arrays is shown by integrating the same antenna element with three different feed networks based on SIW, grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW), and microstrip (MS) transmission lines. The antenna is designed to operate in the frequency band between 77 and 81 GHz for automotive radar. Measurement results on arrays show an impedance matching bandwidth and a realized gain of 7.8% (76.3–82.5 GHz) and 9.2 dBi, respectively, for SIW feed antenna, 11.3% (76.3–85.5 GHz) and 10.7 dBi, respectively, for GCPW feed antenna, and 11.3% (75.7–84.8 GHz) and 12.1 dBi, respectively, for MS feed antennas. The proposed antenna can be used for medium- and short-range automotive radar applications.
Autors: Osama Khan;Johannes Meyer;Klaus Baur;Christian Waldschmidt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5076 - 5085
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Wavelength Switched-TDMA High Port Count All-Optical Data Centre Switch
Abstract:
The physical layer data plane design of an all-optical network switch capable of scaling to 1024 ports at 25 Gb/s per port is presented and experimentally evaluated. Fast-tuning DSDBR lasers modulated with line-coded bipolar data allow combined wavelength switching and time-division multiple access to provide packet switch-like functionality with over 2 Tb/s of total switch bandwidth. A passive fiber star coupler core with high sensitivity DSP-free coherent receivers creates a low complexity easily upgradeable building block for data center networks.
Autors: Adam Christopher Funnell;Kai Shi;Paolo Costa;Philip Watts;Hitesh Ballani;Benn Charles Thomsen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4438 - 4444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral and Multispectral Image Fusion Based on Local Low Rank and Coupled Spectral Unmixing
Abstract:
Hyperspectral images (HSIs) usually have high spectral and low spatial resolution. Conversely, multispectral images (MSIs) usually have low spectral and high spatial resolution. The fusion of HSI and MSI aims to create spectral images with high spectral and spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a fusion algorithm by combining linear spectral unmixing with the local low-rank property. By taking advantage of the local low-rank property, we first partition the corresponding spectral image into patches. For each patch pair, we cast the fusion problem as a coupled spectral unmixing problem that extracts the abundance and the endmembers of MSI and HSI, respectively. It then updates the abundance and the endmember through an alternating update algorithm. In fact, the convergence of the alternative update algorithm can be mathematically and empirically supported. We also propose a multiscale postprocessing procedure to combine fusion results obtained under different patch sizes. In experiments on three data sets, the proposed fusion algorithms outperformed state-of-the-art fusion algorithms in both spatial and spectral domains.
Autors: Yuan Zhou;Liyang Feng;Chunping Hou;Sun-Yuan Kung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5997 - 6009
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection With Attribute and Edge-Preserving Filters
Abstract:
A novel method for anomaly detection in hyperspectral images is proposed. The method is based on two ideas. First, compared with the surrounding background, objects with anomalies usually appear with small areas and distinct spectral signatures. Second, for both the background and the objects with anomalies, pixels in the same class are usually highly correlated in the spatial domain. In this paper, the pixels with specific area property and distinct spectral signatures are first detected with attribute filtering and a Boolean map-based fusion approach in order to obtain an initial pixel-wise detection result. Then, the initial detection result is refined with edge-preserving filtering to make full use of the spatial correlations among adjacent pixels. Compared with other widely used anomaly detection methods, the experimental results obtained on real hyperspectral data sets including airport, beach, and urban scenes demonstrate that the performance of the proposed method is quite competitive in terms of computing time and detection accuracy.
Autors: Xudong Kang;Xiangping Zhang;Shutao Li;Kenli Li;Jun Li;Jón Atli Benediktsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5600 - 5611
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Restoration Using Low-Rank Tensor Recovery
Abstract:
This paper studies the hyperspectral image (HSI) denoising problem under the assumption that the signal is low in rank. In this paper, a mixture of Gaussian noise and sparse noise is considered. The sparse noise includes stripes, impulse noise, and dead pixels. The denoising task is formulated as a low-rank tensor recovery (LRTR) problem from Gaussian noise and sparse noise. Traditional low-rank tensor decomposition methods are generally NP-hard to compute. Besides, these tensor decomposition based methods are sensitive to sparse noise. In contrast, the proposed LRTR method can preserve the global structure of HSIs and simultaneously remove Gaussian noise and sparse noise.The proposed method is based on a new tensor singular value decomposition and tensor nuclear norm. The NP-hard tensor recovery task is well accomplished by polynomial time algorithms. The convergence of the algorithm and the parameter settings are also described in detail. Preliminary numerical experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective for low-rank tensor recovery from Gaussian noise and sparse noise. Experimental results also show that the proposed LRTR method outperforms other denoising algorithms on real corrupted hyperspectral data.
Autors: Haiyan Fan;Yunjin Chen;Yulan Guo;Hongyan Zhang;Gangyao Kuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4589 - 4604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Super-Resolution by Spectral Difference Learning and Spatial Error Correction
Abstract:
A hyperspectral image (HSI) super-resolution (SR) is a highly attractive topic in computer vision. However, most existed methods require an auxiliary high-resolution (HR) image with respect to the input low-resolution (LR) HSI. This limits the practicability of these HSI SR methods. Moreover, these methods often destroy the important spectral information. This letter presents a deep spectral difference convolutional neural network (SDCNN) with the combination of a spatial-error-correction (SEC) model for HSI SR. This method allows for full exploration of the spectral and spatial correlations, which achieves a good spatial information enhancement and spectral information preservation. In the proposed method, the key band is automatically selected and super-resolved with the boundary bands. Meanwhile, spectral difference mapping between the LR and HR HSIs can be learned by the SDCNN, and then be transformed according to the SEC model, which aims at correcting the spatial error while preserving the spectral information. The rest nonkey bands will be super-resolved under the guidance of the transformed spectral difference. Experimental results on synthesized and real-scenario HSIs suggest that the proposed method: 1) achieves comparable performance without requiring any auxiliary images of the same scene and 2) requires less computation time than the state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Jing Hu;Yunsong Li;Weiying Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1825 - 1829
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hysteresis Bearingless Slice Motors With Homopolar Flux-Biasing
Abstract:
We present a new concept of bearingless slice motor that levitates and rotates a ring-shaped solid rotor. The rotor is made of a semi-hard magnetic material exhibiting magnetic hysteresis, such as D2 steel. The rotor is radially biased with a homopolar permanent-magnetic flux, on which the stator can superimpose two-pole flux to generate suspension forces. By regulating the suspension forces based on position feedback, the two radial rotor degrees of freedom are actively stabilized. The two tilting degrees of freedom and the axial translation are passively stable due to the reluctance forces from the bias flux. In addition, the stator can generate a torque by superimposing six-pole rotating flux, which drags the rotor via hysteresis coupling. This six-pole flux does not generate radial forces in conjunction with the homopolar flux or two-pole flux, and therefore the suspension force generation is in principle decoupled from the driving torque generation. We have developed a prototype system as a proof of concept. The stator has 12 teeth, each of which has a single-phase winding that is individually driven by a linear transconductance power amplifier. The system has four reflective-type optical sensors to differentially measure the two radial degrees of freedom of the rotor. The suspension control loop is implemented such that the phase margin is 25 at the cross-over frequency of 110 Hz. The prototype system can levitate the rotor and drive it up to about 1730 r/min. The maximum driving torque is about 2.7 mNm.
Autors: Minkyun Noh;Wolfgang Gruber;David L. Trumper;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2308 - 2318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Annual Meeting: Colocation with ECCE [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 4 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ICESAT/GLAS Altimetry Measurements: Received Signal Dynamic Range and Saturation Correction
Abstract:
NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), which operated between 2003 and 2009, made the first satellite-based global lidar measurement of earth’s ice sheet elevations, sea-ice thickness, and vegetation canopy structure. The primary instrument on ICESat was the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which measured the distance from the spacecraft to the earth’s surface via the roundtrip travel time of individual laser pulses. GLAS utilized pulsed lasers and a direct detection receiver consisting of a silicon avalanche photodiode and a waveform digitizer. Early in the mission, the peak power of the received signal from snow and ice surfaces was found to span a wider dynamic range than anticipated, often exceeding the linear dynamic range of the GLAS 1064-nm detector assembly. The resulting saturation of the receiver distorted the recorded signal and resulted in range biases as large as ~50 cm for ice- and snow-covered surfaces. We developed a correction for this “saturation range bias” based on laboratory tests using a spare flight detector, and refined the correction by comparing GLAS elevation estimates with those derived from Global Positioning System surveys over the calibration site at the salar de Uyuni, Bolivia. Applying the saturation correction largely eliminated the range bias due to receiver saturation for affected ICESat measurements over Uyuni and significantly reduced the discrepancies at orbit crossovers located on flat regions of the Antarctic ice sheet.
Autors: Xiaoli Sun;James B. Abshire;Adrian A. Borsa;Helen Amanda Fricker;Donghui Yi;John P. DiMarzio;Fernando S. Paolo;Kelly M. Brunt;David J. Harding;Gregory A. Neumann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5440 - 5454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification and Experimental Validation of an Induction Motor Thermal Model for Improved Drivetrain Design
Abstract:
The ability of an electric powertrain to perform according to mechanical specifications is equally important as assessing its thermal protection limits, which are affected by its electrical and thermal properties. Although rated parameters (such as power, torque, etc.) are easily accessible in catalogs of equipment producers, more specific properties like mass/length of copper winding, heat dissipation factor, etc., are not available to customers. Therefore, an effective selection of drivetrain components is limited due to the lack of sufficient data and the need to consult critical design decisions with suppliers. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method to estimate the temperature rise of motor drives based on popular loadability curves, which are provided in catalogs. A simple first-order thermal model is applied to represent heating/cooling phenomenon of motor drives. The parameters’ identification process is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved using commercial software products. Within the proposed approach, it becomes possible to include the effect of reduced torque availability at low speeds in self-ventilated motors during design of electric actuation systems. Contrary to using a discrete set of permissible overload conditions from the catalogs, the current methodology allows for evaluating a temperature rise of a motor drive for any overload magnitude, duty cycle, and ambient temperature. This greatly improves flexibility of the design process and facilitates communication in a supplier–customer dialog. The discussed method is verified against reference overload recommendations, yielding the same thermal protection levels, and validated using the experimental results, producing identical motor temperature rise profiles as the ones measured on the laboratory test bench.
Autors: Witold Pawlus;Jan Thomas Birkeland;Huynh Van Khang;Michael R. Hansen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4288 - 4297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of LOCA and Estimation of Its Break Size by Multiconnected Support Vector Machines
Abstract:
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are composed of very large complex systems. During transient occurrences in NPPs, operators determine the transients of the NPP through information acquired from various measuring instruments. A support vector machine (SVM) based on serial and parallel connections, termed as a multiconnected SVM, is introduced in this paper. The loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) was identified and their break sizes are estimated using the multiconnected SVM model. The optimal parameter values of the multiconnected SVM models are obtained using a genetic algorithm. In this paper, the modular accident analysis program code was used to simulate the severe accidents occurring due to a variety of design basis accidents. The proposed algorithm uses the short time-integrated simulated sensor signals just after the reactor trip. The results show that the multiconnected SVM model can identify LOCAs and estimate their break sizes accurately. It is expected that the LOCA identification and the accurate estimation of the break size are useful for NPP operators when they try to manage severe accidents.
Autors: Kwae Hwan Yoo;Young Do Koo;Ju Hyun Back;Man Gyun Na;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2610 - 2617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of partial discharges in power transformers: An approach driven by practical experience
Abstract:
High voltage power transformers are the most challenging equipment for asset managers in that their failures are often due to thermal, electrical, ambient, and mechanical stresses that interact in a synergic way. An accurate failure mode analysis is often prevented by the compound nature of the insulation (partly solid, partly liquid, self-regenerative, and highly flammable) and by the high probability that failures involve explosions. Insulation failure is, by far, the costlier event with an average cost of about $150,000 (1999) per outage [1]. Therefore, it is worthwhile to understand better the symptoms that indicate an imminent failure. The aim of this article is to provide practical information for partial discharge source identification for oil-immersed transformers. The features of some common manufacturing defects rarely discussed in the literature are presented. Creeping discharges are also investigated through a setup intended to improve partial discharge identification.
Autors: S. Ganeshan;J. Murugesan;A. Cavallini;F. Negri;B. Valecillos;U. Piovan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 23 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of the Uncertainty Structure to Estimate the Acoustic Release of Chemotherapeutics From Polymeric Micelles
Abstract:
This paper estimates the acoustic drug release from micelles after accurately identifying the underlying statistical noise characteristics in experimental data. The drug release is measured as a change in fluorescence as ultrasound is applied. First, the noise structure affecting the process dynamics and the measurement process is identified in terms of statistical covariance of the aforementioned quantities. Then, the identified covariance magnitudes are utilized to estimate the dynamics of drug release. The performance of different filters is investigated. The identified a priori knowledge is used to implement an optimal Kalman filter, a multi-hypothesis Kalman filter, and a variant of the full information estimator (moving horizon estimator) to the problem at hand. The proposed algorithms are initially deployed in a simulation environment, and then the experimental data sets are fed into the algorithms to validate their performance. Experiments span a number of ultrasonic power densities for both non-targeted and targeted polymeric micelles (the targeting being accomplished using the folate moiety). The results suggest that the proposed algorithm, the optimal Kalman filter, performs better than the other two in all tests performed.
Autors: Ali Wadi;Mamoun Abdel-Hafez;Ghaleb A. Husseini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 609 - 617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Extract Method Refactoring Opportunities Based on Functional Relevance
Abstract:
‘Extract Method’ is considered one of the most frequently applied and beneficial refactorings, since the corresponding Long Method smell is among the most common and persistent ones. Although Long Method is conceptually related to the implementation of diverse functionalities within a method, until now, this relationship has not been utilized while identifying refactoring opportunities. In this paper we introduce an approach (accompanied by a tool) that aims at identifying source code chunks that collaborate to provide a specific functionality, and propose their extraction as separate methods. The accuracy of the proposed approach has been empirically validated both in an industrial and an open-source setting. In the former case, the approach was capable of identifying functionally related statements within two industrial long methods (approx. 500 LoC each), with a recall rate of 93 percent. In the latter case, based on a comparative study on open-source data, our approach ranks better compared to two well-known techniques of the literature. To assist software engineers in the prioritization of the suggested refactoring opportunities the approach ranks them based on an estimate of their fitness for extraction. The provided ranking has been validated in both settings and proved to be strongly correlated with experts’ opinion.
Autors: Sofia Charalampidou;Apostolos Ampatzoglou;Alexander Chatzigeorgiou;Antonios Gkortzis;Paris Avgeriou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 43, issue:10, pages: 954 - 974
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Stages of Kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma by Combining Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Data
Abstract:
In this study, in order to take advantage of complementary information from different types of data for better disease status diagnosis, we combined gene expression with DNA methylation data and generated a fused network, based on which the stages of Kidney Renal Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) can be better identified. It is well recognized that a network is important for investigating the connectivity of disease groups. We exploited the potential of the network's features to identify the KIRC stage. We first constructed a patient network from each type of data. We then built a fused network based on network fusion method. Based on the link weights of patients, we used a generalized linear model to predict the group of KIRC subjects. Finally, the group prediction method was applied to test the power of network-based features. The performance (e.g., the accuracy of identifying cancer stages) when using the fused network from two types of data is shown to be superior to that when using two patient networks from only one data type. The work provides a good example for using network based features from multiple data types for a more comprehensive diagnosis.
Autors: Su-Ping Deng;Shaolong Cao;De-Shuang Huang;Yu-Ping Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1147 - 1153
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Surface BRDF From a Single 4-D Light Field Image via Deep Neural Network
Abstract:
Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) defines how light is reflected at a surface patch to produce the surface appearance, and thus, modeling/recognizing BRDFs is of great importance for various tasks in computer vision and graphics. However, such tasks are usually ill-posed or require heavy labor on image capture from different viewing angles. In this paper, we focus on the problem of remote BRDF type identification, by delivering novel techniques that capture and use a single light field image. The key is that a light field image captures both the spatial and angular information by a single shot, and the angular information enables effective samplings of the four-dimensional (4-D) BRDF. To implement the idea, we propose convolutional neural network based architectures for BRDF identification from a single 4-D light field image. Specifically, a StackNet and an Ang-convNet are introduced. The StackNet stacks the angular information of the light field images in an independent dimension, whereas the Ang-convNet uses angular filters to encode the angular information. In addition, we propose a large light field BRDF dataset containing 47 650 high-quality 4-D light field image patches, with different 3-D shapes, BRDFs, and illuminations. Experimental results show significant accuracy improvement in BRDF identification by using the proposed methods.
Autors: Feng Lu;Lei He;Shaodi You;Xiaowu Chen;Zhixiang Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:7, pages: 1047 - 1057
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on the IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 136 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Technical Talk at Al Ain University [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
On 1 June 2016, the College of Engineering at Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU), in conjunction with the Joint Chapter of the UAE IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society and IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society along with the IEEE AAU student branch, organized a technical talk, "The Engineering of the Human Joint: Advances in Orthopedics Research and Computer Navigation" presented by Dr. Farid Amirouche of the University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 139 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Matting for Automatic Target Recognition
Abstract:
Features used in the classification of targets are generally based on the shape or gray-level information of the preprocessed target chip. Consequently, the performance of an automatic target recognition (ATR) system critically depends on the preprocessing result. In this paper, we propose to apply recent advances in image matting to address these challenges. First, a trimap is automatically generated in an adaptive manner to assign appropriate known foreground and background constraints. Then modified geometric clustering, which estimates the target center robustly, is performed on the estimated trimap. Then propagation-based matting is used to remove nontarget regions while retaining target information. The proposed framework is evaluated using visual examination, ATR performance comparison, and constraints dependency analysis. Our method has robust capabilities and outperforms conventional schemes.
Autors: Hyun-Woong Cho;Young-Rae Cho;Woo-Jin Song;Byoung-Kwang Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2233 - 2250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Reconstruction via Manifold Constrained Convolutional Sparse Coding for Image Sets
Abstract:
Convolution sparse coding (CSC) has attracted much attention recently due to its advantages in image reconstruction and enhancement. However, the coding process suffers from perturbations caused by variations of input samples, as the consistence of features from similar input samples are not well addressed in the existing literature. In this paper, we will tackle this feature consistence problem from a set of samples via a proposed manifold constrained convolutional sparse coding (MCSC) method. The core idea of MCSC is to use the intrinsic manifold (Laplacian) structure of the input data to regularize the traditional CSC such that the consistence between features extracted from input samples can be well preserved. To implement the proposed MCSC method efficiently, the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) approach is employed, which can consistently integrate the underlying Laplacian constraints during the optimization process. With this regularized data structure constraint, the MCSC can achieve a much better solution which is robust to the variance of the input samples against overcomplete filters. We demonstrate the capacity of MCSC by providing the state-of-the-art results when applied it to the task of reconstructing light fields. Finally, we show that the proposed MCSC is a generic approach as it also achieves better results than the state-of-the-art approaches based on convolutional sparse coding in other image reconstruction tasks, such as face reconstruction, digit reconstruction, and image restoration.
Autors: Linlin Yang;Ce Li;Jungong Han;Chen Chen;Qixiang Ye;Baochang Zhang;Xianbin Cao;Wanquan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:7, pages: 1072 - 1081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Registration and Change Detection under Rolling Shutter Motion Blur
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the problem of registering a distorted image and a reference image of the same scene by estimating the camera motion that had caused the distortion. We simultaneously detect the regions of changes between the two images. We attend to the coalesced effect of rolling shutter and motion blur that occurs frequently in moving CMOS cameras. We first model a general image formation framework for a 3D scene following a layered approach in the presence of rolling shutter and motion blur. We then develop an algorithm which performs layered registration to detect changes. This algorithm includes an optimisation problem that leverages the sparsity of the camera trajectory in the pose space and the sparsity of changes in the spatial domain. We create a synthetic dataset for change detection in the presence of motion blur and rolling shutter effect covering different types of camera motion for both planar and 3D scenes. We compare our method with existing registration methods and also show several real examples captured with CMOS cameras.
Autors: Vijay Rengarajan;Ambasamudram Narayanan Rajagopalan;Rangarajan Aravind;Guna Seetharaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 1959 - 1972
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Reshaping for Efficient Compression of Plenoptic Content
Abstract:
With insertion of an additional microlens array in front of the imaging sensor, plenoptic camera, which acquires light field by a single exposure, attracts great interests both from academy and industry. A plenoptic image records both spatial and angular light radiance in a super high definition with macropixel structures, which results in a distinct intensity distribution. Several compression techniques have been proposed, however, most of them are suffered from the standard incompatibility and high compression complexity. In this paper, a novel and standard compatible plenoptic data reshaping algorithm is proposed to align the macropixel structures in the lenslet image with the coding unit grids of block-based image/video coding standards before compression. After encoding and decoding the reshaped lenslet image using the existing block-based image/video coding standards, the inverse image reshaping is used to convert the reconstructed image back to the original light-field data format for further applications. The experimental results reveal that the proposed method introduces 10.47% and 27.64% bitrate reduction to HEVC/H.265 format range extension profile and AVC/H.264 high 4:4:4 profile, respectively, by compressing the reshaped lenslet images. Also, it brings additional compression efficiency improvements to intraprediction tools, such as intrablock copy and locally linear embedding based coding method, by an average of 11.62% and 9.81% bitrate reduction as they compress the reshaped plenoptic images.
Autors: Xin Jin;Haixu Han;Qionghai Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:7, pages: 1173 - 1186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Retrieval in Spatial and Temporal Domains With a Quadrant Detector
Abstract:
To retrieve an N pixel image of a scene, conventional digital cameras record the information using an N pixelated detector with one measurement, while single-pixel imaging achieves it by sampling the image in a particular basis and recording the light intensities of N temporal measurements with a single-pixel detector. Besides these two schemes, it is also possible to obtain the same spatial information with an X pixels detector and N/X measurements, where the pressure of information retrieval is distributed to both spatial and temporal domains, rather than condensed in one domain. In this paper, we investigate this possibility and present a 4-pixels imaging scheme, which retrieves an image partially in spatial domain and partially in temporal domain, by adopting a quadrant detector to a single-pixel imaging system. While yielding images with equal quality, the proof-of-principle system we built is four times faster than a standard single-pixel imaging system, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Our work exploits the flexibility of space-time information retrieval and can be useful for applications where comprise between spatial and temporal domains is needed.
Autors: Ming-Jie Sun;Wen Chen;Teng-Fei Liu;Li-Jing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Segmentation Using Linked Mean-Shift Vectors and Global/Local Attributes
Abstract:
This paper proposes novel noniterative mean-shift-based image segmentation that uses global and local attributes. The existing mean-shift-based methods use a fixed range bandwidth, and hence their accuracy is dependent on the range spectrum of an image. To resolve this dependency, this paper proposes to modify the range kernel in the mean-shift process to be anisotropic. The modification is conducted using a global attribute defined as the range covariance matrix of the image. Further, to alleviate oversegmentation, the proposed method merges the segments having similar local attributes more aggressively than other segments. The local attribute for each segment is defined as the sum of the variances of the chromatic components. Finally, to expedite the processing, the proposed method uses a region adjacency graph (RAG) for the merging process, thus differing from the existing linked mean-shift-based methods. In the experiments on the Berkeley segmentation data set, the use of the global and local attributes improved segmentation accuracy; the proposed method outperformed the state-of-the-art linked mean-shift-based method by showing an improvement of 2.15%, 3.16%, 3.32%, and 1.90% in probability rand index, segmentation covering, variation of information, and F-measure, respectively. Further, compared with the benchmark method, which uses the dilating and merging scheme, the proposed method improved the speed of the merging process 42 times by applying the RAG.
Autors: Hanjoo Cho;Suk-Ju Kang;Young Hwan Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2132 - 2140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Super-Resolution via Block Extraction and Sparse Representation
Abstract:
Super-Resolution (SR) has many applications in several issues of the image processing by obtaining High-Resolution (HR) images from Low-Resolution (LR) images. In this paper, a SR technique that can increase the resolution in images of different nature is proposed. Our approach in obtaining SR image, first uses Lanczos interpolation of initial LR image, then edge features are extracted via convolution of an image with two different filters; following, the most informative features are performed employing principal component analysis (PCA). In next step, preprocessed image presented in blocks is used, where for an each block its sparse representation is performed using LR dictionary and another HR dictionary. In final step, the SR blocks are reconstructed resulting in improved SR image. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in comparison to state-of-the art techniques in terms of objective criteria PSNR, MAE and SSIM values as well as in subjective visual performance. Additionally, the proposed technique significantly reduces computational time in SR reconstruction.
Autors: Valentin Alvarez Ramos;Volodymyr Ponomaryov;Yuriy Shkvarko;Rogelio Reyes Reyes;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 1977 - 1982
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imbalance Learning Machine-Based Power System Short-Term Voltage Stability Assessment
Abstract:
In terms of machine learning-based power system dynamic stability assessment, it is feasible to collect learning data from massive synchrophasor measurements in practice. However, the fact that instability events rarely occur would lead to a challenging class imbalance problem. Besides, short-term feature extraction from scarce instability seems extremely difficult for conventional learning machines. Faced with such a dilemma, this paper develops a systematic imbalance learning machine for online short-term voltage stability assessment. A powerful time series shapelet (discriminative subsequence) classification method is embedded into the machine for sequential transient feature mining. A forecasting-based nonlinear synthetic minority oversampling technique is proposed to mitigate the distortion of class distribution. Cost-sensitive learning is employed to intensify bias toward those scarce yet valuable unstable cases. Furthermore, an incremental learning strategy is put forward for online monitoring, contributing to adaptability and reliability enhancement along with time. Simulation results on the Nordic test system illustrate the high performance of the proposed learning machine and of the assessment scheme.
Autors: Lipeng Zhu;Chao Lu;Zhao Yang Dong;Chao Hong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2533 - 2543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of 2D-Graphene on SiN Passivated AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs Under Mist Exposure
Abstract:
The effect of a 2D graphene layer (GL) on top of the silicon nitride (SiN) passivation layer of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors has been systematically analyzed. Results showed that in the devices without the GL, the maximum drain current density () and the maximum transconductance () decreased gradually as the mist exposure time increased, up to 23% and 10%, respectively. Moreover, the gate lag ratio increased around 10% during mist exposure. In contrast, devices with a GL showed a robust behavior and not significant changes in the electrical characteristics in both dc and pulsed conditions. The origin of these behaviors has been discussed and the results pointed to the GL as the key factor for improving the moisture resistance of the SiN passivation layer.
Autors: M. Fátima Romero;Alberto Boscá;Jorge Pedrós;Javier Martínez;Rajveer Fandan;Tomás Palacios;Fernando Calle;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1441 - 1444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Interface Traps and Surface Roughness on the Device Performance of Stacked-Nanowire FETs
Abstract:
In stacked-nanowire field-effect transistors (stacked-NW FETs), the effect of nanowire surface roughness (NWSR) and random interface traps (RIT) on device performance variation is investigated. The 3-D NWSR profile is applied to the surface of the nanowires, and then, the interface traps are generated and randomly placed in the interfacial layer between the silicon and high-k. First, the interaction between NWSR and RIT in a single-NW FET is investigated; the NWSR-induced performance varia- tion is not independent on the RIT-induced variation. Then, the correlation of NWSR profiles and RIT in stacked-NW FETs is explored. The degree of correlation between the NWSR profiles of stacked-NWs is varied in three cases: 1) positively correlated; 2) negatively correlated; and 3) uncorrelated. Without RITs, the NWSR-induced performance variation of the stacked-NW FETs dramatically increases as the NWSR profiles of the nanowires become positively correlated. However, with RITs, the more positively correlated the NWSR profiles of the nanowires, the larger is the variation that the interface traps induce. Interface traps barely affect the variation of the negatively correlated NWSR profiles. The variation of current slightly decreases because interface charge scattering degrades the mobility of the carriers.
Autors: Jinyoung Park;Changhwan Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4025 - 4030
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of metro-embedded data centers on metropolitan network design and traffic profile
Abstract:
Traditional data centers (DCs) that are located in distant areas usually lack flexibility and also have long service latency for metro users. On the other hand, the recently introduced and implemented metro-embedded data center (ME-DC) architecture, based on micro-data centers (mDCs), delivers more flexible services with less access latency. Hierarchical software-defined network control is employed to virtualize and holistically coordinate the distributed mDCs and metro network slices into a reconfigurable virtual data center. Such an approach improves the overall resourcemobility and access to the service;however, the impact on the metro network traffic profile induced by user/mDC and inter-mDC connections due to the dispersion of mDCs has not been evaluated. In this paper, we develop a mixed integer linear programmingmodel that optimizes the total DC traffic, taking into consideration the intra-, inter-, and externalDCcommunications. Furthermore,we numerically assess the changes in the metro network traffic induced by ME-DC architecture, considering different types of DCs and their corresponding traffic profile. Simulation shows that the distribution of the mDCs has a beneficial effect, leading to a fourfold reduction in the total traffic load.
Autors: Ion Popescu;Xiaoyuan Cao;Gang Chen;Hongxiang Guo;Noboru Yoshikane;Takehiro Tsuritani;Jian Wu;Itsuro Morita;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:10, pages: 900 - 908
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Mobility on the Uplink Sum Rate of MIMO-OFDMA Cellular Systems
Abstract:
With the fast development of vehicular technologies, the number of mobile terminals as well as their moving speeds has increased conspicuously, making it meaningful to re-examine the impact of mobility on communication performance of the existing cellular systems. In this paper, the uplink sum rate of a multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) cellular system with nodes moving randomly at different speeds is studied. In such a multi-user environment, mobility not only causes inter sub-carrier interferences (ICI) among different users, but also brings the so-called channel aging which together with the above interferences incur outdated and inaccurate channel estimation and thus entail additional pilot overhead. Here, we first derive the relationship between the users’ mobility and the ICI power, characterize the channel aging, and derive the overall multi-user interference caused by the outdated and inaccurate channel state information as a function of mobility. Then, by capitalizing on the above results, the sum rate of the MIMO-OFDMA uplink is theoretically analyzed. Moreover, an adaptive transmission scheme in which the users adjust the pilot percentage according to mobility statistics is proposed to maximize the sum rate. Finally, numerical results are provided to validate our analyses.
Autors: Zhaoyang Zhang;Chunxu Jiao;Caijun Zhong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4218 - 4231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Non-Linear High-Power Amplifiers on Cooperative Relaying Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the impact of the high-power amplifier non-linear distortion on multiple relay systems by introducing the soft envelope limiter, traveling wave tube amplifier, and solid-state power amplifier to the relays. The system employs amplify-and-forward either fixed or variable gain relaying and uses the opportunistic relay selection with outdated channel state information to select the best relay. The results show that the performance loss is small at low rates; however, it is significant for high rates. In particular, the outage probability and the bit error rate are saturated by an irreducible floor at high rates. The same analysis is pursued for the capacity and shows that it is saturated by a detrimental ceiling as the average signal-to-noise ratio becomes higher. This result contrasts the case of the ideal hardware where the capacity grows indefinitely. Moreover, the results show that the capacity ceiling is proportional to the impairment’s parameter and for some special cases the impaired systems practically operate in acceptable conditions. Closed-forms and high SNR asymptotes of the outage probability, the bit error rate, and the capacity are derived. Finally, analytical expressions are validated by the Monte Carlo simulation.
Autors: Elyes Balti;Mohsen Guizani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4163 - 4175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact of Selfishness in Device-to-Device Communication Underlying Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In a device-to-device (D2D) communication underlying cellular network, a user equipment is desired to operate cooperatively and unselfishly to transmit data as relays. However, most users more or less behave in a selfish way, which makes user selfishness a key factor that affects the performance of the whole communication system. We focus on the impact of user selfishness on D2D communications. First, we distinguish user selfishness into two types in accordance with D2D transmission modes, namely the connected transmission and opportunistic transmission modes. The user selfishness in these two types of transmissions are modeled separately. Then, we propose a time-varying graph model that characterizes the impacts of both individual and social selfishness on the D2D communications. Simulation results obtained under the realistic networking settings indicate that the interaction between connected and opportunistic selfishness worsens the impairment caused by individual selfishness. Additionally, when concerning social selfishness, inside-community selfishness can be ignored in some occasions, while otherwise its role is heavily influenced by community numbers.
Autors: Chuhan Gao;Haoming Zhang;Xinlei Chen;Yong Li;Depeng Jin;Sheng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9338 - 9349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impact-Time-Control Guidance Law With Constraints on Seeker Look Angle
Abstract:
An impact-time-control guidance (ITCG) law is required for simultaneous attack of multiple missiles. In application of ITCG, the limit of seeker look angle should be regarded as an important factor in homing engagement scenarios. To avoid the loss of target tracking during engagement, the seeker's look angle should be confined to the seeker's field-of-view limit. This paper suggests a new ITCG law for a realistic situation with constraints on seeker look angle driven by the exact nonlinear equations of motion in plane. The proposed guidance law ensures the seeker's look angle to reduce monotonically from the initial value to zero at the intercept point. The resulting solution is presented in the form of proportional navigation guidance law with a time-varying navigation gain. The closed-form navigation gain can be obtained from information on the current missile-to-target range and heading angle.
Autors: In-Soo Jeon;Jin-Ik Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2621 - 2627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impedance-Dependent Wideband Digital Predistortion of Solid-State Radar Amplifiers
Abstract:
Spectral regrowth and waveform distortion caused by wideband signals input into active phased array antenna systems is the problem this paper addresses. The paper's unique contribution is the development of the impedance-dependent memory polynomial model, capable of solving nonlinear predistortion model parameters for a solid-state high power amplifier with varying load impedance resulting from active electronic beamsteering. Wideband load impedance mismatched tests demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique on a 2.7 GHz, 8 W amplifier.
Autors: Zachary Dunn;Mark Yeary;Caleb Fulton;Rafael Rincon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2290 - 2303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of an 8-bit ADC using successive subtraction technique
Abstract:
In this article, an 8-bit ADC circuit is proposed, using op amps in successive subtraction method. This circuit does not require any clock signal, internal DAC or decoder, etc. because it performs the conversion process completely in the analog domain. Applying a supply voltage of ±6 V, it consumes 242 mW power and the settling time is measured as 156 μs.
Autors: Sayantan Sinha;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 35 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of an Active-Clamped Current-Fed Push–Pull Converter Employing Parallel-Inductor to Extend ZVS Range for Fuel Cell Application
Abstract:
This paper proposes a wide-range zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) active-clamped current-fed push-pull converter for fuel cell application. The presented converter achieves ZVS for all of the primary switches and ZCS for secondary diodes from rated load to 10% full load over the wide input voltage variation, improving the overall efficiency. The ZVS of switches is realized by the energy stored in the transformer leakage inductance aided by the secondary parallel inductor. An additional active clamping circuit suppresses the voltage spike as well as assists in realizing ZVS of switches. Low-voltage-rated switches with low on-state resistance can be used. Moreover, the voltage-doubler rectifier is adopted to release the reverse-recovery problem of rectifier diodes and reduce turns ratio of the high-frequency transformer. Detailed steady-state operation, analysis, design, control, comparative study, and experimental results are discussed in depth in this paper. Finally, a 200-W prototype has been built in the laboratory to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
Autors: Qunfang Wu;Qin Wang;Jialin Xu;Lan Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7919 - 7929
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of High-Precision Quadrature Control for Single-Stage SECS
Abstract:
In this paper, a high precision quadrature control for a single-stage solar energy conversion system (SECS) is presented with power quality improvement capabilities. The SECS uses a voltage source converter (VSC) which performs multifunctions. It harvests maximum energy from the solar photovoltaic (SPV) string and it integrates the extracted energy to the grid. In addition, it utilizes a SPV feed-forward loop to improve the dynamic response and reduces the burden on the proportional-integral controller by regulating dc bus voltage. To control the switching sequences of VSC, a high precision quadrature control is used which extracts the fundamental current from the contaminated load current. The mathematical formulation of quadrature control is corroborated by the experimental results of SECS under different operating conditions.
Autors: Shailendra Kumar;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2726 - 2734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Lower Bounds on the Size of Balls Over Permutations With the Infinity Metric
Abstract:
We study the size (or volume) of balls in the metric space of permutations, , under the infinity metric. We focus on the regime of balls with radius , , i.e., a radius that is a constant fraction of the maximum possible distance. We provide new lower bounds on the size of such balls. These new lower bounds reduce the asymptotic gap to the known upper bounds to at most 0.029 bits per symbol. Additionally, they imply an improved ball-packing bound for error-correcting codes, and an improved upper bound on the size of optimal covering codes.
Autors: Moshe Schwartz;Pascal O. Vontobel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6227 - 6239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Model Based on the Modified Steinmetz Equation for Predicting the Magnetic Losses in Non-Oriented Electrical Steels That is Valid for Elevated Temperatures and Frequencies
Abstract:
In this paper, four different grades of fully finished, non-oriented (NO) electrical steels, i.e., M530-50A, M400-50A, M350-50A, and M290-50A, were selected. Their measured magnetic properties were the basis for the derived and validated magnetic-loss prediction model. Based on the experimental data and the modified Steinmetz equation, a simplified predictive model valid at temperatures up to 230 °C, in the frequency range 30–2000 Hz, and magnetic flux densities up to 1.0 T, is proposed. The model’s prediction coefficients are proposed for the eddy current, hysteresis, and excess loss components. An empirical equation for predicting the magnetic losses, valid up to 1.0 T, highlighting the changes in the magnetic losses with temperature is derived. The equation leads to excellent agreement between the measured and predicted magnetic losses for four grades of NO electrical steel.
Autors: G. Novak;J. Kokošar;M. Bricelj;M. Bizjak;D. Steiner Petrovič;A. Nagode;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Modeling of Geomagnetically Induced Currents Utilizing Derivation Techniques for Substation Grounding Resistance
Abstract:
This paper focuses on estimating the substation grounding resistance to improve the modeling of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Grounding resistances are not included in the standard power flow models, and their approximate values are often used for performing GIC studies. This paper provides an algorithm to estimate the resistances from the GIC measurements. This algorithm calculates the linear sensitivity factors of the GICs around the local grounding resistive components and uses linear regression to solve for the resistances. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using both a small test case as well as a 62 500-bus model of the North American Eastern Interconnection.
Autors: Maryam Kazerooni;Hao Zhu;Thomas J. Overbye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2320 - 2328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Multitrack Detection With Hybrid 2-D Equalizer and Modified Viterbi Detector
Abstract:
Increasing track density in magnetic recording systems increases inter-track interference (ITI). One way to handle the increased ITI is to apply 2-D equalization to the signals from multiple tracks. Usually the equalizer coefficients and the corresponding partial response (PR) targets are fixed after training using a pseudo-random bit sequence. We denote such an equalizer as a fixed equalizer. In this paper, we propose and investigate a variable 2-D equalizer for bit patterned media recording (BPMR). In the proposed approach, the equalizer coefficients and corresponding PR targets vary with ITI patterns. These variable equalizer coefficients are determined and stored by training with sequences representing different ITI patterns. In the proposed approach for BPMR, during data detection, these variable equalizer coefficients and corresponding PR targets are embedded into the parallel branches of a modified Viterbi (MV) detector in response to estimated ITI patterns. We term this new approach as V2DEMV [i.e., variable 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector] algorithm. Furthermore, we propose to simplify the implementation of the V2DEMV algorithm by identifying the survivor branch among the branches corresponding to the dominant erroneous ITI patterns. Then this survivor branch and other branches corresponding to remaining possible ITI patterns are processed by an F2DEMV (i.e., fixed 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector) algorithm to estimate the bits. We term this reduced-complexity approach as an H2DEMV (i.e., hybrid 2-D equalizer with 2-D PR target followed by MV detector) algorithm. Our simulations indicate that for both two readers detecting two tracks and three readers detecting three tracks, at target bit error rate of , the proposed H2DEMV algorithm can provide noticeable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains com- ared to F2DE1DV algorithm (i.e., fixed 2-D equalizer with 1-D PR target followed by 1-D Viterbi detector) and F2DEMV algorithm.
Autors: Yao Wang;B. V. K. Vijaya Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Neutral Current Compensation With a Four-Leg PV Smart VSI in a LV Residential Network
Abstract:
Loads in low voltage (LV) residential areas are mainly single-phase types which are supplied from a delta/wye connected distribution transformer with a grounded neutral conductor creating a three-phase (3P) four-wire (4W) distribution system. The unbalanced single-phase load distributions in traditional 3P-4W LV networks cause significant neutral currents which can result in the overloading of the neutral conductor and electrical safety concerns for customers. In this paper, the dependency of the load generated neutral current on the distribution line variable zero sequence R/X ratios is developed, and a new decentralized robust active neutral compensation method is proposed using a multifunctional transformerless 3P four-leg (4L) photovoltaic (PV) smart voltage source inverter (SVSI). System stability is verified from the bode analysis and the improved neutral compensation is evaluated from the circuitry model analysis. Actual single-phase customer loads with real sun irradiance and temperature profiles are used with an urban 3P-4W LV network model from Australia and implemented in simulation using the PSCAD/EMTDC software to verify the efficacy of the proposed controller in real world distribution networks. Different transient faults analyses and point of common coupling dynamic voltage regulation are also performed and faster fault recovery, better neutral compensation, and optimized voltage profile are achieved from the designed PV-SVSI.
Autors: Fida Hasan Md Rafi;M. Jahangir Hossain;Junwei Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2291 - 2302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Single-Element Resistive Sensor-to-Microcontroller Interface
Abstract:
Direct resistive sensor interface to a microcontroller has several advantages but has one prominent disadvantage, namely, the measurement is affected by the resistances of: 1) wires that connect the sensor to the port pins and 2) the internal resistances of the port pins of the microcontroller. A direct sensor-to-microcontroller interface scheme that compensates the effect due not only to resistances of lead wires but also the effect of microcontroller port pin’s internal resistance and any offset present in those pins is presented in this paper. Since the resistances of lead wires are compensated, automatic temperature compensation (temperature effect of lead wires) is also obtained. Simulation study and results obtained from a prototype built and tested establish the efficacy of the proposed method. A maximum error of 0.06% was observed from the prototype developed, when it was tested under room temperature, after interfacing it with the sensor Pt100, with a lead wire resistance . The error increased to a maximum of 0.08%, when the varied from 0 to . When the same prototype was tested under elevated room temperature of 30 °C to 100 °C, the maximum error observed was 0.18%.
Autors: Ponnalagu Ramanathan Nagarajan;Boby George;V. Jagadeesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2736 - 2744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Single-Event Transient Hardness in Tunnel-Diode Body-Contact SOI nMOS
Abstract:
Single-event transient (SET) responses are compared for floating-body contact, T-gate body-contact (TB), and tunnel-diode body-contact (TDBC) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MOSFETs. The influence of three body-contact schemes on SET sensitivity is examined via irradiations as functions of position, bias voltage, and device size. The mechanisms of SET in SOI devices are discussed. Although both TB and TDBC schemes suppress floating body effects (FBEs), the TDBC scheme has superior SET hardness because it effectively eliminates charge enhancement due to bipolar amplification originating from FBEs. Thus, TDBC-structure SOI devices can lead to improved single-event upset hardness in static random access memory cells.
Autors: Lingda Xu;Jiexin Luo;Jing Chen;Zhan Chai;Weiwei He;En Xia Zhang;Daniel M. Fleetwood;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2669 - 2672
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement in Device Performance of Vertical Thin-Film Transistors Using Atomic Layer Deposited IGZO Channel and Polyimide Spacer
Abstract:
Technical strategies for improving the device characteristics of the In–Ga–Zn-O (IGZO) vertical channel thin-film transistors (VTFTs) were presented and investigated. The vertical sidewall was constructed by dry-etch process and subsequently covered with IGZO, Al2O3, and AZO as active, gate insulator, and gate electrode layers by means of conformal atomic-layer-deposition. An abrupt profile and flat back-channel were achieved by employing the spin-coated polyimide (PI) spacer. The Off-current was additionally alleviated simply by cutting the area of an active layer. The fabricated IGZO VTFT using PI spacer with an “active-cut” structure exhibited an On/off ratio of , a linear mobility of 7.1 cm2/Vs, and a subthreshold swing of 1.2 V/decade.
Autors: Yeo-Myeong Kim;Han-Byeol Kang;Gi-Heon Kim;Chi-Sun Hwang;Sung-Min Yoon;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1387 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Back-EMF Self-Sensing For Induction Machines When Using Deadbeat-Direct Torque and Flux Control
Abstract:
Back-electromotive force (back-EMF) self-sensing is commonly used in induction machine (IM) drive systems for its maintenance cost and safety considerations. In recent years, compared with standard indirect field oriented control, deadbeat-direct torque and flux control (DB-DTFC) has been shown to be a highly effective method for IM control with a fixed switching frequency. It has advantages such as fast torque dynamics with one step dynamic response for torque and flux with no current regulator. This paper evaluates the synergy between back-EMF self-sensing technology and DB-DTFC for IM drive systems. In this paper, an observer-based closed-loop back-EMF tracking self-sensing control in an IM DB-DTFC drive system is presented. It includes a back-EMF state filter, back-EMF tracking observer, and cascaded motion observer. Back-EMF harmonic decoupling is explored to improve the low-speed performance. The band-pass filter method (BPF) for back-EMF self-sensing is also presented. Finally, the closed loop system dynamic stiffness at very low speeds, with and without the BPF method, is experimentally evaluated.
Autors: Kang Wang;Robert D. Lorenz;Noor Aamir Baloch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4569 - 4578
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Device Reliability by Introducing a BEOL-Compatible TiN Barrier Layer in CBRAM
Abstract:
Negative-SET behavior, induced by nano-filament overgrowth phenomenon, takes major responsibility to the reset failure phenomenon in conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM). The unexpected negative-SET behavior in CBRAM devices can result in serious reliability issues and has been an obstacle on the way to mass production. In this letter, we have proposed a back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible TiN barrier layer to improve the device reliability in CBRAM devices by eliminating the nano-filament overgrowth phenomenon and negative-SET behavior. Thus, a higher reset voltage can be applied to the TiN barrier layer devices to achieve more complete reset process and obtain better resistive switching performance. The results show that the Cu/HfO2/TiN/Ru device with one transistor structure has excellent comprehensive memory properties, including high reliability, fast switching speed, high resistance state uniformity, high endurance, long retention, and multi-level storage ability.
Autors: Rongrong Cao;Sen Liu;Qi Liu;Xiaolong Zhao;Wei Wang;Xumeng Zhang;Facai Wu;Quantan Wu;Yan Wang;Hangbing Lv;Shibing Long;Ming Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1371 - 1374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Lake Ice Thickness Retrieval From MODIS Satellite Data Using a Thermodynamic Model
Abstract:
Observations of ice thickness are limited in high latitude regions, at a time when they are increasingly being requested by operational ice centers. This study aims to improve the retrieval of lake ice thickness using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA’s Aqua (P.M.) and Terra (A.M.) satellites. The accuracy of ice thickness retrievals based on MODIS lake ice surface temperature (LIST) is investigated using a commonly used heat balance equation and the retrieved ice thicknesses are compared to in situ measurements from the Canadian Ice Service. The accuracy of ice thickness estimates is improved when using snow depth from the 1-D thermodynamic lake ice model Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) rather than an empirical relationship between snow depth and ice thickness utilized in the recent investigations. Taking into account all data over the study period (2002–2014), the mean bias error and the root-mean-square error are reduced from −0.42 to 0.07 m and 0.58 to 0.17 m, respectively, with the novel approach proposed herein. However, this approach is limited to ice thickness estimations of less than ca. 1.7 m.
Autors: Homa Kheyrollah Pour;Claude R. Duguay;K. Andrea Scott;Kyung-Kuk Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5956 - 5965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Subthreshold Characteristic of Gate-Recessed AlGaN/GaN Transistors by Using Dual-Gate Structure
Abstract:
The subthreshold characteristic of gate-recessed high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) using dual-gate (DG) architectures is systematically studied. The recessed DG structure can effectively shift the threshold voltage () in the positive direction. Different from the complex function expression between and AlGaN thickness () in the recessed single-gate (SG) device, the variation of with is monotonic in the recessed DG devices. Recessed DG device exhibits a low off-state leakage current of A/mm and gate induced drain leakage is effectively improved. A higher range of recessed DG devices broadens about 2 times and provide a wider range of than that of recessed SG devices. The DG structure has a stronger modulation effect on drain–source resistance () and gate–drain resistance () than the SG devices. A lower subthreshold swing (SS) of ~100 mV/dec is obtained by recessed DG design. Due to the second gate inducing the lateral extension of depletion - egion between the first gate and drain, the off-state leakage and first gate reverse leakage have been significantly improved. Therefore, the recessed DG architecture design can effectively improve the fluctuation of SS and off-state current versus the different AlGaN barrier thickness.
Autors: Ling Yang;Minhan Mi;Bin Hou;Jiejie Zhu;Meng Zhang;Yunlong He;Yang Lu;Qing Zhu;Xiaowei Zhou;Ling Lv;Yanrong Cao;Xiaohua Ma;Yue Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4057 - 4064
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of visibility under foggy conditions
Abstract:
Light scattering produced for bad weather conditions produces outdoor images with poor contrast and faded colors, these effects can be critical in applications such as video surveillance, driving assistance or autonomous navigation. This article introduces a novel algorithm to restore the contrast of images under adverse weather conditions e.g.; fog, mist or haze. The proposed method combines several techniques in order to provide a fast algorithm able to work with color as well as gray images. Although other deweathering methods require multiple images of the scene or information about the weather conditions or the scene structure the proposed method only requires a single image of the foggy scene and assumes heterogeneous atmospheric conditions which is a common feature in images affected for weather conditions. Experiment results on real-world datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Juan Andrade;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 1983 - 1987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Dynamic Response of AMB Systems in Control Moment Gyros Based on a Modified Integral Feedforward Method
Abstract:
During gimbal maneuvering, the dynamic characteristics of the active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor system is an important concern for the applications of the magnetically suspended double-gimbal control moment gyro (MSDGCMG). Both the static torques caused by the gimbal motions and the dynamic torques by the rotor twisting motion will have an impact on the dynamic performance of the magnetically suspended high-speed rotor. This paper explores a modified current integral feedforward (CIF) control scheme to improve its dynamic response. Using a dynamic regulator, the CIF method is applied to supply the static torque by the permanent magnets and simultaneously improve the stability margin of the AMB rotor system. Then, the multiple compensation method is proposed to compensate the dynamic torque to further improve the response speed. The influence of rotor tilting on the output torque precision of MSDGCMG is also analyzed. Finally, the experimental results on a developed MSDGCMG prototype validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The modified CIF combined with dynamic torque compensation resulted in a step response settling time of 0.13 s as compared with the traditional method with a settling time of 2.5 s.
Autors: Shiqiang Zheng;Jinjin Xie;Chen Ma;He Liao;Cheng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2111 - 2120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving IBM POWER8 Performance Through Symbiotic Job Scheduling
Abstract:
Symbiotic job scheduling, i.e., scheduling applications that co-run well together on a core, can have a considerable impact on the performance of processors with simultaneous multithreading (SMT) cores. SMT cores share most of their microarchitectural components among the co-running applications, which causes performance interference between them. Therefore, scheduling applications with complementary resource requirements on the same core can greatly improve the throughput of the system. This paper enhances symbiotic job scheduling for the IBM POWER8 processor. We leverage the existing cycle accounting mechanism to build an interference model that predicts symbiosis between applications. The proposed models achieve higher accuracy than previous models by predicting job symbiosis from throttled CPI stacks, i.e., CPI stacks of the applications when running in the same SMT mode to consider the statically partitioned resources, but without interference from other applications. The symbiotic scheduler uses these interference models to decide, at run-time, which applications should run on the same core or on separate cores. We prototype the symbiotic scheduler as a user-level scheduler in the Linux operating system and evaluate it on an IBM POWER8 server running multiprogram workloads. The symbiotic job scheduler significantly improves performance compared to both an agnostic random scheduler and the default Linux scheduler. Across all evaluated workloads in SMT4 mode, throughput improves by 12.4 and 5.1 percent on average over the random and Linux schedulers, respectively.
Autors: Josué Feliu;Stijn Eyerman;Julio Sahuquillo;Salvador Petit;Lieven Eeckhout;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2838 - 2851
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Identification of Key Players in Aging via Network De-Noising and Core Inference
Abstract:
Current “ground truth” knowledge about human aging has been obtained by transferring aging-related knowledge from well-studied model species via sequence homology or by studying human gene expression data. Since proteins function by interacting with each other, analyzing protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in the context of aging is promising. Unlike existing static network research of aging, since cellular functioning is dynamic, we recently integrated the static human PPI network with aging-related gene expression data to form dynamic, age-specific networks. Then, we predicted as key players in aging those proteins whose network topologies significantly changed with age. Since current networks are noisy , here, we use link prediction to de-noise the human network and predict improved key players in aging from the de-noised data. Indeed, de-noising gives more significant overlap between the predicted data and the “ground truth” aging-related data. Yet, we obtain novel predictions, which we validate in the literature. Also, we improve the predictions by an alternative strategy: removing “redundant” edges from the age-specific networks and using the resulting age-specific network “cores” to study aging. We produce new knowledge from dynamic networks encompassing multiple data types, via network de-noising or core inference, complementing the existing knowledge obtained from sequence or expression data.
Autors: Boyoung Yoo;Fazle Elahi Faisal;Huili Chen;Tijana Milenković;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 1056 - 1069
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Performance for Flash-Based Storage Systems through GC-Aware Cache Management
Abstract:
Flash-based SSDs have been extensively deployed in modern storage systems to satisfy the increasing demand of storage performance and energy efficiency. However, Garbage Collection (GC) is an important performance concern for flash-based SSDs, because it tends to disrupt the normal operations of an SSD. This problem continues to plague flash-based storage systems, particularly in the high performance computing and enterprise environment. An important root cause for this problem, as revealed by previous studies, is the serious contention for the flash resources and the severe mutually adversary interference between the user I/O requests and GC-induced I/O requests. The on-board buffer cache within SSDs serves to play an essential role in smoothing the gap between the upper-level applications and the lower-level flash chips and alleviating this problem to some extend. Nevertheless, the existing cache replacement algorithms are well optimized to reduce the miss rate of the buffer cache by reducing the I/O traffic to the flash chips as much as possible, but without considering the GC operations within the flash chips. Consequently, they fail to address the root cause of the problem and thus are far from being sufficient and effective in reducing the expensive I/O traffic to the flash chips that are in the GC state. To address this important performance issue in flash-based storage systems, particularly in the HPC and enterprise environment, we propose a Garbage Collection aware Replacement policy, called GCaR, to improve the performance of flash-based SSDs. The basic idea is to give higher priority to caching the data blocks belonging to the flash chips that are in the GC state. This substantially lessens the contentions between the user I/O operations and the GC-induced I/O operations. To verify the effectiveness of GCaR, we have integrated it into the SSD extended Disksim simulator. The simulation results show that GCaR can significantly improve the storage performan- e by up to 40.7 percent in terms of the average response times.
Autors: Suzhen Wu;Bo Mao;Yanping Lin;Hong Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2852 - 2865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Supervised Learning Classification Methods Using Multigranular Linguistic Modeling and Fuzzy Entropy
Abstract:
Obtaining good classification results using supervised learning methods is critical if we want to obtain a high level of precision in the classification processes. The training data used for the learning process play a very important role in achieving this objective. Therefore, it is important to represent the data in a way that best expresses its meaning. For this purpose, we propose to apply linguistic modeling methods in order to obtain a linguistic representation. With the help of multigranular linguistic modeling, data can be transformed and expressed using different (unbalanced) linguistic label sets. Expressing the data using linguistic expressions instead of numbers increases the readability and reduces the complexity of the problem, and data recovering methods allow us to manually control the level of precision. In this paper, several datasets are transformed and utilized for classification tasks using several supervised learning algorithms. For each combination of datasets and algorithms, the data have been expressed using several linguistic label sets that have different granularity values. After carrying out the testing processes, we can conclude that, in some cases, reducing data complexity leads to better classification results. Therefore, it is found that linguistic representation of the training data with just the necessary and sufficient precision can improve the reliability of the classification process.
Autors: Juan Antonio Morente-Molinera;József Mezei;Christer Carlsson;Enrique Herrera-Viedma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1078 - 1089
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving the Algorithm of Extracting Regional Total Precipitable Water Vapor Over Land From MODIS Images
Abstract:
Precise estimation of total precipitable water vapor (TPW) with high temporal and spatial resolutions is of great importance in different disciplines. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the sensors which have absorption and nonabsorption bands of water vapor. There is a standard algorithm to produce TPW product of MODIS (MOD05/MYD05) which uses the ratios of reflectances in strong, moderate, and weak absorption bands of water vapor to nonabsorption ones (transmission). This paper aims to present a method based on this algorithm to optimize TPW estimation in local scale. To do so, the western part of Iran was chosen as the study region. Terra MODIS images and MOD05 in clear-sky conditions related to the 100 days in four seasons of 2015–2016 were provided as the selected data. To validate and improve the results, TPW measured in six radiosonde stations and interpolated for overpass time of Terra was utilized. Four procedures were performed. In the first procedure, the coefficients of transmissions were extracted using linear least-squares technique, separately. For the second procedure, the coefficients were calculated in terms of the highest atmospheric transmission sensitivity to TPW for each absorption band separately, and in the third procedure, they were calculated simultaneously. In the last procedure, the errors from third one were modeled with a linear relationship between reflectance ratios of absorption bands. Based on the results, in highest accuracy, the coefficient of determination and Root Mean Square Error was 0.878 and 2.702 mm, respectively, which were acceptable comparing those of other researchers.
Autors: Mohammad Hossein Merrikhpour;Majid Rahimzadegan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 5889 - 5898
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving the Speed of Center of Sets Type Reduction in Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Systems by Eliminating the Need for Sorting
Abstract:
In the deployment of interval type-2 fuzzy systems, one of the most important steps is the type reduction. The commonly used center of sets type reducer requires the solution of two nonlinear constrained optimization problems. Frequently used approaches to solve them are the Karnik–Mendel algorithms and their variants. However, these algorithms suffer from the need for sorting, which is known to be computationally very expensive. Using the reformulations proposed in this paper for center of sets type reducer, it is possible to eliminate the need for sorting. This makes interval type-2 fuzzy systems more appropriate for cost-sensitive real-time applications. Extensive simulations are presented to illustrate the faster convergence speed of the proposed method over six other enhanced variants of the Karnik–Mendel algorithm as applied to center of sets type reduction of interval type-2 fuzzy systems.
Autors: Mojtaba Ahmadieh Khanesar;Alireza Jalalian Khakshour;Okyay Kaynak;Huijun Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1193 - 1206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impulse Response Measurement of Few-Mode Fiber Systems by Coherence-Recovered Linear Optical Sampling
Abstract:
This paper presents impulse response measurements of few-mode optical fibers and transmission lines that were obtained by using coherence-recovered linear optical sampling or a two-comb interferometer. When performing a measurement, the probe pulse source and the sampling pulse source may be far from each other, particularly when the fibers are installed in the field, and the fiber length may exceed several tens kilometers. In this paper, by modifying a previously proposed referencing technique, the coherence between two pulse lasers is equivalently maintained by canceling out the phase noise caused both by the light sources and perturbations in the fiber. Hence, the amplitude averaging is used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, we can measure the impulse responses of multimode fibers with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a time resolution of a few picoseconds, over tens nanoseconds of differential mode delay.
Autors: Naoto Kono;Fumihiko Ito;Daisuke Iida;Tetsuya Manabe;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4392 - 4398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Shape Estimation of Triangular Moored Hydrophone Arrays Using Ambient Signals
Abstract:
In this paper, a method is presented for correcting relative errors in the locations of individual sensors in a three-element bottom-moored array, using ambient signal arrivals recorded by the array. It has the benefit that knowledge of absolute source positions is not required to determine the relative shape of the array. The procedure is demonstrated using episodic ambient signal arrivals recorded by the southern array of the Wake Island hydrophone station, which is a component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty Organization's (CTBTO) International Monitoring System (IMS). The original coordinates of sensors 2 and 3 were adjusted by 75 and 115 m, respectively, removing approximately 4 of error in estimating the arrival angles of signals. The estimated coordinates compared favorably with the results of a position revision by the CTBTO a year after the triad installation.
Autors: Stephen M. Nichols;David L. Bradley;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 923 - 935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Network Compression for Multiterminal Cascade MIMO Systems
Abstract:
We study the problem of receive beamforming in uplink cascade multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems as an instance of that of cascade multiterminal source coding for lossy function computation. Using this connection, we develop two coding schemes for the second and show that their application leads to beamforming schemes for the first. In the first coding scheme, each terminal in the cascade sends a description of the source that it observes; the decoder reconstructs all sources, lossily, and then computes an estimate of the desired function. This scheme improves upon standard routing in that every terminal only compresses the innovation of its source w.r.t. the descriptions that are sent by the previous terminals in the cascade. In the second scheme, the desired function is computed gradually in the cascade network, and each terminal sends a finer description of it. In the context of uplink cascade MIMO systems, the application of these two schemes leads to centralized receive-beamforming and distributed receive-beamforming, respectively. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed methods and show that they outperform standard routing.
Autors: Iñaki Estella Aguerri;Abdellatif Zaidi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4176 - 4187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Plane-Gate GaN Transistors for High-Power RF Applications
Abstract:
In-plane-gate field-effect transistors (IPGFETs) offer an innovative device architecture in which the channel conductivity is modulated by the electric field from the 2D electron gas in the two adjacent in-plane gates, isolated by etched trenches. The planar nature of the gate electrode yields a huge reduction in parasitic gate capacitance, which can lead to much higher frequency. Moreover, the fabrication process for these devices is extremely simple and with inherently self-aligned gates. Here, we combine for the first time the promising architecture of IPGFETs with the exceptional properties of III-Nitrides, such as large carrier density and breakdown field, to reveal their enormous potential for high-power RF devices. AlGaN/GaN IPGFETs demonstrated large drain current up to 1.4 A/mm and transconductance up to 665 mS/mm, which are, respectively, nine times- and five times-larger than the best IPGFETs demonstrated in other semiconductors. These devices presented excellent gate control with ON–OFF ratio up to along with ultra-low capacitances down to 0.7 aF, leading to an estimated up to 0.89 THz. Extremely large breakdown voltage of 500 V was observed despite their nanoscale dimensions, with small leakage current below 1 nA up to 300 V. These results reveal that III-Nitride IPGFETs offer a promising pathway for future terahertz devices delivering large output powers.
Autors: Giovanni Santoruvo;Elison Matioli;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1413 - 1416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inactivation Decoding of LT and Raptor Codes: Analysis and Code Design
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze Luby transform (LT) and Raptor codes under inactivation decoding. A first-order analysis is introduced, which provides the expected number of inactivations for an LT code, as a function of the output distribution, the number of input symbols, and the decoding overhead. The analysis is then extended to the calculation of the distribution of the number of inactivations. In both cases, random inactivation is assumed. The developed analytical tools are then exploited to design LT and Raptor codes, enabling a tight control on the decoding complexity versus failure probability tradeoff. The accuracy of the approach is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Autors: Francisco Lázaro;Gianluigi Liva;Gerhard Bauch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4114 - 4127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Inband Full-Duplex Radio Transceivers: A Paradigm Shift in Tactical Communications and Electronic Warfare?
Abstract:
Inband FD operation has great potential in civilian/commercial wireless communications, because it can as much as double transmission links' spectral efficiency by exploiting the newfound capability for STAR that is facilitated by advanced SIC techniques. This article surveys the prospects of exploiting the emerging FD radio technology in military communication applications as well. In addition to enabling high-rate twoway tactical communications, the STAR capability could give a major technical advantage to armed forces by allowing their radio transceivers to conduct electronic warfare at the same time that they are also receiving or transmitting other signals at the same frequency bands. After comprehensively introducing FD transceiver architectures and SIC requirements in military communications, this article outlines and analyzes all the most promising defensive and offensive applications of the STAR capability. It is not out of the question that this disruptive technology could even bring about a paradigm shift in operations at the cyber-electromagnetic battleground. At least, forward-looking innovators in the military communications community would right now have a window of opportunity to engage in original, potentially high-impact scientific research on FD military radio systems, which we would like to spur on by this speculative tutorial article.
Autors: Taneli Riihonen;Dani Korpi;Olli Rantula;Heikki Rantanen;Tapio Saarelainen;Mikko Valkama;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 55, issue:10, pages: 30 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incentivizing Crowdsensing With Location-Privacy Preserving
Abstract:
Crowd sensing systems enable a wide range of data collection, where the data are usually tagged with private locations. How to incentivize users to participate in such systems while preserving location-privacy is coming up as a critical issue. To this end, we consider location-privacy protection when motivating users to sense data instead of viewing them separately. Without loss of generality, -anonymity is utilized to reduce the risk of location-privacy disclosure. Specifically, we propose a location aggregation method to cluster users into groups for -anonymity preserving, and meanwhile mitigating the incurred information loss. After that, an incentive mechanism is carefully designed to select efficient users and calculate rational compensations based on clustered groups obtained in location aggregation, where the influences of both the information loss and -anonymity in location-privacy preserving are captured into group values and sensing costs. Through theoretical analysis and extensive performances evaluated on real and synthetic data, we find out that the incentive payment increases sharply with more stringent privacy protection and the information loss can be further mitigated compared with conventional methods.
Autors: Xiong Wang;Zhe Liu;Xiaohua Tian;Xiaoying Gan;Yunfeng Guan;Xinbing Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6940 - 6952
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incoherent Tensor Norms and Their Applications in Higher Order Tensor Completion
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the sample size requirement for a general class of nuclear norm minimization methods for higher order tensor completion. We introduce a class of tensor norms by allowing for different levels of coherence, which allows us to leverage the incoherence of a tensor. In particular, we show that a th-order tensor of multilinear rank and dimension can be recovered perfectly from as few as uniformly sampled entries through an appropriate incoherent nuclear norm minimization. Our results demonstrate some key differences between completing a matrix and a higher order tensor: they not only point to potential room for improvement over the usual nuclear norm minimization but also highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for incoherence, when dealing with higher order tensors. Although our focus is primarily on the theoretical guarantees for nuclear norm minimization, such insights may prove useful for understanding performance of other related methods and developing improved practical algorithms.
Autors: Ming Yuan;Cun-Hui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6753 - 6766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incorporating Intelligence in Fog Computing for Big Data Analysis in Smart Cities
Abstract:
Data intensive analysis is the major challenge in smart cities because of the ubiquitous deployment of various kinds of sensors. The natural characteristic of geodistribution requires a new computing paradigm to offer location-awareness and latency-sensitive monitoring and intelligent control. Fog Computing that extends the computing to the edge of network, fits this need. In this paper, we introduce a hierarchical distributed Fog Computing architecture to support the integration of massive number of infrastructure components and services in future smart cities. To secure future communities, it is necessary to integrate intelligence in our Fog Computing architecture, e.g., to perform data representation and feature extraction, to identify anomalous and hazardous events, and to offer optimal responses and controls. We analyze case studies using a smart pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensors and sequential learning algorithms to detect events threatening pipeline safety. A working prototype was constructed to experimentally evaluate event detection performance of the recognition of 12 distinct events. These experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the system's city-wide implementation in the future.
Autors: Bo Tang;Zhen Chen;Gerald Hefferman;Shuyi Pei;Tao Wei;Haibo He;Qing Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2140 - 2150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incremental Deployment of Segment Routing Into an ISP Network: a Traffic Engineering Perspective
Abstract:
Segment routing (SR) is a new routing paradigm to provide traffic engineering (TE) capabilities in an IP network. The main feature of SR is that no signaling protocols are needed, since extensions of the interior gateway protocol routing protocols are used. Despite the benefit that SR brings, introducing a new technology into an operational network presents many difficulties. In particular, the network operators consider both capital expenditure and performance degradation as drawbacks for the deployment of the new technology; for this reason, an incremental approach is preferred. In this paper, we face the challenge of managing the transition between a pure IP network to a full SR one while optimizing the network performances. We focus our attention on a network scenario where: 1) only a subset of nodes are SR-capable and 2) the TE objective is the minimization of the maximum link utilization. For such a scenario, we propose an architectural solution, named SR domain (SRD), to guarantee the proper interworking between the IP routers and the SR nodes. We propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation to solve the SRD design problem, consisting in identifying the subset of SR nodes; moreover, a strategy to manage the routing inside the SRD is defined. The performance evaluation shows that the hybrid IP/SR network based on SRD offers TE opportunities comparable to the one of a full SR network. Finally, a heuristic method to identify nodes to be inserted in the set of nodes composing the SRD is discussed.
Autors: Antonio Cianfrani;Marco Listanti;Marco Polverini;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 3146 - 3160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incremental SAT-Based Reverse Engineering of Camouflaged Logic Circuits
Abstract:
Layout-level gate or routing camouflaging techniques have attracted interest as countermeasures against reverse engineering of combinational logic. In order to minimize area overhead, typically only a subset of gate or routing components are camouflaged, and each camouflaged component layout can implement one of a few different functions or connections. The security of camouflaging relies on the difficulty of learning the overall combinational logic function without knowing the functions implemented by the individual camouflaged components of the circuit. In this paper, we expand our previous work on using incremental SAT solving to reconstruct the logical function of a circuit with camouflaged components. Our algorithm uses the standard attacker model in which an adversary knows only the noncamouflaged component functions, and has the ability to query the circuit to learn the correct output vector for any input vector. Our results demonstrate a speedup in average runtime over the best known existing deobfuscation algorithm prior to this technique. The results presented go beyond our previous work by showing that this technique, previously applied only to a particular style of gate camouflaging, is general and can be used to deobfuscate three different proposed styles of camouflaging. We give results to quantify the effectiveness of camouflaging techniques on a variety of ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits.
Autors: Cunxi Yu;Xiangyu Zhang;Duo Liu;Maciej Ciesielski;Daniel Holcomb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1647 - 1659
Publisher: IEEE
 

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