Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2016 sorted by title, page: 0

» "Let's Protest": Surprises in Communicating Against Repression
Abstract:
In Egypt in June 2010, a young man named Khaled Said was beaten to death by the secret police. In response, Google executive Wael Ghonim set up the Facebook page "We are all Khaled Said," and within a day, tens of thousands of people had joined. The Facebook page was used to publicize a series of protests against police brutality and government corruption, including a huge protest on 25 January 2011. As the resistance gathered momentum, Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak ordered Internet and mobile phone service be shut down.
Autors: Brian Martin;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 35, issue:5, pages: 16 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Cookie”: A Satellite Concept for GNSS Remote Sensing Constellations
Abstract:
This paper presents a concept, “Cookie,” for a satellite particularly suited for dense spatial sampling by future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) remote sensing constellations. Solely based on the reception of the direct and reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS, the satellite can provide observations of the Earth useful for a wide range of scientific and operational applications. The Cookie is capable of receiving direct and reflected signals, in both right- and left-hand circular polarizations, from any of the GNSS systems, and from virtually any arrival direction in both the upper and lower field-of-view hemispheres, i.e., providing nearly full 4π spherical coverage toward any navigation satellite not eclipsed by the Earth. The on-board remote sensing payload produces interferometric observables, e.g., the auto- and cross-correlation of several adequate combinations of the received signals. The interferometric processing is general, the same, and transparent, with respect to any of the signals transmitted by the current or planned GNSS systems. The instrument can implement any other suitable processing schemes too. Such payload can provide, in parallel, accurate GNSS Radio-Occultation (GNSS-RO) observations of the atmosphere and forward and backward GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R) measurements from the Earth surface. Several Cookies can be piled up inside the fairing of a rocket minimizing the launch cost of a constellation. A constellation of three Cookies has been simulated and its sampling performance characterized. The key concepts of the Cookie payload could be demonstrated through ESA's GNSS Reflectometry, Radio-Occultation, and Scatterometry experiment on board the International Space Station (GEROS-ISS).
Autors: Manuel Martín-Neira;Weiqiang Li;Ana Andrés-Beivide;Xabier Ballesteros-Sels;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 9, issue:10, pages: 4593 - 4610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-kW 2000–4500 r/min Ferrite PMSM Drive: Comprehensive Characterization and Two Sensorless Control Options
Abstract:
An optimal design of internal Ferrite permanent-magnet motor with embedded key finite-element method verification is presented with the scope to increase the efficiency of the small power motors without using expensive rare earth permanent magnets. Two internal flux concentration topologies are analyzed, and the geometric dimensions and performances are presented for three cases, all at 1-kW rated power at 4500 r/min rated speed. The 6/8 poles ferrite-spoke permanent-magnet synchronous motor prototype was built and test results prove an efficiency larger than 88% for a large load range. Two sensorless control methods based on active flux observer are presented, with the key simulation results including acceleration, speed reversal, loading, and unloading speed responses.
Autors: Flavio J. H. Kalluf;Andy S. Isfănuţi;Lucian N. Tutelea;Ana Moldovan-Popa;Ion Boldea;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 3980 - 3989
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 13th International Workshop on Finite Elements for Microwave Engineering [Meeting Reports]
Abstract:
Autors: Stefano Selleri;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 13 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Versus 3-D Cross-Correlation-Based Radial and Circumferential Strain Estimation Using Multiplane 2-D Ultrafast Ultrasound in a 3-D Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery Model
Abstract:
Three-dimensional (3-D) strain estimation might improve the detection and localization of high strain regions in the carotid artery (CA) for identification of vulnerable plaques. This paper compares 2-D versus 3-D displacement estimation in terms of radial and circumferential strain using simulated ultrasound (US) images of a patient-specific 3-D atherosclerotic CA model at the bifurcation embedded in surrounding tissue generated with ABAQUS software. Global longitudinal motion was superimposed to the model based on the literature data. A Philips L11-3 linear array transducer was simulated, which transmitted plane waves at three alternating angles at a pulse repetition rate of 10 kHz. Interframe (IF) radio-frequency US data were simulated in Field II for 191 equally spaced longitudinal positions of the internal CA. Accumulated radial and circumferential displacements were estimated using tracking of the IF displacements estimated by a two-step normalized cross-correlation method and displacement compounding. Least-squares strain estimation was performed to determine accumulated radial and circumferential strain. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D methods was compared by calculating the root-mean-squared error of the estimated strains with respect to the reference strains obtained from the model. More accurate strain images were obtained using the 3-D displacement estimation for the entire cardiac cycle. The 3-D technique clearly outperformed the 2-D technique in phases with high IF longitudinal motion. In fact, the large IF longitudinal motion rendered it impossible to accurately track the tissue and cumulate strains over the entire cardiac cycle with the 2-D technique.
Autors: Stein Fekkes;Abigail E. S. Swillens;Hendrik H. G. Hansen;Anne E. C. M. Saris;Maartje M. Nillesen;Francesco Iannaccone;Patrick Segers;Chris L. de Korte;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 1543 - 1553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Antenna and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting Awards Presentation [Awards]
Abstract:
Autors: Ronald Joseph Marhefka;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 15 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2016 MTT-S Region 8 Chapter Chair Meeting [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2016 MTT-S Region 8 Chapter Chair Meeting.
Autors: Jan Macháč;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 88 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2017 International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative Structures, and Applications. Special interests: Applications of Antennas in Medical Technologies
Abstract:
Autors: Stavros Koulouridis;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 131 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Analytical Model for Short-Channel Triple-Gate Junctionless MOSFETs
Abstract:
An analytical model for short-channel triple-gate junctionless MOSFETs in the full operation regimes has been presented based on the solution of 3-D Poisson’s equation. A separation approach is developed to solve 3-D Poisson’s equation, and the contribution of the fixed and mobile charges can be considered separately. Besides, a fitting parameter is introduced to characterize the coupling effect between the fixed and mobile charges. The proposed model considers the 3-D electrostatic effects, which play a significant role in the performance of scaled nonplanar devices. The electrostatic potential profile and dc current–voltage characteristics are in good agreement with Sentaurus numerical simulation results. In addition, short-channel effects and the transconductance-to-current ratio are well described by this model.
Autors: Zebang Guo;Jinyu Zhang;Zuochang Ye;Yan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 3857 - 3863
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Frequency Selective Rasorber: Concept, Analysis, and Design
Abstract:
This paper introduces the concept, theory, and design of 3-D frequency selective rasorbers (FSRs), which have a transmission window transparent to the incident electromagnetic wave with two absorption bands located at both sides of the window. The proposed rasorber consists of a 2-D periodic array of parallel waveguides. The transmission characteristics with high selectivity are produced by lossless resonators implemented using a parallel waveguide with a metallic post in the center. On the other hand, the absorption bands are obtained by lossy resonators constructed by loading of lumped resistors at the entry port of short-circuited waveguides. Physical mechanism of the proposed FSRs is explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit model, and relevant design equations are formulated. Two prototypes of the designed FSRs are fabricated and measured as a proof of concept. The experimental results show that a bandwidth of 50% for the insertion loss less than 3 dB and two absorption bands with a high absorptance of around 90% can be achieved. Moreover, the simulated results also show that the proposed structure exhibits stable performance against the variation of the incident angle of an incoming plane wave.
Autors: Zhongxiang Shen;Jiang Wang;Bo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 3087 - 3096
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Printed Variable Phase Shifter
Abstract:
This letter presents the first fully 3-D printed microwave variable phase shifter. The design methodology for a 3-D printable dielectric flap metal-pipe rectangular waveguide variable phase shifter is described. The ABS building material was independently characterized, revealing a dielectric constant of 2.34 and loss tangent of only 0.0015 at 10 GHz. The predicted and measured performance is given, demonstrating a maximum relative phase shift of 142° at 10 GHz, with a near uniform relative phase shift across the whole of X-band and a low variation in differential-phase group delay.
Autors: Brendan T. W. Gillatt;Mario D’Auria;William J. Otter;Nick M. Ridler;Stepan Lucyszyn;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 822 - 824
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Shape Matching of a Blade Surface in Robotic Grinding Applications
Abstract:
Robotic grinding is a promising technique to generate the final shape of blades. It can relieve human from participating in dirty and noisy environments, improve product quality, and lower production costs. One important task in robotic grinding is 3-D shape matching. However, existing matching methods do not consider the requirements associated with different grinding allowances, which can potentially lead to an unstable grinding force. This paper proposes a novel shape matching method for robotic grinding. The goal is to define a new objective function considering different allowance weights for stable grinding, and address incorrect shape matching from the missing points or uneven density points. The main contribution of this paper is the application of variance minimization to construct an objective function, from which the required shape matching parameters are iteratively calculated. This method balances the contributions of all the measured points, weighs the allowances for the pressure and suction surfaces of a blade, and avoids incorrect matching tendencies for high-density points. It is advantageous to maintaining a relatively stable grinding force. The effectiveness of this method is verified through simulations and scanning/grinding experiments of different blades.
Autors: Wen-long Li;He Xie;Gang Zhang;Si-jie Yan;Zhou-ping Yin;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 2294 - 2306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3.8-μm Mid-Infrared Laser Quasi-Synchronously Pumped by a MOPA Structured Picosecond Yb Fiber Amplifier With Multi-pulse Operation
Abstract:
A picosecond pulsed mid-infrared laser with multi-pulse operation is experimentally demonstrated. This mid-infrared laser was composed of a fiber laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The pump source of this OPO was a master oscillator power amplification-structured picosecond fiber amplifier with pulse bunch output, which was further used to quasi-synchronously pump a periodically poled magnesium-oxide doped lithium niobate crystal based OPO to obtain 3.8-μm wavelength output with picosecond multi-pulse operation. The pump-idler conversion efficiency, the signal spectrum, and the signal pulse bunch are presented, respectively.
Autors: Kaihua Wei;Xuefang Zhou;Xiaomin Lai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3Cat-2—An Experimental Nanosatellite for GNSS-R Earth Observation: Mission Concept and Analysis
Abstract:
Global navigation satellite system reflectometry is a multistatic radar using navigation signals as signals of opportunity. It provides wide-swath and improved spatiotemporal sampling over current space-borne missions. The lack of experimental datasets from space covering signals from multiple constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou) at dual-band (L1 and L2) and dual-polarization (right- and left-hand circular polarization), over the ocean, land, and cryosphere remains a bottleneck to further develop these techniques. 3Cat-2 is a 6-unit (3 × 2 elementary blocks of 10 × 10 × 10 cm3) CubeSat mission designed and implemented at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech to explore fundamental issues toward an improvement in the understanding of the bistatic scattering properties of different targets. Since geolocalization of the specific reflection points is determined by the geometry only, a moderate pointing accuracy is only required to correct the antenna pattern in scatterometry measurements. This paper describes the mission analysis and the current status of the assembly, integration, and verification activities of both the engineering model and the flight model performed at Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya NanoSatLab premises. 3Cat-2 launch is foreseen for the second quarter of 2016 into a Sun-Synchronous orbit of 510-km height.
Autors: Hugo Carreno-Luengo;Adriano Camps;Pol Via;Juan Francisco Munoz;Alex Cortiella;David Vidal;Jaume Jané;Nuno Catarino;Miguel Hagenfeldt;Pedro Palomo;Stefania Cornara;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 9, issue:10, pages: 4540 - 4551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Pictorial Structures Revisited: Multiple Human Pose Estimation
Abstract:
We address the problem of 3D pose estimation of multiple humans from multiple views. The transition from single to multiple human pose estimation and from the 2D to 3D space is challenging due to a much larger state space, occlusions and across-view ambiguities when not knowing the identity of the humans in advance. To address these problems, we first create a reduced state space by triangulation of corresponding pairs of body parts obtained by part detectors for each camera view. In order to resolve ambiguities of wrong and mixed parts of multiple humans after triangulation and also those coming from false positive detections, we introduce a 3D pictorial structures (3DPS) model. Our model builds on multi-view unary potentials, while a prior model is integrated into pairwise and ternary potential functions. To balance the potentials' influence, the model parameters are learnt using a Structured SVM (SSVM). The model is generic and applicable to both single and multiple human pose estimation. To evaluate our model on single and multiple human pose estimation, we rely on four different datasets. We first analyse the contribution of the potentials and then compare our results with related work where we demonstrate superior performance.
Autors: Vasileios Belagiannis;Sikandar Amin;Mykhaylo Andriluka;Bernt Schiele;Nassir Navab;Slobodan Ilic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 38, issue:10, pages: 1929 - 1942
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Route: Routing on Names
Abstract:
One of the crucial building blocks for Information Centric Networking (ICN) is a name based routing scheme that can route directly on content names instead of IP addresses. However, moving the address space from IP addresses to content names brings the scalability issues to a whole new level, due to two reasons. First, name aggregation is not as trivial a task as the IP address aggregation in BGP routing. Second, the number of addressable contents in the Internet is several orders of magnitude higher than the number of IP addresses. With the current size of the Internet, name based, anycast routing is very challenging specially when routing efficiency is of prime importance. We propose a name-based routing scheme Route for ICN that offers efficient bandwidth usage, guaranteed content lookup and scalable routing table size. Route consists of two components: an alphanumeric Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and an overlay to underlay (Internet topology) mapping algorithm. Simulation results show that Route performs significantly better than Content Centric Network (CCN) in terms of network bandwidth usage, lookup latency and load balancing.
Autors: Reaz Ahmed;Faizul Bari;Shihabur Rahman Chowdhury;Golam Rabbani;Raouf Boutaba;Bertrand Mathieu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 3070 - 3083
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Domain Rate Control Algorithm for HEVC Scalable Extension
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a -domain rate control algorithm for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) scalable extension. All the commonly used scalabilities including temporal, spatial, and quality scalability are taken into consideration. The proposed algorithm mainly has three key contributions. First, we propose an optimal initial target bits and initial encoding parameters determination algorithm for the first frame of each layer to achieve the best rate-distortion (R-D) performance. Second, an optimal bit allocation algorithm taking both the intra and inter layer dependence into consideration is proposed for the inter frames under spatial and quality scalability cases. Third, since the coding scheme of HEVC scalable extension with multiple layers is even more flexible than HEVC, an adaptive updating algorithm for R- model is proposed to control the bits per frame even more precisely. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed -domain rate control algorithm can bring both more precise bitrate accuracy and better R-D performance compared with the previous rate control algorithms for HEVC scalable extension.
Autors: Li Li;Bin Li;Dong Liu;Houqiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2023 - 2039
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Gain Analysis for a Class of Hybrid Systems With Applications to Reset and Event-Triggered Control: A Lifting Approach
Abstract:
In this paper we study the stability and L2-gain properties of a class of hybrid systems that exhibit linear flow dynamics, periodic time-triggered jumps and arbitrary nonlinear jump maps. This class of hybrid systems is relevant for a broad range of applications including periodic event-triggered control, sampled-data reset control, sampled-data saturated control, and certain networked control systems with scheduling protocols. For this class of continuous-time hybrid systems we provide new stability and L2-gain analysis methods. Inspired by ideas from lifting we show that the stability and the contractivity in L2-sense (meaning that the L2-gain is smaller than 1) of the continuous-time hybrid system is equivalent to the stability and the contractivity in L2-sense (meaning that the ℓ2-gain is smaller than 1) of an appropriate discrete-time nonlinear system. These new characterizations generalize earlier (more conservative) conditions provided in the literature. We show via a reset control example and an event-triggered control application, for which stability and contractivity in L2-sense is the same as stability and contractivity in ℓ2-sense of a discrete-time piecewise linear system, that the new conditions are significantly less conservative than the existing ones in the literature. Moreover, we show that the existing conditions can be reinterpreted as a conservative ℓ2-gain analysis of a discretetime piecewise linear system based on common quadratic storage/Lyapunov functions. These new insights are obtained by the adopted lifting-based perspective on this problem, which leads to computable L2-gain (and thus L2-gain) conditions, despite the fact that the linearity assumption, which is usually needed in the lifting literature, is not satisfied.
Autors: W. P. M. H. Heemels;G. E. Dullerud;A. R. Teel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2766 - 2781
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Domain Rate Control Algorithm for HEVC Scalable Extension
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a λ-domain rate control algorithm for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) scalable extension. All the commonly used scalabilities including temporal, spatial, and quality scalability are taken into consideration. The proposed algorithm mainly has three key contributions. First, we propose an optimal initial target bits and initial encoding parameters determination algorithm for the first frame of each layer to achieve the best rate-distortion (R-D) performance. Second, an optimal bit allocation algorithm taking both the intra and inter layer dependence into consideration is proposed for the inter frames under spatial and quality scalability cases. Third, since the coding scheme of HEVC scalable extension with multiple layers is even more flexible than HEVC, an adaptive updating algorithm for R-λ model is proposed to control the bits per frame even more precisely. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed λ-domain rate control algorithm can bring both more precise bitrate accuracy and better R-D performance compared with the previous rate control algorithms for HEVC scalable extension.
Autors: Li Li;Bin Li;Dong Liu;Houqiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 18, issue:10, pages: 2023 - 2039
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Gain Analysis for a Class of Hybrid Systems With Applications to Reset and Event-Triggered Control: A Lifting Approach
Abstract:
In this paper we study the stability and -gain properties of a class of hybrid systems that exhibit linear flow dynamics, periodic time-triggered jumps and arbitrary nonlinear jump maps. This class of hybrid systems is relevant for a broad range of applications including periodic event-triggered control, sampled-data reset control, sampled-data saturated control, and certain networked control systems with scheduling protocols. For this class of continuous-time hybrid systems we provide new stability and -gain analysis methods. Inspired by ideas from lifting we show that the stability and the contractivity in -sense (meaning that the -gain is smaller than 1) of the continuous-time hybrid system is equivalent to the stability and the contractivity in -sense (meaning that the -gain is smaller than 1) of an appropriate discrete-time nonlinear system. These new characterizations generalize earlier (more conservative) conditions provided in the literature. We show via a reset control example and an event-triggered control application, for which stability and contractivity in -sense is the same as stability and contractivity in -sense of a discrete-time piecewise linear system, that the new conditions are significantly less conservative than the existing ones in the literature. Moreover, we show that t- e existing conditions can be reinterpreted as a conservative -gain analysis of a discrete-time piecewise linear system based on common quadratic storage/Lyapunov functions. These new insights are obtained by the adopted lifting-based perspective on this problem, which leads to computable -gain (and thus -gain) conditions, despite the fact that the linearity assumption, which is usually needed in the lifting literature, is not satisfied.
Autors: W. P. M. H. Heemels;G. E. Dullerud;A. R. Teel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2766 - 2781
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Electrical Conductivity Contrast Imaging in a Mouse Model of Cancer Using High-Frequency Magnetoacoustic Tomography With Magnetic Induction (hfMAT-MI)
Abstract:
Cancerous tissues have electrical-conductivity signatures different from normal tissues, which contain potentially useful information for early detection. Despite recent advancements in electrical-conductivity imaging and its applications, imaging electrical conductivities with high spatial resolution remains a challenge for non-invasive diagnosis of early-stage cancer. Among the various electrical-conductivity imaging methods, magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a promising technology for non-invasive detection of breast cancer. However, previous efforts to use MAT-MI for cancer imaging have suffered due to insufficient spatial resolution. In this work, we have developed a high-frequency MAT-MI (hfMAT-MI) system with a 2-D spatial resolution of 1 mm, a significant improvement over previous methods. Furthermore, we demonstrated the performance of this method using an in vivo cancer model in nude mice with human breast xenograft hindlimb tumors. hfMAT-MI was able to resolve not only the boundaries between cancerous and healthy tissues, but also the tumors’ internal structures. Importantly, we were able to track a growing tumor using our hfMAT-MI method for the first time in an in vivo mouse model, demonstrating the promise of this magneto-acoustic imaging system for effective detection and diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer.
Autors: Kai Yu;Qi Shao;Shai Ashkenazi;John C. Bischof;Bin He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2301 - 2311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» iStep: A Step-Aware Sampling Approach for Diffusion Profiling in Mobile Sensor Networks
Abstract:
We investigate the mission-critical diffusion profiling problem in mobile sensor networks, where the energy cost and the time delay are constrained. Previous studies fail to solve this problem well enough due to the extremely large searching spaces for sensor measurements and the dynamic evolutions during the diffusion process. We propose a step-aware spatiotemporal sampling approach, which is called iStep, achieving near-optimal profiling precision in terms of the overall profiling process. Leveraging the upper bound of the deviation value in sampling position during each iteration, we build a comprehensive model between sampling interval and the current state parameters, including the distances between the mobile sensors and the pollution source, as well as the confidence interval radius of the source. Building upon this model, we propose an algorithm on computing the step-aware sampling interval. The computational complexity of iStep is , which is in the same order of the radial approach, where is the number of sensors, and is the total number of movement steps in each iteration. Extensive simulation results show that, compared with the radial approach, iStep can improve the average precision by up to 56.8% and the worst precision by up to 59.1%. Moreover, it performs closely to the brute-force approach, which potentially verifies the near-optimal character of iStep.
Autors: Chaocan Xiang;Panlong Yang;Xuangou Wu;Hong He;Baowei Wang;Yunhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 8616 - 8628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LC Passive Wireless Sensors Toward a Wireless Sensing Platform: Status, Prospects, and Challenges
Abstract:
Inductor–capacitor () passive wireless sensors use a transformer with loose coupling between an external readout coil and an inductor that receives power through this inductive coupling. Changes in the sensor are wirelessly and remotely detected by the readout coil, which makes them highly useful in applications that require the sensor to be powered remotely and to occupy a small volume, such as harsh and sealed environments, where physical access to the sensor is difficult. Although the sensor to accomplish this function dates from the 1960’s, its rapid extension over the past decades has benefited from microelectromechanical systems. This paper provides an overview of the status and challenges in the passive wireless sensor toward a wireless sensing platform. The basic sensing principles are first categorized into detecting changes of the sensor in response to the capacitance, resistance, inductance, or coupling distance due to the parameter of interest through monitoring the impedance magnitude and phase spectrum. The present state of the art in sensor applications for pressure, strain, temperature, humidity, biochemical, gas, and so on is then reviewed and compared. For emerging applications from many Internet of Things scenarios, geometrical constraints, such as small and non-invasive coils, reduce the magnetic coupling between the sensor and the readout coil, resulting in a limited interrogation distance. Furthermore, an increasing number of applications also require the simultaneous measurement of multiple parameters. Recent efforts to increase the interrogation distance and to extend the measurement of single parameter to multiple parameters are finally outlined. [2016-0093]
Autors: Qing-An Huang;Lei Dong;Li-Feng Wang;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 822 - 841
Publisher: IEEE
 
» RTI Goes Wild: Radio Tomographic Imaging for Outdoor People Detection and Localization
Abstract:
In recent years, Radio frequency (RF) sensor networks have been used to localize people indoor without requiring them to wear invasive electronic devices. These wireless mesh networks, formed by low-power radio transceivers, continuously measure the received signal strength (RSS) of the links. Radio Tomographic Imaging (RTI) is a technique that generates, starting from these RSS measurements, 2D images of the change in the electromagnetic field inside the area covered by the radio transceivers to spot the presence and movements of animates (e.g., people, large animals) or large metallic objects (e.g., cars). Here, we present a RTI system for localizing and tracking people outdoors. Differently than in indoor environments where the RSS does not change significantly with time unless people are found in the monitored area, the outdoor RSS signal is time-variant, e.g., due to rainfall or wind-driven foliage. We present a novel outdoor RTI method that, despite the nonstationary noise introduced in the RSS data by the environment, achieves high localization accuracy and dramatically reduces the energy consumption of the sensing units. Experimental results demonstrate that the system accurately detects and tracks a person in real-time in a large forested area under varying environmental conditions, significantly reducing false positives, localization error and energy consumption compared to state-of-the-art RTI methods.
Autors: Cesare Alippi;Maurizio Bocca;Giacomo Boracchi;Neal Patwari;Manuel Roveri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 2585 - 2598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Past is Not a Foreign Country: Detecting Semantically Similar Terms across Time
Abstract:
Numerous archives and collections of past documents have become available recently thanks to mass scale digitization and preservation efforts. Libraries, national archives, and other memory institutions have started opening up their collections to interested users. Yet, searching within such collections usually requires knowledge of appropriate keywords due to different context and language of the past. Thus, non-professional users may have difficulties with conceptualizing suitable queries, as, typically, their knowledge of the past is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the temporal correspondence detection task that requires finding terms in the past which are semantically closest to a given input present term. The approach we propose is based on vector space transformation that maps the distributed word representation in the present to the one in the past. The key problem in this approach is obtaining correct training set that could be used for a variety of diverse document collections and arbitrary time periods. To solve this problem, we propose an effective technique for automatically constructing seed pairs of terms to be used for finding the transformation. We test the performance of proposed approaches over short as well as long time frames such as 100 years. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform the best-performing baseline by 113 percent for the New York Times Annotated Corpus and by 28 percent for the Times Archive in MRR on average, when the query has a different literal form from its temporal counterpart.
Autors: Yating Zhang;Adam Jatowt;Sourav S. Bhowmick;Katsumi Tanaka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2793 - 2807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 A, Dual-Inductor 4-Output Buck Converter With 20 MHz/100 MHz Dual-Frequency Switching and Integrated Output Filters in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
The dual-frequency dual-inductor multiple-output (DF-DIMO) buck converter topology is presented. The topology employs a dual-phase 20 MHz current-mode-controlled input stage to reduce the inductance required per phase to only 200 nH, and a 4-output 100 MHz comparator-controlled fully integrated output stage to reduce the capacitance required per output to 10 nF. In order to enable each output to handle up to 250 mA load with less than 40 mV voltage ripple, a third-order bond-wire-based notch filter is employed at each output for voltage ripple suppression. Additionally, the proposed design employs dynamic output re-ordering to enhance cross-regulation performance, interleaved pulse-skipping to enhance light-load efficiency and dynamic performance, and high-gain error amplifier in the output feedback loop to enhance DC load regulation. Targeting multi-core DSPs, the proposed design is implemented in standard 65 nm CMOS technology with 1.8 V input, and outputs in the range of 0.6– 1.2 V with a total load of 1 A. It achieves a peak efficiency of 74%, less than 40 mV output voltage ripple, 0.5 V/70 ns dynamic voltage scaling (DVS), and settling time of less than 85 ns for 125 mA load steps; all with no observable cross-regulation transients.
Autors: Yongjie Jiang;Ayman Fayed;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2485 - 2500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.26-3.3 GHz Tunable Triplexer With Compact Size and Constant Bandwidth
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel tunable triplexer is proposed with very compact size and constant fractional bandwidth. The proposed triplexer employs very simple filter prototypes, and can continuously cover a wide frequency tuning range from 1.26 to 3.3 GHz. Each filter channel in the triplexer can be independently controlled without affecting others, and exhibits a constant fractional bandwidth during frequency tuning. The insertion loss varies from of 2.8-6.6 dB with silicon varactors. Simulations and measurement are presented with excellent agreement. Application areas are in multi-standard communication systems.
Autors: Tao Yang;Gabriel M. Rebeiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 786 - 788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.5 V 28 GHz Beam Steering SiGe PLL for an 81-86 GHz E-Band Transmitter
Abstract:
This letter presents measurement results for a low supply voltage 28 GHz beam steering PLL, designed in a SiGe bipolar process with GHz. The PLL, designed around a QVCO, is intended for a beam steering 81-86 GHz E-band transmitter. Linear phase control is implemented by variable current injection into a Gilbert type phase detector, with a measured nominal phase control sensitivity of 2.5 °/. The demonstrated LO generation method offers great advantages in the implementation of beam steering mm-wave transmitters, since only the low frequency PLL reference signal of 1.75 GHz needs to be routed across the chip to the different transmitters. Except for an active loop filter, used to extend the locking range of the PLL, the design uses a low supply voltage of 1.5 V. The PLL obtains a measured in band phase noise of −107 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. The power consumption equals 54 mW from the 1.5 V supply plus 1.8 mW for the variable supply of the active low pass filter.
Autors: Tobias Tired;Johan Wernehag;Waqas Ahmad;Imad ud Din;Per Sandrup;Markus Törmänen;Henrik Sjöland Sjöland;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 843 - 845
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b 200-kS/s 250-nA Self-Clocked Coarse–Fine SAR ADC
Abstract:
A 10-b ultralow-power successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) implemented in a standard 0.18- CMOS technology is described. The architecture consists of a coarse and a fine SAR ADC. The 2-b coarse SAR presets the two MSB capacitive arrays of the fine SAR, thus avoiding the largest sources of dynamic power consumption. The use of two low-resolution comparators in the coarse converter enables compensating for the offset mismatches between the coarse and fine ADCs. The comparator of the fine SAR ADC obtains high sensitivity and very low power owing to a gain-enhanced dynamic preamplifier. A loop delay line generates all the phases for the SAR logic and permits three different modes of operation: on-demand, self-clocked, and clocked. In the clocked mode and at 200 kS/s, this converter achieves a 9.05-b effective number of bits (ENOB) while consuming 200 nW. The resulting figure of merit (FoM) is 1.88 fJ/conversion-level.
Autors: Yulin Zhang;Edoardo Bonizzoni;Franco Maloberti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 924 - 928
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-Bit 10 MS/s SAR ADC With High Linearity and Energy-Efficient Switching
Abstract:
A 12-bit 10 MS/s SAR ADC with enhanced linearity and energy efficiency is presented in this paper. A novel switching scheme (COSS) is proposed to reduce the power consumption and the matching requirement for capacitors in SAR ADCs. The switching energy (including switching energy and reset energy), total capacitance and static performance (INL & DNL) of the proposed scheme are reduced by 98.08%, 75%, and 75%, respectively, compared with the conventional architecture. Based on analysis of the non-linear errors caused by comparator input parasitic capacitance, an improved comparator with push-pull pre-amplifier and output offset storage (OOS) strategy is proposed to diminish non-linearity in the input parasitic capacitance. The offset cancellation signal for the comparator can be generated by asynchronous timing automatically, without any extra clock. Additionally, an SFDR enhancement bootstrap switch is proposed to eliminate the distortion induced by parasitic capacitance and threshold voltage that results in insufficient precision for medium-speed 12-bit ADCs. The proposed ADC was fabricated in a 0.18 1P6M CMOS process, and the measured results show that the ADC achieves an SNDR of 66.9 dB and an SFDR of 75.8 dB with a 10 MS/s sampling rate and consumes 0.82 mW, resulting in a figure of merit (FOM) of 44.2 fJ/conversion-step. The peak DNL error is +0.36/−0.33 LSB, and the peak INL error is +0.55 LSB/−0.6 LSB. The ADC core occupies an active area of only .
Autors: Shubin Liu;Yi Shen;Zhangming Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 1616 - 1627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-bit 104 MS/s SAR ADC in 28 nm CMOS for Digitally-Assisted Wireless Transmitters
Abstract:
A 12-bit 104 MS/s successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) is developed for a digitally-assisted wireless transmitter system for use in cellular applications. A power-on calibration method is implemented to correct capacitor DAC mismatch and reduce capacitor size, thereby lowering the current consumption of the input buffer and reference generator. The total capacitor size is reduced to 0.6 pF, from the 3.6 pF required for 12-bit matching. The ADC analog core area is 0.003 mm2. The proposed method achieves 88 dB SFDR at 26 MHz sampling rate and 76.2 dB SFDR at 104 MHz sampling rate after calibration. The measured DNL and INL are 0.5 LSB and 1.1 LSB, respectively. The ADC achieves both high speed and low power by combining several features, namely digital calibration, redundancy, asynchronous bit-cycling, monotonic switching, 25% duty-cycle sampling period, 3 dB input gain, and a fully dynamic comparator. The power consumption from 1.2 V/1.1 V supplies is 0.88 mW for a single ADC core and 6.1 mW for the entire I/Q ADC, including the reference generator and input buffers. The ADC is fabricated in 28 nm CMOS.
Autors: Wei-Hsin Tseng;Wei-Liang Lee;Chang-Yang Huang;Pao-Cheng Chiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2222 - 2231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 16 W Balanced Intensity Dual-Frequency Laser With 53 GHz Frequency Separation
Abstract:
A 16.1 W continuous-wave balanced intensity dual-frequency laser based on an microchip seed laser, together with a two-stage laser amplifier, was demonstrated. In order to obtain such a high-power dual-frequency laser as well as a balanced intensity distribution of the dual-mode, the seed laser wavelength was precisely tuned to spectrally match with the gain curve of the amplifier by employing a temperature controller. Finally, when the heat sink temperature of the amplifier crystal was kept at 30.0 °C, the dual-mode seed laser operated at 16.0 °C was amplified from 284.5 mW to 16.1 W with a balanced intensity distribution, and frequency separation was measured as 53.2 GHz.
Autors: Miao Hu;Mian Wei;Yu Zhang;Ju Cai;Ran Zeng;Qiliang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.89 W Dry-Electrode Enabled Clockless Wireless ECG SoC for Wearable Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully integrated wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) SoC implemented in asynchronous architecture, which does not require system clock as well as off-chip antenna. Several low power techniques are proposed to minimize power consumption. At the system level, a newly introduced event-driven system architecture facilitates the asynchronous implementation, thus removes the system clock leading to a true ECG-on-chip solution. A DC-coupled analog front-end is introduced together with a baseline stabilizer to boost the input impedance to and mitigate the electrode offset, which is less sensitive to motion artefact and contact impedance imbalance, making it well suited for dry-electrode based applications. Level-crossing analog-to-digital converter (LC-ADC) is employed to take the advantage of burst nature of ECG signal leading to at least 5 times reduction in sampling points compared to Nyquist sampling. A digitally implemented impulse-radio ultra-wideband transmitter is seamlessly integrated with LC-ADC and an on-chip antenna for wireless communications. Implemented in CMOS technology, the ECG-on-chip consumes under 1.2 V supply while transmitting the raw ECG data, which attains one order of magnitude lower than the current state-of-the-art designs. The fully integrated ECG SoC requires no external clocks and off-chip antenna, making it a good candidate for low cost and disposable wireless ECG patches, such as epidermal electronics.
Autors: Xiaoyang Zhang;Zhe Zhang;Yongfu Li;Changrong Liu;Yong Xin Guo;Yong Lian;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2287 - 2298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20 Gb/s 0.4 pJ/b Energy-Efficient Transmitter Driver Utilizing Constant- Bias
Abstract:
This paper describes a transmitter driver based on a CMOS inverter with a resistive feedback. By employing the proposed driver topology, the pre-driver can be greatly simplified, resulting in a remarkable reduction of the overall driver power consumption. It also offers another advantage that the implementation of equalization is straightforward, compared with a conventional voltage-mode driver. Furthermore, the output impedance remains relatively constant while the data is being transmitted, resulting in good signal integrity. For evaluation of the driver performance, a fully functional 20 Gb/s transmitter is implemented, including a PRBS generator, a serializer, and a half-rate clock generator. In order to enhance the overall speed of the digital circuits for 20 Gb/s data transmission, the resistive feedback is applied to the time-critical inverters, which enables shorter rise/fall times. The prototype chip is fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS technology. The implemented driver circuit operates up to the data rate of 20 Gb/s, exhibiting an energy efficiency of 0.4 pJ/b for the output swing of 250 .
Autors: Gyu-Seob Jeong;Sang-Hyeok Chu;Yoonsoo Kim;Sungchun Jang;Sungwoo Kim;Woorham Bae;Sung-Yong Cho;Haram Ju;Deog-Kyoon Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2312 - 2327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3.6 GHz Low-Noise Fractional-N Digital PLL Using SAR-ADC-Based TDC
Abstract:
This paper presents a fractional-N digital phase-locked loop (PLL) that achieves low in-band phase noise. Phase detection is carried out by a proposed 10-bit, 0.8 ps resolution time-to-digital converter (TDC) using a charge pump and a successive-approximation-register analog-to-digital converter (SAR-ADC) with low power and small area. The latency of the TDC is addressed by the designed building blocks. The fractional spurs are reduced by dual-loop least-mean-square (LMS) calibration. A -less and MOS varactor-less LC digitally-controlled oscillator (DCO) is proposed whose frequency resolution is enhanced to 7 kHz (or a unit variable capacitance of 2.6 aF) using a bridging capacitor technique. A prototype chip is fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS process, occupying an active area of 0.38 mm2 and consuming a power of 9.7 mW at a reference frequency of 50 MHz. The measured in-band phase noise is 107.8 dBc/Hz to 110.0 dBc/Hz with a loop bandwidth of 1 to 5 MHz.
Autors: Zule Xu;Masaya Miyahara;Kenichi Okada;Akira Matsuzawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2345 - 2356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 400 Mb/s∼2.5 Gb/s Referenceless CDR IC Using Intrinsic Frequency Detection Capability of Half-Rate Linear Phase Detector
Abstract:
A 400 Mb/s∼2.5 Gb/s referenceless clock and data recovery (CDR) IC is presented. This paper shows that the half-rate linear phase detector (PD) has not only phase detection capability but also single-sided frequency detection capability in itself. By using this intrinsic frequency detection capability of the half-rate linear PD, a CDR can be implemented in the single loop architecture without both an external reference clock and a separate frequency detector. For verification, a prototype CDR IC was fabricated in a 0.13 CMOS process. With 2.5 Gb/s, pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS), the measurement results show that the frequency acquisition time is 17 , the bit error rate (BER) is better than 10−12, the jitter of the recovered clock is 8.6 and the out-of-band jitter tolerance is 0.32 .
Autors: Sangjin Byun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 1592 - 1604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 670 GHz Low Noise Amplifier with <10 dB Packaged Noise Figure
Abstract:
In this letter, a packaged Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) operating at 670 GHz is presented. The LNA uses a new generation of 25 nm InP HEMT with 1.5 THz . The eight-stage amplifier shows approximately 16 dB associated gain in package with a noise figure ranging from 9.4-9.9 dB measured across a 15 GHz bandwidth. These results represent better than 3 dB improvement in sensitivity to previously published InP HEMT results, and represent the lowest measured noise figure for any LNA at this operating frequency.
Autors: W.R. Deal;A. Zamora;K. Leong;P.H. Liu;W. Yoshida;J. Zhou;M. Lange;B. Gorospe;K. Nguyen;X.B. Mei;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 837 - 839
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 7.6 mW, 414 fs RMS-Jitter 10 GHz Phase-Locked Loop for a 40 Gb/s Serial Link Transmitter Based on a Two-Stage Ring Oscillator in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper describes the design of a 10 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) for a 40 Gb/s serial link transmitter (TX). A two-stage ring oscillator is used to provide a four-phase, 10 GHz clock for a quarter-rate TX. Several analyses and verification techniques, ranging from the clocking architectures for a 40 Gb/s TX to oscillation failures in a two-stage ring oscillator, are addressed in this paper. A tri-state-inverter-based frequency-divider and an AC-coupled clock-buffer are used for high-speed operations with minimal power and area overheads. The proposed 10 GHz PLL fabricated in the 65 nm CMOS technology occupies an active area of 0.009 mm2 with an integrated-RMS-jitter of 414 fs from 10 kHz to 100 MHz while consuming 7.6 mW from a 1.2-V supply. The resulting figure-of-merit is -238.8 dB, which surpasses that of the state-of-the-art ring-PLLs by 4 dB.
Autors: Woorham Bae;Haram Ju;Kwanseo Park;Sung-Yong Cho;Deog-Kyoon Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2357 - 2367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 77 GHz Frequency Doubling Two-Path Phased-Array FMCW Transceiver for Automotive Radar
Abstract:
A fully-integrated 77 GHz frequency doubling two-path phased-array frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) transceiver for automotive radar applications is proposed. By utilizing the frequency doubling scheme, the chirp bandwidth is improved, and the complexity of the frequency synthesizer and the insertion loss of the local-oscillating (LO) distribution network are both reduced. Top-injected coupled resonator based wide locking range technique is proposed in the frequency doublers to minimize the required injection power to cover the chirp bandwidth plus enough PVT variation margin, and therefore reduce the power consumption of the LO distribution network. Current-reused coupled resonator technique is utilized to implement the LO phase shifting in each receiving path. The digitally controlled artificial dielectric-based transmission lines are inserted in the low noise amplifiers to provide the operation frequency calibration capability. The receiving two-path signals are converted into intermediate frequency by low flicker noise current-mode passive mixers and then combined in the trans-impedance amplifier, followed by the reconfigurable analog baseband processing. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS, the FMCW transceiver has achieved 1.93 GHz maximum chirp bandwidth, dBm maximum transmitting power, and dB programmable receiving conversion gain. The transceiver consumes 343 mW power and 4.64 mm2 chip area including all of the pads.
Autors: Haikun Jia;Lixue Kuang;Wei Zhu;Zhiping Wang;Feng Ma;Zhihua Wang;Baoyong Chi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2299 - 2311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 77-GHz 2T6R Transceiver With Injection-Lock Frequency Sextupler Using 65-nm CMOS for Automotive Radar System Application
Abstract:
In this paper, a CMOS multichannel transceiver (TRX) is proposed for angular identification in automotive car radar applications. Two transmitters (TXs) and six receivers (RXs) are placed on the same die using 65-nm CMOS technology with chip size mm2. To generate a millimeter-wave (MMW) frequency-modulated continuous-wave signal, an injection-lock frequency sextupler cascaded a 1-to-8 Wilkinson power dividing network with wideband isolation is designed as the LO-chain to convert external source from 12.5–13.7 to 75–82.2 GHz for both the TXs and RXs. Each TX achieves above 11-dBm output power and the RXs achieve 30-dB conversion gain from 75 to 82 GHz, and the total power dissipation of whole chip is 1.43 W. Compared with other published multichannel TRXs in silicon germanium (SiGe) process, this paper demonstrates compatible performances and the potential of multichannel TRX using CMOS for MMW automotive car radar application.
Autors: Yuan-Hung Hsiao;Yu-Chuan Chang;Ching-Han Tsai;Ting-Yi Huang;Sofiane Aloui;Ding-Jie Huang;Yi-Hsin Chen;Ping-Han Tsai;Jui-Chih Kao;Yu-Hsuan Lin;Bo-Yu Chen;Jen-Hao Cheng;Tian-Wei Huang;Hsin-Chia Lu;Kun-You Lin;Ruey-Beei Wu;Shyh-Jong Chung;Huei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 3031 - 3048
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9-bit 1.8 GS/s 44 mW Pipelined ADC Using Linearized Open-Loop Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents a 9-bit 1.8 GS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using open-loop amplifiers. In this ADC, open-loop amplifiers are used as residue amplifiers to increase the sampling rate of the ADC with relatively low power consumption. A linearization technique is proposed to suppress the SNDR decrease caused by the nonlinearity of open-loop amplifiers. The attenuation in the capacitor digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) is utilized to calibrate the gain error of the pipelined stages. In addition, top-plate sampling is proposed to further enhance the power efficiency of the residue amplifiers. With these techniques, the ADC achieves a high sampling rate and high power efficiency. A prototype of the ADC is fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology. An SNDR of 47 dB and a FoM of 134 fJ/conversion-step is achieved at a sampling rate of 1.8 GS/s with 900 MHz input, while consuming 44 mW from a 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Lilan Yu;Masaya Miyahara;Akira Matsuzawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2210 - 2221
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A NMR CMOS Transceiver Using a Butterfly-Coil Input for Integration With a Digital Microfluidic Device Inside a Portable Magnet
Abstract:
This paper describes a 20 MHz micro-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transceiver (TRX) featuring a butterfly-coil input for chemical/biological assays. It enables integration with a 2D multi-electrode digital microfluidic (DMF) device inside a space-limited portable magnet (0.46 T, 1.25 kg), making multi-sample management compatible with NMR measurements, and supporting electronic automation. The transmitter (TX) incorporates a pulse-sequence synthesizer followed by an inverter-based power amplifier (PA), to emit the exciting pulses for magnetizing the protons of the samples. For the receiver (RX), it is headed by a multi-stage low-noise amplifier (LNA) using NMOS-PMOS-complementary differential pairs, achieving a sub-nV/Hz input-referred noise at low power. Sixth-order Butterworth low-pass filters constitute the core of the RX I/Q baseband. Their source-follower-based topology allows fast and coherent scaling of all poles by the bias current, reducing the dead-time of the RX for better sensitivity. Fabricated in CMOS, the TRX occupies a die area of 2.1 mm2, consumes 6.6/23.7 mW of power in the TX/RX mode, and demonstrates the feasibility of electronic-automated biological (avidin) and chemical (CuSO4) assays achieving a detection limit on avidin of 0.2 pmol.
Autors: Ka-Meng Lei;Pui-In Mak;Man-Kay Law;Rui P. Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2274 - 2286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Belief Propagation-Based Framework for Soft Multiple-Symbol Differential Detection
Abstract:
Soft noncoherent detection, which relies on calculating the a posteriori probabilities (APPs) of the bits transmitted with no channel estimation, is imperative for achieving excellent detection performance in high-dimensional wireless communications. In this paper, a high-performance belief propagation (BP)-based soft multiple-symbol differential detection (MSDD) framework, dubbed BP-MSDD, is proposed with its illustrative application in differential space-time block-code(DSTBC)-aided ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR) systems. First, we revisit the signal sampling with the aid of a trellis structure and decompose the trellis into multiple subtrellises. Furthermore, we derive an APP calculation algorithm, in which the forward-and-backward message passing mechanism of BP operates on the subtrellises. The proposed BP-MSDD is capable of significantly outperforming the conventional hard-decision MSDDs. However, the computational complexity of the BP-MSDD increases exponentially with the number of MSDD trellis states. To circumvent this excessive complexity for practical implementations, we reformulate the BP-MSDD, and additionally propose a Viterbi algorithm-based hard-decision MSDD (VA-HMSDD) and a VA-based soft-decision MSDD (VA-SMSDD). Moreover, both the proposed BP-MSDD and VA-SMSDD can be exploited in conjunction with soft channel decoding to obtain powerful iterative detection and decoding-based receivers. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in DSTBC-aided UWB-IR systems.
Autors: Chanfei Wang;Tiejun Lv;Hui Gao;Shaoshi Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 15, issue:10, pages: 7128 - 7142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Belief-Based Decision-Making Framework for Spectrum Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive cognitive management framework for spectrum selection in cognitive radio (CR) networks. The framework uses a belief vector concept as a means to predict the interference affecting the different spectrum blocks (SBs) and relies on a smart analysis of the scenario dynamicity to properly determine an adequate observation strategy to balance the tradeoff between achievable performance and measurement requirements. In this respect, the paper shows that the interference dynamics in a given SB can be properly characterized through the second highest eigenvalue of the interference state transition matrix. Therefore, this indicator is retained in the proposed framework as a relevant parameter to drive the selection of both the observation strategy and spectrum selection decision-making criterion. This paper evaluates the proposed framework to illustrate the capability to properly choose among a set of possible observation strategies under different scenario conditions. Furthermore, a comparison against other state-of-the-art solutions is presented.
Autors: Jordi Pérez-Romero;Alessandro Raschellà;Oriol Sallent;Anna Umbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 8283 - 8296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bias-Reduced Nonlinear WLS Method for TDOA/FDOA-Based Source Localization
Abstract:
We address the source localization problem by using both time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) and frequency-difference-of-arrival (FDOA) measurements. We solve this problem in two steps, and in each step, we formulate a nonlinear weighted least squares (WLS) problem followed by a bias reduction scheme. In the first step, we formulate a nonlinear WLS problem using TDOA measurements only and derive the bias of the WLS solution, which is then used to develop an unbiased WLS solution by subtracting the bias from the WLS solution. In the second step, we formulate another nonlinear WLS problem by combining the results in the first step and the FDOA measurements. To avoid the potential risk of local convergence, this WLS problem is reduced to an approximate WLS problem, for which the globally optimal solution can be obtained. The bias of the WLS solution is also derived and then subtracted from the WLS solution to reduce the bias. Simulation results show that the bias of the proposed method is reduced and that the Cramér–Rao lower bound accuracy is also achieved.
Autors: Gang Wang;Shu Cai;Youming Li;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 8603 - 8615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bidirectional Fiber-Wireless and Fiber-IVLLC Convergence System with a Dual-Polarization Modulation Scheme and an MZM-OEO-Based BLS
Abstract:
A bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) convergence system that adopts a dual-polarization modulation scheme and a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM)-optoelectronic oscillator (OEO)-based broadband light source (BLS) for hybrid cable television (CATV)/microwave (MW)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband signal transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MZM employed in the MZM-OEO is operated at the minimum transmission point, which results in the format of optical carrier suppression for the y-axis component of the light. Using a dual-polarization modulation scheme, the optical carrier modulated with CATV signal (x-polarization) and the optical sidebands modulated with MW and MMW data signals ( y-polarization) are separated and polarized orthogonally automatically. Through an in-depth observation, good carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second-order, composite triple-beat, and bit error rate performances are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber and a 10-m RF/100-m optical wireless transport. Such a bidirectional fiber-wireless and fiber-IVLLC convergence system is a notable option; it would be attractive for providing broadband heterogeneous services such as CATV, Internet, and big data services.
Autors: Chung-Yi Li;Hai-Han Lu;Tien-Tsorng Shih;Ming-Te Cheng;Chun-Ming Ho;Xin-Yao Lin;Zih-Yi Yang;Sheng-Jhe Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bidirectional Nonisolated Multi-Input DC–DC Converter for Hybrid Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
To process the power in hybrid energy systems using a reduced part count, researchers have proposed several multiinput dc–dc power converter topologies to transfer power from different input voltage sources to the output. This paper proposes a novel bidirectional nonisolated multi-input converter (MIC) topology for hybrid systems to be used in electric vehicles composed of energy storage systems (ESSs) with different electrical characteristics. The proposed converter has the ability to control the power of ESSs by allowing active power sharing. The voltage levels of utilized ESSs can be higher or lower than the output voltage. The inductors of the converter are connected to a single switch; therefore, the converter requires only one extra active switch for each input, unlike its counterparts, hence resulting in reduced element count. The proposed MIC topology is compared with its counterparts concerning various parameters. It is analyzed in detail, and then, this analysis is validated by simulation and through a 1-kW prototype based on a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid ESS.
Autors: Furkan Akar;Yakup Tavlasoglu;Enes Ugur;Bulent Vural;Ismail Aksoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 7944 - 7955
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bioinspired Neural Network for Data Processing in an Electronic Nose
Abstract:
A novel bioinspired neural network is proposed as a replacement for traditional data processing methods in the electronic nose (e-nose) that we designed. This neural network mimics the main structures of the mammalian olfactory system. It contains olfactory sensing neurons, mitral cells, and granule cells. The proposed method can directly use the raw data collected from sensors in the e-nose without any signal preprocessing, feature selection, or reduction. The output neurons of the network can change the sensors’ responses into two new time series, of which we only use the variances to perform classification. This significantly simplifies the data processing procedure in e-noses. In order to test the performance of the proposed bioinspired neural network in the e-nose, two sampling methods, three classification methods, and seven kinds of Chinese liquors were employed. The highest classification rates of the proposed method and traditional method are 100% and 93%, respectively.
Autors: Ya-Qi Jing;Qing-Hao Meng;Pei-Feng Qi;Meng-Li Cao;Ming Zeng;Shu-Gen Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 2369 - 2380
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Circularly Polarized Crossed-Dipole Antenna
Abstract:
A unidirectional broadband circularly polarized (CP) crossed-dipole antenna is presented in this communication. This antenna has a simple feeding structure, which uses an unequal power network. It can simply realize 90° phase shift and four equal power divisions. The study of the antenna performance with different geometric parameters has been conducted. Working band of designed antenna covers the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, GPS, and GLNOSS bands. An optimized antenna is designed and measured, the measured results agree well with the simulated results. The results show good performance of impendence bandwidth is approximately 66.2% (1.01–2.01 GHz), the 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW) of approximately 41.3% (1.21–1.97 GHz). Moreover, the measured bore-sight antenna gain is stable and varying not too much, which average value is 6.0 dBic with less than 1.5-dB variation within the 3-dB ARBW.
Autors: Rui Xu;Jian-Ying Li;Wei Kun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4509 - 4513
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Multistage LNA With Bandwidth and Linearity Enhancement
Abstract:
Design techniques to enhance bandwidth and linearity of broadband multistage low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are presented. A feedback amplifier circuit is proposed to compensate for transistor gain roll-off with frequency in other amplifier stages and extend overall bandwidth. Moreover, a transistor width tapering in a multistage LNA is applied to improve linearity. These techniques are adopted in a three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) LNA implemented in a 0.1- GaAs pHEMT process. The LNA features 18–43 GHz bandwidth, 21.6 dB average gain, and 1.8–2.7 noise figure (NF). It exhibits output 1-dB compression point of 11.5 dBm at 30 GHz and consumes 70 mA bias current from a 2-V supply.
Autors: Gholamreza Nikandish;Alireza Yousefi;Milad Kalantari;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 834 - 836
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cement Plant's Experience in Investigating Power Sags Leads to a Reduction in Kiln Outages by Utilizing Power Hardening Methods
Abstract:
Poor power quality can be a cause of several process interruptions, including kiln outages at a cement plant. The purpose of this report is to educate the reader on voltage sags, which are the most common power quality issue faced by an industrial plant. Industrial end-users should understand why they should be concerned about voltage sags at their facility and how the severity of a voltage sag can be quantified then related to the sensitivity of the installed plant equipment. This in turn can result in applying power hardening methods to process equipment that will benefit the facility by reducing the number of power quality-related process outages.
Autors: Alan C. Finch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 4435 - 4441
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Full-Cycle Mixing Vector Modulator
Abstract:
This letter presents a new vector modulator architecture which makes full use of the baseband signals when performing signal mixing to enhance the already improved conversion gain of the mixers which use the local oscillator signals (LOs) of 25-percent duty cycle. The proposed technique can increases the signal conversion gain by 3 dB theoretically. The 2.4 GHz fully-integrated modulator is developed by using the commercial available 90-nm CMOS process and the chip size is 0.74 mm mm. The measured image rejection ratio and carrier feed-through are −52 dBc and −58 dBc, respectively. The CMOS vector modulator is measured passing the spectrum mask test of the IEEE 802.11b/g/n WLAN standards and achieves the EVMs of 3.8% for 802.11g and 2.6% for 802.11n.
Autors: Li-Fan Tsai;Jau-Horng Chen;Yi-Jan Emery Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 825 - 827
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Static and Dynamic Model for Resting-State Brain Connectivity Networks
Abstract:
Studying interactions using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals between discrete brain loci is increasingly recognized as important for understanding normal brain function and may provide insights into many neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Though much work has been done investigating ways to infer brain connectivity networks, the temporal dynamics of brain coupling has been less well studied. Assuming that brain connections are purely static or purely dynamic is assuredly unrealistic, as the brain must strike a balance between stability and flexibility. In this paper, we propose making joint inference of time-invariant connections as well as time-varying coupling patterns by employing a multitask learning model followed by a least-squares approach to accurately estimate the connectivity coefficients. We applied this method to resting state fMRI data from PD and control subjects and estimated the eigenconnectivity networks to obtain the representative patterns of both static and dynamic brain connectivity features. We found lower network variations in the PD group, which were partially normalized with L-dopa medication, consistent with previous studies suggesting that cognitive inflexibility is characteristic of PD.
Autors: Aiping Liu;Xun Chen;Xiaojuan Dan;Martin J. McKeown;Z. Jane Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 10, issue:7, pages: 1172 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact All-Solid-State Self-Compressing Low-to-High Power Converting RF Pulse Generator
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel method for high-repetition-rate high-power radio frequency (RF) pulse generation, which involves only passive solid-state devices and is capable of being used for generating high power microwaves using a low-to-high power converting scheme based on nonlinear self-compression is proposed. The method is also expected to be of low jitter. In the proposed circuit, two high voltage diodes with proper reverse recovery characteristics are used. The simulation results show that the proposed circuit generates RF pulses, with central frequencies up to gigahertz range. By applying a sub-kilowatt power supply, the maximum output power was well over 10 kW. This power can be increased up to megawatt order using power supplies of kilowatt range, as predicted by the theory. Simulations also indicated the possibility of 130-kHz pulse repetition rate as predicted by the theoretical analysis. The proposed method has been shown to work properly by an experimental setup. The setup showed the repetition rates up to 5000 pulses/s, which was capable of being increased to the simulation result using high quality circuit elements just as those used in the simulated circuit. We are currently carrying out a research to achieve the predicted upper limits of the power at gigahertz range RF generation and the results will be presented in their future reports.
Autors: Mohammad Samizadeh Nikoo;Seyed Morad-Ali Hashemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 44, issue:10, pages: 2323 - 2330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Laser Imaging System for Concurrent Reflectance Confocal Microscopy and Laser Doppler Flowmetry
Abstract:
We propose a compact laser feedback interferometry imaging system for concurrent reflectance confocal microscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. This system acquires both confocal reflectance and Doppler signals in a confocal architecture to image dynamic turbid media with higher contrast than a system operating in either modality and is coherent in nature. In a confocal optical configuration, reflectance confocal microscopy provides information about scattering from within a small volume centered around the focal point of the confocal system, and laser Doppler flowmetry provides information about the velocity of moving scatterers within the same volume. Raster scanning the sample enables the concurrent creation of two images, containing independent information, from a well-specified depth within the sample. Concurrent spatial mapping of these independent sensing modalities affords improvement in the capability of the imaging system by obtaining additional information from both morphological and functional features of the dynamic turbid medium at depths penetrable by near-infrared lasers. We realize the idea using a laser feedback interferometry imaging system scanning a microfluidic channel that contains a dynamic turbid medium. We show the effectiveness of this integrated imager quantitatively through the improvement of the signal-to-background ratio of a combined (multiplication) image.
Autors: Alireza Mowla;Thomas Taimre;Yah Leng Lim;Karl Bertling;Stephen J. Wilson;Tarl W. Prow;Aleksandar D. Rakić;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Quad Element Slotted Ground Wideband Antenna for MIMO Applications
Abstract:
A compact planar quad element wideband antenna for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system is proposed in this communication. A single element consists of a partially grounded printed monopole antenna loaded with a split ring resonator. The bandwidth of the antenna is from 2.2 to 6.28 GHz (96.2%), which covers LTE (2.2–3.8 GHz), Bluetooth (2.4 GHz), WLAN (2.4 and 5.1–5.8 GHz), WiMAX (2.3–5.7 GHz), and ISM bands (2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz). The fabricated antenna has an isolation greater than 14 dB between its elements, with a peak gain of 4 dBi and a peak efficiency of 91%. Polarization diversity is employed to accommodate four elements in an FR4 substrate, with an overall dimension of . The antenna has a simple planar design which is easy to fabricate with no intricate process involved.
Autors: R. Anitha;P. V. Vinesh;K. C. Prakash;P. Mohanan;K. Vasudevan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4550 - 4553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact, High Power Capable, and Tunable High Directivity Microstrip Coupler
Abstract:
A coupler is an indispensable component to sample the forward and reflected power for the real-time radio frequency (RF) power monitoring system. The directivity of a coupler is a critical factor to achieve accurate RF power measurements. This paper proposes a microstrip coupler with a tunable high directivity circuit to accurately measure the reflected RF power. The directivity tuner composed of passive components adjusts the phase and amplitude of the coupled RF signal, and cancels out the leakage signal from the RF input port at the coupled reflection port. The experimental results, which agree with the simulation results, show that the microstrip coupler with the directivity tuner circuit has a compact size (), high power capability (up to 1 kW), and high directivities (more than 40 dB) at the operating frequency bands (, 400, and 447 MHz, respectively) for magnetic resonance imaging applications.
Autors: Sung-Min Sohn;Anand Gopinath;John Thomas Vaughan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 3217 - 3223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Security Analysis of Current and Emerging Technologies
Abstract:
During the past few decades, the electronics community has witnessed a growing demand for packing more and more functionalities onto a single chip. The CMOS industry has been fulfilling this demand by continually shrinking the feature sizes, now down to the 20-nm regime. However, scaling of CMOS technology beyond 20 nm is challenging because of exacerbated short-channel effects, process variations, and reliability problems. These drawbacks of CMOS technology have led to the exploration of new nanotechnologies such as nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and carbon nanotube (CNT). These emerging technologies are considered promising alternatives to CMOS technology because of their potential benefits in power, performance, and reliability. However, security analysis of these emerging technologies, which is critical for current pervasive applications, remains unaddressed. In this article, the authors offer a security analysis of NEMS and CNT. They highlight the key technology-specific features of these post-CMOS technologies that can inform the design of secure systems.
Autors: Chandra K.H. Suresh;Bodhisatwa Mazumdar;Sk Subidh Ali;Ozgur Sinanoglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Micro
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 50 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study of Defect Energy Distribution and Its Impact on Degradation Kinetics in GeO2/Ge and SiON/Si pMOSFETs
Abstract:
The high mobility germanium (Ge) channel is considered as a strong candidate for replacing Si in pMOSFETs in the near future. It has been reported that the conventional power-law degradation kinetics of Si devices is inapplicable to Ge. In this paper, further investigation is carried out on defect energy distribution, which clearly shows that this is because the defects in GeO2/Ge and SiON/Si devices have different physical properties. The three main differences are: 1) energy alternating defects (EAD) exist in Ge devices but are insignificant in Si; 2) the distribution of as-grown hole traps has a tail in the Ge bandgap but not in Si, which plays an important role in the degradation kinetics and device lifetime prediction; and 3) EAD generation in Ge devices requires the injected charge carriers to overcome a second energy barrier, but not in Si. Taking the above differences into account, the power-law kinetics of EAD generation can be successfully restored by following a new procedure, which can assist in the Ge process/device optimization.
Autors: Jigang Ma;Wei Dong Zhang;Jian Fu Zhang;Brahim Benbakhti;Zhigang Ji;Jérôme Mitard;Hiroaki Arimura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 3830 - 3836
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study of NBTI and PBTI Using Different Experimental Techniques
Abstract:
Degradation in planar high-k metal gate p- and n-channel MOSFETs, respectively, under negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress is studied using different characterization methods. Ultrafast measure stress measure (UF-MSM) method with a measurement delay of a few microseconds is used to characterize the threshold voltage shift (). Gated-diode or direct current IV is used to directly estimate the trap generation (TG) during BTI, after correcting for the measurement inconsistencies. BTI experiments are performed under DC stress at different stress bias () and temperature () values also under AC stress at different pulse duty cycle (PDC) and frequency () values. Measured as well as TG show remarkable similarities between NBTI and PBTI stress, under both DC and AC stress. It is shown that TG dominates NBTI and PBTI degradation under both DC and AC stress.
Autors: Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay;Nilesh Goel;Souvik Mahapatra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 4038 - 4045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Composite Hysteresis Model in Self-Sensing Feedback Control of Fully Integrated Microactuators
Abstract:
In this paper, a composite hysteresis model is proposed for self-sensing feedback control of vanadium dioxide (VO2 )-integrated microactuators. The deflection of the microactuator is estimated with the resistance measurement through the proposed model. To capture the complicated hysteresis between the resistance and the deflection, we exploit the physical understanding that both the resistance and the deflection are determined by hysteretic relationships with the temperature. Since direct temperature measurement is not available, the concept of temperature surrogate, representing the constant current value in Joule heating that would result in a given temperature at the steady state, is explored in the modeling. In particular, the hysteresis between the deflection and the temperature surrogate and the hysteresis between the resistance and the temperature surrogate are captured with a generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii (GPI) model and an extended GPI (EGPI) model, respectively. The composite self-sensing model is obtained by cascading the EGPI model with the inverse GPI model. For comparison purposes, two algorithms, based on a Preisach model and an EGPI model, respectively, are also used to estimate the deflection based on the resistance measurement directly. The proposed self-sensing scheme is evaluated with proportional-integral control of the microactuator under step and sinusoidal references, and its superiority over the other schemes is demonstrated by experimental results.
Autors: Jun Zhang;David Torres;John L. Ebel;Nelson Sepúlveda;Xiaobo Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 2405 - 2417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Approach to ‘Now’ in Temporal Relational Databases: Semantics and Representation
Abstract:
Now-related temporal data play an important role in many applications. Clifford et al.’s approach is a milestone to model the semantics of ‘now’ in temporal relational databases. Several relational representation models for now-related data have been presented; however, the semantics of such representations has not been explicitly studied. Additionally, the definition of a relational algebra to query now-related data is an open problem. We propose the first integrated approach that provides both a neat semantics for now-related data and a compact 1NF representation (data model and relational algebra) for them. Additionally, our approach also extends current approaches to consider (i) domains where it is not always possible to know when changes in the world are recorded in the database and (ii) now-related data with a bound on their persistency in the future. To do so, we explicitly model the notion of temporal indeterminacy in the future for now-related data. The properties of our approach are also analyzed both from a theoretical (semantic correctness and reducibility of the algebra) and from an experimental point of view. Experiments show that, despite the fact that our approach is a major extension to current temporal relational approaches, no significant overhead is added to deal with ‘now’.
Autors: Luca Anselma;Luca Piovesan;Abdul Sattar;Bela Stantic;Paolo Terenziani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 28, issue:10, pages: 2538 - 2551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Quasi-Centralized DMPC for Back-to-Back Converter PMSG Wind Turbine Systems Without DC-Link Tracking Errors
Abstract:
Quasi-centralized direct model predictive control (QC-DMPC) scheme may serve as an effective alternative for back-to-back power converter in permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine systems. However, model errors and imperfect power efficiency lead to evident dc-link voltage tracking offset. This paper proposes a revised quasi-centralized direct model predictive control (RQC-DMPC) scheme for back-to-back converter PMSG wind turbine systems, within which, the dc-link voltage is directly controlled by a grid side predictive controller with a flexibly designed cost function using a revised dynamic reference generation concept. The dc-link voltage steady status tracking errors are eliminated. To reduce the computational efforts of the classical scheme, a computational efficient concept is incorporated into the proposed method. The proposed scheme is implemented on an entirely field programmable gate array-based platform. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through experimental data. The dc-link control performance comparison with classical proportional-integration controller-based methods and the QC-DMPC scheme under different scenarios are also experimentally investigated. The results emphasize the improvement of the proposed RQC-DMPC scheme.
Autors: James-Zhenbin Zhang;Tongjing Sun;Fengxiang Wang;José Rodríguez;Ralph Kennel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6160 - 6171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Conformal FDTD Method With Accurate Waveport Excitation and S-Parameter Extraction
Abstract:
We demonstrate a conformal finite-difference time domain (CFDTD) technique with accurate waveport excitation and S-parameter extraction. We discuss, under the CFDTD framework, object modeling with effective subcell material, impedance calibration for the conformal modeled coaxial feed, waveport mode calculation with a newly developed conformal 2-D finite-difference frequency domain solver, waveport excitation with a modified total field scattered field method, and a modified S-parameter extraction scheme that is compatible with the CFDTD method. Lastly, we present two specific validation cases intended as relevant precursors to the inverse scattering application: modeling of the reflection coefficient of a tapered patch antenna and modeling of the transmission coefficient in a probe-fed rectangular waveguide.
Autors: Guanbo Chen;John Stang;Mahta Moghaddam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4504 - 4509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Constraint Programming Scheduler for Heterogeneous High-Performance Computing Machines
Abstract:
Scheduling and dispatching tools for high-performance computing (HPC) machines have the key role of mapping jobs to the available resources, trying to maximize performance and quality-of-service (QoS). Allocation and Scheduling in the general case are well-known NP-hard problems, forcing commercial schedulers to adopt greedy approaches to improve performance and QoS. Search-based approaches featuring the exploration of the solution space have seldom been employed in this setting, but mostly applied in off-line scenarios. In this paper, we present the first search-based approach to job allocation and scheduling for HPC machines, working in a production environment. The scheduler is based on Constraint Programming, an effective programming technique for optimization problems. The resulting scheduler is flexible, as it can be easily customized for dealing with heterogeneous resources, user-defined constraints and different metrics. We evaluate our solution both on virtual machines using synthetic workloads, and on the Eurora HPC with production workloads. Tests on a wide range of operating conditions show significant improvements in waitings and QoS in mid-tier HPC machines w.r.t state-of-the-art commercial rule-based dispatchers. Furthermore, we analyze the conditions under which our approach outperforms commercial approaches, to create a portfolio of scheduling algorithms that ensures robustness, flexibility and scalability.
Autors: Thomas Bridi;Andrea Bartolini;Michele Lombardi;Michela Milano;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2781 - 2794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Representation of Ad Hoc Ridesharing Potential
Abstract:
Interacting with ridesharing systems is a complex spatiotemporal task. Traditional approaches rely on the full disclosure of a client's trip information to perform ride matching. However during poor service conditions of low supply or high demand, this requirement may mean that a client cannot find any ride matching their intentions. To address this within real-world road networks, we extend our map-based opportunistic client user interface concept, i.e., launch pads, from a discrete to a continuous space–time representation of vehicle accessibility to provide a client with a more realistic choice set. To examine this extension under different conditions, we conduct two computational experiments. First, we extend our previous investigation into the effects of varying vehicle flexibility and population size on launch pads and a client's probability of pick-up, describing the increased opportunity. Second, observing launch pads within a real-world road network, we analyze aspects of choice and propose necessary architecture improvements. The communication of ride share potential using launch pads provides a client with a simple yet flexible means of interfacing with on-demand transportation.
Autors: Michael Rigby;Stephan Winter;Antonio Krüger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 2832 - 2842
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coordinate Descent Primal-Dual Algorithm and Application to Distributed Asynchronous Optimization
Abstract:
Based on the idea of randomized coordinate descent of -averaged operators, a randomized primal-dual optimization algorithm is introduced, where a random subset of coordinates is updated at each iteration. The algorithm builds upon a variant of a recent (deterministic) algorithm proposed by Vũ and Condat that includes the well-known Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers as a particular case. The obtained algorithm is used to solve asynchronously a distributed optimization problem. A network of agents, each having a separate cost function containing a differentiable term, seek to find a consensus on the minimum of the aggregate objective. The method yields an algorithm where at each iteration, a random subset of agents wake up, update their local estimates, exchange some data with their neighbors, and go idle. Numerical results demonstrate the attractive performance of the method. The general approach can be naturally adapted to other situations where coordinate descent convex optimization algorithms are used with a random choice of the coordinates.
Autors: Pascal Bianchi;Walid Hachem;Franck Iutzeler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2947 - 2957
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Layer Quality-Oriented Scheme for Energy-Efficient Multimedia Delivery in Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Limited battery life has become a critical issue, particularly when mobile devices run multimedia applications, for which users have high quality expectations. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer quality-oriented energy-efficient multimedia delivery scheme (Q-PASTE), which balances the need for the following: increased energy efficiency/battery lifetime and high user quality of experience. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, the Packet/ApplicaTion manager (PAT) is employed as a novel traffic shaping scheme at the application layer of both the gateway and the client host. At the service gateway, PAT first utilizes a fast start approach to support smooth multimedia playback and then shapes traffic from the server into bursts to reduce the wireless transceivers duty cycle for energy efficiency. At the client side, PAT performs traffic monitoring and provides the medium access control (MAC) layer with session-specific traffic-related information. Second, a MAC-located Slow sTart Exponential and Linear Algorithm (STELA) is proposed, which adjusts the sleep/wakeup schedule of the wireless network interface card (WNIC) to increase energy efficiency. An additional parameter-tuning procedure working with the information provided by PAT ensures that data arrive at the client without serious delays. It is demonstrated both analytically and via simulations that the proposed scheme improves energy efficiency significantly, in comparison with other solutions, while maintaining high quality levels.
Autors: Yang Song;Bogdan Ciubotaru;Gabriel-Miro Muntean;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 65, issue:10, pages: 8554 - 8566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cyclic Frequency Tracking Loop for Wideband Spectrum Sensing and FM Demodulation
Abstract:
A cyclostationary feature-based wideband spectrum sensing is proposed in which cyclic frequency offset is considered. The received signal passes through a rough and flexible filter which its effective band tuned to a specific part of the received signal spectrum. It belongs to a target signal, which possibly exists in the received signal. Some cyclic frequencies of the target are employed to derive the normalized least mean square algorithm that estimates the filter output from its frequency shifted samples. Based on the weight estimate’s norm, the algorithm is tuned to find the accurate cyclic frequencies. If it succeeded, it means that the target signal is present. On the other hand, a complete search without major weights estimate means that the target signal is absent. In addition, the overall system, named cyclic frequency lock loop can be reformed as a demodulator for sinusoidal frequency modulation signals. The method is very easy to implement and has less computational complexity comparing with its other spectrum sensing counterparts. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Autors: Nooshin Garakyaragh;Kamal Shahtalebi;Amir R. Forouzan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 20, issue:10, pages: 2015 - 2018
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DC Capacitor Voltage Control Method for Active Power Filters Using Modified Reference Including the Theoretically Derived Voltage Ripple
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new dc capacitor voltage control method suitable for active power filters equipped with a small dc capacitor. The proposed control method calculates the theoretical dc capacitor voltage ripple and provides it to the dc capacitor voltage feedback controller as the reference. As a result, the proposed method has the capability to regulate the mean value of the dc capacitor voltage under a large voltage ripple condition. The proposed method also allows us to use a high feedback gain for suppressing the capacitor voltage fluctuations without any performance deterioration in the harmonic compensation. Experimental results confirm a good harmonic compensation and an effective voltage regulation performance under a small dc capacitor condition. The results also demonstrate a significant improvement in the capacitor voltage regulation even when a sudden load change occurs.
Autors: Tomoyuki Mannen;Hideaki Fujita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 4179 - 4187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decision Support Approach for Postal Delivery and Waste Collection Services
Abstract:
This paper presents an urban-decision support system (U-DSS) devoted to manage, in a unified framework, the logistic services of the smart cities, such as postal delivery (PD) and waste collection (WC) services. The U-DSS architecture is proposed by describing its main components. In particular, this paper focuses on the core of the U-DSS, i.e., the model component that provides the solutions of a general vehicle assignment and routing optimization problem with the aim of minimizing the length of the routes and satisfying time and capacity constraints. In order to solve the vehicle routing problems in reasonable time, a two-phase heuristic algorithm is proposed based on a clustering strategy and a farthest insertion heuristic for the solution of a traveling salesman problem. The applicability of the proposed U-DSS is enlightened by comparing the proposed heuristic algorithm solutions with the mixed integer linear programming problem solutions of the PD and WC services. Moreover, the discussion of the real case studies of the city of Bari (Italy) assesses the proposed approach.
Autors: Lorenzo Abbatecola;Maria Pia Fanti;Agostino Marcello Mangini;Walter Ukovich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 13, issue:4, pages: 1458 - 1470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delta-Readout Scheme for Low-Power CMOS Image Sensors With Multi-Column-Parallel SAR ADCs
Abstract:
This paper presents a power-saving readout scheme for CMOS image sensors (CISs) that utilizes the image properties. The proposed delta-readout (-readout) scheme reads the signal difference between two pixels located next to each other () by utilizing the most significant bits (MSBs) information of the previous pixel. By effectively reducing the dynamic range of the signal, compensated by the -window checking, the proposed -readout scheme can reduce the effective number of decision cycles in a successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and reduce the power consumption while preserving the ADC performance. A prototype QQVGA CIS with ten 10-bit SAR ADCs in a multi-column-parallel (MCP) configuration was fabricated in a P4M CIS process with a pixel pitch, where each single ADC occupies an area of . The measurement results of the implemented prototype CIS showed a maximum power-saving of 26% with a figure-of-merit (FoM) for ADC of 15 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Hyeon-June Kim;Sun-Il Hwang;Ji-Wook Kwon;Dong-Hwan Jin;Byoung-Soo Choi;Sang-Gwon Lee;Jong-Ho Park;Jang-Kyoo Shin;Seung-Tak Ryu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2262 - 2273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Diode-Pumped Dual-Wavelength Tm, Ho: YAG Ceramic Laser
Abstract:
A diode-pumped dual-wavelength CW Tm, Ho: YAG ceramic laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. A maximum output power of ∼1.2 W with a beam quality factor has been generated from the 3at.% Tm, 0.5at.% Ho: YAG ceramic, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 16.7% with respect to the absorbed pump power. This Tm, Ho: YAG ceramic laser operated at dual-wavelengths around 2090 and 2096 nm. With the increase in the absorbed pump power and the output coupler transmittance, blue-shift of the emission wavelength was observed.
Autors: Pian Liu;Lin Jin;Xuan Liu;Haitao Huang;Jian Zhang;Dingyuan Tang;Deyuan Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Disturbance-Free Energy-Efficient STT-MRAM Based on Complementary Polarizers
Abstract:
Complementary-polarizer magnetic tunnel junction (CPMTJ) is a promising device for high-performance nonvolatile memory because of its low critical current and inherently differential structure. In this letter, we present a novel CPMTJ-based STT-MRAM structure with separated reading and writing paths and explore the capability of the proposed structure to achieve disturbance-free READ operations based on the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). Micromagnetic simulations show that the proposed structure can reduce the read disturbance rate significantly and achieve disturbance-free READ operations with a suitable exchange stiffness constant. In addition, a compact model for CPMTJ is developed to evaluate the proposed structure at the circuit level. SPICE simulations based on the proposed model show that the proposed structure achieves eight times improvement in access energy efficiency over the previous CPMTJ-based STT-MRAM while preserving high access speed.
Autors: Lianhua Qu;Zhenyu Zhao;Yao Wang;Haoyue Tang;Huan Li;Quan Deng;Peng Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 37, issue:10, pages: 1288 - 1291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Fed Aperture-Coupled Microstrip Antenna With Polarization Diversity
Abstract:
This communication presents a dual-port reconfigurable square patch antenna with polarization diversity for 2.4 GHz. By controlling the states of four p-i-n diodes on the patch, the polarization of the proposed antenna can be switched among linear polarization (LP), left- or right-hand circular polarization (CP) at each port. The air substrate and aperture-coupled feed structure are employed to simplify the bias circuit of p-i-n diodes. With high isolation and low cross-polarization level in LP modes, both ports can work simultaneously as a dual linearly polarized antenna for polarimetric radars. Different CP waves are obtained at each port, which are suitable for addressing challenges ranging from mobility, adverse weather conditions and non-line-of-sight applications. The antenna has advantages of simple biasing network, easy fabrication and adjustment, which can be widely applied in polarization diversity applications.
Autors: Lei Zhong;Jing-Song Hong;Hong-Cheng Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4524 - 4529
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-TZ Extraction Technique for the Synthesis of Cross-Coupled Prototype Filters
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel circuital extraction possibility for filter prototypes including resonant and non-resonant nodes (NRNs). The proposed technique involves the extraction of a cross-inverter evaluated at infinity and a dangling resonator connected to an NRN at the same time. Therefore, two transmission zeros are extracted in one iteration step. This is an extension upon the results of the outstanding and original synthesis of cross-coupled filters proposed by S. Tamiazzo and G. Machiarella, providing different sets of configurations not considered by their methodology but within the same family of topologies. An example is shown in order to illustrate the proposed technique.
Autors: Alfred Gimenez;Pedro de Paco;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 777 - 779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Duality Framework for Stochastic Optimal Control of Complex Systems
Abstract:
We address the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of interactive subsystems. We formulate a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems and provide a duality framework to prove that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion of the system. We provide the conditions of existence and a geometric interpretation of the solution. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those studied here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value when we seek to derive online the optimal control policy in complex systems.
Autors: Andreas A. Malikopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2756 - 2765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Charging System With Reduced Output Power Pulsation for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper proposes a continuous dynamic wireless power transfer system for electric vehicles that reduces power pulsations during the charging process. Multiple rectangular unipolar coils are used at the primary side as the transmitters, and another unipolar coil works as a receiver at the secondary side. The transmitters are placed closely together to reduce the variation of magnetic fields along the moving track of the receiver. This structure induces self-coupling between the adjacent transmitters. An LCC-compensated circuit topology is utilized, and a compensation parameter design is provided which considers self-coupling between the primary coils. Finite-element analysis of the dynamic charging system is performed using Maxwell. The receiver size is optimized to reduce the variation of the coupling coefficient. A 1.4-kW dynamic charging prototype is constructed according to the designed coil structure and circuit parameters. There are six transmitters, each with dimensions 388 mm×400 mm, and one receiver with dimensions 485 mm×400 mm. Experimental results show that the output power pulsation is within ±7.5% in the dynamic charging process, and the maximum efficiency is 89.78%. If the edge effects of the transmitters are neglected, then the power pulsation is within ±2.9%.
Autors: Fei Lu;Hua Zhang;Heath Hofmann;Chunting Chris Mi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 6580 - 6590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Mode Decision Method in HEVC Using Adaptive Ordering of Modes
Abstract:
High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) has brought significant improvement to video compression in terms of coding performance and subjective quality. However, it is computationally more complex than H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC) and, hence, adaptation of HEVC to real-time video services has not been promising. In order to reduce the computational cost, we propose a fast mode decision method that is based on the adaptive ordering of modes. Our experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the total encoding time by 47.27%–60.73% and 47.65%–61.31%, with negligible degradation of coding performance, which is a Bjøntegaard delta rate increment of 0.35%–1.04% and 0.64%–1.80% under random-access configuration and low-delay configuration, respectively, compared with HEVC test model 12.1 with fast mode off.
Autors: Soon-heung Jung;Hyun Wook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 1846 - 1858
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A First-Order HF Radar Cross-Section Model for Mixed-Path Ionosphere–Ocean Propagation With an FMCW Source
Abstract:
A theoretical model of the first-order high-frequency (HF) radar cross section (RCS) for the ionosphere–ocean propagation involving a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) source is presented in this paper. Based on previous modeling involving the scattering of HF electromagnetic radiation from the ocean surface, an expression for the first-order electric field with an FMCW source is derived for the mixed-path case in which scattering occurs from both the ionosphere and the ocean surface. Then, this field is Fourier transformed and the frequency distribution of the demodulated electric field indicates range information of the ionosphere–ocean propagation. Subsequently, the first-order RCS is developed by assuming the ocean surface and the ionosphere are stochastic processes. To investigate the power spectrum of this ionospheric-clutter mode and its relative intensity to that of the ocean clutter, a normalized ionospheric-clutter power is simulated. Numerical simulation results are first compared with that of a pulsed radar for the same ocean scattering patch. Subsequently, it is shown how the ionosphere velocities and wavelengths, and wind directions affect the power spectrum for this ionosphere–ocean propagation.
Autors: Shuyan Chen;Eric W. Gill;Weimin Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 41, issue:4, pages: 982 - 992
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible All-Solid-State Micro Supercapacitor and Its Application in Electrostatic Energy Management System
Abstract:
This paper presents a flexible, all-solid-state micro supercapacitor (MSC) employing a thin parylene-C membrane as the substrate and polyvinyl alcohol–phosphoric acid polymer gel as the solid electrolyte. The MSC is surface mounted on an electrostatic energy management system, which aims to manage the energy collected from an electrostatic energy harvester and then store it in the MSC. The system consists of three parts: an electrostatic energy harvester, a management integrated circuit, and an MSC. The MSC prototype shows a specific capacitance of 31 mF/cm2 in the solid electrolyte. The prototype without a separator has also demonstrated that the capacitance changes from 27.7 to 25.4 mF/cm2 after more than 40 bending cycles and the capacitance retention is 91.7%, which indicates that the fabricated devices have good mechanical and electrochemical stability. The system can charge a 2.5-mF MSC with the result of 0.7 V output. The flexible all-solid-state MSC has the excellent potential in wearable electronics applications. The system can be used to efficiently collect and store the energy harvested from the environment, which bridges the energy harvesters to the practical applications. [2016-0090]
Autors: Xia Liu;Si Chen;Juan Pu;Xiaohong Wang;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 929 - 936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Framework for the Automatic Generation of SBST Programs
Abstract:
Software-based self-test (SBST) techniques are used to test processors and processor cores against permanent faults introduced by the manufacturing process or to perform in-field test in safety-critical applications. However, the generation of an SBST program is usually associated with high costs as it requires significant manual effort of a skilled engineer with in-depth knowledge about the processor under test. In this paper, we propose an approach for the automatic generation of SBST programs. First, we detail an automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) framework for the generation of functional test sequences. Second, we describe the extension of this framework with the concept of a validity checker module (VCM), which allows the specification of constraints with regard to the generated sequences. Third, we use the VCM to express typical constraints that exist when SBST is adopted for in-field test. In our experimental results, we evaluate the proposed approach with a microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages (MIPS)-like microprocessor. The results show that the proposed method is the first approach able to automatically generate SBST programs for both end-of-manufacturing and in-field test whose fault efficiency is superior to those produced by state-of-the-art manual approaches.
Autors: Andreas Riefert;Riccardo Cantoro;Matthias Sauer;Matteo Sonza Reorda;Bernd Becker;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 24, issue:10, pages: 3055 - 3066
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Force-Sensing Bipolar Forceps to Quantify Tool–Tissue Interaction Forces in Microsurgery
Abstract:
The ability to exert an appropriate amount of force on brain tissue during surgery is an important component of instrument handling. It allows surgeons to achieve the surgical objective effectively while maintaining a safe level of force in tool-tissue interaction. At the present time, this knowledge, and hence skill, is acquired through experience and is qualitatively conveyed from an expert surgeon to trainees. These forces can be assessed quantitatively by retrofitting surgical tools with sensors, thus providing a mechanism for improved performance and safety of surgery, and enhanced surgical training. This paper presents the development of a force-sensing bipolar forceps, with installation of a sensory system, that is able to measure and record interaction forces between the forceps tips and brain tissue in real time. This research is an extension of a previous research where a bipolar forceps was instrumented to measure dissection and coagulation forces applied in a single direction. Here, a planar forceps with two sets of strain gauges in two orthogonal directions was developed to enable measuring the forces with a higher accuracy. Implementation of two strain gauges allowed compensation of strain values due to deformations of the forceps in other directions (axial stiffening) and provided more accurate forces during microsurgery. An experienced neurosurgeon performed five neurosurgical tasks using the axial setup and repeated the same tasks using the planar device. The experiments were performed on cadaveric brains. Both setups were shown to be capable of measuring real-time interaction forces. Comparing the two setups, under the same experimental condition, indicated that the peak and mean forces quantified by planar forceps were at least 7% and 10% less than those of axial tool, respectively; therefore, utilizing readings of all strain gauges in planar forceps provides more accurate values of both peak and mean forces than axial forceps. Cross-- orrelation analysis between the two force signals obtained, one from each cadaveric practice, showed a high similarity between the two force signals.
Autors: Kourosh Zareinia;Yaser Maddahi;Liu Shi Gan;Ahmad Ghasemloonia;Sanju Lama;Taku Sugiyama;Fang Wei Yang;Garnette R. Sutherland;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 2365 - 2377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Four-Band Rectifier With Adaptive Power for Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel adaptive power rectifier operating at four bands to harvest the electromagnetic energy in the low and wide-range power density conditions. The power range of the rectifier is extended by two operation modes controlled adaptively by a FET switch according to the input power level. A cross-shaped match stub connected by a stepped impedance microstrip line is designed to make the rectifier work at four bands. Two cascaded radial open stubs act as a dc-pass filter to block the fundamental frequency wave and the high order harmonics to further improve the RF-DC (radio frequency-direct current) efficiency, and to smooth the output dc power. When the input power level is −10dBm, the measured maximum RF-DC efficiencies are 47.8%, 33.5%, 49.7% and 36.2% at the frequencies of 0.89GHz, 1.27GHz, 2.02GHz and 2.38GHz, respectively. The efficiency is above 30% in every band when the input power is from −12dBm to 12dBm, which shows a wide input power range.
Autors: Jia-Jun Lu;Xue-Xia Yang;Huan Mei;Chong Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 819 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency Agile Microstrip Patch Phased Array Antenna With Polarization Reconfiguration
Abstract:
A novel multifunctional phased array antenna employing wideband frequency agile microstrip patches with simultaneous polarization reconfiguration has been designed and experimentally verified. Each radiating element consists of a circular microstrip patch connected to an annular microstrip ring via four varactor diodes for achieving frequency agility between 1.5 and 2.4 GHz (frequency agility bandwidth %, dB). Employing two feed points per radiator enables switching among four polarization senses (two linear and two circular polarizations) using a polarization feed network (PFN). For realizing beam steering, the optimum amplitude and phase excitation coefficients for each radiating element were calculated using projection matrix method based on active element pattern, which is then applied to each corresponding radiating element using programmable digital phase shifters, low noise amplifiers, and attenuators arranged in a beam forming network. Measurement shows ±52° beam peak steering at 1.5 GHz and ±28° beam peak steering at 2.4 GHz based on 3 dB gain variation criteria for both the linear and circular polarizations. The simulated and measured results agree reasonably well.
Autors: Behrouz Babakhani;Satish Kumar Sharma;Nathan R. Labadie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4316 - 4327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Full-Duplex Single-Chip Transceiver With Self-Interference Cancellation in 0.13 m SiGe BiCMOS for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Abstract:
This paper presents a miniaturized EPR spectrometer based on a single-chip transceiver. Utilizing a novel on-chip self-interference cancellation circuit, the electromagnetic coupling from the transmitter (TX) to the receiver (RX) is minimized, allowing simultaneous achievement of large TX output power and low RX noise figure (NF). In the measurement, the RX achieves a NF of 3.1 dB/6.3 dB at 10 MHz/50 kHz baseband frequencies, when the TX and cancellation circuits are turned off. The measured flicker noise corner is 60 kHz, more than lower than the prior work. Moreover, for the first time, the operation of the RX and cancellation circuit is demonstrated when a co-integrated TX is operating at the same time and frequency, while producing >20 dBm output power. When the TX and cancellation circuits are turned on, at −10 dBm interference power, the measured NF is 6.8 dB/11.1 dB at 10 MHz/50 kHz baseband frequencies. This is lower by 5.6 dB/9.6 dB at 10 MHz/50 kHz baseband frequencies, compared to the NF with the cancellation circuit off at the same interference power. The transceiver chip is implemented in IBM BiCMOS process and consumes a power of 2 W. Utilizing this transceiver, an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer is built and tested. It is observed, through measurement, that the interference cancellation circuit increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the EPR signal by 7 dB at −10 dBm interference power. Compared to prior work, the reported EPR spectrometer improves the sensitivity of the system by 25 dB.
Autors: Xuebei Yang;Aydin Babakhani;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2408 - 2419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Full-Space Spectrum-Sharing Strategy for Massive MIMO Cognitive Radio Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a new spatial spectrum-sharing strategy for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive radio (CR) systems. Different from the conventional MIMO CR system, CR terminals can be discriminated by their angular information with the help of high spatial resolution of massive antennas at CR base station (CBS). Moreover, the discrete Fourier transform can be applied to efficiently obtain such angular information thanks to the massive antennas, again. We then formulate a 2-D spatial basis expansion model to represent the uplink/downlink channels of CRs with reduced parameter dimensions, which immediately alleviates the general headaches of massive MIMO systems, such as uplink pilot contamination and downlink training overhead. Moreover, we present a full-space coverage concept by employing two CBSs at the adjacent sides of each cell, which diminishes the sheltering effect from the primary radio. We also design two greedy CR scheduling algorithms for the dual CBSs to improve the spectral efficiency and enhance the scheduling probability of CRs. Since the proposed strategy exploits angular information and since the angle reciprocity holds for two frequency carriers with moderate distance, the proposed strategy is applied for both time division duplex and frequency division duplex systems.
Autors: Hongxiang Xie;Bolei Wang;Feifei Gao;Shi Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 34, issue:10, pages: 2537 - 2549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Isolated Delta-Sigma ADC for Shunt Based Current Sensing
Abstract:
This paper presents the world’s first reported chip-level 5 kVrms isolated delta-sigma ADC architecture which realizes isolation in both the power and signal domains. The compact IC package contains an integrated isolated power converter which includes an on-chip transformer, oscillator and rectifier, three delta–sigma analog-to-digital converters, a voltage reference, a temperature transducer, on-chip data transformers, and a controller/communication chip. Because it includes all of the isolation units within the same package, no PCB level isolation components are needed. This solution displaces the need for isolation using opto-couplers or costly, bulky and frequency dependent current transformers, and enables lower cost shunt resistor based current sensing applications such as domestic and industrial energy monitoring. It also enables new portable current sensing applications where high voltage isolation is required. The system-in-package (SIP) draws 12.5 mA from a 3.3 V supply and achieves 74.4 dBFS SNDR and 80.8 dBFS SFDR in a bandwidth of 3.3 kHz. It achieves an insulation voltage rating of 400 Vrms continuous and 5 kVrms over a 1 minute duration.
Autors: Zhichao Tan;Mick Mueck;Xiao Hong Du;Larry Getzin;Michael Guidry;Shane Keating;Xing Xing;Flow Zhao;Baoxing Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 2232 - 2240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fundamental Tradeoff Between Total and Brown Power Consumption in Geographically Dispersed Data Centers
Abstract:
This letter aims at deriving a fundamental tradeoff between the total and brown power consumption associated with geographical dispersed data centers, where utilizing more green energy mostly happens at the cost of increasing the total power consumption. To this end, we define a new service efficiency parameter for data centers in satisfying the QoS requirements based on the queuing analysis. More importantly, we propose the idea of modeling geo-dispersed data centers with an information flow graph to capture a total-brown power consumption tradeoff region. Accordingly, we characterize the achievable tradeoff between total and brown power consumption.
Autors: Abbas Kiani;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 20, issue:10, pages: 1955 - 1958
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Collaborative Framework for Modeling and Perceiving Distributed Network Behavior
Abstract:
Collaborative Anomaly Detection (CAD) is an emerging field of network security in both academia and industry. It has attracted a lot of attention, due to the limitations of traditional fortress-style defense modes. Even though a number of pioneer studies have been conducted in this area, few of them concern about the universality issue. This work focuses on two aspects of it. First, a unified collaborative detection framework is developed based on network virtualization technology. Its purpose is to provide a generic approach that can be applied to designing specific schemes for various application scenarios and objectives. Second, a general behavior perception model is proposed for the unified framework based on hidden Markov random field. Spatial Markovianity is introduced to model the spatial context of distributed network behavior and stochastic interaction among interconnected nodes. Algorithms are derived for parameter estimation, forward prediction, backward smooth, and the normality evaluation of both global network situation and local behavior. Numerical experiments using extensive simulations and several real datasets are presented to validate the proposed solution. Performance-related issues and comparison with related works are discussed.
Autors: Yi Xie;Yu Wang;Haitao He;Yang Xiang;Shunzheng Yu;Xincheng Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 3162 - 3176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized Stochastic Petri Net Approach for Modeling Activities of Human Operators in Intermodal Container Terminals
Abstract:
This paper proposes a Petri net (PN) representation of the activities performed by the key human operators for unloading/loading containers in an intermodal maritime container terminal (CT) with a low level of automation. These processes are the core of the export, import, and transshipment cycles executed in the terminal. The aim of this paper is to consider both the human component and the material handling resources, e.g., cranes and transporters, by defining an accurate model, which describes how to coordinate humans and use the system resources necessary for serving mother or feeder ships. The developed generalized stochastic PN-based model is of limited complexity and represents a complete, unambiguous, and readable model of the target process before coding it in the target simulation tool. The modular integrated model is tested and validated by the simulation of typical and perturbed scenarios of the Taranto CT, a real terminal that is taken as a case study for its complexity and similarity to CTs with multiple transport modes.
Autors: Guido Maione;Agostino Marcello Mangini;Michele Ottomanelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 13, issue:4, pages: 1504 - 1516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Global Tracking Controller for Underactuated Aerial Vehicles: Design, Analysis, and Experimental Tests on Quadrotor
Abstract:
This paper investigates the global tracking control of underactuated aerial vehicles. In particular, the globally exponentially stable attitude tracking controller serving as the inner loop of the overall controller is investigated. It can avoid the common problems that may be accompanied by other attitude controllers, such as singularity and unwinding. In order to overcome the topological obstacles of global control on SO(3), rotational motion of a rigid body is expressed in the exponential coordinate restricted in a compact domain. We then construct a hybrid tracking error dynamics whose states are all represented in Euclidean space. The geometric properties of the state space are mathematically analyzed. The tracking controller of underactuated aerial vehicles is, thus, designed based on the hybrid tracking error dynamics. The global exponential stability of the closed-loop attitude subsystem, as well as the global asymptotical stability of the closed-loop overall system under assumptions, is analyzed using Lyapunov's method strictly. These properties are demonstrated by simulation results. The proposed controller is also implemented and tested on our self-developed quadrotor, showing the feasibility of the controller in realtime applications.
Autors: Yushu Yu;Xilun Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 2499 - 2511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Ground Moving Target Detection Approach Based on Shadow Feature With Multichannel High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract:
With the observation distance of the radar increasing, the multichannel high-resolution synthetic aperture radar system may suffer from the reduction of the target signal-to-noise ratio, which leads to degradation in the detection performance for ground moving target indication (GMTI). Fortunately, the shadow feature, apart from the amplitude and interferometric phase of a moving target, may be available to improve the performance for target detection. In this letter, according to the geometric relationships between the moving object and its shadow in position and size, a shadow-aided method for GMTI is proposed. In addition, an efficient shadow detection method based on multifeature fusion is discussed to improve the shadow detection performance. Finally, numerical simulation results show that the shadow-aided method has a better detection performance, compared with the traditional detection algorithms.
Autors: Huajian Xu;Zhiwei Yang;Guozhong Chen;Guisheng Liao;Min Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 13, issue:10, pages: 1572 - 1576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A GSA-Based Modified SVC Switching Scheme for Load Balancing and Source Power Factor Improvement
Abstract:
An improved switching scheme for static VAr compensators (SVCs) that have fixed capacitor-thyristor-controlled reactors (FC-TCRs) for load balancing and power factor improvement has been addressed in this paper. The proposed control scheme can eliminate negative-sequence current caused by unbalanced load while improving the source power factor simultaneously. Thus total current supplied by the source can be minimized along with improvement of the load voltage profile. As the switching of TCR can introduce additional harmonics in the line, an optimized switching function is adopted in the proposed scheme for minimum injected harmonics without using an external filter. The gravitational search algorithm has been used for obtaining the optimized switching angle. The proposed scheme has been verified through proper simulations backed by suitable experimental results on a practical system.
Autors: Sankar Das;Debashis Chatterjee;Swapan Kumar Goswami;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 31, issue:5, pages: 2072 - 2082
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Guaranteed Similarity Metric Learning Framework for Biological Sequence Comparison
Abstract:
Similarity of sequences is a key mathematical notion for Classification and Phylogenetic studies in Biology. The distance and similarity between two sequence are very important and widely studied. During the last decades, Similarity(distance) metric learning is one of the hottest topics of machine learning/data mining as well as their applications in the bioinformatics field. It is feasible to introduce machine learning technology to learn similarity metric from biological data. In this paper, we propose a novel framework of guaranteed similarity metric learning (GMSL) to perform alignment of biology sequences in any feature vector space. It introduces the -goodness similarity theory to Mahalanobis metric learning. As a theoretical guaranteed similarity metric learning approach, GMSL guarantees that the learned similarity function performs well in classification and clustering. Our experiments on the most used datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art biological sequences alignment methods and other similarity metric learning algorithms in both accuracy and stability.
Autors: Keru Hua;Qin Yu;Ruiming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 868 - 877
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Coupling Coefficient 2.3-GHz AlN Resonator for High Band LTE Filtering Application
Abstract:
This letter reports an aluminium nitride (AlN)-based micromechanical resonator with high-effective coupling coefficient ( and low insertion loss (IL), which are comparable with those of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators (FBARs). The in-house-fabricated resonator comprises of lithographically patterned top and bottom molybdenum interdigitated electrode fingers and a layer of 1--thick AlN sandwiched in between. Synergetic inter-mode coupling between the constituent thickness mode and the lateral mode can be realized within a wide frequency range, which can be treated as a subcategory of degenerated cross-sectional Lamé mode, enabling the capability of lithographic tuning of resonant frequency yet not compromising . Measurement results show that the designed 2.3-GHz resonator achieves a of 6.34% and an IL of 0.26 dB upon direct connection to a network with 50- termination, making it a promising candidate for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and high band Long Term Evolution (LTE) band selection filtering applications.
Autors: Yao Zhu;Nan Wang;Chengliang Sun;Srinivas Merugu;Navab Singh;Yuandong Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 37, issue:10, pages: 1344 - 1346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Power Waveguide Phase Shifter With Periodic RF Chokes for Subgigawatt Nanopulse Transmission
Abstract:
A high-power handling waveguide phase shifter with a high RF leakage attenuation is proposed at S-band. It uses the periodic RF chokes as a moveable noncontacting short circuit and a compact narrow-wall hybrid coupler in order to improve the RF leakage attenuation and the power handling capacity in low-profile beam-forming networks, respectively. This geometry is attractive, since it does not need a capacitive loading button and a contacting short circuit, which reduce the power handling capacity of the phase shifter. The results shows that the phase shifter could handle the high-power pulse energy of subgigawatt levels, and the phase can be adjustable in a range of 0°–360° over the 0.5-GHz bandwidth for −15-dB return loss in a numerical simulation. In addition, it has a high RF-leakage attenuation of −110 dB, which is a significant improvement compared with that of the single RF choke of −50 dB over the frequency range of 2.7–3.2 GHz.
Autors: Jun-Ho Choi;Yong-Hoon Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2016, volume: 44, issue:10, pages: 2307 - 2313
Publisher: IEEE
 

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