Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2017 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Dual-Band 1:10 Wilkinson Power Divider Based on Multi-T-Section Characterization of High-Impedance Transmission Lines
Abstract:
We propose a new methodology for the design of a dual-band unequal-split Wilkinson power divider (WPD) with a high power division ratio at the operating frequencies. Impractical high-impedance transmission line in the conventional divider is replaced with cascaded dual-band T-section structures based on analytical equations derived herein. To validate the design concept, a dual-band WPD operating at 1 and 2 GHz with a 1:10 split ratio is simulated and measured. Simulations and measurements show isolation and input–output ports matching better than −20 dB, and transmission parameters, and , of −10.5 ± 0.5 dB and −0.4 ± 0.5 dB at the design bands, respectively.
Autors: Khair Al Shamaileh;Nihad Dib;Said Abushamleh;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 897 - 899
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Polarized Pattern Reconfigurable Yagi Patch Antenna for Microbase Stations
Abstract:
A two-port pattern reconfigurable three-layered Yagi-Uda patch antenna with ±45° dual-polarization characteristic is presented. A driven patch (DP) and two large parasitic patches (LPPs) are printed on the top side of the middle layer, and the middle and bottom layers share a common metal ground. Two microstrip feedlines printed orthogonally on the bottom side of the bottom layer are used to feed the DP through two H-shaped slots etched in the ground. The LPPs are connected to/disconnected from the ground controlled by switches. By adjusting the connection states of the LPPs, one wide-beam mode and three narrow-beam modes can be obtained in both polarizations. A small parasitic patch is printed on the top side of the top layer to improve the pattern coherence of the two polarizations. This antenna is studied by both simulation and measurement. The measured common bandwidth of the four modes in both polarizations is 3.32–3.51 GHz, and the isolations between two polarizations in all the modes are higher than 20 dB. The low-profile antenna is very suitable for microbase-station applications.
Autors: Wan-Qiang Deng;Xue-Song Yang;Cong-Song Shen;Jianping Zhao;Bing-Zhong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5095 - 5102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Facile Approach to Fabricate Patterned Surfaces for Enhancing Light Efficiency of COB-LEDs
Abstract:
Light efficiency of chip-on-board light-emitting diodes (COB-LEDs) is much lower than the single-chip packaging LEDs due to its flat phosphor layer, and hemispherical phosphor layer realization is a great challenge in COB-LEDs packaging due to the low surface tension of the phosphor gel. In this paper, we demonstrated a facile method to fabricate patterned surfaces to deal with this challenge. First, nanosilica (NS) particles with average diameter of 70 nm were fabricated by hydrolyzing the tetraethoxysilane and further modified by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl-trichlorosilane, then patterned surfaces were fabricated by introducing a tailored template into the NS coating process. The results show that the NS coated surfaces display repellency to the water and phosphor gel with porous lotus leaf-like hierarchical structure, when the particle deposition density (PDD) of the NS particles increases from 0 to 6 g/m2, the contact angle (CA) of water increases from 34° to 161°, and the CA of phosphor gel increases from 22° to 145°. Hemispherical phosphor layer was achieved with the patterned surfaces when the PDD is 1.5 g/m2. Compared to the conventional flat phosphor layer, the hemispherical phosphor layer enhances the light efficiency by 11.74% and 14.52% for 4000 and 5000 K COB-LEDs.
Autors: Xingjian Yu;Bin Xie;Bofeng Shang;Weicheng Shu;Xiaobing Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4149 - 4155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Image Retrieval Method Designed for Network Big Data
Abstract:
In the field of big data applications, image information is widely used. The value density of information utilization in big data is very low, and how to extract useful information quickly is very important. So we should transform the unstructured image data source into a form that can be analyzed. In this paper, we proposed a fast image retrieval method which designed for big data. First of all, the feature extraction method is necessary and the feature vectors can be obtained for every image. Then, it is the most important step for us to encode the image feature vectors and make them into database, which can optimize the feature structure. Finally, the corresponding similarity matching is used to determined the retrieval results. There are three main contributions for image retrieval in this paper. New feature extraction method, reasonable elements ranking, and appropriate distance metric can improve the algorithm performance. Experiments show that our method has a great improvement in the effective performance of feature extraction and can also get better search matching results.
Autors: Jiachen Yang;Bin Jiang;Baihua Li;Kun Tian;Zhihan Lv;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2350 - 2359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Method for Modeling Skew and Its Effects in Salient-Pole Synchronous Generators
Abstract:
The general effects of implementing skewing techniques in electrical machines are well known and have been extensively studied over the years. An important aspect of such techniques is related to the identification of optimal methods for analyzing and modeling any skewed components. This paper presents a fast, finite-element-based method, able to accurately analyze the effects of skew on wound-field, salient-pole synchronous generators in a relatively shorter time than the more traditional methods. As a vessel for studying the proposed technique, a 400 kVA alternator is considered. Analytical and theoretical considerations on the benefits of skewing the stator in the generator under analysis are preliminary carried out. A finite-element model of the machine is built and the proposed method is then implemented to investigate the effects of the skewed stator. Comparisons against more traditional techniques are presented, with focus on the analysis of the voltage total harmonic distortion and the damper bars' currents. Finally, experimental tests are performed at no-load and on-load operations for validation purposes, with excellent results being achieved.
Autors: Stefano Nuzzo;Michael Galea;Chris Gerada;Neil Brown;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 7679 - 7688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A First Insight to the Thermal Dependence of the DC, Analog and RF Performance of an S/D Spacer Engineered DG-Ambipolar FET
Abstract:
This paper investigates for the first time the temperature dependence of the digital/analog parameters and RF figure of merits (FOMs) of a spacer based reconfigurable field-effect transistor (RFET) and compares the same with the existing RFET topology and other devices which depend on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) for their on-current generation. It is observed that the output characteristics of the device are less sensitive to the temperature in the BTBT dominated on-state region as compared to the subthreshold one which is thermionic emission dependent. Having a better thermal stability over tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) and significantly lesser Vth roll-off, the proposed device portrays orders of magnitude reduction in parasitic gate capacitances and intrinsic delay as compared to gate-all-around (GAA) and hetero gate dielectric GAA TFET devices over the considered range of temperature, thus assuring higher switching speed for digital applications. Moreover, superior analog/RF performance is also exhibited by the device under consideration for all temperatures in contrast to SiGe, full silicon TFETs, and conventional RFET topology owing to higher BTBT dominance and better gate controllability. Apart from all of these performance gains, the device FOMs are found to be less sensitive to temperature variations making it more suitable for applications where temperature fluctuation is a major concern.
Autors: Abhishek Bhattacharjee;Marampally Saikiran;Sudeb Dasgupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4327 - 4334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Capacitive Pressure Sensor for Wearable Respiration Monitoring System
Abstract:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a wearable capacitive pressure sensor for respiration-monitoring systems. For the dielectric layer of the proposed capacitive sensor, Porous Ecoflex with a porosity of ~36% was prepared from a manually made sugar cube via a simple melting process. A polydimethylsiloxane-based silver nanowire and carbon fibers thin films were used for the sensor electrodes. The fabricated flexible pressure sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 0.161 kPa−1 for low pressure regime (<10 kPa), a wide working pressure range of <200 kPa, and a high durability over 6000 cycles. Since the proposed sensor is flexible and resizable, it can be integrated into clothes and easily placed at any location of the human body. Finally, the practicality of the sensor was successfully demonstrated by integrating the sensor into a waist belt to monitor the real-time respiration signal of the human being. The finding is highly useful to monitor respiration signal for the detection of diseases, such as sleep apnea, asthma, and others.
Autors: Seong Won Park;Partha Sarati Das;Ashok Chhetry;Jae Yeong Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6558 - 6564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Divide-and-Conquer MPSoC Architecture for MIMO Interference Cancellation
Abstract:
The fast-evolving standards of the wireless communication systems drive the demand for flexible baseband processing platforms. However, with the proliferation of MIMO technologies, traditional single-core-based solutions are hardly able to fulfill requirements with acceptable power and area cost. The reliance on multi-/many-core system is increasing. Different from the computation-limited single-core-based solutions, multi-/many-core systems are often communication-limited. In this paper, aiming at MIMO interference cancellation algorithms, we propose a flexible master–slave-based multiprocessor system-on-chiparchitecture based on a systematically divide-and-conquer approach to optimize the communication problems from the application-, architecture- and programming-levels. First, a comprehensively analysis of several typical applications in terms of parallelism, communication patterns and computation patterns is presented. According to the analysis results, a low-complexity and flexible ad hoc point-to-point interconnected fine-grained programmable-element (-PE) is proposed to execute the arithmetic calculation. In order to reduce the communicationtraffic, an -PE-based slave-node is constructed to exploit the data and instruction localities of applications, and a master node that is used to schedule and serve data for the slave nodes is also integrated. Furthermore, to improve the ease of use of the architecture, a multiple instruction multiple datalikeprogramming model is adopted and an optimizing mapping strategy is developed. In order to show its flexibility potential, seven linear and nonlinear IC algorithms with distinct computation natures are implemented on the proposed architecture. Finally, the gate-level synthesis and postlayout results are presented to demonstrate the strength and weakn- sses of our design.
Autors: Luechao Yuan;Cang Liu;Chuan Tang;Shan Huang;Anupam Chattopadhyay;Gerd Ascheid;Zuocheng Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2789 - 2802
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Foldable Tubular μDMFC for Powering Wearable Devices
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates a flexible tubular passive micro direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) featured by flexible electrodes and foldable whole structure for powering wrist bands the first time. A novel foldable structure, its fabrication, and assembly method proposed are usable for the flexible tubular DMFCs and even other multi-layer flexible microfluidic devices. The test results show that the prototype achieves a power density of 15.3 mWcm−2 and a maximum output of 38 mW at room temperature. After 100 bending cycles (180 bending angle), the performance of the DMFC decreases about 7.8%. Furthermore, the assembled DMFC with a dc-dc converter is integrated into a wrist band to power an LED and dc motor (25 mW) for about 21 h with consumption of 1-mL methanol solution (50 wt%). It is believed that this DMFC is applicable to serve as the power unit for wrist bands (typically 1~20 mW) or even other wearable devices. [2016-0142]
Autors: Zonglin Wu;Xuanlin Kuang;Litian Liu;Xiaohong Wang;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1147 - 1154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible, General-Purpose Code Based on the Iterative Physical Optics Algorithm: Analyzing Electromagnetic Scattering in Electrically Large Scenarios. [EM Programmer's Notebook]
Abstract:
A very flexible and efficient iterative physical optics (IPO) algorithm is presented for analyzing the electromagnetic (EM) scattering of complex and electrically large problems. The algorithm accounts for multiple interactions between the objects comprised in the scenarios under the physical optics (PO) approximation. Various techniques for accelerating and parallelizing the algorithm were used, thus obtaining an efficient tool that can be used in novel high-frequency solvers.
Autors: Luca Pandolfo;Paolo De Vita;Mauro Bandinelli;Giorgio Carluccio;Matteo Albani;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 150 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework of Temporal-Spatial Descriptors-Based Feature Extraction for Improved Myoelectric Pattern Recognition
Abstract:
The extraction of the accurate and efficient descriptors of muscular activity plays an important role in tackling the challenging problem of myoelectric control of powered prostheses. In this paper, we present a new feature extraction framework that aims to give an enhanced representation of muscular activities through increasing the amount of information that can be extracted from individual and combined electromyogram (EMG) channels. We propose to use time-domain descriptors (TDDs) in estimating the EMG signal power spectrum characteristics; a step that preserves the computational power required for the construction of spectral features. Subsequently, TDD is used in a process that involves: 1) representing the temporal evolution of the EMG signals by progressively tracking the correlation between the TDD extracted from each analysis time window and a nonlinearly mapped version of it across the same EMG channel and 2) representing the spatial coherence between the different EMG channels, which is achieved by calculating the correlation between the TDD extracted from the differences of all possible combinations of pairs of channels and their nonlinearly mapped versions. The proposed temporal-spatial descriptors (TSDs) are validated on multiple sparse and high-density (HD) EMG data sets collected from a number of intact-limbed and amputees performing a large number of hand and finger movements. Classification results showed significant reductions in the achieved error rates in comparison to other methods, with the improvement of at least 8% on average across all subjects. Additionally, the proposed TSDs achieved significantly well in problems with HD-EMG with average classification errors of <5% across all subjects using windows lengths of 50 ms only.
Autors: Rami N. Khushaba;Ali H. Al-Timemy;Ahmed Al-Ani;Adel Al-Jumaily;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 1821 - 1831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency Correcting Method Combining Bilateral Correction With Weighted Average for Vortex Flow Sensor Signal
Abstract:
The sinusoidal signal outputted by the vortex flow sensor is often superimposed with the white noise, which will affect the accuracy of spectrum correction. When the signal is truncated by rectangular window, a method (hereinafter referred to as RWBWFCR) combining bilateral correction with weighted average on the basis of Fourier coefficients ratio is proposed so as to improve the antinoise performance of the frequency correction. The correction principle of this method is presented. The effects on the frequency correction of changing the initial phase, the frequency deviation, the calculation points of fast Fourier transform, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are analyzed. The theoretical accuracy of this method when there is stationary Gaussian white noise is deduced and verified. This method has some advantages, such as less computation load, small storage space, high correction precision, strong anti-interference ability, and is easy to be implemented by a microcontroller in real time. RWBWFCR method is applied to the low-power and antivibration type vortex flowmeter with single sensor to improve the reliability of the digital signal processing method based on the frequency correction.
Autors: Chun-Li Shao;Ke-Jun Xu;Zhang-Ping Shu;Ao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2711 - 2724
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Analytical Three-Phase Induction Machine Core Loss Model in the Arbitrary Reference Frame
Abstract:
An analytical three-phase induction machine model is proposed, derived, and validated in this paper. This model is capable for arbitrary qd0-frame analysis and core loss estimation at both line-fed and inverter-fed situations. Detailed model-based machine copper and core loss estimations are presented. A simulation verification of the model consistency is given under a changing load profile in MATLAB/Simulink. Then, the model is verified comprehensively using three induction machines (1.5 HP, 3 HP, and 10 HP), where the model is proved to be scalable, and to provide excellent machine loss estimation in line-fed situation and inverter-fed situation with machine input line filters, as well as in the flux-weakening region. Finally, a series of sensitivity tests of the model parameters are performed and the effects of the parameters on the machine losses are discussed. It is believed that the proposed model will be beneficial for various qd0-frame model-based research works of three-phase induction machines.
Autors: Yiqi Liu;Ali M. Bazzi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4210 - 4220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Framework for Hardware Trojan Detection in Digital Circuits by Statistical Learning Algorithms
Abstract:
The continuous globalization of the semiconductor industry has significantly raised the vulnerability of chips under hardware Trojan (HT) attacks. It is extremely challenging to detect HTs in fabricated chips due to the existence of process variations (PVs), since PVs may cause larger impacts than HTs. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for HT detection in digital integrated circuits. The goal of this paper is to detect HTs inserted during fabrication. The HT detection problem is formulated as an under-determined linear system by a sparse gate profiling technique, and the existence of HTs is mapped to the sparse solution of the linear system. A Bayesian inference-based calibration technique is proposed to recover PVs for each chip for the sparse gate profiling technique. A batch of under-determined linear systems are solved together by the well-studied simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm to get their common sparse solution. Experimental results show that even under big measurement errors, the proposed framework gets quite high HT detection rates with low measurement cost.
Autors: Xiaoming Chen;Lin Wang;Yu Wang;Yongpan Liu;Huazhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1633 - 1646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Noise-Resilient Technique Based on the Matrix Pencil Method for the Assessment of Harmonics and Interharmonics in Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-accuracy technique for the assessment of harmonics and interharmonics in power systems. In the proposed method, a generalized eigenvalue problem is solved by making use of the matrix pencil method. It is a general method in the sense that it has the ability to predict the frequency, amplitude, and relative phase of frequency components present in a given signal, while the dc-off set and damping factors can be accurately estimated. It also offers a noise-resilient feature which helps to efficiently analyze the noise-contaminated signals. It shows a good performance in dealing with modulated signals as well. Due to its excellent accuracy, the proposed method is foreseen to properly work for the estimation of phasors which is a crucial need in the electrical networks. Different simulation and experimental cases are presented to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Autors: Keyhan Sheshyekani;Ghasem Fallahi;Mohsen Hamzeh;Morteza Kheradmandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2179 - 2188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General-Purpose Architecture for Replicated Metadata Services in Distributed File Systems
Abstract:
A large class of modern distributed file systems treat metadata services as an independent system component, separately from data servers. The availability of the metadata service is key to the availability of the overall system. Given the high rates of failures observed in large-scale data centers, distributed file systems usually incorporate high-availability (HA) features. A typical approach in the development of distributed file systems is to design and develop metadata services from the ground up, at significant cost in terms of complexity and time, often leading to functional shortcomings. Our motivation in this paper was to improve on this state of things by defining a general-purpose architecture for HA metadata services (which we call RMS) that can be easily incorporated and reused in new or existing file systems, reducing development time. Taking two prominent distributed file systems as case studies, PVFS and HDFS, we developed RMS variants that improve on functional shortcomings of the original HA solutions, while being easy to build and test. Our extensive evaluation of the RMS variant of HDFS shows that it does not incur an overall performance or availability penalty compared to the original implementation.
Autors: Dimokritos Stamatakis;Nikos Tsikoudis;Eirini Micheli;Kostas Magoutis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2747 - 2759
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Reduced Gradient Method for the Optimal Control of Very-Large-Scale Robotic Systems
Abstract:
This paper develops a new indirect method for distributed optimal control (DOC) that is applicable to optimal planning for very-large-scale robotic (VLSR) systems in complex environments. The method is inspired by the nested analysis and design method known as generalized reduced gradient (GRG). The computational complexity analysis presented in this paper shows that the GRG method is significantly more efficient than classical optimal control or direct DOC methods. The GRG method is demonstrated for VLSR path planning in obstacle-populated environments in which robots are subject to external forces and disturbances. The results show that the method significantly improves performance compared to the existing direct DOC and stochastic gradient methods.
Autors: Keith Rudd;Greg Foderaro;Pingping Zhu;Silvia Ferrari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 1226 - 1232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generic Level 1 Simulator for Spaceborne GNSS-R Missions and Application to GEROS-ISS Ocean Reflectometry
Abstract:
In the past decade Global Navigation Satellites System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a new technique for earth remote sensing for various applications, such as ocean altimetry and sea state monitoring. After the success of the GNSS-R demonstrator payloads aboard the UK-DMC or TDS-1 satellites; at present, there are several missions planned to carry GNSS reflectometers. The GNSS rEflectometry, Radio Occultation, and Scatterometry onboard International Space Station (GEROS-ISS) is an innovative ISS experiment exploiting GNSS-R technique to measure key parameters of ocean, land, and ice surfaces. For GEROS-ISS mission, the European Space Agency (ESA) supported the study of GNSS-R assessment of requirements and consolidation of retrieval algorithms (GARCA). For this, it was required to accurately simulate the GEROS-ISS measurements including the whole range of parameters affecting the observation conditions and the instrument, which is called GEROS-SIM. To meet these requirements, the PAU/PARIS end-to-end performance simulator (PEPS) previously developed by UPC BarcelonaTech was used as the baseline building blocks for the level 1 (L1) processor of GEROS-SIM. PEPS is a flexible tool, and is capable of systematically simulating the GNSS-R observations for spaceborne GNSS-R missions. Thanks to the completeness and flexibility, the instrument-to-L1 data module of GEROS-SIM could be implemented by proper modification and update of PEPS. The developed GEROS-SIM was verified and validated in the GARCA study as comparing to the TDS-1 measurements. This paper presents the design, implementation, and results of the GEROS-SIM L1 module in a generic way to be applied to GNSS-R instruments.
Autors: Hyuk Park;Adriano Camps;Daniel Pascual;Yujin Kang;Raul Onrubia;Jorge Querol;Alberto Alonso-Arroyo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4645 - 4659
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generic Simulation Approach for the Fast and Accurate Estimation of the Outage Probability of Single Hop and Multihop FSO Links Subject to Generalized Pointing Errors
Abstract:
When assessing the performance of the free space optical (FSO) communication systems, the outage probability encountered is generally very small, and thereby the use of nave Monte Carlo simulations becomes prohibitively expensive. To estimate these rare event probabilities, we propose in this paper an importance sampling approach which is based on the exponential twisting technique to offer fast and accurate results. In fact, we consider a variety of turbulence regimes, and we investigate the outage probability of FSO communication systems, under a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution, for both single and multihop scenarios. Selected numerical simulations are presented to show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared with naive Monte Carlo.
Autors: Chaouki Ben Issaid;Ki-Hong Park;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6822 - 6837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Geometrical View of Scalar Modulation Instability in Optical Fibers
Abstract:
Full models of scalar modulation instability (MI) in optical fibers available in the literature usually involve complex formulations. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the analysis of MI in optical fibers by means of a simple geometrical description in the power versus frequency plane. This formulation allows us to relate the shape of the MI gain to any arbitrary dispersion profile of the medium, thus providing a simple insight. As a result, we derive a straightforward explanation of the nontrivial dependence of the cutoff power on high-order dispersion and explicitly derive the power that maximizes the gain. Our approach puts forth a tool to synthesize a desired MI gain with the potential application to a number of parametric-amplification and supercontinuum-generation devices whose initial-stage dynamics rely upon MI.
Autors: S. M. Hernandez;P. I. Fierens;J. Bonetti;A. D. Sánchez;D. F. Grosz;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A GPU-Accelerated Approach for Feature Tracking in Time-Varying Imagery Datasets
Abstract:
We propose a novel parallel connected component labeling (CCL) algorithm along with efficient out-of-core data management to detect and track feature regions of large time-varying imagery datasets. Our approach contributes to the big data field with parallel algorithms tailored for GPU architectures. We remove the data dependency between frames and achieve pixel-level parallelism. Due to the large size, the entire dataset cannot fit into cached memory. Frames have to be streamed through the memory hierarchy (disk to CPU main memory and then to GPU memory), partitioned, and processed as batches, where each batch is small enough to fit into the GPU. To reconnect the feature regions that are separated due to data partitioning, we present a novel batch merging algorithm to extract the region connection information across multiple batches in a parallel fashion. The information is organized in a memory-efficient structure and supports fast indexing on the GPU. Our experiment uses a commodity workstation equipped with a single GPU. The results show that our approach can efficiently process a weather dataset composed of terabytes of time-varying radar images. The advantages of our approach are demonstrated by comparing to the performance of an efficient CPU cluster implementation which is being used by the weather scientists.
Autors: Chao Peng;Sandip Sahani;John Rushing;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2262 - 2274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Handbag Zipper Antenna for the Applications of Body-Centric Wireless Communications and Internet of Things
Abstract:
The idea of making use of the metal zipper on the handbag to serve as an off-body antenna is proposed, and the simulations together with measurements have been carried out. The feeding point can be located at the bottom of the zipper, and to be more specific, around one of the teeth. The excitation at certain tooth of the zipper would bring variations in the reflection coefficients as well as the radiation patterns. No matter the zipper is totally closed, quarterly opened, half opened, or is even totally opened, the antenna can operate with acceptable performance, though the common status of the handbag zipper is closed. Thus, it is to some extent reconfigurable, especially for radiation patterns. A fractional bandwidth of 4.92% at 2.44 GHz of the industrial, scientific, and medical band with a gain of about 5 dBi has been achieved. The impact of the human body has been evaluated. It is noticeable but affordable. The measured results indicate reasonable agreements to that of the simulations in both the matching performance and the radiation feature for the zipper antenna, which seems to be a promising candidate for body-centric wireless communications and the Internet of Things.
Autors: Gaosheng Li;Yi Huang;Gui Gao;Xianju Wei;Zhihao Tian;Li-An Bian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5137 - 5146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Handy Dandy Doherty PA: A Linear Doherty Power Amplifier for Mobile Handset Application
Abstract:
As wireless communications progress from second to fourth-generation (4G) systems, the information content drastically increases, requiring high-data-rate transmissions. For efficient use of precious spectrum resources, the modulated signals have wider bandwidths (BWs) and higher peak-toaverage power ratios (PAPRs) than previous generations of systems. Therefore, the power amplifier (PA) operates at a less efficient backoff-power region to achieve the required linearity.
Autors: Yunsung Cho;Daehyun Kang;Kyunghoon Moon;Daechul Jeong;Bumman Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 110 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hidden Markov Model for Seismocardiography
Abstract:
We propose a hidden Markov model approach for processing seismocardiograms. The seismocardiogram morphology is learned using the expectation-maximization algorithm, and the state of the heart at a given time instant is estimated by the Viterbi algorithm. From the obtained Viterbi sequence, it is then straightforward to estimate instantaneous heart rate, heart rate variability measures, and cardiac time intervals (the latter requiring a small number of manual annotations). As is shown in the conducted experimental study, the presented algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in seismocardiogram-based heart rate and heart rate variability estimation. Moreover, the isovolumic contraction time and the left ventricular ejection time are estimated with mean absolute errors of about 5 [ms] and , respectively. The proposed algorithm can be applied to any set of inertial sensors; does not require access to any additional sensor modalities; does not make any assumptions on the seismocardiogram morphology; and explicitly models sensor noise and beat-to-beat variations (both in amplitude and temporal scaling) in the seismocardiogram morphology. As such, it is well suited for low-cost implementations using off-the-shelf inertial sensors and targeting, e.g., at-home medical services.
Autors: Johan Wahlström;Isaac Skog;Peter Händel;Farzad Khosrow-khavar;Kouhyar Tavakolian;Phyllis K. Stein;Arye Nehorai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2361 - 2372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Throughput Pilot Allocation for M2M Communication in Crowded Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
A new scheme to resolve the intra-cell pilot collision for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication in crowded massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is proposed. The proposed scheme permits those failed user equipments (UEs), judged by a strongest-user collision resolution (SUCR) protocol, to contend for the idle pilots, i.e., the pilots that are not selected by any UE in the initial step. This scheme is called as SUCR combined idle pilots access (SUCR-IPA). To analyze the performance of the SUCR-IPA scheme, we develop a simple method to compute the access success probability of the UEs in each random access slot. The simulation results coincide well with the analysis. It is also shown that, compared with the SUCR protocol, the proposed SUCR-IPA scheme increases the throughput of the system significantly, and thus decreases the number of access attempts dramatically.
Autors: Huimei Han;Xudong Guo;Ying Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9572 - 9576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Frequency High-Power Test Bench for 11 MW/595 Hz Drives With 1.25 MW Grid Capability
Abstract:
This paper presents a pumpback test bench for high-frequency high-power variable-frequency drives (VFDs) with 11 MW power rating and up to 595 Hz load frequency. A voltage combiner concept is applied to allow a high-frequency output from the two three-level neutral-point-clamped integrated gate-commutated thyristor bridges with minimum switching losses. The accordingly developed pumpback test bench applies a dc power coupling concept combined with a virtual grid concept that can achieve 11 MW test capability with only a 1.25 MW facility transformer. By applying a virtual machine concept, the pumpback test can be conducted without the need of high-frequency machines, while the circulating power losses in the pumpback loop are minimized as well. The virtual grid including the concept tradeoff, filter parameters, and modulation schemes is presented in detail. Moreover, design and installation guidelines for high-frequency components, especially the cables, are presented. The high-frequency high-power VFD and its pumpback test bench are both successfully built and experimentally validated at their rated operation points.
Autors: Jie Shen;Stefan Schröder;Bo Qu;Yingqi Zhang;Fan Zhang;Kunlun Chen;Richard Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4744 - 4756
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Speed Digital Electrical Capacitance Tomography System Combining Digital Recursive Demodulation and Parallel Capacitance Measurement
Abstract:
Two means can be used to improve the data acquisition rate of the electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system with a fixed excitation frequency, i.e., improving the capacitance measurement speed or changing the capacitance measurement mode from serial to parallel. This paper presents a newly developed high-speed ECT system by combing digital recursive demodulation and parallel-mode capacitance measurement methods. By using the digital recursive demodulator, the time-cost for one time of capacitance measurement can be one period of the excitation sinusoid or less. By using the parallel-mode capacitance measuring unit, capacitances between the exciting electrode and all other measuring electrodes can be measured simultaneously. The data acquisition rate of the parallel-mode ECT system with a sensor of N electrodes is N-1 times of a traditional serial-mode ECT system with the same excitation frequency. When the excitation frequency is 100 kHz and 0.6 periods of data are used for signal demodulation, the data acquisition rate can reach up to 15 150 frames/s. The developed system together with a heat-resisting circular ECT sensor with 12 electrodes was used to monitor the ignition process of a cylindrical flame generated by a Bunsen burner. Experimental results show that the ECT system can locate the position and capture the dynamic process of the flame with a high temporal resolution.
Autors: Shijie Sun;Zhang Cao;Ang Huang;Lijun Xu;Wuqiang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6690 - 6698
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid EOF Algorithm to Improve MODIS Cyanobacteria Phycocyanin Data Quality in a Highly Turbid Lake: Bloom and Nonbloom Condition
Abstract:
Extensive monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms in lakes and reservoirs can provide important protection for drinking water sources. In most inland waterbodies, phycocyanin (PC) concentrations are the best indicator of cyanobacteria distribution. PC has a characteristic absorption peak near 620 nm; however, reflectance at this wavelength is only available from MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) sensors. MERIS stopped providing data after 2012 and OLCI was only recently launched (February 2016). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua is currently the only satellite instrument that can provide well-calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiance data over an extended number of years to the present. In this study, we develop and validate a new approach based on empirical orthogonal function (EOF) to quantify PC concentrations in a turbid inland lake (Lake Chaohu, China). Based on Rayleigh-corrected reflectance data ( ) at 469, 555, 645, and 859 nm, the concentrations of PC were estimated by regression of 87 concurrent MODIS-field measurements for bloom and nonbloom conditions. The validation (N = 93) showed R2 = 0.40 and unbiased RMS = 60.86%. Application of the algorithm from 2000 and 2014 showed spatial distribution patterns and seasonal changes that confirmed in situ and MERIS-based studies of floating algae mats. The spatial information on PC concentrations in Lake Chaohu had a reduced sensitivity to perturbations from thin aerosols and high sediments. This EOF approach allows us for new insights in the long-term dynamics of shallow lakes and reservoirs where having a better understanding of cyanobacterial blooms i- important.
Autors: Min Tao;Hongtao Duan;Zhigang Cao;Steven Arthur Loiselle;Ronghua Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 4430 - 4444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Formulation of a Frequency-Domain TLM and Integral Equations Field Method
Abstract:
In many applications, heterogeneous structures are separated by some distance in a homogeneous medium. This homogenous space must be entirely meshed when volumic methods are used. This letter presents a hybrid formulation between the frequency-domain transmission line matrix (FDTLM) method and a field integral equation formulation that avoids the meshing of the homogeneous background in which complex objects are located. In addition, it prevents the use of absorbing boundary conditions. To simplify the theoretical development for the 3-D case, the problem of a rectangular waveguide with inductive objects is presented. Although invariance along the waveguide height with the fundamental mode excitation, the problem is treated by 3-D FDTLM nodes for validation. It is found that some computer cost reduction can be achieved as compared with the full meshing approach.
Autors: Meriam Attia;Michel Ney;Taoufik Aguili;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 867 - 869
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Inductive-Ultrasonic Link for Wireless Power Transmission to Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants
Abstract:
Ultrasound has recently been utilized for efficient wireless power transmission (WPT) to biomedical implants with millimeter (mm) dimensions and below. However, the power transmission efficiency (PTE) of ultrasonic links reduces significantly in mediums with different acoustic impedances. This brief presents a hybrid inductive-ultrasonic WPT link for powering mm-sized implants that utilizes two cascaded co-optimized inductive and ultrasonic links for WPT through bone/air and tissue, respectively. The ultrasonic link is first optimized based on the implant depth () and load () to find the optimal geometries for ultrasonic transducers and operation frequency (). Then, the inductive link is optimized at to drive the transmitter (Tx) transducer. A hybrid link was optimized and measured to transfer power to a receiver (Rx) transducer with the diameter of 1.1 mm, loaded by of 2.5 k and located at cm inside castor oil, as the tissue model. The Tx coil was placed in air and spaced from the Rx coil by 3 cm, resulting in a total powering distance () of 6 cm. At the optimal of 1.1 MHz, the hybrid link achieved a consid- rable measured PTE of 0.16%.
Autors: Miao Meng;Mehdi Kiani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1137 - 1141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid MPI-OpenMP Strategy to Speedup the Compression of Big Next-Generation Sequencing Datasets
Abstract:
DNA sequencing has moved into the realm of Big Data due to the rapid development of high-throughput, low cost Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. Sequential data compression solutions that once were sufficient to efficiently store and distribute this information are now falling behind. In this paper we introduce phyNGSC , a hybrid MPI-OpenMP strategy to speedup the compression of big NGS data by combining the features of both distributed and shared memory architectures. Our algorithm balances work-load among processes and threads, alleviates memory latency by exploiting locality, and accelerates I/O by reducing excessive read/write operations and inter-node message exchange. To make the algorithm scalable, we introduce a novel timestamp-based file structure that allows us to write the compressed data in a distributed and non-deterministic fashion while retaining the capability of reconstructing the dataset with its original order. Our experimental results show that phyNGSC achieved compression times for big NGS datasets that were 45 to 98 percent faster than NGS-specific sequential compressors with throughputs of up to 3 GB/s. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results suggest strong scalability with some datasets yielding super-linear speedups and constant efficiency. We were able to compress 1 terabyte of data in under 8 minutes compared to more than 5 hours taken by NGS-specific compression algorithms running sequentially. Compared to other parallel solutions, phyNGSC achieved up to 6x speedups while maintaining a higher compression ratio. The code for this implementation is available at https://github.com/pcdslab/PHYNGSC.
Autors: Sandino Vargas-Pérez;Fahad Saeed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2760 - 2769
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Planar-Doped Potential-Well Barrier Diode for Detector Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents the principle of design and experimental demonstration of a prototype novel planar-doped potential-well barrier (PWB) diode concept that exploits the characteristics of both the PWB and planar-doped barrier (PDB) diodes. The highly doped (Be) sheet charge and potential well are inserted asymmetrically at nearly the same position within an intrinsic region to form a barrier. The hybrid device is designed so that the -doping is used to achieve a desirable minimum barrier height, while the active nature of charge in the potential well is used to enhance the device reverse bias performance. The diode achieved an ideality factor of 1.36 and corresponding voltage responsivity of 10900 V/W at 10 GHz. Diodes of this kind demonstrates promising RF signal detection and can be used in heterodyne applications. An estimated curvature coefficient of 21.2 at a bias of 0.72 V and cut-off frequency of 47.4 GHz were realized. Results of simulation and experiment have shown excellent agreement and an improved asymmetric behavior in the – characteristics in comparison to an equivalent PDB diode.
Autors: Mise Akura;Geoffrey Dunn;Mohamed Missous;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4031 - 4035
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Jamming-Resistant Channel Hopping Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Jamming attack is one of the major threats in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we propose an anti-jamming channel hopping algorithm, Tri-CH, for CRNs. Tri-CH adopts random jump pattern (i.e., hops randomly over channels) to achieve high security level and reception mode stay pattern (i.e., stays at a channel for receiving packets only) to guarantee bounded time to rendezvous. Tri-CH operates without pre-shared secrets and role pre-assignment. Hence, Tri-CH is applicable to large networks, where nodes join and leave the network frequently, and may play the sender role and the receiver role, simultaneously. According to the theoretical analysis, Tri-CH outperforms in terms of maximum time to rendezvous under jamming attacks.
Autors: Guey-Yun Chang;Szu-Yung Wang;Yuen-Xin Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:10, pages: 6712 - 6725
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Joint Control–Communication Design for Reliable Vehicle Platooning in Hybrid Traffic
Abstract:
Recent studies have shown that traffic safety and efficiency can be substantially improved by vehicle platooning, in which vehicles periodically broadcast their kinetic status to neighbors, known as beacon message dissemination. As a networked control system, vehicle platoon has attracted significant attention from both the control and networking areas. However, few studies consider the practical traffic scenario with both platoons and individual vehicles, and the proposed beaconing schemes lack the deep understanding of relationship between the beaconing performance and the requirements of the control mechanism. To address these challenging issues, we propose a joint control–communication design to achieve reliable vehicle platooning in a more realistic traffic scenario, wherein the traffic consists of both platoons and individual vehicles, and both periodic beacon messages and event-based safety messages shall be delivered together. Specifically, we first develop a comprehensive control-theoretical analysis to understand how the vehicular communication can affect features of platoon driving; based on the understanding, we then propose and analyze an adaptive platoon-based message dissemination scheme; finally, we conduct extensive numerical experiments to validate the effectiveness of the protocol and to confirm the accuracy of the our theoretical analysis.
Autors: Bingyi Liu;Dongyao Jia;Kejie Lu;Dong Ngoduy;Jianping Wang;Libing Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 9394 - 9409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Large-Signal Monolayer Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Compact Model for RF-Circuit Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we report a physics-based compact model for monolayer graphene field-effect transistors (m-GFETs) based on the 2-D Density of States of monolayer graphene and the drift-diffusion equation. Furthermore, the Ward-Dutton charge partitioning scheme has been incorporated to the model extending its capabilities to AC and transient simulations. The model has been validated through comparison with DC and RF measurements from two different long-channel m-GFET technologies. Moreover, values of parasitic elements included in the model are extracted from measurements on dedicated test structures and verified through electromagnetic simulations (EM). Finally, an EM-SPICE co-simulation has been carried out to assess the applicability of the developed m-GFET model for the design of “balun” circuits.
Autors: Jorge-Daniel Aguirre-Morales;Sébastien Frégonèse;Chhandak Mukherjee;Wei Wei;Henri Happy;Cristell Maneux;Thomas Zimmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4302 - 4309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Layered Methodology for the Simulation of Extra-Functional Properties in Smart Systems
Abstract:
Smart systems represent a broad class of intelligent, miniaturized devices incorporating functionality like sensing, actuation, and control. In order to support these functions, they must include sophisticated and heterogeneous components, such as sensors and actuators, multiple power sources and storage devices, digital signal processing, and wireless connectivity. The high degree of heterogeneity typical of smart systems has a heavy impact on their design: the challenges are not in fact restricted to their functionality, but are also related to a number of extra-functional properties, including power consumption, temperature, and aging. Current simulation- or model-based design approaches do not target a smart system as a whole, but rather single domains (digital, analog, power devices, etc.) or properties. This paper tries to overcome this limitation by proposing a framework for the concurrent simulation of both functionality and such extra-functional properties. The latter are modeled as different information flows, managed by dedicated “virtual buses” and formalized through the adoption of IP-XACT. SystemC, through the support of physical and continuous time modeling provided by its analog and mixed signal extension, is used to implement both functional and extra-functional models. Experimental results show the efficiency, accuracy and modularity of the proposed approach on an example case study, in which substantial speedups with respect to standard model-based design tools go along with a very high degree of accuracy (< 10−5%). Furthermore, the case study highlights that the proposed framework allows to easily capture at run time the mutual impact of properties, e.g., in case of power and temperature.
Autors: Sara Vinco;Yukai Chen;Franco Fummi;Enrico Macii;Massimo Poncino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1702 - 1715
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Liquid-Level Sensing Technique Based on Differential Detection of Correlation Peaks From Broadband Chaos
Abstract:
A highly sensitive liquid-level sensing technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Two narrowband fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with high reflectivity are used to filter out the two light signals from the broadband chaos. Two weak FBGs are served respectively as the liquid-level sensors at two different sensing points. The change of liquid-level will induce the wavelength shift of the weak FBGs, which can be demodulated through calculating the amplitude difference in the logarithm of two cascaded correlation peaks in the cross-correlation spectrum. Adopting the differential calculation of the cascaded correlation peak amplitudes can avoid the complex wavelength detection and enhance the robustness against the power variation of the broadband chaos. Our method can also support the simultaneous multiplexing and locating with high resolution from the time delays of the corresponding correlation peaks. Experimental results show that the liquid level changes linearly with the relative peak amplitude difference in the logarithm and the sensitivity is around 0.019/mm. The sensing resolution of liquid-level can reach at least 3 mm, and the relative resolution is around 0.055. Moreover, the real-time fiber fault monitoring can be achieved with a spatial resolution of around 2.8 cm, which improves the survivability in harsh environment.
Autors: Heng Yi;Li Xia;Jun Xu;Can Yu;Ying Wu;Chen Li;Lin Zu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Load Independent Tapered RF Harvester
Abstract:
This letter proposes a new matching technique that is based on a network of dual line topology with different characteristic impedances. The purpose of this network is to match the Schottky diode’s input impedance in a rectifying circuit with the 50 source impedance. The strength of the proposed technique is based on the fact that it enables a stable efficiency response for different input power levels. It also forces the rectifier to exhibit an almost flat efficiency curve over a wide range of load variations. The proposed circuit is built and measured, where an agreement is attained between simulations and measured results over the IEEE 802.11 b/g bands.
Autors: J. Costantine;A. Eid;M. Abdallah;Y. Tawk;A. H. Ramadan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 933 - 935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Local Feature Descriptor Based on Log-Gabor Filters for Keypoint Matching in Multispectral Images
Abstract:
This letter presents a new local feature descriptor for problems related to multispectral images. Most previous approaches are typically based on descriptors designed to work with images uniquely captured in the visible light spectrum. In contrast, this letter proposes a descriptor termed a multispectral feature descriptor (MFD) that is especially developed, such that it can be employed with image data acquired at different frequencies across the electromagnetic spectrum. The performance of the MFD is evaluated by using three data sets composed of images obtained in visible light and infrared spectra, and its performance is compared with those of state-of-the-art algorithms, such as edge-oriented histogram (EOH) and log-Gabor histogram descriptor (LGHD). The experimental results indicate that the computational efficiency of MFD exceeds those of EOH and LGHD, and that the precision and recall values of MFD are statistically comparable to the corresponding values of the forementioned algorithms.
Autors: Cristiano F. G. Nunes;Flávio L. C. Pádua;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1850 - 1854
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complexity Maximum-Likelihood Detector for Differential Media-Based Modulation
Abstract:
Media-based modulation (MBM) uses radio frequency mirrors at the transmit antenna in order to create different channel fade realizations based on their ON/OFF status. These complex fade realizations constitute the channel modulation alphabet. This channel modulation alphabet has to be estimated a priori at the receiver for detection. In this letter, we present a differential MBM (DMBM) scheme which does not require estimation of channel modulation alphabet at the receiver for detection. Consecutive MBM blocks are differentially encoded. We propose a low-complexity maximum-likelihood detection algorithm for DMBM. Simulation results show that the DMBM has only about 2–4 dB performance loss compared with MBM with perfect knowledge of the channel alphabet.
Autors: Y. Naresh;A. Chockalingam;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 2158 - 2161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complexity Pedestrian Detection Framework for Smart Video Surveillance Systems
Abstract:
Pedestrian detection is a key problem in computer vision and is currently addressed with increasingly complex solutions involving compute-intensive features and classification schemes. In this scope, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) in conjunction with linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier is considered to be the single most discriminative feature that has been adopted as a stand-alone detector as well as a key instrument in advance systems involving hybrid features and cascaded detectors. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detection framework that is computationally less expensive as well as more accurate than HOG-linear SVM. The proposed scheme exploits the discriminating power of the locally significant gradients in building orientation histograms without involving complex floating point operations while computing the feature. The integer-only feature allows the use of powerful histogram inter-section kernel SVM classifier in a fast lookup-table-based implementation. Resultantly, the proposed framework achieves at least 3% more accurate detection results than HOG on standard data sets while being 1.8 and 2.6 times faster on conventional desktop PC and embedded ARM platforms, respectively, for a single scale pedestrian detection on VGA resolution video. In addition, hardware implementation on Altera Cyclone IV field-programmable gate array results in more than 40% savings in logic resources compared with its HOG-linear SVM competitor. Hence, the proposed feature and classification setup is shown to be a better candidate as the single most discriminative pedestrian detector than the currently accepted HOG-linear SVM.
Autors: Muhammad Bilal;Asim Khan;Muhammad Umar Karim Khan;Chong-Min Kyung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2260 - 2273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Cost Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting System for Multiview Time-Domain Diffuse Optical Tomography
Abstract:
Diffuse optical tomography resorting to time-domain measurements (TD-DOT) provides information-rich data that have not yet been fully exploited for image reconstruction, notably to increase imaging spatial resolution. Current TD-DOT scanners suffer from a very low sensitivity owing to their small number of detection channels. This leads to excessively long acquisition times for in vivo imaging. To obtain a higher number of detection channels, thus increasing detection density, a low-cost time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) system dedicated to TD-DOT was designed, resorting solely to off-the-shelf electronic components to reduce costs, in distinction to custom application-specific integrated circuit solutions. The system features four input channels, each of them including a leading-edge discriminator for direct interfacing with off-the-shelf photodetector modules and a programmable delay line to compensate for undesired propagation delays, thus also avoiding manual adjustment of cable lengths. The system supports a large number of TCSPC channels using a daisy-chain configuration through an onboard Ethernet switch. It also features a 13.02 ps bin width with a 12.5 ns dynamic range. Results show excellent linearity, with a of 1.7% least significant bit (LSB), peak differential nonlinearity of 5% LSB, and peak integral nonlinearity of 10% LSB and an average accuracy of 19 ps full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) throughout two separate four-channel systems. The system was tested in a TD-DOT acquisition setup, and 37 ps FWHM instrument response functions were obtained using a single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector. Diffuse intrinsic measurements were also acquired and compared with a reference TCSPC system showing similar results.
Autors: Jonathan Bouchard;Arnaud Samson;William Lemaire;Caroline Paulin;Jean-François Pratte;Yves Bérubé-Lauzière;Réjean Fontaine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2505 - 2515
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Noise Area-Efficient Chopped VCO-Based CTDSM for Sensor Applications in 40-nm CMOS
Abstract:
An area-efficient voltage-sensing readout circuit employing chopped voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based continuous-time delta-sigma modulator (CTDSM) is presented in this paper. This VCO-based CTDSM features direct connection to sensors to eliminate pre-amplifier for achieving better hardware efficiency. The VCO is designed as a trans-conductor current-controlled oscillator, which is a fully differential stage cascaded with two CCOs, to provide a high-input impedance to sense the voltage signals from sensors. Analysis shows that the main noise and offset contributor is the stage. This problem is mitigated by employing choppers at critical location within the circuit. The VCO-based CTDSM is implemented in a 40-nm CMOS process. The power consumption is under 1.2-V supply. With a 4-mVp (8-mV input, it achieves 61.85-dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio over a 5-kHz bandwidth and the total harmonic distortion is −70.8 dB. The input-referred noise is 32 nV/Hz. The chip area is only 0.0145 mm.
Autors: Chih-Chan Tu;Yu-Kai Wang;Tsung-Hsien Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2523 - 2532
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power 28-nm CMOS FD-SOI Reflection Amplifier for an Active F-Band Reflectarray
Abstract:
A new topology of a low-power F-band reflection amplifier for active reflectarrays is proposed and demonstrated using a CMOS fully depleted silicon-on-insulator 28-nm process. The design enables frequency response and center frequency tuning, as well as phase control of the reflected signal. The chip consumes a core area of only and is incorporated into a printed reflectarray antenna, implementing the first co-polarized active reflectarray. Such implementation enables, for the first time, active reflectarrays with dual polarization ability, which can be used for full-duplex links, as well as polarization diversity applications. Design considerations for a stable reflection amplifier, as well as measurement results of the reflection amplifier and reflectarray, are presented in this paper. Variable stable gain of 5–25 dB at the frequency range of 106–127 GHz was achieved, with noise figure of 10.5–11.7 dB. The total power consumption was 6–20 mW, depending on the chosen frequency response. An active antenna gain of 28 dBi was measured for the reflectarray.
Autors: Naftali Landsberg;Eran Socher;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3910 - 3921
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power High-Dynamic-Range Receiver System for In-Probe 3-D Ultrasonic Imaging
Abstract:
In this paper, a dual-mode low-power, high dynamic-range receiver circuit is designed for the interface with a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer. The proposed ultrasound receiver chip enables the development of an in-probe digital beamforming imaging system. The flexibility of having two operation modes offers a high dynamic range with minimum power sacrifice. A prototype of the chip containing one receive channel, with one variable transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and one analog to digital converter (ADC) circuit is implemented. Combining variable gain TIA functionality with ADC gain settings achieves an enhanced overall high dynamic range, while low power dissipation is maintained. The chip is designed and fabricated in a 65 nm standard CMOS process technology. The test chip occupies an area of 76 170 . A total average power range of 60–240  for a sampling frequency of 30 MHz, and a center frequency of 5 MHz is measured. An instantaneous dynamic range of 50.5 dB with an overall dynamic range of 72 dB is obtained from the receiver circuit.
Autors: Hourieh Attarzadeh;Ye Xu;Trond Ytterdal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1053 - 1064
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power SiGe BiCMOS 190-GHz Receiver With 47-dB Conversion Gain and 11-dB Noise Figure for Ultralarge-Bandwidth Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a 190-GHz direct-conversion receiver capable of supporting higher order modulation schemes and implemented in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The circuit consists of a low-noise amplifier, an active fundamental mixer, a local-oscillator driver, a variable-gain baseband (BB) amplifier, and a totem-pole output stage. To exploit the advantages of sub-THz frequencies in terms of available bandwidth (BW) at a low dc power consumption, all circuit blocks are concurrently optimized for large BW and high power efficiency. A high and tunable conversion gain as well as a large maximum BB voltage swing is targeted to allow direct operation with state-of-the-art analog-to-digital converters. While consuming only 122 mW of dc power, the fabricated circuit exhibits a record 3-dB RF BW of 35 GHz, a maximum conversion gain of 47 dB with a tuning range of 20 dB, a maximum BB voltage swing of more than 800 , and a minimum double-sideband noise figure of 10.7 dB.
Autors: David Fritsche;Gregor Tretter;Paul Stärke;Corrado Carta;Frank Ellinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 4002 - 4013
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Dual-Polarized Patch Antenna With Stable Radiation Pattern Using Ground-Slot Groups and Metallic Ground Wall
Abstract:
A low-profile dual-polarized patch antenna with stable radiation pattern for use in base stations operating from 1.7 to 2.7 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a square patch radiator placed at 20 mm ( at the center frequency of 2.2 GHz) above a square ground plane. For bandwidth enhancement, the square patch radiator is dual fed using four probes, each having a U-shape. Two wideband 180° baluns are designed using composite right/left handed transmission lines to generate two signals with same amplitude, but phase shift of 180° for the probes. The radiation pattern is stabilized using four slot groups on the ground plane and a metallic ground wall around the radiating patch. The antenna is studied and designed using computer simulation. Results show that the simulated half-power beamwidths have variations of only 4° and 5° in the elevation (EL) and azimuth (AZ) planes, respectively, across the operating band. Measured results show that the antenna has the impedance bandwidths of 1.68–2.83 GHz and 1.7–2.85 GHz for the two input ports, isolation of more than 38 dB, and cross-polarization of less than −20 dB at the boresight in both the EL and AZ planes. The measured boresight gains are 7.8 ± 0.6 dBi for both two ports, and the radiation efficiencies are 74%–84% and 73%–82% for ports 1 and 2, respectively.
Autors: Qinlong Li;S. W. Cheung;Changfei Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5061 - 5068
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Wide-Bandwidth Planar Inverted-F Antenna Under Dual Resonances: Principle and Design Approach
Abstract:
A low-profile planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) under the operation of TM0,1/2 and TM2,1/2 modes in a single patch resonator for bandwidth enhancement is proposed. Initially, our study demonstrates that all of the even-order modes can effectively be suppressed by employing a rectangular PIFA instead of the conventional microstrip patch antenna. Then, a pair of shorting pins is appropriately loaded underneath the side-shorted radiating patch to investigate the variation of their odd-mode resonant frequencies. The results indicate that the resonant frequency of TM0,1/2 mode () is dramatically increased up while almost maintaining that of TM2,1/2 mode (). After that, the width of the radiating patch is progressively enlarged in order to move the more closely to the . By using this approach, the dual radiative resonant modes can be reallocated in proximity to each other. Additionally, a narrow slot is etched out on the radiating patch so as to counteract the equivalent inductance caused by the shorting pins and probe. As such, a wide-bandwidth with stable radiation pattern is achieved for the PIFA under the operation of these dual-resonant modes. After the extensive analysis is executed, the proposed antenna is fabricated and tested. Simulated and measured results are found in good agreement with each other, demonstrating that its impedance bandwidth is tremendously widened to about 15.3% with appearance of two in-band attenuation poles. In particular, a low-profile property with the height of 0.036 free-space wavelength is achieved.
Autors: Neng-Wu Liu;Lei Zhu;Wai-Wa Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5019 - 5025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Lyapunov Function for Switching Command of a DC–DC Power Converter With an LC Input Filter
Abstract:
This paper describes a method to control a dc–dc switching power converter with an LC input filter working under continuous conduction mode. It is known that the interaction between the low-pass filter and the tightly controlled switching converter occurs, and it might lead to an instability operation. The idea of this method relies on the Lyapunov stability criterion. The switching command of this control is defined by the manner of pre-evaluating the stability of the controlled system. All state variables are controlled in the same time. Therefore, the responses of this controlled system are fast while guaranteeing a stable operation. The proposed control is applied to a boost converter to demonstrate the implementation and its performance. The simulation and experimental results validate the proposed control approach.
Autors: Roghayeh Gavagsaz-Ghoachani;Matheepot Phattanasak;Jean-Philippe Martin;Serge Pierfederici;Babak Nahid-Mobarakeh;Pierre Riedinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 5041 - 5050
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Magnetic Plethysmograph Probe for Local Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement
Abstract:
Objective: We present the design and experimental validation of an arterial compliance probe with dual magnetic plethysmograph (MPG) transducers for local pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. The MPG transducers (positioned at 23 mm distance apart) utilizes Hall-effect sensors and permanent magnets for arterial blood pulse detection. Methods: The MPG probe was initially validated on an arterial flow phantom using a reference method. Further, 20 normotensive subjects (14 males, age = 24 ± 3.5 years) were studied under two different physical conditions: 1) Physically relaxed condition, 2) Postexercise condition. Local PWV was measured from the left carotid artery using the MPG probe. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was measured to investigate the correlation of BP with local PWV. Results: The proposed MPG arterial compliance probe was capable of detecting high-fidelity blood pulse waveforms. Reliable local pulse transit time estimates were assessed by the developed measurement system. Beat-by-beat local PWV was measured from multiple subjects under different physical conditions. A profound increment was observed in the carotid local PWV for all subjects after exercise (average increment = 0.42 ± 0.22 m/s). Local PWV values and brachial BP parameters were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.72), except for pulse pressure (r = 0.42). Conclusion: MPG arterial compliance probe for local PWV measurement was validated. Carotid local PWV measurement, its variations due to physical exercise and correlation with BP levels were examined during the in vivo study. Significance: A novel dual MPG probe for local PWV measurement and potential use in cuffless BP measurement.
Autors: Nabeel P M;Jayaraj Joseph;Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1065 - 1076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Magnetically Coupled Communication and Charging Platform for Microsensors
Abstract:
A double layer spiral antenna with side length of was fabricated by a multilayer electroplating process and bonded with an radio frequency identification chip by silver epoxy to form a microsensor chip. A theoretical power transfer model was built to optimize the power transfer efficiency. The resonant frequency of the microsensor was characterized inside a small coupling loop, exhibiting a high degree of agreement with theoretical results. A magnetically coupled communication and charging platform was developed to work with the microsensors. The reader antenna was composed of a coupling loop and a secondary coil with 40-mm diameter wrapped around a polycarbonate tube. To maximize the magnetic field generated inside the secondary coil, a lump circuit model was built and its resonant modes were analyzed. The maximum current inside the secondary coil was achieved at the serial resonant frequency, at which the current followed a sinusoidal distribution along the coil. The magnetic field distribution inside the coil was calculated to analyze the read-out of the reader antenna. The communication and power transfer was demonstrated with the microsensors flowing through the reader antenna by successfully retrieving the sensor ID. [2016-0318]
Autors: Guangwu Duan;Xiaoguang Zhao;Xin Zhang;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1099 - 1109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mean-Field Game of Evacuation in Multilevel Building
Abstract:
This paper puts forward a simple mean-field game that captures some of the key dynamic features of crowd and pedestrian flows in multilevel building evacuations. It considers both microscopic and macroscopic route choice by strategic agents. To achieve this, we use mean-field differential game with local congestion measure based on the location of the agent in the building. Including the local mean-field term and its evolution along the path causes a sort of dispersion of the flow: the agents will try to avoid high density areas in order to reduce their overall walking costs and queuing costs at the stairs and exits. Each agent state is represented by a center of a box that follows a simple first-order dynamical system in an Euclidean space. Each agent will move to one of the closest exits that is safer and with less congested path. First, we formulate the problem and derive optimality equations using maximum principle and dynamic programming with boundary conditions. Second, well posedness and existence results are provided. Numerics and simulations are carried out to illustrate mean-field equilibria of a safer evacuation process. Finally, the methodology is shown to be flexible enough to include movement noises and stochastic structural component of the building.
Autors: Boualem Djehiche;Alain Tcheukam;Hamidou Tembine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5154 - 5169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Measurement-Based Multilink Shadowing Model for V2V Network Simulations of Highway Scenarios
Abstract:
Shadowing from vehicles can significantly degrade the performance of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in multilink systems, e.g., vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). It is, thus, important to characterize and model the influence of common shadowing objects like cars properly when designing these VANETs. Despite the fact that for multilink systems it is essential to model the joint effects on the different links, the multilink shadowing effects of V2V channels on VANET simulations are not yet well understood. In this paper, we present a measurement-based analysis of multilink shadowing effects in a V2V communication system with cars as blocking objects. In particular, we analyze, characterize, and model the large scale fading, both regarding the autocorrelation and the joint multilink cross-correlation process, for communication at 5.9 GHz between four cars in a highway convoy scenario. The results show that it is essential to separate the instantaneous propagation condition into line-of-sight (LOS) and obstructed LOS (OLOS), by other cars, and then apply an appropriate pathloss model for each of the two cases. The choice of the pathloss model not only influences the autocorrelation but also changes the cross correlation of the large scale fading process between different links. By this, we conclude that it is important that VANET simulators should use geometry-based models, that distinguish between LOS and OLOS communication. Otherwise, the VANET simulators need to consider the cross correlation between different communication links to achieve results close to reality.
Autors: Mikael G. Nilsson;Carl Gustafson;Taimoor Abbas;Fredrik Tufvesson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8632 - 8643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mechatronic Motor-Table System Identification Based on an Energetics Fitness Function
Abstract:
In this paper, system identification by the self-learning particle swarm optimization (SLPSO) with a new energetics fitness functions (FFs) is proposed to identify a mechatronic motor-table system. First, the completed mathematical model containing both mechanical and electrical equations is successfully formulated. Second, a new energetics FF containing an energy balance equation are proposed and employed in the SLPSO to identify the unknown parameters of a mechatronic system. It is found that the system identification using this new FF, unknown parameters can be identified well and the all states have better results converging toward the real ones. On the other hand, when the FF is only a part of the state errors, not all parameters are able to be accurately identified and only partial states converge. Therefore, the new FF with an energy balance equation is adopted in experiments for a real mechatronic motor-table system and the unknown parameters are successfully identified by the SLPSO experimentally.
Autors: Kun-Yung Chen;Rong-Fong Fung;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2288 - 2295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MEMS Condenser Microphone-Based Intracochlear Acoustic Receiver
Abstract:
Goal: Intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) measurements are limited by the small dimensions of the human inner ear and the requirements imposed by the liquid medium. A robust intracochlear acoustic receiver (ICAR) for repeated use with a simple data acquisition system that provides the required high sensitivity and small dimensions does not yet exist. The work described in this report aims to fill this gap and presents a new microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) condenser microphone (CMIC)-based ICAR concept suitable for ICSP measurements in human temporal bones. Methods: The ICAR head consisted of a passive protective diaphragm (PD) sealing the MEMS CMIC against the liquid medium, enabling insertion into the inner ear. The components of the MEMS CMIC-based ICAR were expressed by a lumped element model (LEM) and compared to the performance of successfully fabricated ICARs. Results: Good agreement was achieved between the LEM and the measurements with different sizes of the PD. The ICSP measurements in a human cadaver temporal bone yielded data in agreement with the literature. Conclusion: Our results confirm that the presented MEMS CMIC-based ICAR is a promising technology for measuring ICSP in human temporal bones in the audible frequency range. Significance: A sensor for evaluation of the biomechanical hearing process by quantification of ICSP is presented. The concept has potential as an acoustic receiver in totally implantable cochlear implants.
Autors: Flurin Pfiffner;Lukas Prochazka;Dominik Péus;Ivo Dobrev;Adrian Dalbert;Jae Hoon Sim;Rahel Kesterke;Joris Walraevens;Francesca Harris;Christof Röösli;Dominik Obrist;Alexander Huber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2431 - 2438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MEMS Tensile Testing Technique for Measuring True Activation Volume and Effective Stress in Nanocrystalline Ultrathin Microbeams
Abstract:
Signature parameters, such as true activation volume and effective stress, are often characterized to identify the governing plastic deformation mechanisms, including that of nanocrystalline metals. The accurate measurement of these parameters using transient tests was recently questioned for nanocrystalline metals, in which grain-boundary-based mechanisms can concurrently occur with dislocation glide. Here, we demonstrate the use of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device to measure true activation volume and effective stress based on repeated stress relaxation and stress dip experiments, respectively. The technique was demonstrated on 100-nm-thick nanocrystalline Au microbeams. These miniaturized tests open up the possibility of observing the mechanisms directly under a transmission electron microscope, and providing a direct link between these measured parameters and the governing mechanisms. [2016-0306]
Autors: Saurabh Gupta;Olivier N. Pierron;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1082 - 1092
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metacoupler for Converting Propagating Waves to Guided Waves in Wire Waveguides
Abstract:
Propagating electromagnetic waves in free space cannot directly couple to guided waves in waveguides due to momentum mismatch. Here, we propose a method to design a metacoupler that can convert propagating waves into guided waves along wire waveguides in a noninvasive way. The metacoupler is attached to the wire waveguide and imposes an additional wave vector to the scattered waves, thus, filling the momentum gap between the propagating waves and guided waves. Numerical simulations have confirmed the conversion effect in corrugated metal wire and silicon wire waveguides.
Autors: Hongchen Chu;Jie Luo;Yun Lai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Methodology for Designing and Evaluating Cloud Scheduling Strategies in Distributed Videoconferencing Systems
Abstract:
Over the last few years, videoconferencing systems have experienced several changes that enable videoconferencing applications in personal devices to a high number of users. To efficiently attend this high and variable demand, deploying distributed videoconferencing servers in cloud-based infrastructures is highly recommended. However, videoconferencing systems have particular characteristics that impede the application of regular resource scheduling solutions used in other kinds of distributed environments. In this paper, we propose a methodology to design and evaluate scheduling strategies adapted to the necessities of each specific scenario. It involves using a new metric to estimate the resource consumption of each connection and provides a set of coefficients to evaluate the efficiency of the strategy. We test the methodology in a real setup and compare the behavior and performance of three scheduling algorithms. The conclusion is that the proposed methodology allows us to configure decision policies adapted to the requirements and necessities of a range of use cases. Thereby, we achieve a more efficient way of using cloud resources, improving the service performance and saving costs.
Autors: Álvaro Alonso;Ignacio Aguado;Joaquín Salvachúa;Pedro Rodríguez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 19, issue:10, pages: 2282 - 2292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Microwave Photonics Fiber Loop Ring-Down System
Abstract:
A microwave photonics fiber loop ring-down system is demonstrated in this paper. In comparison with the traditional time domain fiber loop ring-down setup, the demonstrated system is based on pure frequency domain measurement from a microwave-photonic configuration. The system consists of a direct-modulation laser with its modulation frequency scanned by a vector network analyzer. The amplitude and phase spectra of the demonstrated fiber loop ring-down system are then recorded, followed by a complex Fourier transform to acquire the ring-down curve in the time domain. The loss of the fiber loop can then be evaluated based on the calculated ring-down curve. The system delivers high signal-to-noise ratio, and averaging is not required compared with the traditional time domain measurement. The system is also insensitive to the sources of environmental noise. The measurement principle, experimental setup, and the mathematical model of the system are discussed in this paper. A proof-of-concept macrobending loss test is demonstrated.
Autors: Yiyang Zhuang;Yang Du;Chen Zhu;Mohammed Farhan Ahmed;Yizheng Chen;Rex E. Gerald;Jie Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6565 - 6570
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniature Ultrawideband Electric Field Probe Based on Coax-Thru-Hole via Array for Near-Field Measurement
Abstract:
In this paper, a miniature electric field probe with an ultrawideband of 9 kHz–20 GHz is proposed, fabricated, and tested. The electric field probe is fabricated on a four-layer printed circuit board using high-performance and low-loss Rogers material ( and tan). Coax-thru-hole via array is used to control the signal via impedance to achieve impedance match over the whole working band, reducing the harmful influence on the probe’s characteristic. The ground vias, called via fence, are utilized to suppress the resonance caused by the parallel-plate mode of conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CB-CPW), expanding the working frequency band. Experimental result shows rather smooth in operation band, demonstrating the working frequency band is up to 9 kHz–20 GHz. The electric field probe has a 2–3 mm spatial resolution, which has a good ability to locate the interference source.
Autors: Zhaowen Yan;Jianwei Wang;Wei Zhang;Yansheng Wang;Jun Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 2762 - 2770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniaturized Dual-Band FSS With Controllable Frequency Resonances
Abstract:
A novel dual-band miniaturized frequency-selective surface (FSS) is proposed in this letter. The proposed FSS is composed of cross dipole aperture element combined with meandered monopole aperture element. The single layer FSS provides two pass-bands centered at 5.13 and 8.85 GHz with bandwidth of 1.27 and 1.33 GHz, respectively. The two pass-band frequencies of the designed FSS can be controlled independently by simply changing structure parameters of the unit cell. In addition, the dual-band FSS designed using the miniaturized element exhibits excellent resonance stability for different polarizations and incident angles. A prototype of the proposed FSS is fabricated and measured. A good agreement between the simulation and the measured results is obtained, which demonstrates the stable performance of the FSS.
Autors: Xian-Jun Sheng;Jing-Jing Fan;Ning Liu;Chun-Bo Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 915 - 917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Minimized 2-D Left-Handed Material Spiral Unit Cell With Rotation Symmetry for Midrange Wireless Power Transfer
Abstract:
This letter presents a technique for designing left-handed material (LHM) unit cell, and a minimized 2-D low-loss LHM square spiral unit cell () with rotation symmetry is developed in the frequency band 13.56–14 MHz. Two LHM slabs with unit cell array are added to the transmission and receiving antennas, respectively, and the power transfer efficiency has increased greatly.
Autors: Hui-Fen Huang;Ting Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 882 - 884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mobility Model for Random Discrete Dopants and Application to the Current Drivability of DRAM Cell
Abstract:
A new impurity mobility model suitable for the TCAD simulation of the random discrete dopant (RDD) has been proposed. The proposed model has been applied to the DRAM cell transistor of the 20-nm technology generation. The RDD effect in the drain region of the cell transistor alone gives relative standard variation in the driving current of ~3%.
Autors: Hoin Yu;Daewon Kim;Sungman Rhee;Seongwook Choi;Young June Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4246 - 4251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Model Compensation-Prediction Scheme for Control of Micromanipulation Systems With a Single Feedback Loop
Abstract:
Many micromanipulation systems employ sensorless actuators and possess unknown modeling errors, feedback measurement noises, and time delays. Conventional model-based control schemes ignore some of these uncertainties, and thus sacrifice the control system performance. This paper presents a new model compensation-prediction scheme for micromanipulation systems that can be described by two-dimensional state-space models, estimate the unknown modeling errors from noisy single feedback measurement, and predict and compensate the system time delay. This approach combines two modeling errors into a single equivalent modeling error through mathematical transformation, and estimates the combined term using a noise-insensitive extended high-gain observer. After removing the unknown term, the system is then transformed into a time-invariant form, and a Smith predictor is implemented to predict and compensate the time delay. The effectiveness of the proposed compensation-prediction scheme is demonstrated by both numerical simulations and experiments on two typical micromanipulation systems, namely a robotic biosample stimulator and a material characterization microgripper. The results show that this method can significantly improve the control performance of a conventional proportional-integral-derivative controller, by simultaneously reducing the settling time and overshoot of the micromanipulation systems.
Autors: Weize Zhang;Juntian Qu;Xuping Zhang;Xinyu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 1973 - 1982
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Model for Designing Ultralow Noise Single- and Dual-Loop 10-GHz Optoelectronic Oscillators
Abstract:
A complete model describing both single- and dual-loop optoelectronic oscillators (OEO) is introduced. It is compared to several experimental configurations, with excellent agreement in all cases. The physical insight into noise coupling mechanisms brought by the model further allows us for the design of ultralow noise OEO. Phase noise performances at 10 GHz with a single 1 km delay line and with a dual 1 km/100 m delay lines are reported. An optimized dual loop configuration exhibits low phase noise floor at high offset frequency (–160 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz) and low spur levels (–145 dBc/Hz), here again in close agreement with our model.
Autors: Oriane Lelièvre;Vincent Crozatier;Perrine Berger;Ghaya Baili;Olivier Llopis;Daniel Dolfi;Pascale Nouchi;Fabienne Goldfarb;Fabien Bretenaker;Loïc Morvan;Grégoire Pillet;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4366 - 4374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Model-Based Predictive Direct Power Control for Traction Line-Side Converter in High-Speed Railway
Abstract:
With the rapid development of China high-speed railway, the low frequency oscillation (LFO) of electrical quantities appears more often recently and leads to some severe problems of train operation. To improve the traction line-side converter control and suppress the phenomenon economically and effectively, a model-based predictive direct power control (MPDPC) approach is proposed in this paper. The approach adopts a discrete-time model of traction line-side converter in d–q reference frame to predict the future values of the input active and reactive power. The optimal switching state is selected by minimizing a cost function of power to evaluate the power errors at the next sampling time. Through the theoretical analysis and simulations, the performance of MPDPC is compared with traditional transient direct current control (TDCC) that is widely adopted in China Railway High-Speed 3 electric-multiple-unit. The real-time online simulations based on Real-Time Laboratory (RT-LAB) are also realized to further validate the results. Moreover, two vehicle-grid cascade simulation systems are constructed, and the LFO suppressing capability of MPDPC and TDCC is compared. Finally, the steady-state characteristic, dynamic characteristic, and LFO suppressing capability of MPDPC are demonstrated through the analysis of key performance indexes.
Autors: Zhigang Liu;Chuan Xiang;Yaqi Wang;Yicheng Liao;Guinan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4934 - 4943
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified T-Structured Three-Level Inverter Configuration Optimized With Respect to PWM Strategy Used for Common-Mode Voltage Elimination
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimized topology for a three-level inverter with complete elimination of common-mode voltage (CMV). The proposed multilevel inverter (MLI) configuration is realized by modifying a T-structure inverter. The proposed configuration is an optimized solution with respect to the pulse-width modulation strategy used for CMV elimination. The given three-level inverter structure uses only 16 power semiconductor switches, which is much lower than the existing configurations. A reduced number of power semiconductor devices results in a diminished number of driver circuits, less installation space, and low cost. Further, due to the complete elimination of CMV, the proposed MLI is free from issues such as electromagnetic interference and leakage current with a reduction in filter requirement. The presented topology is also compared with other existing topologies to prove its advantage. It is an optimized solution with respect to the dc bus voltage requirement and the total voltage rating of the devices or the components used in the system. Simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the capability of the proposed MLI.
Autors: Arpan Hota;Sachin Jain;Vivek Agarwal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4779 - 4787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modularization Method for Battery Equalizers Using Multiwinding Transformers
Abstract:
This paper proposes a modularized global architecture using multi-winding transformers for battery cell balancing. The global balancing for a series-connected battery string is achieved based on forward conversion in each battery module and based on flyback conversion among modules. The demagnetization of the multiwinding transformers is also simultaneously achieved by the flyback conversion among modules without the need of additional demagnetizing circuits. Moreover, all MOSFET switches are driven by two complementary pulse width modulation signals without the requirement of cell voltage sensors, and energy can be automatically and simultaneously delivered from any high voltage cells to any low voltage cells. Compared with existing equalizers requiring additional balancing circuits for battery modules, the proposed modularized equalizer shares one circuit for the balancing among cells and modules. The balancing performance of the proposed equalizer is perfectly verified through experimental results, and the maximum balancing efficiency is up to 91.3%. In summary, the proposed modularized equalizer has the advantages of easier modularization, simpler control, higher efficiency, smaller size, and lower cost, ensuring the battery system higher reliability and easier implementation.
Autors: Yunlong Shang;Bing Xia;Chenghui Zhang;Naxin Cui;Jufeng Yang;Chris Mi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8710 - 8722
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multigigabit per Second Integrated Multiple-Input Multiple-Output VLC Demonstrator
Abstract:
In this paper, we report the performance of an imaging multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) system. The VLC transmitter consists of a two-dimensional (2-D), individually addressable Gallium Nitride micro light-emitting diode (μLED) array. The receiver uses a 2-D avalanche photodiode array fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Using integrated CMOS-based LED drivers, a data rate greater than 1 Gb/s was obtained at a link distance of 1 m with the system field of view of 3.45° using four channels. At a reduced link distance of 0.5 m, a data rate of 7.48 Gb/s was obtained using a nine channel MIMO system. This demonstrates the feasibility of compact MIMO systems that offer substantial data rates.
Autors: Sujan Rajbhandari;Aravind V. N. Jalajakumari;Hyunchae Chun;Grahame Faulkner;Katherine Cameron;Robert Henderson;Dobroslav Tsonev;Harald Haas;Enyuan Xie;Jonathan J. D. McKendry;Johannes Herrnsdorf;Ricardo Ferreira;Erdan Gu;Martin D. Dawson;Dominic O&#x
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4358 - 4365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multilevel Artificial Neural Network Nonlinear Equalizer for Millimeter-Wave Mobile Fronthaul Systems
Abstract:
We propose and validate a complex-valued multilevel artificial neural network nonlinear equalizer (ANN-NLE) for single-carrier 16QAM and 64QAM signals transmissions in the 60-GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission system. First, we analyze the nonlinearities in the fiber-wireless channels. Then, we introduce the principles of the multilevel ANN-NLE proposed for the millimeter-wave RoF systems. From the analysis of nonlinearities in a single-carrier optical transmission channel, it is essential to design a complex-valued ANN-NLE to mitigate the cross-modulation (XM) effects between the in-phase (I) and quadrature-phase (Q) components. Finally, we report on single-carrier signaling at 16QAM and 64QAM on 60 GHz, demonstrating the ability of the proposed ANN-NLE approach to minimize the nonlinear compression in an RoF system. As an added benefit, the complex-valued ANN-NLE has a great tolerance to phase rotations. The convergence time, activation function, step size, and number of taps are discussed in Section IV.
Autors: Siming Liu;Mu Xu;Jing Wang;Feng Lu;Weiheng Zhang;Huiping Tian;Gee-Kung Chang;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:20, pages: 4406 - 4417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multilevel Inverter Structure Based on a Combination of Switched-Capacitors and DC Sources
Abstract:
This paper presents a switched-capacitor multilevel inverter (SCMLI) combined with multiple asymmetric dc sources. The main advantage of proposed inverter with similar cascaded MLIs is reducing the number of isolated dc sources and replacing them with capacitors. A self-balanced asymmetrical charging pattern is introduced in order to boost the voltage and create more voltage levels. Number of circuit components such as active switches, diodes, capacitors, drivers, and dc sources reduces in proposed structure. This multistage hybrid MLI increases the total voltage of used dc sources by multiple charging of the capacitors stage by stage. A bipolar output voltage can be inherently achieved in this structure without using single phase H-bridge inverter that was used in traditional SCMLIs to generate negative voltage levels. This eliminates requirements of high-voltage rating elements to achieve negative voltage levels. A 55-level step-up output voltage (27 positive levels, a zero level, and 27 negative levels) are achieved by a three-stage system that uses only three asymmetrical dc sources (with amplitude of 1 Vin, 2 V in, and 3 Vin) and seven capacitors (self-balanced as multiples of 1 Vin). MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results and experimental tests are given to validate the performance of proposed circuit.
Autors: Amir Taghvaie;Jafar Adabi;Mohammad Rezanejad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 2162 - 2171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Having Independent TE and TM Modes in an Anisotropic Waveguide
Abstract:
In a metallic waveguide filled with a lossless anisotropic medium, do independent transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes exist? If so, under what conditions? This is a fundamental problem in the electromagnetic waveguide theory, but so far no definitive answers have been published in existing references. This paper proposes a sufficient and necessary condition for this theoretic electromagnetic waveguide problem based on both classic waveguide theory in electromagnetics and basic knowledge in mathematics. Moreover, we prove that for the independent TE modes, the propagation constants obtained from both the longitudinal scalar magnetic field simulation and the transverse vector electric field simulation are the same, and for the independent TM modes, the propagation constants obtained from both the longitudinal scalar electric field simulation and the transverse vector magnetic field simulation are the same. Finally, we validate the correctness of this sufficient and necessary condition by several numerical experiments based on the finite-element method. Therefore, this is a new theoretical result in the electromagnetic waveguide theory, and is expected to be valuable for the design of waveguides filled with anisotropic media.
Autors: Wei Jiang;Jie Liu;Tian Xia;Na Liu;Qing Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 3660 - 3670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Neuromorphic Chip Optimized for Deep Learning and CMOS Technology With Time-Domain Analog and Digital Mixed-Signal Processing
Abstract:
Demand for highly energy-efficient coprocessor for the inference computation of deep neural networks is increasing. We propose the time-domain neural network (TDNN), which employs time-domain analog and digital mixed-signal processing (TDAMS) that uses delay time as the analog signal. TDNN not only exploits energy-efficient analog computing, but also enables fully spatially unrolled architecture by the hardware-efficient feature of TDAMS. The proposed fully spatially unrolled architecture reduces energy-hungry data moving for weight and activations, thus contributing to significant improvement of energy efficiency. We also propose useful training techniques that mitigate the non-ideal effect of analog circuits, which enables to simplify the circuits and leads to maximizing the energy efficiency. The proof-of-concept chip shows unprecedentedly high energy efficiency of 48.2 TSop/s/W.
Autors: Daisuke Miyashita;Shouhei Kousai;Tomoya Suzuki;Jun Deguchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 52, issue:10, pages: 2679 - 2689
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach to Solve the Constrained OWA Aggregation Problem
Abstract:
Constrained ordered weighted averaging (OWA) aggregation attempts to optimize the OWA aggregation problem with multiple constraints. It is inherently nonlinear, and Yager presented a novel method to transform the nonlinear problem to a mixed integer linear problem. Later, a simple algorithm for exact computation of optimal solutions to a single constrained OWA aggregation problem was presented. In this paper, we deal with the same problem, but in completely different ways in a sense that it is linearized by utilizing the reordering property of the OWA operators. We attempt to solve the linear programming problem via the extreme points in lieu of using a linear programming package for the purpose of deriving an explicit formula for the optimal solution. Furthermore, we consider its dual problem that leads to an equivalent optimal solution. Finally, the proposed method is extended to the OWA optimization problem with multiple constraints including the attitudinal character as well as a range of incomplete arguments.
Autors: Byeong Seok Ahn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1231 - 1238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New CMTF Evaluation Model for Dynamic Target in Photoelectric Imaging System
Abstract:
To evaluate the reliability of photoelectric imaging system, it is essential to research the influences of the illumination contrast and the modulation transfer functions (MTF) to the system imaging capability. This paper deduces a new illumination contrast model based on the optical geometry structure and the optical reflection characteristics of dynamic target; according to the photoelectric imaging principle, defines the system’s MTF by the form of some imaging links, including the optical characteristics, the CCD detector, and the atmospheric characteristics; establishes a new contrast modulation transfer functions (CMTF) mathematical model based on the analysis of the illumination contrast and MTF; obtains the expression of magnitude to evaluate the effects of some key factors to imaging capability. Through the calculation and analysis, under various conditions, with the increasing of target reflectivity, relative aperture, atmospheric coherence length, and optical transmittance, the system imaging capability shows a general trend of rising; with the increasing of background radiation illumination, target distance, standard deviation, and the system imaging capability shows attenuation trend; the results show that different factors have a great impact on the imaging capability, which proves the suitability of CMTF model for evaluating the performance photoelectric system.
Autors: Hanshan Li;Sangsang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 17, issue:20, pages: 6571 - 6577
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Framework for Quality Assessment of High-Resolution Fingerprint Images
Abstract:
The quality assessment of sets of features extracted from patterns of epidermal ridges on our fingers is a biometric challenge problem with implications on questions concerning security, privacy and identity fraud. In this work, we introduced a new methodology to analyze the quality of high-resolution fingerprint images containing sets of fingerprint pores. Our approach takes into account the spatial interrelationship between the considered features and some basic transformations involving point process and anisotropic analysis. We proposed two new quality index algorithms following spatial and structural classes of analysis. These algorithms have proved to be effective as a performance predictor and as a filter excluding low-quality features in a recognition process. The experiments using error reject curves show that the proposed approaches outperform the state-of-the-art quality assessment algorithm for high-resolution fingerprint recognition, besides defining a new method for reconstructing their friction ridge phases in a very consistent way.
Autors: Raoni F. S. Teixeira;Neucimar J. Leite;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 39, issue:10, pages: 1905 - 1917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Method for Automatic Sleep Stage Classification
Abstract:
Traditionally, automatic sleep stage classification is quite a challenging task because of the difficulty in translating open-textured standards to mathematical models and the limitations of handcrafted features. In this paper, a new system for automatic sleep stage classification is presented. Compared with existing sleep stage methods, our method can capture the sleep information hidden inside electroencephalography (EEG) signals and automatically extract features from raw data. To translate open sleep stage standards into machine rules recognized by computers, a new model named fast discriminative complex-valued convolutional neural network (FDCCNN) is proposed to extract features from raw EEG data and classify sleep stages. The new model combines complex-valued backpropagation and the Fisher criterion. It can learn discriminative features and overcome the negative effect of imbalance dataset. More importantly, the orthogonal decision boundaries for the real and imaginary parts of a complex-valued convolutional neuron are proven. A speed-up algorithm is proposed to reduce computational workload and yield improvements of over an order of magnitude compared to the normal convolution algorithm. The classification performances of handcrafted features and different convolutional neural networks are compared with that of the FDCCNN. The total accuracy and kappa coefficient of the proposed method are 92% and 0.84, respectively. Experiment results demonstrated that the performance of our system is comparable to those of human experts.
Autors: Junming Zhang;Yan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1097 - 1110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Outlier-Robust Student's t Based Gaussian Approximate Filter for Cooperative Localization
Abstract:
In this paper, a new outlier-robust Student's t based Gaussian approximate filter is proposed to address the heavy-tailed process and measurement noises induced by the outlier measurements of velocity and range in cooperative localization of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The state vector, scale matrices, and degrees of freedom (DOF) parameters are jointly estimated based on the variational Bayesian approach by using the constructed Student's t based hierarchical Gaussian state-space model. The performances of the proposed filter and existing filters are tested in the cooperative localization of an AUV through a lake trial. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed filter has better localization accuracy and robustness than existing state-of-the-art outlier-robust filters.
Autors: Yulong Huang;Yonggang Zhang;Bo Xu;Zhemin Wu;Jonathon Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 2380 - 2386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Small-Signal Parameter Extraction Technique for Large Gate-Periphery GaN HEMTs
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a method to extract the small-signal equivalent circuit model for GaN HEMTs using extrinsic-level RF broadband (0.5–50 GHz) Z-parameters. The measured Z-parameters of large gate-periphery GaN devices exhibit certain interesting characteristics, due to their inherently larger intrinsic capacitances and their subsequent interaction with the extrinsic inductances. We exploit these characteristics to simultaneously extract the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic small-signal model components and successfully validate it with measured S-parameter data for a GaN device.
Autors: Sheikh Aamir Ahsan;Ahtisham-ul-Haq Pampori;Sudip Ghosh;Sourabh Khandelwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 918 - 920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Three-Dimensional Sliding Mode Guidance Law Variation With Finite Time Convergence
Abstract:
This paper develops a new three-dimensional (3-D) guidance law which guarantees the interception of manoeuvring targets in a finite time. The new guidance law accepts the concept that nullifying the line-of-sight rate guarantees the interception of the target and its derivation is based on finite time sliding mode guidance. By using a 3-D kinematic equation set constructed in a rotating coordinate system, the proposed guidance law alleviates an issue of general 3-D guidance caused by the cross coupling effect between pitch and yaw planes. In theoretical analysis, finite time convergence of the new guidance law is proved and compared with that of a practical sliding mode guidance law. Characteristics such as energy consumption and convergence boundary layer are also theoretically analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate that the new guidance law effectively intercepts manoeuvring targets in a finite time and analysis results are valid.
Autors: Hyo-Sang Shin;Antonios Tsourdos;Ke-Bo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 2221 - 2232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New View of Multi-User Hybrid Massive MIMO: Non-Orthogonal Angle Division Multiple Access
Abstract:
This paper presents a new view of multi-user (MU) hybrid massive multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) systems from array signal processing perspective. We first show that the instantaneous channel vectors corresponding to different users are asymptotically orthogonal if the angles of arrival of users are different. We then decompose the channel matrix into an angle domain basis matrix and a gain matrix. The former can be formulated by steering vectors and the latter has the same size as the number of RF chains, which perfectly matches the structure of hybrid precoding. A novel hybrid channel estimation is proposed by separately estimating the angle information and the gain matrix, which could significantly save the training overhead and substantially improve the channel estimation accuracy compared with the conventional beamspace approach. Moreover, with the aid of the angle domain matrix, the MU massive MIMO system can be viewed as a type of non-orthogonal angle division multiple access to simultaneously serve multiple users at the same frequency band. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is validated by computer simulation results.
Autors: Hai Lin;Feifei Gao;Shi Jin;Geoffrey Ye Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2268 - 2280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Way for a New Generation [Editorial]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Cristian Quintero;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A new web-based method for automatic selection of articles for systematic literature reviews
Abstract:
A systematic review about a particular subject provides the basis of knowledge for supporting a research. The increase of scientific information available and the easy access to such information in electronic databases have contributed to the rise of systematic review studies. However, one of the problems that arise with traditional research methods is the difficulty of reading all available articles. Thus, some items must be selected according to predefined selection rules. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of a systematic review is directly related to the relevance of the scientific papers selected according to the purpose of the particular study, among others factors. Therefore, there are several indicators that can be used to prioritize the articles that will set the articles portfolio of the review. The objective of this article is to introduce a method and a web system, implemented in R package, designed to apply automated filters to help in the selection of articles for systematic reviews. We propose two filters in the discussed method: the journal impact factor and the number of citations of the articles. The latter was analyzed by using Pareto rule. In the portfolio creation process, articles are first selected from a query performed in the electronic databases Scopus and Web of Science. Then, the proposed method can be automatically applied using the web system introduced here.
Autors: Renata Pelissari;Kleber Manoel Infante;Maria Celia Oliveira;Andre Luis Helleno;Alvaro Jose Abackerli;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 1926 - 1932
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Noise-Power-Area Optimized Biosensing Front End for Wireless Body Sensor Nodes and Medical Implantable Devices
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a noise, power, and area efficient biosensing front-end application specified integrated circuit (ASIC) for the next-generation wireless body sensor nodes and implantable devices. We identify the key design parameter tradeoffs in the biomedical recording systems and carry out a thorough analysis and optimization to maximize them. Based on our analysis and optimization of the front end, we propose a design methodology for the recording channel that is applicable to various biomedical applications. The ASIC is implemented in a 0.18- CMOS process to validate our optimization methodology. The ASIC is reconfigurable to accommodate various biopotentials with the high-pass and low-pass cutoff frequencies being 0.5–300 Hz and 150 Hz–10 kHz, respectively. The low-pass cutoff is provided by an ultralow power - low-pass filter, which also acts as an antialiasing filter for the switching-optimized 10-b successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The analog front end (AFE) gain is also programmable from 38 to 72 dB. A comprehensive power management unit provides the power supply, multiple reference voltages, and bias currents to the entire chip. The AFE and ADC dissipate only and 306 nW from the on-chip regulators, respectively. The measured input-referred noise is , resulting in the noise efficiency factor and power efficiency factor equals 2.6 and 9.46, respectively. The active area of the AFE is 0.0228 mm2. We verify the chip - unctionality in a number of in vivo and ex vivo biological experiments.
Autors: Hansraj Bhamra;John Lynch;Matthew Ward;Pedro Irazoqui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 2917 - 2928
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Subpixel Land-Cover Change Detection Based on a Supervised Back-Propagation Neural Network for Remotely Sensed Images With Different Resolutions
Abstract:
Extracting subpixel land-cover change detection (SLCCD) information is important when multitemporal remotely sensed images with different resolutions are available. The general steps are as follows. First, soft classification is applied to a low-resolution (LR) image to generate the proportion of each class. Second, the proportion differences are produced by the use of another high-resolution (HR) image and used as the input of subpixel mapping. Finally, a subpixel sharpened difference map can be generated. However, the prior HR land-cover map is only used to compare with the enhanced map of LR image for change detection, which leads to a nonideal SLCCD result. In this letter, we present a new approach based on a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) with a HR map (BPNN_HRM), in which a supervised model is introduced into SLCCD for the first time. The known information of the HR land-cover map is adequately employed to train the BPNN, whether it predates or postdates the LR image, so that a subpixel change detection map can be effectively generated. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, it was compared with four state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results confirm that the BPNN_HRM method outperforms the other traditional methods in providing a more detailed map for change detection.
Autors: Ke Wu;Yanfei Zhong;Xianmin Wang;Weiwei Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1750 - 1754
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approximation for K Distribution: Closed-Form BER Using DPSK Modulation in Free-Space Optical Communication
Abstract:
A new analytical approximate expression for K distribution is proposed by expanding it in terms of orthogonal associated Laguerre polynomial. The expansion is truncated after first three terms, which yields a fairly close approximation to K distribution. The advantage of the proposed approximation is that the analytical closed form expression for bit error rate can be easily derived. KL measure is used to show the accuracy of the proposed approximation. The proposed approximate probability density function and bit error rate work well within the desired range of the channel parameter , which is and corresponds to the scintillation index value ranging from 2 to 3. We have also demonstrated the utility of our approximation for other quality of service metric such as fade probability.
Autors: Rajeev Kumar Singh; Karmeshu;Santosh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel CH5 Inverter for Single-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic System Applications
Abstract:
Versatile single-phase voltage source inverters with unipolar voltage pulse and leakage current elimination capability have been extensively investigated for transformerless PV systems in the literature. However, the innovative current source inverters with leakage current elimination capability are not well explored. In this brief, a novel single-phase current source H5 (CH5) inverter is proposed. Only one extra IGBT is needed, but the leakage current can be significantly suppressed with a novel space vector modulation. Finally, the experimental tests are carried out on a single-phase CH5 inverter and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology and space vector modulation.
Autors: Xiaoqiang Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 1197 - 1201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fabrication Technique for MEMS Based on Agglomeration of Powder by ALD
Abstract:
This paper describes a novel fabrication technique for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based on the agglomeration of micron-sized powder into rigid 3-D porous structures by means of atomic layer deposition (ALD). Since ALD is performed at low temperatures, such structures can be created from a broad variety of materials. It is shown that the compatibility of substrates with embedded porous structures to common back-end-of-line environment can be regained, and post-processed by applying standard processes of MEMS and integrated circuit technology is possible. In such a way, for the first time, nearly any material can be integrated onto silicon substrates in a simple and generic way. Moreover, not only a particular porosity or internal surface can be targeted. The bulk properties of the structure can be tailored as well, which opens up unique prospects for the future of MEMS.
Autors: T. Lisec;T. Reimer;M. Knez;S. Chemnitz;A. V. Schulz-Walsemann;A. Kulkarni;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 26, issue:5, pages: 1093 - 1098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel High Bandwidth Current Control Strategy for SiC mosfet Based Active Front-End Rectifiers Under Unbalanced Input Voltage Conditions
Abstract:
SiC mosfet based converters are capable of high switching frequency operation. In this paper, the converter is operated with 50-kHz switching frequency for an active front-end rectifier application. Due to high switching frequency, the grid-side filter size is reduced, and the possibility of a high bandwidth current control loop is utilized in this paper. A current control loop with bandwidth of 5 kHz is designed using a proportional-integral controller in synchronously rotating dq-reference frame. In addition, the performance of the controller is tested under unbalanced input supply conditions. During this condition, new feed-forward signals, which are added to the controller output, are proposed. The gain of the feed-forward signal can be modified to achieve balanced sinusoidal grid currents, constant dc-link voltage, or a controlled negative-sequence input current, which are typical application-depending requirements. A closed-form formula to calculate the gain of the feed-forward signal to achieve the above-mentioned requirements is also proposed in this paper. To verify the proposed method, the simulation and experimental results are presented in this paper.
Autors: Ramkrishan Maheshwari;Ionut Trintis;Lajos Török;Stig Munk-Nielsen;Philip James Douglass;Lorand Bede;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 8310 - 8320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hybrid Five-Level Voltage-Source Converter Based on T-Type Topology for High-Efficiency Applications
Abstract:
A novel hybrid five-level voltage-source converter for high-efficiency applications is investigated in this paper. Compared with traditional multilevel converters, this hybrid multilevel converter generates desired staircase voltage levels with a reduced number of power devices and isolated drivers at higher voltage levels. It has redundant switching state combinations in hybrid multilevel converter, which makes it easy to balance flying capacitor voltages and realize fault-tolerant operation. A voltage-balancing control strategy based on switching state redundancies is presented for the hybrid multilevel converter to generate desired levels and also keep voltage balance of flying capacitors at the same time. The performance of the hybrid multilevel converter under various operating conditions is investigated in MATLAB/Simulink. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid multilevel converter is validated by experiment results.
Autors: Shuai Xu;Jianzhong Zhang;Xing Hu;Yongjiang Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 4730 - 4743
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hybrid Islanding Detection Method for Inverter-Based DGs Using SFS and ROCOF
Abstract:
This paper is aimed at proposing a new hybrid method for the islanding detection of distributed-generation (DG) units. Hybrid method operation is based on the combination of an active and a passive method, for which the optimized Sandia frequency shift (SFS) method is used as the selected active method, and rate of change of frequency relay (ROCOF) is used as the passive method. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique on islanding detection, several simulation studies based on IEEE 1547 and UL1741 anti-islanding test requirements are carried out. The evaluation of simulation results reveals that the control system, based on the proposed hybrid algorithm, meets the DG islanding protection requirements efficiently. Moreover, it will be demonstrated that the proposed hybrid method is capable of accurately operating under multiple DG units, load switching in the grid-connected mode, as well as different load quality factor conditions.
Autors: Mahdiyeh Khodaparastan;Hesan Vahedi;Farid Khazaeli;Hashem Oraee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 2162 - 2170
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hybrid Kinect-Variety-Based High-Quality Multiview Rendering Scheme for Glass-Free 3D Displays
Abstract:
This paper presents a new hybrid Kinect-variety-based synthesis scheme that renders artifact-free multiple views for autostereoscopic/automultiscopic displays. The proposed approach does not explicitly require dense scene depth information for synthesizing novel views from arbitrary viewpoints. Instead, the integrated framework first constructs a consistent minimal image–space parameterization of the underlying 3D scene. The compact representation of scene structure is formed using only implicit sparse depth information of a few reference scene points extracted from raw RGB depth data. The views from arbitrary positions can be inferred by moving the novel camera in parameterized space by enforcing Euclidean constraints on reference scene images under a full-perspective projection model. Unlike the state-of-the-art depth image-based rendering (DIBR) methods, in which input depth map accuracy is crucial for high-quality output, our proposed algorithm does not depend on precise per-pixel geometry information. Therefore, it simply sidesteps to recover and refine the incomplete or noisy depth estimates with advanced filling or upscaling techniques. Our approach performs fairly well in unconstrained indoor/outdoor environments, where the performance of range sensors or dense depth-based algorithms could be seriously affected due to scene complex geometric conditions. We demonstrate that the proposed hybrid scheme provides guarantees on the completeness, optimality with respect to the inter-view consistency of the algorithm. In the experimental validation, we performed a quantitative evaluation as well as subjective assessment of the scene with complex geometric or surface properties. A comparison with the latest representative DIBR methods is additionally performed to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Mansi Sharma;Santanu Chaudhury;Brejesh Lall;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2098 - 2117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Intracranial Pressure Readout Circuit for Passive Wireless LC Sensor
Abstract:
We present a wide frequency range, low cost, wireless intracranial pressure monitoring system, which includes an implantable passive sensor and an external reader. The passive sensor consists of two spiral coils and transduces the pressure change to a resonant frequency shift. The external portable reader reads out the sensor's resonant frequency over a wide frequency range (35 MHz–2.7 GHz). We propose a novel circuit topology, which tracks the system's impedance and phase change at a high frequency with low-cost components. This circuit is very simple and reliable. A prototype has been developed, and measurement results demonstrate that the device achieves a suitable measurement distance (>2 cm), sufficient sample frequency (>6 Hz), fine resolution, and good measurement accuracy for medical practice. Responsivity of this prototype is 0.92 MHz/mmHg and resolution is 0.028 mmHg. COMSOL specific absorption rate simulation proves that this system is safe. Considerations to improve the device performance have been discussed, which include the size of antenna, the power radiation, the Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) choice, and the signal processing algorithm.
Autors: Fa Wang;Xuan Zhang;Mehdi Shokoueinejad;Bermans J. Iskandar;Joshua E. Medow;John G. Webster;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1123 - 1132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Ionospheric Sounding Radar Based on USRP
Abstract:
Ionospheric sounding is a technique that provides real-time data on high-frequency ionospheric-dependent radio propagation. This letter presents a Universal Software Radio Peripheral-based ionospheric sounding radar, which relies on a basic system consisting of a synchronized transmitter and receiver. The radar has the advantages of miniaturization, modularization, low power, and low cost. The three most significant features of the radar system are that it is software-defined and universal platform-based and that it has low transmitting power. This novel software-defined vertical-incidence radar system can probe the ionosphere and obtain real-time plasma parameters according to the simulation. Ionograms that directly express probe results are generated by MATLAB after data processing and simulation. Successful development of such an ionospheric sounding software radar will allow universalization and miniaturization of an ionosonde radar system. This letter introduces the implementation of the novel ionospheric sounding radar.
Autors: Ziyang Zhao;Ming Yao;Xiaohua Deng;Kai Yuan;Huixia Li;Zheng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1800 - 1804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method for Calculating the Radiated Disturbance From Pantograph Arcing in High-Speed Railway
Abstract:
Pantograph arcing is a key electromagnetic disturbance source to affect train control system in high-speed railway. Since the characteristics of pantograph arcing are related to train speed, it is necessary to investigate effective numerical modeling and measurement method. However, due to the uncontrollable train speed during onsite measurement, it is difficult to study the radiated disturbance from arcing in the corresponding speed and repeat the same measurement. Therefore, a method that combines numerical modeling and reverberation chamber measurements for calculating the radiated disturbance from pantograph arcing in a high-speed railway is proposed. Numerical models of train and sensitive equipment are built to calculate the coupling coefficient in CONCEPT II. And a new measurement procedure in reverberation chamber using pulse signal as the reference source is proposed based on a speed-controllable laboratory replica to measure the total radiated power of pantograph arcing. Then, the radiated disturbance from pantograph arcing to the sensitive equipment is achieved with the coupling coefficient and the total radiated power of arcing. The method is verified by laboratory experiments. This method can solve the uncontrollable train speed problem during on-site measurement and improve the repeatability of measurement.
Autors: Lan Ma;Yinghong Wen;Andy Marvin;Eva Karadimou;Rob Armstrong;Hefei Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 66, issue:10, pages: 8734 - 8745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Methodology to Label Urban Remote Sensing Images Based on Location-Based Social Media Photos
Abstract:
With the rapid development of the internet and popularization of intelligent mobile devices, social media is evolving fast and contains rich spatial information, such as geolocated posts, tweets, photos, video, and audio. Those location-based social media data have offered new opportunities for hazards and disaster identification or tracking, recommendations for locations, friends or tags, pay-per-click advertising, etc. Meanwhile, a massive amount of remote sensing (RS) data can be easily acquired in both high temporal and spatial resolution with a multiple satellite system, if RS maps can be provided, to possibly enable the monitoring of our location-based living environments with some devices like charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras but on a much larger scale. To generate the classification maps, usually, labeled RS image pixels should be provided by RS experts to train a classification system. Traditionally, labeled samples are obtained according to ground surveys, image photo interpretation or a combination of the aforementioned strategies. All the strategies should be taken care of by domain experts, in a means which is costly, time consuming, and sometimes of a low quality due to reasons such as photo interpretation based on RS images only. These practices and constraints make it more challenging to classify land-cover RS images using big RS data. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to classify urban RS images by exploiting the semantics of location-based social media photos (SMPs). To validate the effectiveness of this methodology, an automatic classification system is developed based on RS images as well as SMPs via big data analysis techniques including active learning, crowdsourcing, shallow machine learning, and deep learning. As the labels of RS training data are given by ordinary people with a crowdsourcing technique, the developed system is named Crowd4RS. The quantitative and qualitative experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed- Crowd4RS system as well as the proposed methodology for automatically generating RS image maps in terms of classification results based on big RS data made up of multispectral RS images in a high spatial resolution and a large amount of photos from social media sites, such as Flickr and Panoramio.
Autors: Mingmin Chi;Zhongyi Sun;Yiqing Qin;Jinsheng Shen;Jón Atli Benediktsson;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 105, issue:10, pages: 1926 - 1936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Model for Direction Finding and Phase Center With Practical Considerations
Abstract:
The data model for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is revisited and studied with more attention to the practical implementation of the antenna arrays and verified through measurement results. A complete data model for a single-channel direction finding system that includes, for the first time, the effects of the switching mechanism among antennas is presented. In order to combat coupling among antenna elements and the radio frequency switch nonidealities, a comprehensive model is developed, which includes more accurate noise modeling. The effect of the phase center (PC) in DOA estimation is then discussed and an improved data model is presented, which includes the antenna’s PC movement. The Cramer–Rao bound for circular arrays including the newly introduced parameter for the PC is derived. The new model shows significant improvement in the estimation accuracy.
Autors: Evangelos Kornaros;Saman Kabiri;Franco De Flaviis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 5475 - 5491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Nanoparticle Mediated Selective Inner Retinal Photocoagulation for Diseases of the Inner Retina
Abstract:
A novel nanoparticle mediated methodology for laser photocoagulation of the inner retina to achieve tissue selective treatment is presented. Methods: Transport of 527, 577, and 810 nm laser, heat deposition, and eventual thermal damage in vitreous, retina, RPE, choroid, and sclera were modeled using Bouguer–Beer–Lambert law of absorption and solved numerically using the finite volume method. Nanoparticles were designed using Mie theory of scattering. Performance of the new photocoagulation strategy using gold nanospheres and gold–silica nanoshells was compared with that of conventional methods without nanoparticles. For experimental validation, vitreous cavity of ex vivo porcine eyes was infused with gold nanospheres. After ~6 h of nanoparticle diffusion, the porcine retina was irradiated with a green laser and imaged simultaneously using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (Spectralis SD-OCT, Heidelberg Engineering). Results: Our computational model predicted a significant spatial shift in the peak temperature from RPE to the inner retinal region when infused with nanoparticles. Arrhenius thermal damage in the mid-retinal location was achieved in ~14 ms for 527 nm laser thereby reducing the irradiation duration by ~30 ms compared with the treatment without nanoparticles. In ex vivo porcine eyes infused with gold nanospheres, SD-OCT retinal images revealed a lower thermal damage and expansion at RPE due to laser photocoagulation. Conclusion: Nanoparticle infused laser photocoagulation strategy provided a selective inner retinal thermal damage with significant decrease in laser power and laser exposure time. Significance: The proposed treatment strategy shows possibilities for an efficient and highly selective inner retinal laser treatment.
Autors: Rupesh Singh;Srinivas Rajaraman;Madhusudhanan Balasubramanian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 542 - 554
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Pneumatic Generator with Pressure-Feedback Mechanism for Self-Injection of Hydrogen Peroxide
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel pneumatic generator based on the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide for producing the pressurized gas for mobile robotic systems driven by pneumatic actuators, thus replacing portable air compressors driven by electric motors. By adopting a pressure-feedback mechanism, hydrogen peroxide is autonomously self-injected into the catalytic reactor without the use of additional injection mechanisms such as electric micropumps. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of pressure generation is illustrated by both an analytic model and experiments. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed system has a considerably higher power density than a battery and electrical motor system.
Autors: Yun-Pyo Hong;Kyung-Rok Kim;Kyung-Soo Kim;Soohyun Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 1992 - 2002
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Radio-Over-Fiber System Based on Carrier Suppressed Frequency Eightfold Millimeter Wave Generation
Abstract:
We propose a novel and simple scheme for photonic frequency eightfold millimeter wave (mm-wave) generation with optical carrier suppression based on only one single-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM). According to our theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration, by adopting designed direct current bias voltage of MZM and the amplitude voltage of the radio frequency (RF) drive signal, two fourth-order optical subcarriers are generated via a single-drive MZM. Furthermore, the corresponding optical central carrier and undesired sidebands are suppressed simultaneously. Based on our proposed scheme, the generation of 72-GHz optical mm-wave by an RF signal of 9 GHz without any optical filtering is experimentally demonstrated. The radio-over-fiber system with 3.5-Gb/s OOK downstream link based on this generated 72-GHz mm-wave is also experimentally demonstrated. As we know, it is the first time to realize frequency eightfold mm-wave signal generation with simultaneous carrier suppression by using only one single-drive MZM in experiment.
Autors: Huizhong Zhang;Lin Cai;Shuixian Xie;Kaiming Zhang;Xinxing Wu;Ze Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 

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