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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2015 sorted by title, page: 0

» “Arc Flash” Hazards, Incident Energy, PPE Ratings, and Thermal Burn Injury—A Deeper Look
Abstract:
Tremendous resources are being invested in arc flash studies and personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect workers from “arc flash” hazards. In the flurry to comply with OSHA regulations and NFPA 70 and 70E standards, the real understanding of the arc hazard and incident energy may be lagging behind. The term “arc flash” does not adequately convey the range of potential arc hazards—light, pressure, and heat transmission, as well as others. The term “arc flash” also fails to emphasize that arc flash injuries primarily arise from thermal burns and that the risk of a potentially severe or fatal arc burn is often present when performing electrical work. Worker risk assessment and the appropriate PPE are represented as definitive quantities in “cal/cm 2;” however, the quantitative potential heat exposure and heat protection afforded by PPE are usually less precise than what concrete numerical values imply. Basic concepts of incident energy, PPE ratings, and burn injury are also explored in this paper to help identify factors influencing the burn hazards posed by arcing faults in electrical power systems.
Autors: Gammon, T.;Lee, W.;Zhang, Z.;Johnson, B.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 51, issue:5, pages: 4275 - 4283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» (Buzz)Words [Microbusiness]
Abstract:
Reports on new buzz words in business and industry.
Autors: Schindler, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 18 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 170 GHz SiGe-BiCMOS Loss-Compensated Distributed Amplifier
Abstract:
This paper presents a travelling-wave amplifier (TWA) for wideband applications implemented in a 0.13 m SiGe BiCMOS technology ( 300 GHz, 500 GHz). The gain cell employed in the TWA is designed to compensate the synthetic-line losses at high frequencies in order to extend the bandwidth as well as the gain bandwidth product (GBP). A gain of 10 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth of 170 GHz are measured for the fabricated circuit. The circuit analysis is presented to illustrate how the bandwidth of the circuit is dominated by the cutoff frequency of the synthetic lines, thus demonstrating complete losses compensation for the band of interest. The chip required a total area of 0.38 mm and a power consumption of 108 mW. Compared against the state of the art, the presented design achieves the highest reported GBP per power consumption and area, as well as the highest operation frequency for silicon implementations.
Autors: Testa, P.V.;Belfiore, G.;Paulo, R.;Carta, C.;Ellinger, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2228 - 2238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2.0-Gb/s Visible Light Link Based on Adaptive Bit Allocation OFDM of a Single Phosphorescent White LED
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a high-speed visible light communication (VLC) system based on a single commercially available phosphorescent white light-emitting diode (LED). In this system, a preequalization circuit is used to extend the modulation bandwidth, and a differential output receiver is utilized to reduce the system noise. With adaptive bit and power allocation and orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), we experimentally demonstrated a 2.0-Gb/s visible light link over 1.5-m free-space transmission, and the BER is under a preforward error correction limit of . To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest white-light VLC data rate using a single phosphorescent white LED.
Autors: Huang, X.;Chen, S.;Wang, Z.;Shi, J.;Wang, Y.;Xiao, J.;Chi, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 7, issue:5, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 21st Century Pong
Abstract:
Cornell University students built a system that tracks a Ping-Pong ball in real time and keeps score. The Web extra at https://youtu.be/r7VtgzPPYy4 is a video demonstration in which Cornell students Pol Rosello (CS), Taylor Pritchard (ECE), and Frank Xie (ECE), describe and demonstrate their Table Tennis Tracker system. The system analyzes a video stream to track the location of the ball and to automatically keep score. Video provided by Dr. Bruce Land.
Autors: Byrd, Greg;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 48, issue:10, pages: 80 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Analytical Model for Axial-Flux Eddy-Current Couplings and Brakes Under Steady-State Conditions
Abstract:
This paper presents a 3-D analytical model for axial-flux eddy-current couplings and brakes, leading to closed-form expressions for the torque and the axial force. The proposed model is valid under a steady-state condition (constant speed operation). It takes into account the reaction field due to induced currents in the moving conducting part. In order to simplify the analysis, we adopt the assumption of linearization at the mean radius, and the problem is then solved in 3-D Cartesian coordinates (curvature effects are neglected). The solution is obtained by solving the Maxwell equations with a magnetic scalar potential formulation in the nonconductive regions (magnets and air gap) and a magnetic field strength formulation in the conductive region (copper). Magnetic field distribution, axial force, and torque computed with the 3-D analytical model are compared with those obtained from the 3-D finite-element simulations and experimental results.
Autors: Lubin, T.;Rezzoug, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D FDTD Simulation of the Lightning-Induced Waves on Overhead Lines Considering the Vertically Stratified Ground
Abstract:
In this paper, we have employed the 3-D finite-difference time-domain technique to analyze the influence of the vertically stratified conducting ground (mixed path) on the lightning-induced voltages of the overhead line at 60 and 200 m from the lightning strike point by using decomposing method. In order to analyze the effect range caused by mixed path, we assumed that the mixed path has much different conductivities with 100:1 ratio. When the conductivity near the strike point (0.1 S/m) is larger than that near the overhead line section (0.001 S/m), the induced voltage clearly increases with the increase of the closest distance from the center of the line to the interface between the two media (dl). However, for strike point with a less conducting earth (0.001 S/m) than the overhead line section (0.1 S/m), when dl is less than 30 m, the influence of the stratification should be considered; when dl is larger than 30 m, it can just be regarded as a homogeneous soil with the conductivity of 0.1 S/m equal to that near the overhead line. For the smaller ratio of conductivities of the mixed path, its effect on the induced voltages decreases.
Autors: Zhang, Q.;Tang, X.;Hou, W.;Zhang, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1112 - 1122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Fingertip Touch Force Prediction Using Fingernail Imaging With Automated Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents an automated routine for calibrating a fingernail imaging system, with the intent of predicting fingerpad forces. The system uses a magnetic levitation haptic device to apply forces to the human fingerpad while recording images of the nail and surrounding skin. A novel force controller is implemented to interact stably with the human fingerpad. The data are used to calibrate a principal component regression model relating pixel intensity to 3-D force. Using data from this automated routine, this model simultaneously predicts 3-D force with an RMS error of 0.56 0.03 N (7.7% of the full range of forces).
Autors: Grieve, T.R.;Hollerbach, J.M.;Mascaro, S.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 31, issue:5, pages: 1116 - 1129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Integration and Through-Silicon Vias in MEMS and Microsensors
Abstract:
After two decades of intensive development, 3-D integration has proven invaluable for allowing integrated circuits to adhere to Moore’s Law without needing to continuously shrink feature sizes. The 3-D integration is also an enabling technology for hetero-integration of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)/microsensors with different technologies, such as CMOS and optoelectronics. This 3-D hetero-integration allows for the development of highly integrated multifunctional microsystems with small footprints, low cost, and high performance demanded by emerging applications. This paper reviews the following aspects of the MEMS/microsensor-centered 3-D integration: fabrication technologies and processes, processing considerations and strategies for 3-D integration, integrated device configurations and wafer-level packaging, and applications and commercial MEMS/microsensor products using 3-D integration technologies. Of particular interest throughout this paper is the hetero-integration of the MEMS and CMOS technologies. [2015-0158]
Autors: Wang, Z.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 1211 - 1244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Resistive Memory Arrays: From Intrinsic Switching Behaviors to Optimization Guidelines
Abstract:
3-D resistive switching random access memory (RRAM) is a promising candidate for high-density nonvolatile memory applications, as well as for monolithic 3-D integration interleaved with logic layers. In this paper, we develop a methodology for assessing and optimizing large-scale 3-D RRAM arrays. A systematic study on the intrinsic switching behaviors and optimization of 3-D RRAM arrays is performed, combining device measurements and 3-D array simulations. The dependence of programming voltage on array size, cell location and pulse parameters, statistical properties of operating 3-D RRAM arrays, and subthreshold disturbance on RRAM cells is experimentally investigated. Optimization guidelines for the performance and reliability of 3-D RRAM arrays from device level to architecture level are presented: 1) an optimized 1/ architecture for 100-kb 3-D RRAM arrays can improve write margin by 69.6% and reduce energy consumption by 75.6% compared with a conventional full-size array design; 2) a strategy of prioritizing storage location for reliable operation is presented; and 3) an optimal hopping barrier of oxygen ions is found to improve array immunity to disturbance.
Autors: Li, H.;Gao, B.;Chen, H.H.;Chen, Z.;Huang, P.;Liu, R.;Zhao, L.;Jiang, Z.J.;Liu, L.;Liu, X.;Yu, S.;Kang, J.;Nishi, Y.;Wong, H.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 3160 - 3167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Transient Modeling of Bulk High-Temperature Superconducting Material in Passive Magnetic Bearing Applications
Abstract:
Bulk high-temperature superconductors are being considered for use in several engineering applications, including passive magnetic bearings. These bearings, apart from being passive, i.e., inherently stable, also offer the promise of lower bearing losses; thus, they are being considered for use with flywheels for energy storage in applications related to frequency regulation and for correcting forecasting errors associated with renewable energy sources. The effort presented in this paper was undertaken to characterize the performance of these bearings such as longitudinal and transverse stiffness and loss characteristics. To this end, a finite-element method (FEM) using the T– potentials was used for the formulation. The results of the FEM were verified with experiments. These experiments are described. This FEM tool was also used to guide the development of a reduced-order model, which could run faster and, therefore, could be used in larger system simulations. Some discussions about the run time on a desktop PC are also presented.
Autors: Pratap, S.;Hearn, C.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-kV and 2.8- -cm2 Vertical GaN p-n Diodes With Low Leakage Currents
Abstract:
There is great interest in bulk GaN-based power electronics devices for applications requiring breakdown voltages greater than 3.3 kV. In this letter, the vertical GaN p-n diodes fabricated on improved bulk GaN substrates demonstrating low leakage currents (<10 nA) and avalanche breakdown are discussed. The device layers are grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition on low defect density ( cm ) bulk GaN substrates with improved quality and specifications that are uniquely suitable for power electronic device applications. The measured devices show breakdown voltages larger than 4 kV with an area differential specific ON-resistance ( ) of less than 3 -cm2. Applications that would require such breakdown voltages, include ship propulsion, rail, wind, uninterruptable power supplies, and the power grid.
Autors: Kizilyalli, I.C.;Prunty, T.;Aktas, O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1073 - 1075
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 6-DOF Pose Estimation of a Robotic Navigation Aid by Tracking Visual and Geometric Features
Abstract:
This paper presents a 6-DOF pose estimation (PE) method for a robotic navigation aid (RNA) for the visually impaired. The RNA uses a single 3D camera for PE and object detection. The proposed method processes the camera’s intensity and range data to estimates the camera’s egomotion that is then used by an extended Kalman filter (EKF) as the motion model to track a set of visual features for PE. A RANSAC process is employed in the EKF to identify inliers from the visual feature correspondences between two image frames. Only the inliers are used to update the EKF’s state. The EKF integrates the egomotion into the camera’s pose in the world coordinate system. To retain the EKF’s consistency, the distance between the camera and the floor plane (extracted from the range data) is used by the EKF as the observation of the camera’s coordinate. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method results in accurate pose estimates for positioning the RNA in indoor environments. Based on the PE method, a wayfinding system is developed for localization of the RNA in a home environment. The system uses the estimated pose and the floorplan to locate the RNA user in the home environment and announces the points of interest and navigational commands to the user through a speech interface.
Autors: Ye, C.;Hong, S.;Tamjidi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 12, issue:4, pages: 1169 - 1180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» and Norms of 2-D Mixed Continuous-Discrete-Time Systems via Rationally-Dependent Complex Lyapunov Functions
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of determining the and norms of 2-D mixed continuous-discrete-time systems. The first contribution is to propose a novel approach based on the use of complex Lyapunov functions with even rational parametric dependence, which searches for upper bounds on the sought norms via linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The second contribution is to show that the upper bounds provided are nonconservative by using Lyapunov functions in the chosen class with sufficiently large degree. The third contribution is to provide conditions for establishing the tightness of the upper bounds. The fourth contribution is to show how the numerical complexity of the proposed approach can be significantly reduced by proposing a new necessary and sufficient LMI condition for establishing positive semidefiniteness of even Hermitian matrix polynomials. This result is also exploited to derive an improved necessary and sufficient LMI condition for establishing exponential stability of 2-D mixed continuous-discrete-time systems. Some numerical examples illustrate the proposed approach. It is worth remarking that nonconservative LMI methods for determining the and norms of 2-D mixed continuous-discrete-time systems have not been proposed yet in the literature.
Autors: Chesi, G.;Middleton, R.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 60, issue:10, pages: 2614 - 2625
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Silico Closed-Loop Control Validation Studies for Optimal Insulin Delivery in Type 1 Diabetes
Abstract:
This study presents a general closed-loop control strategy for optimal insulin delivery in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). The proposed control strategy aims toward an individualized optimal insulin delivery that consists of a patient-specific model predictive controller, a state estimator, a personalized scheduling level, and an open-loop optimization problem subjected to patient-specific process model and constraints. This control strategy can be also modified to address the case of limited patient data availability resulting in an “approximation” control strategy. Both strategies are validated in silico in the presence of predefined and unknown meal disturbances using both a novel mathematical model of glucose–insulin interactions and the UVa/Padova Simulator model as a virtual patient. The robustness of the control performance is evaluated under several conditions such as skipped meals, variability in the meal time, and metabolic uncertainty. The simulation results of the closed-loop validation studies indicate that the proposed control strategies can potentially achieve improved glycaemic control.
Autors: Zavitsanou, S.;Mantalaris, A.;Georgiadis, M.C.;Pistikopoulos, E.N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2369 - 2378
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In-Situ Measurement of Junction Temperature and Light Intensity of Light Emitting Diodes With an Internal Sensor Unit
Abstract:
This study designed and tested an innovative light-emitting diode (LED) chip with a built-in sensor. Two electrically isolated units, the LED (for light emission) and the sensor (for monitoring junction temperature and light intensity), were integrated on a single chip. The sensor unit determines the junction temperature by measuring the forward voltage; the light output power of the LED unit can be precisely extrapolated with a polynomial function based on the photocurrent and junction temperature. This novel structure enables the in-situ real-time monitoring of the LED junction temperature and light output power, which allows a highly detailed and/or in-field LED reliability analysis and provides valuable feedback information for smart LED lighting systems.
Autors: Li, J.;Zhou, Y.;Qi, Y.;Miao, Z.;Wang, Y.;Xiu, X.;Liu, B.;Zhang, R.;Zheng, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1082 - 1084
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FHAST: FPGA-Based Acceleration of Bowtie in Hardware
Abstract:
While the sequencing capability of modern instruments continues to increase exponentially, the computational problem of mapping short sequenced reads to a reference genome still constitutes a bottleneck in the analysis pipeline. A variety of mapping tools (e.g., Bowtie, BWA) is available for general-purpose computer architectures. These tools can take many hours or even days to deliver mapping results, depending on the number of input reads, the size of the reference genome and the number of allowed mismatches or insertion/deletions, making the mapping problem an ideal candidate for hardware acceleration. In this paper, we present FHAST (FPGA hardware accelerated sequence-matching tool), a drop-in replacement for Bowtie that uses a hardware design based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA). Our architecture masks memory latency by executing multiple concurrent hardware threads accessing memory simultaneously. FHAST is composed by multiple parallel engines to exploit the parallelism available to us on an FPGA. We have implemented and tested FHAST on the Convey HC-1 and later ported on the Convey HC-2ex, taking advantage of the large memory bandwidth available to these systems and the shared memory image between hardware and software. A preliminary version of FHASTrunning on the Convey HC-1 achieved up to 70x speedup compared to Bowtie (single-threaded). An improved version of FHAST running on the Convey HC-2ex FPGAs achieved up to 12x fold speed gain compared to Bowtie running eight threads on an eight-core conventional architecture, while maintaining almost identical mapping accuracy. FHAST is a drop-in replacement for Bowtie, so it can be incorporated in any analysis pipeline that uses Bowtie (e.g., TopHat).
Autors: Fernandez, E.B.;Villarreal, J.;Lonardi, S.;Najjar, W.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 973 - 981
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.2–3.6-GHz 10-dBm B1dB 29-dBm IIP3 Tunable Filter for Transmit Leakage Suppression in SAW-Less 3G/4G FDD Receivers
Abstract:
A tunable -path filter with more than one decade tuning range is demonstrated to address transmit (TX) leakage in a surface-acoustic-wave-less diversity path receiver for frequency-division duplexing cellular systems. The proposed filter simultaneously creates a reject band and passband anywhere from 0.2 to 3.6 GHz to suppress TX leakage while minimizing insertion loss of the receive signal and is implemented in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator. Measurements show the 3-dB bandwidth of the passband is greater than 80 MHz with an independently tunable reject band, providing the ultimate rejection is from 33 to 41 dB while the passband insertion loss is between 2.6 dB and 4.3 dB over the tuning range. The proposed filter offers 29-dBm out-of-band (OOB) third-order input-intercept power (IIP3) and 22-dBm in-band (IB) IIP3 with a 10-dBm blocker 1-dB compression point (B1dB). To the authors’ knowledge, this is the highest B1dB, IB IIP3, and OOB IIP3 for a CMOS tunable filter.
Autors: Luo, C.;Gudem, P.S.;Buckwalter, J.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 3514 - 3524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4 V 63 W 76.1 dB SNDR 20 kHz Bandwidth Delta-Sigma Modulator Using a Hybrid Switching Integrator
Abstract:
This paper presents a delta-sigma modulator operating at a supply voltage of 0.4 V. The designed delta-sigma modulator uses a proposed hybrid switching integrator and operates at a low supply voltage without clock boosting or bootstrapped switches. The proposed integrator consists of both switched-resistor and switched-capacitor operations and significantly reduces distortion at a low supply voltage. Variation in the turn-on resistance, which is the main source of distortion, is avoided by placing the switches at the virtual ground node of the amplifier. The proposed low-voltage design scheme can replace commonly-used clock boosting techniques, which rely on internal high-voltage generation circuits. A fabricated modulator achieves a 76.1 dB signal-to-noise-plus-distortion ratio (SNDR) and an 82 dB dynamic range at a 20 kHz bandwidth. The measured total power consumption is 63 µW from a 0.4 V supply voltage. The measured results show robust SNDR performance, even at ±10% supply voltage variations. The measured results also show stable performance over a wide temperature range.
Autors: Yoon, Y.;Choi, D.;Roh, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2342 - 2352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.7 V Relative Temperature Sensor With a Non-Calibrated 3 Relative Inaccuracy
Abstract:
This paper presents a new low-voltage relative temperature sensor for multi-core digital processor on-chip thermal management in a 180 nm CMOS process. Three types of sensing diodes including Schottky barrier diode (SBD), subthreshold MOSFET diode and dynamic threshold MOSFET (DTMOS) diode have been investigated for low-voltage operation, while traditional parasitic PNP-bipolar junction transistor (BJT) diodes are implemented to provide a performance reference. A matrix of 7 7 small remote sensor nodes is implemented on the chip with a deployment density of 49/0.81 and sharing the same bias current generator, control logic, and data converter. The measured minimum supply voltage (not including the clock control block) of the sensor is 0.7 V over to 125 . The relative sensing inaccuracies without calibration are less than , and for the designs based on SBD, subthreshold MOSFET, and DTMOS, respectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time that non-calibrated relative sensing accuracy is reported for SBD-based and DTMOS-based temperature sensors, and the best reported result for the design based on subthreshold MOSFET. The absolute inaccuracies with calibration-per-chip are also presented. Furthermore, the multi-location thermal monitoring function has been experimen- ally demonstrated and a 1.8 on-chip temperature gradient was detected.
Autors: Lu, L.;Vosooghi, B.;Dai, L.;Li, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2434 - 2444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 × 400 Backside-Illuminated SPAD Sensor With 49.7 ps Resolution, 30 pJ/Sample TDCs Fabricated in 3D CMOS Technology for Near-Infrared Optical Tomography
Abstract:
A 1 × 400 array of backside-illuminated SPADs fabricated in 130 nm 3D IC CMOS technology is presented. Sensing is performed in the top tier substrate and time-to-digital conversion in the bottom tier. Clusters of eight pixels are connected to a winner-take-all circuit with collision detection capabilities to realise an efficient sharing of the time-to-digital converter (TDC). The sensor's 100 TDCs are based on a dual-frequency architecture enabling 30 pJ per conversion at a rate of 13.3 ms/s per TDC. The resolution (1 LSB) of the TDCs is 49.7 ps with a standard deviation of 0.8 ps across the entire array; the mean DNL is ±0.44 LSB and the mean INL is ±0.47. The chip was designed for use in near-infrared optical tomography (NIROT) systems for brain imaging and diagnostics. Measurements performed on a silicon phantom proved its suitability for NIROT applications.
Autors: Pavia, J.M.;Scandini, M.;Lindner, S.;Wolf, M.;Charbon, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2406 - 2418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100 MS/s, 10.5 Bit, 2.46 mW Comparator-Less Pipeline ADC Using Self-Biased Ring Amplifiers
Abstract:
The ring amplifier is an energy efficient and high output swing alternative to an OTA for switched-capacitor circuits. However, the conventional ring amplifier requires external biases, which makes the ring amplifier less practical when we consider process, supply voltage, and temperature (PVT) variation. This paper presents a self-biased ring amplifier scheme that makes the ring amplifier more practical and power efficient while maintaining the benefits of efficient slew-based charging and an almost rail-to-rail output swing. We introduce an improved auto-zero scheme that eliminates the gain error caused by the parasitic capacitance across the auto-zero switch. Furthermore, a comparator-less pipeline ADC structure takes advantage of the characteristics of the ring-amplifier to replace the sub-ADC in each pipeline stage. The prototype ADC has measured SNDR, SNR and SFDR of 56.6 dB (9.11 b), 57.5 dB and 64.7 dB, respectively, for a Nyquist frequency input sampled at 100 MS/s, and consumes 2.46 mW.
Autors: Lim, Y.;Flynn, M.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2331 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15 µm-Pitch, 8.7-ENOB, 13-Mcells/sec Logarithmic Readout Circuit for Multi-Level Cell Phase Change Memory
Abstract:
This paper presents a narrow-pitch readout circuit for multi-level phase change memory (PCM) employing an architecture of two-step 5 bit logarithmic ADC. A single-slope-architecture based fine ADC yields a 15 m-width compact single channel readout circuit for column parallel readout structure. A current-mode 2 bit flash ADC for coarse conversion and the pipelined architecture between the coarse and fine conversion enhance the readout rate up to 13 Mcells/sec. With the enhanced residue accuracy provided by the replica circuit of residue generator, the ADC achieves excellent linearity of 9.96 b (linear ADC equivalent). The integration-based residue generation effectively reduces circuit noise and yields 8.7 ENOB. The prototype chip was fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process and the measured power consumption from a single channel readout circuit was 105 W at 13 Mcells/sec conversion rate at 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Jin, D.-H.;Kwon, J.-W.;Kim, H.-J.;Hwang, S.-I.;Shin, M.;Cheon, J.;Ryu, S.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2431 - 2440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2 kfps Sub-µW/Pix Uncooled-PbSe Digital Imager With 10 Bit DR Adjustment and FPN Correction for High-Speed and Low-Cost MWIR Applications
Abstract:
Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) thermography is an emerging technology with promising applications such as industrial monitoring, medicine and automotive, but its use in high-speed cameras is not yet widespread due to the lack of inexpensive sensor integration solutions and their common reliance on bulky cooling mechanisms. This work fills the gap by presenting a monolithic uncooled high-speed imager based on vapor-phase deposition lead selenide (VPD PbSe) photoconductors and a fully digital and configurable CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) to operate the MWIR imager. This ROIC features cancellation of PbSe dark current, compensation of its output capacitance and correction of the fixed pattern noise (FPN) caused by process non-uniformities in CMOS fabrication and detector deposition. The low-cost 80 × 80 imager has been integrated using 0.35 µm 2P4M standard CMOS technology and PbSe detector post-processing with 135 µm pixel pitch and 68% fill factor values. Experimental opto-electrical performance exhibits 10 bit real-time FPN compensation and DR calibration over the entire focal plane operating at 2 kfps, sub-0.5 LSB inter-pixel crosstalk, sub-µW pixel power consumption, and an overall figure of merit of 55 mK × ms.
Autors: Margarit, J.M.;Vergara, G.;Villamayor, V.;Gutierrez-Alvarez, R.;Fernandez-Montojo, C.;Teres, L.;Serra-Graells, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2394 - 2405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-D Infrared Instrumentation for Close-Range Finger Position Sensing
Abstract:
Haptic interfaces are proposed for enhancing human-computer interfaces through the rendering of interaction forces. Among them, encounter-type haptic displays feature an original way to provide the user with an improved transparency: their end effectors remotely track the fingers of the operator and encounter them only when force rendering is required. These interfaces call for the development of specific position tracking systems. In this paper, a 2-D hollow instrumentation for remote and marker-free close-range finger tracking is proposed. It encloses 16 infrared proximity sensors. Its design specifications are based on a literature review of finger motion and a simulation of the tracking dynamics. Some calibration methods, organized as a function of their complexity level, are also described. The instrumentation performances are experimentally evaluated to assess its adequacy with the targeted application. This design accounts for the demonstration that infrared proximity sensing is a viable solution for close-range sensing of targets as changing as human body parts.
Autors: Gonzalez, F.;Gosselin, F.;Bachta, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 2708 - 2719
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4 GHz Low Phase Noise In-Phase Coupled Class-C Quadrature VCO in 0.18 CMOS
Abstract:
This letter presents a 2.4 GHz Class-C QVCO using an in-phase coupling topology. The phase noise of the proposed QVCO is effectively reduced by using a lower gate biasing voltage at the cross-coupled pairs and an in-phase coupling technique. A complementary Class-C oscillator is employed to enhance the startup robustness over a temperature range from to 100 . A quadrature oscillator, implemented in a 0.18 CMOS process, achieves a phase noise lower than 130.7 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offsets and a frequency tuning range from 2.23 to 2.57 GHz while only consuming 3 mW. The design attains a remarkable figure-of-merit of 193.7 dBc/Hz.
Autors: Wu, C.-Y.;Liao, Y.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 675 - 677
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4-GHz All-Digital PLL With a 1-ps Resolution 0.9-mW Edge-Interchanging-Based Stochastic TDC
Abstract:
A 2.4-GHz all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) for Zigbee application is presented. A stochastic time-to-digital converter (STDC) with an edge-interchange circuit (EIC) is proposed. The rising edges of the two input clocks of STDC are cyclically interchanged by EIC, which achieves dynamic element matching and doubles the equivalent number of arbiters in STDC. The frequency resolution of the -based digitally controlled oscillator is improved by the tiny unit capacitor and the high-speed dithering. The proposed ADPLL has been implemented in a 0.13- CMOS technology. The measurement results show a 9-mW total power consumption, in which the proposed 1-ps-resolution STDC only consumes 0.9 mW. The in-band and out-band phase noise are −83.0127 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and −118.95 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz. The root-mean-square jitter and peak-to-peak jitter are 4.6 and 25.7 ps, respectively.
Autors: Wu, J.;Wang, Z.;Chen, C.;Huang, C.;Zhang, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 917 - 921
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 240 GHz Fully Integrated Wideband QPSK Receiver in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
Operation at millimeter-wave/sub-terahertz frequencies allows one to realize very high data-rate transceivers for wireless chip-to-chip communication. In this paper, a 240 GHz 16 Gbps QPSK receiver is demonstrated in 65 nm CMOS technology. The receiver employs a direct-conversion mixer-first architecture with an integrated slotted loop antenna. A 240 GHz LO chain drives the passive mixers to down-convert the modulated data to baseband. The baseband signal is then amplified using high gain, wide bandwidth amplifiers. The receiver has a noise figure of 15 dB with a conversion gain of 25 dB calculated from measurement data. The receiver achieves a data rate of 10 Gbps (with ) and a maximum data rate of 16 Gbps (with BER of ) with a receiver efficiency of 16 pJ/bit.
Autors: Thyagarajan, S.V.;Kang, S.;Niknejad, A.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2268 - 2280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 240 GHz Fully Integrated Wideband QPSK Transmitter in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this paper, a 240 GHz 16 Gbps QPSK transmitter is demonstrated in 65 nm bulk CMOS process. The transmitter chain employs an 80 GHz local oscillator and a modulator to generate the data that is amplified by a class-E switching power amplifier. The amplified signal then drives the 240 GHz tripler to generate the required modulated data. By using on-chip slotted loop antennas, the transmitter achieves an EIRP of 1 dBm. A maximum data rate of 16 Gbps is achieved with a transmitter efficiency of 14 pJ/bit.
Autors: Kang, S.;Thyagarajan, S.V.;Niknejad, A.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2256 - 2267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2D Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications
Abstract:
We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The 4×4 pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the 10×10 pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC 0. 25 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of 5. 3 mm×6.8 mm. The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of 130 μW. In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is 200 μW. An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 160 e- RMS at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.
Autors: Macias-Montero, J.-G.;Sarraj, M.;Chmeissani, M.;Martinez, R.;Puigdengoles, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2327 - 2333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2D Channel Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Detectors for Medical Imaging Applications
Abstract:
We present a 16-channel readout integrated circuit (ROIC) with nanosecond-resolution time to digital converter (TDC) for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) gamma-ray detectors. The pixel array ROIC is the proof of concept of the pixel array readout ASIC for positron-emission tomography (PET) scanner, positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanner, and Compton gamma camera. The electronics of each individual pixel integrates an analog front-end with switchable gain, an analog to digital converter (ADC), configuration registers, and a 4-state digital controller. For every detected photon, the pixel electronics provides the energy deposited in the detector with 10-bit resolution, and a fast trigger signal for time stamp. The ASIC contains the 16-pixel matrix electronics, a digital controller, five global voltage references, a TDC, a temperature sensor, and a band-gap based current reference. The ASIC has been fabricated with TSMC mixed-signal CMOS technology and occupies an area of . The TDC shows a resolution of 95.5 ps, a precision of 600 ps at full width half maximum (FWHM), and a power consumption of . In acquisition mode, the total power consumption of every pixel is . An equivalent noise charge (ENC) of at maximum gain and negative polarity conditions has been measured at room temperature.
Autors: Macias-Montero, J.-G.;Sarraj, M.;Chmeissani, M.;Martinez, R.;Puigdengoles, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2327 - 2333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Level Set Method for Microwave Breast Imaging
Abstract:
Objective: Conventional inverse-scattering algorithms for microwave breast imaging result in moderate resolution images with blurred boundaries between tissues. Recent 2-D numerical microwave imaging studies demonstrate that the use of a level set method preserves dielectric boundaries, resulting in a more accurate, higher resolution reconstruction of the dielectric properties distribution. Previously proposed level set algorithms are computationally expensive, and thus, impractical in 3-D. In this paper, we present a computationally tractable 3-D microwave imaging algorithm based on level sets. Methods: We reduce the computational cost of the level set method using a Jacobian matrix, rather than an adjoint method, to calculate Frechet derivatives. We demonstrate the feasibility of 3-D imaging using simulated array measurements from 3-D numerical breast phantoms. We evaluate performance by comparing full 3-D reconstructions to those from a conventional microwave imaging technique. We also quantitatively assess the efficacy of our algorithm in evaluating breast density. Results: Our reconstructions of 3-D numerical breast phantoms improve upon those of a conventional microwave imaging technique. The density estimates from our level set algorithm are more accurate than those of the conventional microwave imaging, and the accuracy is greater than that reported for mammographic density estimation. Conclusion: Our level set method leads to a feasible level of computational complexity for full 3-D imaging, and reconstructs the heterogeneous dielectric properties distribution of the breast more accurately than conventional microwave imaging methods. Significance: 3-D microwave breast imaging using a level set method is a promising low-cost, nonionizing alternative to current breast imaging techniques.
Autors: Colgan, T.J.;Hagness, S.C.;Van Veen, B.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2526 - 2534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Overbridge-Shaped Micromixer for Fast Mixing Over a Wide Range of Reynolds Numbers
Abstract:
This paper reports the development of a 3-D passive micromixer named the overbridge-shaped micromixer (OBM), which can achieve fast mixing by taking advantage of the splitting, recombination, and chaotic advection mechanisms simultaneously. A scheme with the splitting channels of unequal widths is proposed for tremendously enhancing the mixing uniformity in the regions closing to the side walls. The channel depth-to-width ratio is the key factor to mixing performance. A four-unit OBM has been successfully fabricated via a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane process, and the total length of the OBM is <2 mm. Up to a 90% efficiency has been achieved within a Reynolds number (Re) range from 0.01 to 200 by numerical analysis, and the same mixing efficiency was also proven experimentally within a Re range from 0.01 to 50. A high efficiency of 90% was also obtained when mixing two fluids with different flow rates at the two inlets ranging from a ratio of 1:9 to 9:1. [2014-0186]
Autors: Li, X.;Chang, H.;Liu, X.;Ye, F.;Yuan, W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 1391 - 1399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3D Index for Evaluating Image Quality of Stereoscopic Displays
Abstract:
In stereoscopic displays, crosstalk is typically observed when the views for both eyes are not clearly separated. Crosstalk affects the quality of 3D images and can cause visual fatigue in observers. According to the results of perception experimentation, different visual depth (disparity) and motion blur can also affect the perception of 3D image quality. Therefore, considering the effects of crosstalk, disparity, and motion blur, we propose an evaluation index to quantify 3D image performance for stereoscopic displays. This index assesses the optical quality of a 3D display as well as the effects of image content. According to human vision experimentation, the 3D image index is validated to have a high positive correlation (0.8) with human perception. After combining the human visual mechanism and , the proposed index can represent the visual quality of static and dynamic images on stereoscopic displays.
Autors: Chang, Y.-C.;Chien, Y.-Y.;Huang, Y.-P.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 11, issue:10, pages: 814 - 820
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.8-MJ Pulsed-Power System for Electromagnetic Launcher Experiment
Abstract:
A 4.8-MJ capacitive pulsed-power system (PPS) was designed and fabricated for electromagnetic launcher (EML) experiment. The PPS consists of eight 600-kJ segments, which can be operated independently. In each segment, six 100-kJ capacitor bank modules, a charging power supply, a dump and charge panel, and control circuit were integrated. The capacitor bank modules in the segment are charged at the same voltage up to 10 kV, but the trigger time of each module can be set up differently. The overall PPS system is controlled by a control program, which sets charging voltage and trigger time of each module and monitors the states of system component. All the control signals are transmitted through fiber optic communication. The 48 unit modules are connected in parallel to EML with high-voltage coaxial cables. A current amplitude of more than 1 MA and a pulsewidth of several milliseconds were achieved by the PPS. The PPS has been applied to several tens of firing experiments of EML successfully. The design, fabrication, and the test results of the 4.8-MJ PPS were described in this paper.
Autors: Jin, Y.S.;Kim, Y.B.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, C.;Yang, K.;Kim, S.;Lee, B.;An, S.;Lee, Y.;Yoon, S.H.;Koo, I.S.;Baik, Y.G.;Kwak, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 43, issue:10, pages: 3369 - 3373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40-MHz Bandwidth 0–2 MASH VCO-Based Delta-Sigma ADC With 35-fJ/Step FoM
Abstract:
This brief presents a nonlinearity-cancelation technique in a 0–2 MASH voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO)-based delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the VCO's distortion is substantially mitigated in a power-efficient way. A dual-input VCO-based quantizer topology is also proposed to implement a low-power multiple-input adder and integrator, with nox penalty in terms of nonlinearity. Fabricated in a 40-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process, a proof-of-concept 0–2 MASH 12-bit ADC prototype achieves a 66.8-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio with a 40-MHz bandwidth (BW) and consumes only 4.98 mW. This result extends the figure of merit of the state-of-the-art high-BW ADCs to 35 fJ/step.
Autors: Zhu, P.;Xing, X.;Gielen, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 952 - 956
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 50–450 MHz Tunable RF Biquad Filter Based on a Wideband Source Follower With > 26 dBm IIP , +12 dBm P , and 15 dB Noise Figure
Abstract:
This paper reports a source follower-based active RC filter topology for RF front-ends in wideband systems. In the proposed active RC filter, the noise figure and bandwidth are improved through adopting the proposed sub-1 source follower, which replaces the conventional operational amplifier-based unity gain buffer and through simply changing its location in the filter. Applying the proposed scheme to the conventional Sallen–Key filter also improves the stopband rejection performance. Furthermore, the proposed filter topology ultimately suppresses the DC offset voltage and flicker noise of the unity gain buffer, which is the only active circuit in the filter. The proposed biquad filter is implemented in 0.18 CMOS and the measurements exhibit 26 dBm IIP , +12 dBm input , and 15 dB noise figure over 50–450 MHz of a 6 bit tunable frequency range. The proposed biquad filter consumes 14 mA from a 1.8 V supply and the chip occupies 1000 500 .
Autors: Lee, I.-Y.;Im, D.;Ko, J.;Lee, S.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2294 - 2305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60 GHz, 802.11ad/WiGig-Compliant Transceiver for Infrastructure and Mobile Applications in 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS
Abstract:
A fully integrated 802.11ad/WiGig compliant 60 GHz transceiver is presented in a 130 nm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Encompassing an area of 2.3 mm 2.16 mm 4.97 mm , the transceiver covers the entire 60 GHz band, from 57 to 66 GHz. Within this span, the RX NF, TX OP1dB, and PLL RMS jitter is better than 5.5 dB, 13.5 dBm, and 7 , respectively. The transceiver is packaged in 1) a system-in-package substrate with industry standard WR-15 transition providing an approximate 1 dB insertion loss, and 2) a cost-effective 7 7 mm organic BGA package with integrated transmit and receive antennas providing 8 dBi gain. In system-level testing, the transceiver is fully compliant with all TX EVM and RX sensitivity requirements of the WiGig standard up to the top-rate 16-QAM operating mode and across all standard channel frequencies. Link testing over the air with the antenna-integrated package shows a range of 5.9 m at 4.6 Gbps and over 20 m at 2.5 Gbps. This system achieves the highest performance 802.11ad/WiGig compliant wireless links of any reported single-element transceiver.
Autors: Tomkins, A.;Poon, A.;Juntunen, E.;El-Gabaly, A.;Temkine, G.;To, Y.-L.;Farnsworth, C.;Tabibiazar, A.;Fakharzadeh, M.;Jafarlou, S.;Abdellatif, A.;Tawfik, H.;Lynch, B.;Tazlauanu, M.;Glibbery, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2239 - 2255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65 nm 0.5 V DPS CMOS Image Sensor With 17 pJ/Frame.Pixel and 42 dB Dynamic Range for Ultra-Low-Power SoCs
Abstract:
Adding vision capabilities to wireless sensors nodes (WSN) for the Internet-of-Things requires imagers working at ultra-low power (ULP) in nanometer CMOS systems-on-chip (SoCs). Such performance can be obtained with time-based digital pixel sensors (DPS) working at ultra-low voltage (ULV), at the expense of lower dynamic range, higher fixed-pattern noise (FPN) and thus poorer image quality. To address this problem, three key techniques were developed in this work for DPS pixels: wide-range adaptive body biasing, low- gating of the 2-transistor in-pixel comparator and digital readout performing delta-reset sampling with low switching activity and robust timing closure. These concepts were demonstrated by designing and fabricating a 128 128 CMOS image sensor array in a 65 nm low-power CMOS logic process. Operating at 0.5 V, it features an FPN of 0.66%, a dynamic range of 42 dB and a fill factor of 57% with a 4 µm pixel pitch, while consuming only 17 pJ/(frame.pixel) and 8.8 µW at 32 fps. These performances combined with the small silicon area of 0.69 mm 2 makes the imager perfectly suitable for integration in ULP SoCs, targeting WSN applications.
Autors: Couniot, N.;de Streel, G.;Botman, F.;Lusala, A.K.;Flandre, D.;Bol, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2419 - 2430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65 nm CMOS 7b 2 GS/s 20.7 mW Flash ADC With Cascaded Latch Interpolation
Abstract:
A 7 bit 2 GS/s flash ADC fabricated in a 65nm CMOS process is presented. The proposed cascaded latch interpolation technique achieves a 4 interpolation factor with only dynamic comparators. A background latching-time adjustment scheme utilizing a replica latch array ensures an interpolation capability that is robust to process, voltage and temperature variations. The measured peak INL and DNL of 0.64 LSB and 0.58 LSB, respectively, after comparator offset calibration prove successful interpolation operation. The measured SNDR and SFDR were 38.12 dB and 49.05 dB, respectively, with a 1.08GHz input at 2 GS/s operation while consuming 20.7 mW of total power. This ADC achieves a figure of merit of 157 fJ/conversion-step with a Nyquist input at 2 GS/s.
Autors: Kim, J.-I.;Oh, D.-R.;Jo, D.-S.;Sung, B.-R.-S.;Ryu, S.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 2319 - 2330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65 nm CMOS Power Amplifier With Peak PAE above 18.9% From 57 to 66 GHz Using Synthesized Transformer-Based Matching Network
Abstract:
Maintaining good power performance in a large bandwidth continues to challenge the design of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) power amplifiers (PAs), including mm-wave PAs with transformer-based matching networks (TMNs). With a TMN synthesizing method which is proposed based on the derived matching equations of TMN, this challenge is addressed in this paper for wideband mm-wave PAs by designing both inter-stage matching networks and output matching network with small mismatch in the entire operating bandwidth. A 60 GHz PA with synthesized TMNs is designed in a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology, achieving smaller degradation of power performance in the 9 GHz bandwidth compared to reported works in more advanced CMOS technologies. From 57 to 66 GHz, the PA is measured with saturated output power of 13.94 to 14.35 dBm, of 10.81 to 11.68 dBm, and peak power added efficiency (PAE) of 18.9% to 21.1%. The PA is capable of delivering 16QAM modulated signal with output power larger than 10.8 dBm and PAE higher than 10.1% in all the 4 channels of 802.11ad when EVM is 8.91%.
Autors: Ye, W.;Ma, K.;Yeo, K.S.;Zou, Q.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2533 - 2543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9.6 Gb/s 0.96 mW/Gb/s Forwarded Clock Receiver With High Jitter Tolerance Using Mixing Cell Integrated Injection-Locked Oscillator
Abstract:
This paper presents a forwarded-clock receiver using a mixing cell integrated injection-locked oscillator (MIILO) and an I/Q generator based on injection-locked oscillator (IQGILO). By using MIILO, jitter tolerance is enhanced by about 1.8 times at high frequency compared to using a conventional injection-locked oscillator. In addition, the proposed receiver is robust against power supply induced jitter (PSIJ) caused by a clock distribution network because jitter tracking bandwidth of IQGILO is always lower than peak frequency of PSIJ regardless of latency mismatch between data and clock. The test chip achieves 9.6 Gb/s data rate with 0.96 mW/Gb/s and occupies only 0.0162 in a 1 V 65 nm CMOS.
Autors: Kim, Y.-J.;Chung, S.-H.;Ha, K.-S.;Bae, S.-J.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2495 - 2503
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9.6-Gb/s 1.22-mW/Gb/s Data-Jitter Mixing Forwarded-Clock Receiver in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
In this paper, a data-jitter mixing (DJM) forwarded-clock receiver is proposed that achieves high jitter correlation between data and a clock for high speed and small power consumption. The first-stage injection-locked oscillator (ILO) filters out high-frequency clock jitter that loses the correlation due to a latency mismatch between data and the clock. Then, a data-jitter mixer in the second stage of the proposed receiver further increases the jitter correlation reduced by nonoptimal jitter filtering in ILO. Moreover, the DJM reduces power supply noise induced jitter from a clock distribution network, while the conventional jitter filter cannot track the high-frequency jitter because of filtering it out. A prototype receiver implemented in 1-V 65-nm CMOS process achieves 9.6 Gb/s with 1.22-mW/Gb/s in spite of a 1.92-ns latency mismatch between data and a clock.
Autors: Chung, S.;Kim, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2023 - 2033
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Back-EMF Threshold Self-Sensing Method to Detect the Commutation Instants in BLDC Drives
Abstract:
By predicting future phase-current commutation instants of brushless dc (BLDC) machines, self-sensing control is achieved. Detection of the back electromotive force (EMF) zero-crossing moments is one of the methods used to predict the phase-current commutation instants. Most of the techniques based on back-EMF zero-crossing detection have the inherit disadvantage of an indirect prediction of commutation instants. This is the result of the commutation instant occurring at the 30° electrical position after zero-crossing of the induced back-EMF in the unexcited phase. Often, the time difference between the zero-crossing of the back-EMF and the current commutation instant is assumed constant. This assumption can be valid for steady-state operation; however, a different time span should be taken into account during transient operation of the BLDC machine. To overcome this problem, an enhancement is proposed here, which improves the performance while keeping the simplicity of the back-EMF zero-crossing detection method.
Autors: Darba, A.;De Belie, F.;Melkebeek, J.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 6064 - 6075
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Band-Divided Memory Polynomial for Wideband Digital Predistortion With Limited Bandwidth Feedback
Abstract:
With a real analog bandpass filter (BPF) in the feedback loop, band-limited digital predistortion (DPD) normally uses a narrower bandwidth low-pass filter at baseband to further constrain the bandwidth of the power amplifier (PA) output signal. This discards the nonlinear information at the BPF's roll-off regions. The PA's spectral regrowth at the edge of the BPF is thus unable to be suppressed with the conventional band-limited DPD. To make efficient use of digital-to-analog converter/analog-to-digital converter sampling rate without losing information at the BPF's roll-off regions, this brief proposes a band-divided DPD method, in which the restricted feedback bandwidth is divided into two parts in frequency domain—center and border regions of PA's band-limited output. These two parts are characterized separately using two different basis functions with a band-divided memory polynomial (BDMP) model. It provides higher flexibility in selecting the digital band-limiting filter's bandwidth and also reduces the filter order. The measurement results for a class-AB GaN PA with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signal of 60-MHz bandwidth have shown the superiority of BDMP DPD over the previous state-of-the-art.
Autors: Zhang, Q.;Liu, Y.;Zhou, J.;Jin, S.;Chen, W.;Zhang, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 922 - 926
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Belief Propagation Approach to Privacy-Preserving Item-Based Collaborative Filtering
Abstract:
Collaborative filtering (CF) is the most popular recommendation algorithm, which exploits the collected historic user ratings to predict unknown ratings. However, traditional recommender systems run at the central servers, and thus users have to disclose their personal rating data to other parties. This raises the privacy issue, as user ratings can be used to reveal sensitive personal information. In this paper, we propose a semi-distributed belief propagation (BP) approach to privacy-preserving item-based CF recommender systems. Firstly, we formulate the item similarity computation as a probabilistic inference problem on the factor graph, which can be efficiently solved by applying the BP algorithm. To avoid disclosing user ratings to the server or other user peers, we then introduce a semi-distributed architecture for the BP algorithm. We further propose a cascaded BP scheme to address the practical issue that only a subset of users participate in BP during one time slot. We analyze the privacy of the semi-distributed BP from a information-theoretic perspective. We also propose a method that reduces the computational complexity at the user side. Through experiments on the MovieLens dataset, we show that the proposed algorithm achieves superior accuracy.
Autors: Zou, J.;Fekri, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 9, issue:7, pages: 1306 - 1318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bit-Serial Pipelined Architecture for High-Performance DHT Computation in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Abstract:
In this brief, we consider quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) realization of the discrete Hadamard transform (DHT). An analysis of a full-parallel solution based on efficient multibit addition in QCA is first presented. We show that this leads to large area as well as delay. We then propose a bit-serial pipelined architecture for QCA-based DHT. The proposed architecture is based on a new one-bit adder–subtractor requiring only six majority gates and a feedback latch that requires only one majority gate and limited wiring. The approach leads to a reduction in area-delay-cycle product of 74% and 91% (over a full-parallel solution) for wordlengths of 4 and 8, respectively. Results of simulations in QCADesigner are also presented.
Autors: Pudi, V.;Sridharan, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2352 - 2356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bulk-Micromachined Three-Axis Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer on a Single Die
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-performance three-axis capacitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer implemented by fabricating individual lateral and vertical differential accelerometers in the same die. The fabrication process is based on the formation of a glass-silicon-glass multi-stack. First, a 35- thick silicon structural layer of an Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer is patterned with deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and attached on a base glass substrate with anodic bonding, whose handle layer is later removed. Next, the second glass wafer is placed on the top of the structure not only for allowing to implement a top electrode for the vertical accelerometer, but also for acting as an inherent cap for the entire structure. The fabricated three-axis MEMS capacitive accelerometer die measures mm3. The -axis and -axis accelerometers demonstrate measured noise floors and bias instabilities equal to or better than 5.5 Hz and 2.2 , respectively, while the -axis accelerometer demonstrates Hz noise floor and bias instability values using hybrid-connected fourth-order sigma- 13;delta CMOS application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips. These low noise performances are achieved with a measurement range of over ±10 g for the -axis and -axis accelerometers and +12/−7.5 g for the -axis accelerometer, suggesting their potential use in navigation grade applications. [2014-0351]
Autors: Tez, S.;Aykutlu, U.;Torunbalci, M.M.;Akin, T.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 1264 - 1274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class-E Tuned W-Band SiGe Power Amplifier With 40.4% Power-Added Efficiency at 93 GHz
Abstract:
A W-band power amplifier with Class-E tuning in a 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS technology is presented. Voltage swing beyond is enabled by the cascode topology, low upper base resistance, and minimally overlapping current-voltage waveforms. At 93 GHz with 4.0 V bias, the peak power-added efficiency and saturated output power are measured to be 40.4% and 17.7 dBm, respectively. With the bias increased to 5.2 V, the peak power-added efficiency and saturated output power at 93 GHz are measured to be 37.6% and 19.3 dBm, respectively.
Autors: Song, P.;Oakley, M.A.;Ulusoy, A.C.;Kaynak, M.;Tillack, B.;Sadowy, G.A.;Cressler, J.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 25, issue:10, pages: 663 - 665
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Collaborative Design of Aggregated Residential Appliances and Renewable Energy for Demand Response Participation
Abstract:
Although the locational marginal price may change dramatically within a single day in competitive wholesale electricity markets, most end users are charged monthly electricity bills over flat rates. Without financial incentives, the customers are lacking of motivation to respond to the price signals, which may result in inefficient energy consumption. In Texas, Senate Bill 1125 encourages qualified residential and commercial customer classes to participate in demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an idea to aggregate a number of residential customers to participate in residential DR program by employing smart appliances and a home area network to shift the coincidental peak load to off-peak hours to reap financial benefits. The operation strategies for the most representative residential load types are discussed. To further reduce electricity purchase and cut electricity bills, a solar farm with energy storage system is proposed, and the control algorithm is designed accordingly. The operation strategies are simulated for a whole year, and the annual costs are calculated and compared in this paper. The results show that, by doing load control and utilizing renewable resources, the total operation cost can be reduced significantly.
Autors: Liu, M.;Quilumba, F.;Lee, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 51, issue:5, pages: 3561 - 3569
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Collision and Reaction Model of Feature Fusion: Mechanism and Realization
Abstract:
Duplicate data must be properly handled in the process of intelligent search, surveillance, and tracking. To better detect and fuse this data, the authors take a new perspective on feature fusion based on the "collision and reaction"' mechanism of data objects. This mechanism can greatly facilitate differentiating duplicate and nonduplicate data in the fusion (reaction) probability. With this perspective, the fusion probability of a feature sample in a dataset is the cumulative effect of the microscopic collision (interaction) results between this sample and other samples. The operations on duplicate detection and feature fusion depend on the fusion probability and are finally realized when the collision process is finished. This new quantum-inspired feature fusion model gives interesting experimental results and could have great implications for some intelligent systems.
Autors: Weimin Peng;Huifang Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 30, issue:5, pages: 56 - 65
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Meander Line-Resonator Hybrid Structure for Wideband Common-Mode Suppression
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel compact and wideband common-mode suppression structure is proposed, which is composed of a meander line and several quarter wavelength resonators. A simple and accurate transmission line model is employed to describe the stopband behavior of the proposed structure. The resonance frequencies and harmonics of quarter wavelength resonators are employed to form stopbands of the common mode. Those stopbands together with the stopband of the meander line are connected in series, which are useful to expand the common-mode suppression bandwidth. Meanwhile, compensation strips are proposed to reduce the insertion loss of the differential mode. A reduction of 15 dB of common-mode propagation above 0.8 GHz is obtained by using the proposed hybrid structure. The measurement results of printed circuit boards, which are designed and fabricated on the simulation model, show good correlation with the simulation results.
Autors: Shu, Y.;Wei, X.;Yu, X.;Li, Y.;Li, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1255 - 1261
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Mode Conversion Configuration in Relativistic Magnetron With a TE10 Output Mode
Abstract:
A compact mode conversion configuration in A6 relativistic magnetron is proposed, and the magnetron operating in the -mode can radiate axially with TE10 mode through a rectangular waveguide which is designed to match the anode. This design, on the one hand, makes both the diameter and the axial length of the magnetron minimized, so that the volume of the coils of the applied magnetic field and the distance between the electron dump and the anode block can be reduced. On the other hand, it provides a much purer radiated mode in the output waveguide as a result of the limit to the dimension of the output waveguide for a certain frequency. In 3-D particle-in-cell simulation, the power conversion efficiency can reach 25.3%, corresponding to an output power of 436.0 MW and a resonant frequency of 2.52 GHz, at an applied voltage of 355 kV and an applied magnetic field of 0.4 T.
Autors: Shi, D.;Qian, B.;Wang, H.;Li, W.;Wang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 43, issue:10, pages: 3512 - 3516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Single Radiator CRLH-Inspired Circularly Polarized Leaky-Wave Antenna Based on Substrate-Integrated Waveguide
Abstract:
A circularly polarized (CP) CRLH-inspired leaky-wave antenna (LWA) based on substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) and microstrip delay line is presented. The unit-cell of the proposed periodic antenna consists of two conventional CRLH SIW cells and two quarter-wavelength microstrip lines. The interdigital slots on the CRLH SIW are rotated at and with respect to the wave propagation direction and separated by 90° to create circular polarization. Utilizing the microstrip line instead of the SIW delay section, the total size of the five unit-cell antenna is reduced by 24.4% in comparison to the previous single radiator CP LWA. Furthermore, microstrip lines provide improved matching for broadside radiation as well as better CP purity. The unit-cell characteristics are investigated in detail through dispersion and Bloch impedance analysis. In addition, space harmonic analysis is carried out to explain the radiation mechanism of the proposed antenna. The proposed CRLH-inspired SIW CP antenna operates from 4.2 to 4.85 GHz and frequency scans from to 26° along the elevation angle. Axial ratio is maintained below 3 dB throughout the operating frequency. The measured results show good agreement with the simulated results.
Autors: Lee, H.;Choi, J.H.;Wu, C.M.;Itoh, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 4566 - 4572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Variable Stiffness and Damping Shock Absorber for Vehicle Suspension
Abstract:
A shock absorber is an important device for vehicle suspension. The semi-active suspension requires the damping or stiffness of the shock absorber to be controllable. This paper proposed a novel compact shock absorber with both damping and stiffness variable characteristics. The shock absorber is developed based on MR fluid through an innovative design. A prototype is tested by MTS to characterize the variable damping and stiffness properties. A mathematical model that incorporated the Bingham model is established and an optimization method is adopted to identify the parameters. The coherence of experiments and the proposed model verified the control ability of dual damping and stiffness of the shock absorber.
Autors: Shuaishuai Sun;Huaxia Deng;Haiping Du;Weihua Li;Jian Yang;Guiping Liu;Alici, G.;Tianhong Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 2621 - 2629
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Analysis of Optimal Sizing of Battery-Only, Ultracapacitor-Only, and Battery–Ultracapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage Systems for a City Bus
Abstract:
This paper provides a detailed comparative analysis of optimal sizing of battery-only, ultracapacitor-only, and battery–ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESSs) for a plug-in electric city bus (PECB). It is shown how the configuration affects the optimal size of the ESS. The problem of optimal sizing of the storage system for the PECB is formulated and solved for a specific set of vehicle parameters, battery, and ultracapacitor cell data, as well as a specific daily drive cycle. A modified particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve the optimal sizing problem. The optimization platform developed by the authors and used for this study is highly flexible and accepts different component data, vehicle parameters, and drive cycles as the input for determining the optimal sizes of the storage system.
Autors: Ostadi, A.;Kazerani, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4449 - 4460
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison Between Single-Phase Quasi- -Source and Quasi-Switched Boost Inverters
Abstract:
The properties of a single-phase quasi Z-source inverter (qZSI) and a single-phase quasi-switched boost inverter (qSBI), both of which are single-stage buck-boost inverters, are investigated and compared. For the same operating conditions, qSBI has the following advantages over qZSI: 1) Three capacitors are saved; 2) the current rating on both of its switches and diodes is lower; 3) its boost factor is higher with an equivalent parasitic effect; and 4) its efficiency is higher. However, qSBI has one more active switch and one more diode than Z-source/ qZSIs. In addition, the capacitor voltage stress of qSBI is higher than that of qZSI. The dc and ac component circuit analysis, impedance design with low-frequency and high-frequency ripples, component stresses, and power loss calculation are presented. A prototype based on a TMS320F28335 DSP is built in order to compare the operating principle of qSBI and qZSI.
Autors: Minh-Khai Nguyen;Young-Cheol Lim;Sung-Jun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 6336 - 6344
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Outdoor-to-Indoor Wideband Propagation at S-Band and C-Band for Ranging
Abstract:
Indoor positioning using mobile radio signals at different frequency bands has gained remarkable attention. Thus, evaluating the influence of the radio propagation channel at different carrier frequencies with respect to the ranging performance is of interest. This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of the outdoor-to-indoor wideband propagation channel at S-band and C-band. We evaluate channel parameters that have an impact on the ranging and, in turn, on the positioning performance. Our comparison is threefold and is based on large-scale channel parameters, ranging performance, and spatial characteristics of the channel. In the first set of comparisons, we consider received power, power delay profile (PDP), delay spread, mean delay, and a number of multipath components (MPCs). The second set of comparisons considers ranging performance: Both the correlator-based and recursive-Bayesian-filter-based ranging estimators are evaluated using the measurement data. In the third set of comparisons, spatial characteristics of the propagation channel at S-band and C-band are compared and analyzed for range estimates to provide an insight for positioning applications.
Autors: Wang, W.;Jost, T.;Fiebig, U.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4411 - 4421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compartmental Model for Traffic Networks and Its Dynamical Behavior
Abstract:
We propose a macroscopic traffic network flow model suitable for analysis as a dynamical system, and we qualitatively analyze equilibrium flows as well as convergence. Flows at a junction are determined by downstream supply of capacity as well as upstream demand of traffic wishing to flow through the junction. This approach is rooted in the celebrated Cell Transmission Model for freeway traffic flow. Unlike related results which rely on certain system cooperativity properties, our model generally does not possess these properties. We show that the lack of cooperativity is in fact a useful feature that allows traffic control methods, such as ramp metering, to be effective. Finally, we leverage the results of the technical note to develop a linear program for optimal ramp metering.
Autors: Coogan, S.;Arcak, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 60, issue:10, pages: 2698 - 2703
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Sound Environment Classifier for Hearing Aids
Abstract:
A computationally efficient system for sound environment classification in digital hearing aids is presented in this paper. The goal is to automatically classify three different listening environments: “speech,” “music,” and “noise.” The system is designed considering the computational limitations found in such devices. The proposed algorithm is based on a novel set of heuristically designed features inspired in the Mel frequency cepstral coefficients. Experiments carried out with real signals demonstrate that the three listening environments can be robustly classified with the proposed system, obtaining low error rates when using a small part of the total computational resources of the DSP of the device. This study demonstrates that the proposed system can be implemented with the available resources in state-of-the-art digital hearing aids.
Autors: Gil-Pita, R.;Ayllon, D.;Ranilla, J.;Llerena-Aguilar, C.;Diaz, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2358 - 2368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative ONU Sleep Method for Reducing Latency and Energy Consumption of STA in Smart-FiWi Networks
Abstract:
Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network is a classification of network that combines the massive bandwidth of the optical network and the reach of the wireless network. FiWi networks are usually composed of an optical and a wireless component. Since both components are designed to work independently, some mechanisms, such as the different power saving methods in both components, may not cooperate with each other and this may result in an undesirable performance. In this paper, we identify that the conflicting power saving mechanisms cause unnecessary energy consumption and introduce additional delay to the overall FiWi network. To cope with this problem, we propose a novel ONU sleep method, which dynamically control the ONU sleep period based on the STAs energy control mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that our proposed method has shorter latency and is more efficient in term of energy consumption than the existing method.
Autors: Nishiyama, H.;Togashi, K.;Kawamoto, Y.;Kato, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 2621 - 2629
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A correspondence model for a future military messaging handling system
Abstract:
Messaging service still remains fundamental for military operations. This service is an important tool to fulfill missions, either in time of peace or in time of crisis. Military operational needs must comply with specific requirements. Military standards describe the services that meet these needs. For different reasons, current military messaging standards have become obsolete, thus demanding the definition of new military standards. The main requirements concerning such systems have been put together. The main document, "Future Military Messaging," issued in 2005, identifies the different usages of a future military messaging system with the associated requirements in each case. Even if this document has become the reference model in the military messaging area, new theoretical developments are required. Indeed, it quickly appears that the development of a messaging system compliant only with this model could lead to rigid implementation, preventing any evolution of the system. This article reformulates the messaging system through a new concept called correspondence applied to military messaging. The main interest of this model is to decorrelate the deployment of the policies from the implementation of the messaging handling system. Therefore, it offers new prospects for military messaging systems with the ability of providing different levels of services dedicated to various military environments.
Autors: Cailleux, L.;Bouabdallah, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 53, issue:10, pages: 46 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Counter-Example to the Mismatched Decoding Converse for Binary-Input Discrete Memoryless Channels
Abstract:
This paper studies the mismatched decoding problem for binary-input discrete memoryless channels. An example is provided for which an achievable rate based on superposition coding exceeds the Csiszár-Körner-Hui rate, thus providing a counter-example to a previously reported converse result. Both numerical evaluations and theoretical results are used in establishing this claim.
Autors: Scarlett, J.;Somekh-Baruch, A.;Martinez, A.;Guillén i Fàbregas, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 5387 - 5395
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Critical-Time-Point Approach to All-Departure-Time Lagrangian Shortest Paths
Abstract:
Given a spatio-temporal network, a source, a destination, and a desired departure time interval, the All-departure-time Lagrangian Shortest Paths (ALSP) problem determines a set which includes the shortest path for every departure time in the given interval. ALSP is important for critical societal applications such as eco-routing. However, ALSP is computationally challenging due to the non-stationary ranking of the candidate paths across distinct departure-times. Current related work for reducing the redundant work, across consecutive departure-times sharing a common solution, exploits only partial information e.g., the earliest feasible arrival time of a path. In contrast, our approach uses all available information, e.g., the entire time series of arrival times for all departure-times. This allows elimination of all knowable redundant computation based on complete information available at hand. We operationalize this idea through the concept of critical-time-points (CTP), i.e., departure-times before which ranking among candidate paths cannot change. In our preliminary work, we proposed a CTP based forward search strategy. In this paper, we propose a CTP based temporal bi-directional search for the ALSP problem via a novel impromptu rendezvous termination condition. Theoretical and experimental analysis show that the proposed approach outperforms the related work approaches particularly when there are few critical-time-points.
Autors: Gunturi, V.M.V.;Shekhar, S.;KwangSoo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 27, issue:10, pages: 2591 - 2603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Variable-Gain Control Strategy for an Ultra-Precision Wafer Stage With Accelerated Iterative Parameter Tuning
Abstract:
Wafer stage is an important mechatronic unit of industrial lithography tool for manufacturing integrated circuits. To overcome the inherent limitations of fix-gain feedback control and improve the servo performance, a performance-oriented variable-gain control strategy with accelerated iterative parameter tuning is proposed for an ultra-precision wafer stage. The variable-gain controller comprises a fix-gain proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and add-on variable-gain elements, which are the focus of this paper. Specifically, the add-on variable-gain elements are significantly designed based on the main tracking error sources and error frequency of different reference trajectory phases. A weighted two-norm regarding the performance indexes of wafer stages, i.e., moving average (MA) and moving standard deviation (MSD) of the tracking error, is synthesized as the objective function, and the data-driven Levenberg–Marquardt-based iterative parameter tuning scheme is employed to find the optimal parameter values of the proposed variable-gain controller. Furthermore, to improve the convergence rate, a multiparameter accelerated iterative method is developed based on Aitken’s method. Finally, the proposed variable-gain control strategy is implemented on an ultra-precision wafer stage developed in our laboratory. Comparative experimental results demonstrate that the strategy performs best and achieves excellent improvement on both MA and MSD. During the scanning phase, MA and MSD are less than 1.02 and 2.35 nm, respectively. The proposed variable-gain control strategy is also suitable for other industrial applications.
Autors: Li, M.;Zhu, Y.;Yang, K.;Hu, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 1179 - 1189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decentralized Positioning Scheme Based on Recursive Weighted Least Squares Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a new positioning scheme based on recursive weighted least squares (RWLS) optimization for wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme is derived from minimizing a recursive-in-time cost function and then realized in an iterative decentralized manner. The target location is computed iteratively by taking a weighted average of the local estimates according to the reliability information, where a sensor computes a new estimate based on its own observation and the previous sensor's estimate. Computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme has better positioning accuracy than previous related methods.
Autors: Wang, C.;Wu, D.;Chen, S.;Yang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4887 - 4893
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decentralized Stay-Time Based Occupant Distribution Estimation Method for Buildings
Abstract:
Zonal occupant level is of great practical interest for building energy saving under normal operations and for fast evacuation under emergency. Though there are many existing sensing systems to estimate this information, the problem is still challenging due to the privacy concerns, the random human movement, and the accumulative error. In this paper, we consider this important problem and focus on infrared beam systems that monitor the zonal arrival and departure events. We make the following contributions. First, a rule (i.e., Rule 1) based on the stay time is developed to reduce the accumulated estimation error in each zone. Second, a rule (i.e., Rule 2) is designed to coordinate the estimation among neighboring zones. A decentralized estimation method is then developed using these two rules. Third, the advantage of this method is demonstrated through simulation results and field tests. We hope this work brings insight to zonal occupant level estimation in buildings in more general situations.
Autors: Jia, Q.-S.;Wang, H.;Lei, Y.;Zhao, Q.;Guan, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 12, issue:4, pages: 1482 - 1491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay-Rational Model of Lossy Multiconductor Transmission Lines With Frequency-Independent Per-Unit-Length Parameters
Abstract:
Cables, printed circuit boards, and VLSI interconnects are commonly modeled as multiconductor transmission lines. Models of electrically long transmission lines are memory and time consuming. In this paper, a robust and efficient algorithm for the generation of a delay-based model is presented. The impedance representation via the open-end matrix Z is analyzed. In particular, the rational formulation of Z in terms of poles and residues is exploited for both lossless and lossy cases. The delays of the lines are identified, and explicitly incorporated into the model. A model order reduction of the system is automatically performed, since only a limited number of poles and residues are included in the rational part of the model, whereas the high-frequency behavior is captured by means of closed expressions that account for the delays. The proposed method is applied to two relevant examples and validated through the comparison with reference methods. The time-domain solver is found to be more accurate and significantly faster than the one obtained from a pure-rational model.
Autors: De Lauretis, M.;Antonini, G.;Ekman, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1235 - 1245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deterministic Attitude Estimation Using a Single Vector Information and Rate Gyros
Abstract:
This paper proposes a deterministic estimator for the estimation of the attitude of a rigid body. A deterministic estimator uses a minimal set of information and does not try to minimize a cost function or lit the measurements into a stochastic process. The proposed estimator obtains the attitude estimation utilizing only the properties of the rotational group SO(3). The information set required by the proposed estimator is a single vector information and rate gyro readings. For systems in which one of the rotational freedom is constrained, the proposed estimator provides an accurate estimate of the reduced attitude. The performance of the algorithm is verilied on different experimental testbeds.
Autors: Vinod, A.P.;Mahindrakar, A.D.;Bandyopadhyay, S.;Muralidharan, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 2630 - 2636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Three-Hop Routing Protocol to Increase the Capacity of Hybrid Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Hybrid wireless networks combining the advantages of both mobile ad-hoc networks and infrastructure wireless networks have been receiving increased attention due to their ultra-high performance. An efficient data routing protocol is important in such networks for high network capacity and scalability. However, most routing protocols for these networks simply combine the ad-hoc transmission mode with the cellular transmission mode, which inherits the drawbacks of ad-hoc transmission. This paper presents a Distributed Three-hop Routing protocol (DTR) for hybrid wireless networks. To take full advantage of the widespread base stations, DTR divides a message data stream into segments and transmits the segments in a distributed manner. It makes full spatial reuse of a system via its high speed ad-hoc interface and alleviates mobile gateway congestion via its cellular interface. Furthermore, sending segments to a number of base stations simultaneously increases throughput and makes full use of widespread base stations. In addition, DTR significantly reduces overhead due to short path lengths and the elimination of route discovery and maintenance. DTR also has a congestion control algorithm to avoid overloading base stations. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show the superiority of DTR in comparison with other routing protocols in terms of throughput capacity, scalability, and mobility resilience. The results also show the effectiveness of the congestion control algorithm in balancing the load between base stations.
Autors: Haiying Shen;Ze Li;Chenxi Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 14, issue:10, pages: 1975 - 1991
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A District Energy Management Based on Thermal Comfort Satisfaction and Real-Time Power Balancing
Abstract:
This paper presents a district energy management strategy devoted to monitor and control the district power consumption in a twofold human-centered perspective: the respect of user’s comfort preferences and the minimization of the power consumption and costs. The presented district energy management system forwards the power profile determined the day ahead to each building energy management system that, in turn, minimizes its real-time power consumption and costs (based on rewards and penalties), respecting the comfort preferences. Successively, the power is redistributed among the district buildings in order to minimize the penalties by applying two approaches: a centralized approach for public buildings and a distributed methodology for private buildings. Such optimization problems are formalized by defining some linear programming problems: two case studies are solved to show the applicability of the proposed management strategies.
Autors: Fanti, M.P.;Mangini, A.M.;Roccotelli, M.;Ukovich, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 12, issue:4, pages: 1271 - 1284
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Domain Decomposition Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) Method for Scattering Problem from Very Large Rough Surfaces
Abstract:
A domain decomposition-finite difference time domain (DD-FDTD) method is proposed to solve the problem of electromagnetic scattering from very large rough surfaces. The entire computational domain is decomposed into multiple subdomains. Each subdomain is simulated by using the conventional FDTD method to obtain the scattered fields on a Huygens’ surface and the total fields on the rough surface. The latter is used to compute the scattered field on the Huygens’ surface in adjacent subdomains, by invoking the reciprocity theorem. Simulation results are compared with those in the literatures to validate this method. The normalized radar cross sections (NRCSs) from very large surfaces of are also presented to demonstrate the efficacy of this method.
Autors: Lai, Z.;Kiang, J.;Mittra, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 4468 - 4476
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Domain Decomposition Finite-Element Method for Eddy-Current Testing Simulation
Abstract:
A typical eddy-current testing (ECT) process involves scanning of conducting test sample using an EC probe, which can be an air-core coil or ferrite-core coil. Its accurate and efficient modeling is critical to probe and testing parameter optimization. The finite-element method (FEM) has been widely used in ECT simulation. Unfortunately, the conventional FEM is cumbersome and inefficient when the movement of a ferrite-core coil is to be considered, because the change of the coil position results in repetition of meshing as well as generating and preconditioning matrix equation. In this paper, we resolve the problem by dividing the solution domain into subdomains. The test sample and the ferrite core are assigned to different subdomains, and each subdomain is meshed independently. The excitation coil is not included in a subdomain, and its contributions to the magnetic fields in both subdomains are calculated analytically. Solutions of the subdomains are coupled by calculating the contribution of the induced current or magnetization current in a subdomain to the magnetic field in the other subdomain. The proposed method has the merits of easy mesh generation and efficient and accurate solution.
Autors: Zeng, Z.;Wang, T.;Sun, L.;He, R.;Chen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Double-Auction Mechanism for Mobile Data-Offloading Markets
Abstract:
The unprecedented growth of mobile data traffic challenges the performance and economic viability of today’s cellular networks and calls for novel network architectures and communication solutions. Mobile data offloading through third-party Wi-Fi or femtocell access points (APs) can significantly alleviate the cellular congestion and enhance user quality of service (QoS), without requiring costly and time-consuming infrastructure investments. This solution has substantial benefits both for the mobile network operators (MNOs) and the mobile users, but comes with unique technical and economic challenges that must be jointly addressed. In this paper, we consider a market where MNOs lease APs that are already deployed by residential users for the offloading purpose. We assume that each MNO can employ multiple APs, and each AP can concurrently serve traffic from multiple MNOs. We design an iterative double-auction mechanism that ensures the efficient operation of the market by maximizing the differences between the MNOs’ offloading benefits and APs’ offloading costs. The proposed scheme takes into account the particular characteristics of the wireless network, such as the coupling of MNOs’ offloading decisions and APs’ capacity constraints. Additionally, it does not require full information about the MNOs and APs and creates nonnegative revenue for the market broker.
Autors: Iosifidis, G.;Gao, L.;Huang, J.;Tassiulas, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1634 - 1647
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual Frequency Ka-Band Printed Fresnel Reflector for Ground Terminal Applications
Abstract:
Satellite-based telecommunication systems operating in Ka-band require high gain ground terminal antennas. A promising architecture based on dual frequency printed Fresnel reflectors is presented in this paper. The complete development of this antenna including its design methodology, manufacturing, and testing is described. In order to scan its beam, the proposed antenna system can either be combined with electric motors or be transformed into a reconfigurable reflectarray system by replacing the passive reflecting cells by reconfigurable ones. A possible way of implementing such electronically reconfigurable reflecting cells is also presented.
Autors: Baracco, J.;Ratajczak, P.;Brachat, P.;Toso, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 4352 - 4366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Stage Piezoelectric Stack for High-Speed and Long-Range Actuation
Abstract:
A dual-stage piezoelectric stack is presented. It consists of three parts, which are used for high-speed actuation, vibration isolation, and long-range actuation. This dual-stage piezoelectric stack is a modified piezoelectric stack and appears as a single stack. The first resonance frequency of the original piezoelectric stack is 40 kHz. The 1-dB cutoff frequency of the original piezoelectric stack is approximately 12 kHz, and the travel range is 16 μm. The 1-dB cutoff frequency of the dual-stage piezoelectric stack is approximately 85 kHz, and the travel range varies approximately from 1.2 to 12.8 μm. The main contribution of this paper is the use of a vibration isolation actuator to prevent coupling between high-speed and long-range actuators.
Autors: Gang Yan;Yong Liu;Zhi Hua Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 2637 - 2641
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Modular Method for True Variation-Aware Separatrix Tracing in Nanoscaled SRAMs
Abstract:
As memory density continues to grow in modern systems, accurate analysis of static RAM (SRAM) stability is increasingly important to ensure high yields. Traditional static noise margin metrics fail to capture the dynamic characteristics of SRAM behavior, leading to expensive over design and disastrous under design. One of the central components of more accurate dynamic stability analysis is the separatrix; however, its straightforward extraction is extremely time-consuming, and efficient methods are either nonaccurate or extremely difficult to implement. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for fast separatrix tracing of any given SRAM topology, designed with industry standard transistor models in nanoscaled technologies. The proposed algorithm is applied to both standard 6T SRAM bitcells, as well as previously proposed alternative subthreshold bitcells, providing up to three orders-of-magnitude speedup, as compared with brute force methods. In addition, for the first time, statistical Monte Carlo separatrix distributions are plotted.
Autors: Teman, A.;Visotsky, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 23, issue:10, pages: 2034 - 2042
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast-Locking All-Digital Phase-Locked Loop With Dynamic Loop Bandwidth Adjustment
Abstract:
A fast-locking all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) including a fast-locking unit, a multi-level bang-bang phase detector (ML-BBPD), a dynamic gain adjustment controller (DGAC), and a digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) is presented. The ML-BBPD provides multi-level outputs with different phase errors. According to the detection results of ML-BBPD, the DGAC can adjust the dynamic integral gain of digital loop filter to provide four different operation modes and keep the ADPLL always in stable operation for fast-locking procedure. The DCO with loading compensation circuit can decrease the difference of tuning range in 13 bands less than 25%. Implemented with a 0.18- CMOS technology, the area of the core circuit is 0.7735 and the total power consumption is 35 mW from a 1.8 V supply voltage at 1.25 GHz. The ADPLL can generate output frequencies from 253.9 MHz to 1.367 GHz with 12-phase output clocks. Experimental result shows that the locking time can be accomplished in 2.9184 , i.e., 57 cycles with a 19.53125 MHz reference clock. The phase noise is 108.77 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset, and measured rms jitter and peak-to-peak jitter are 8.884 ps and 32.5 ps respectively.
Autors: Lin, J.-M.;Yang, C.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2411 - 2422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fixed-Frequency Quasi- Hysteretic Buck Converter With PLL-Based Two-Stage Adaptive Window Control
Abstract:
This paper proposes a fast transient quasi- fixed-frequency hysteretic buck converter designed and fabricated using TSMC 2P4M 0.35- CMOS process. The proposed converter can achieve fixed frequency switching through a novel phase-locked-loop-based two-stage adaptive window control. Under ultralight load conditions, the proposed converter operates in a pulse frequency modulation mode to reduce the switching loss and improve light load efficiency. A quasi- technique is applied for obtaining inductor current information without relying on an output capacitor with a high equivalent series resistance; therefore, the output voltage ripple can be reduced. The experimental results show that the proposed converter can operate at a load current ranging from 18 to 700 mA, a supply voltage ranging from 2.7 to 4.2 V, and an output voltage of 1.2 V. The off-chip inductor and output capacitor are 2.2 and 10 , respectively. Through the PLL control, the switching frequency is maintained at 1 MHz. The transient response time is approximately 5 , and the highest efficiency registered is 95.6%.
Autors: Hu, K.-Y.;Lin, S.-M.;Tsai, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2565 - 2573
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fixed-Frequency Quasi- Hysteretic Buck Converter With PLL-Based Two-Stage Adaptive Window Control
Abstract:
This paper proposes a fast transient quasi- fixed-frequency hysteretic buck converter designed and fabricated using TSMC 2P4M 0.35- CMOS process. The proposed converter can achieve fixed frequency switching through a novel phase-locked-loop-based two-stage adaptive window control. Under ultralight load conditions, the proposed converter operates in a pulse frequency modulation mode to reduce the switching loss and improve light load efficiency. A quasi- technique is applied for obtaining inductor current information without relying on an output capacitor with a high equivalent series resistance; therefore, the output voltage ripple can be reduced. The experimental results show that the proposed converter can operate at a load current ranging from 18 to 700 mA, a supply voltage ranging from 2.7 to 4.2 V, and an output voltage of 1.2 V. The off-chip inductor and output capacitor are 2.2 and 10 , respectively. Through the PLL control, the switching frequency is maintained at 1 MHz. The transient response time is approximately 5 , and the highest efficiency registered is 95.6%.
Autors: Hu, K.-Y.;Lin, S.-M.;Tsai, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2565 - 2573
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Floating Buck Controlled Multi-Mode Dimmable LED Driver Using a Stacked NMOS Switch
Abstract:
A floating buck controlled multi-mode dimmable light-emitting diode (LED) driver that uses a stacked NMOS switch is presented, which reduces static operational current and eliminates auxiliary winding to simplify design and cost. The accuracy of the output current benefits from the use of a line-voltage compensation technique which can mitigate the effect of line-voltage fluctuation on current consistency. The proposed LED driver is implemented in 0.5 5V/40 V backend 2P2M CMOS process and occupies a die size (with pads) of . The experimental results show that the proposed LED driver achieves peak power efficiency of 95.4% across a wide range of input voltage from 85 to 264 Vac and a wide range of series-connected load LEDs from 11 to 27. The worst-case line regulation and load regulation of the output current are 0.28% and 0.25%, respectively. Measurements further show that the startup time is only 34.8 ms at 220 Vac with 50 Hz-input and multi-mode dimming can be easily implemented.
Autors: Zhu, Z.;Li, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2584 - 2593
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Focus on Key Areas: Updates from IEEE Board of Directors Meetings [Leader's Corner]
Abstract:
Presents information on upcoming IEEE Board of Directors meetings.
Autors: Reder, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 13, issue:5, pages: 6 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Foldable Antagonistic Actuator
Abstract:
We report on an actuator based on dielectric elastomers that is capable of antagonistic actuation and passive folding. This actuator enables foldability in robots with simple structures. Unlike other antagonistic dielectric elastomer devices, our concept uses elastic hinges to allow the folding of the structure, which also provides an additional design parameter. To validate the actuator concept through a specific application test, a foldable elevon actuator with outline size of 70 mm × 130 mm is developed with angular displacement range and torque specifications matched to a 400-mm wingspan micro-air vehicle (MAV) of mass 130 g. A closed-form analytical model of the actuator is constructed, which was used to guide the actuator design. The actuator consists of 125-μm-thick silicone membranes as the dielectric elastomers, 0.2mm-thick fiberglass plate as the frame structure, and 50-μm-thick polyimide as the elastic hinge. We measured voltage-controllable angular displacement up to ±26° and torque of 2720 mN · mm at 5 kV, with good agreement between the model and the measured data. Two elevon actuators are integrated into the MAV, which was successfully flown, with the foldable actuators providing stable and well-controlled flight. The controllability was quantitatively evaluated by calculating the correlation between the control signal and the MAV motion, with a correlation in roll axis of over 0.7 measured during the flights, illustrating the high performance of this foldable actuator.
Autors: Shintake, J.;Rosset, S.;Schubert, B.E.;Floreano, D.;Shea, H.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 1997 - 2008
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Four-Way Microstrip Filtering Power Divider With Frequency-Dependent Couplings
Abstract:
A four-way microstrip power divider is designed with bandpass filtering response. The synthesized inline filter has a generalized Chebyshev response, where frequency-dependent couplings are utilized. All of the critical parameters, including the characteristic impedances and electrical lengths, can be determined by our derived closed-form formulas. By extending the inline filter, the configuration of four-way power divider is obtained. Then, three isolation resistors are properly selected according to the even-/odd-mode analysis. The proposed four-way filtering power divider has low in-band insertion loss and high frequency selectivity. It can provide the in-band return loss and isolation between outputs better than 16.7 and 17.5 dB, respectively .
Autors: Chen, F.-J.;Wu, L.-S.;Qiu, L.-F.;Mao, J.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 3494 - 3504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Full Body Steerable Wind Display for a Locomotion Interface
Abstract:
This paper presents the Treadport Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT)-a full-body immersive virtual environment for the Treadport locomotion interface designed for generating wind on a user from any frontal direction at speeds up to 20 kph. The goal is to simulate the experience of realistic wind while walking in an outdoor virtual environment. A recirculating-type wind tunnel was created around the pre-existing Treadport installation by adding a large fan, ducting, and enclosure walls. Two sheets of air in a non-intrusive design flow along the side screens of the back-projection CAVE-like visual display, where they impinge and mix at the front screen to redirect towards the user in a full-body cross-section. By varying the flow conditions of the air sheets, the direction and speed of wind at the user are controlled. Design challenges to fit the wind tunnel in the pre-existing facility, and to manage turbulence to achieve stable and steerable flow, were overcome. The controller performance for wind speed and direction is demonstrated experimentally.
Autors: Kulkarni, S.D.;Fisher, C.J.;Lefler, P.;Desai, A.;Chakravarthy, S.;Pardyjak, E.R.;Minor, M.A.;Hollerbach, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 21, issue:10, pages: 1146 - 1159
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully-Integrated Wireless Bondwire Accelerometer With Closed-loop Readout Architecture
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully-integrated wireless bondwire accelerometer using a closed-loop readout interface that effectively reduces the noise from electrical circuits and long-term frequency drifts. The proposed accelerometer was fabricated using 0.18- CMOS technology without micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) processing. To reduce manufacturing errors, the bondwire inertial sensors are wire-bonded on the chip pads, thereby enabling a precisely-defined length and space between sensing bondwires. The proposed wireless accelerometer using a pair of 15.2 and 25.4 bondwires achieves a linear transducer gain of 33 mV/g, bandwidth of 5 kHz, a noise floor of 700 , and 4.5 bias stability. The acceleration data is digitalized by an energy-efficient 10-bit SAR ADC and then wirelessly transmitted in real time to the external reader by a low-power on-off shift keying (OOK) transmitter. The proposed architecture consumes 9 mW and the chip area is 2 mm 2.4 mm.
Autors: Liao, Y.-T.;Huang, S.-C.;Cheng, F.-Y.;Tsai, T.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2445 - 2453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Gamma Radiation Detector With Orthogonally Arrayed Micromachined Electrodes
Abstract:
Microfabricated radiation detectors can be used to provide first alert information about presence of harmful radiation. This paper describes a micromachined gamma detector that operates in the Geiger–Muller (G–M) regime. Gamma rays eject photoelectrons from the cathode material through the photoelectric effect and/or Compton scattering, which in turn ionize the Ar fill-gas providing a current pulse. The detector utilizes cathode stacks that are micromachined from stainless steel #304 foil. Micromachined glass fingers with thin-film anode metal traces are positioned transversely through aligned perforations in the stacked cathodes. This orthogonal array of anodes and cathodes effectively distinguishes electron avalanche regions from drift regions despite the miniaturization, thereby reducing the likelihood of spurious discharges. Overall, the detector diameter and height are 9 and 2.5 mm, respectively. Detector performance is characterized using a 99- Ci 137Cs source placed at a distance of 3 cm from the detector. In an integration time of 10 min at an applied voltage of 630 V, a source:background ratio of 89:1 is achieved—a fivefold improvement over the previously reported micromachined devices operating in the G–M regime. This architecture also reduces the typical charge per discharge to 6.6 pC, allowing the estimated dead time between detection events to be s. [2014-0333]
Autors: Malhotra, R.;Gianchandani, Y.B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 24, issue:5, pages: 1314 - 1321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Calibration Procedure for Measuring RF Voltages and Currents Applied to the EMC Analysis of Automotive High-Voltage Power Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a general calibration procedure for probing RF voltages and currents in the time domain with conventional oscilloscopes using a directional coupler. It eliminates the need for a separate power calibration and takes advantage of the large dynamic range of a vector network analyzer during the calibration step. As a first application of this procedure, the electromagnetic disturbances on high-voltage (HV) lines in vehicles with hybrid or electric drive are precisely determined by applying an HV automotive-grade directional line coupler. In conjunction with the calibration algorithm, this coupler permits measuring the EMI relevant noise voltages and currents during real operation conditions of the vehicle without the need to modify the HV network by inserting LISNs or other artificial networks. The presented HV coupler offers a superior RF performance between its HV ports yielding an insertion loss of max. 0.8 dB and a return loss of min. 15 dB with respect to a typical low characteristic impedance of HV lines of 11 over a frequency range from 150 kHz to 1 GHz. Thus, the coupler itself causes minimal influence on the original waveforms within the HV network and facilitates measurements very close to the noise sources, e.g., the power inverter, at a distinct calibration plane. Furthermore, it is shown how the accurate knowledge of these voltages and currents can be utilized to predict radiated emissions or to derive load impedances. Herein, the measurements are performed in a CISPR 25 related setup over a frequency range from 150 kHz to 500 MHz, achieving a good agreement to conventional measurement methods.
Autors: Zietz, C.;Armbrecht, G.;Schmid, T.;Wollitzer, M.;Geck, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 915 - 925
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalized 3-D Scattering Channel Model for Spatiotemporal Statistics in Mobile-to-Mobile Communication Environment
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a 3-D geometrical channel model for mobile-to-mobile (M2M) communication environment. The proposed model combines most of the existing 2-D and 3-D geometrical channel models for M2M and fixed-to-mobile (F2M) communication channels into one generalized model. Using the proposed model, closed-form expressions for the joint probability density function of angle-of-arrival and time-of-arrival in azimuth and elevation planes are derived. These results are then verified by simulations and available field measurements. Furthermore, comprehensive comparisons of the proposed channel model are carried out with the existing 2-D and 3-D channel models in the literature, which show that many notable geometrical channel models in M2M and F2M communication environments become the special cases of our proposed generalized 3-D geometrical channel model by adjusting corresponding channel parameters. Consequently, the proposed 3-D channel model can be taken as a useful tool for modeling mobile ad hoc networks , vehicular ad hoc networks, and intelligent transportation systems.
Autors: Riaz, M.;Khan, N.M.;Nawaz, S.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 64, issue:10, pages: 4399 - 4410
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Geometric Transversals Approach to Sensor Motion Planning for Tracking Maneuvering Targets
Abstract:
This paper presents a geometric transversals approach for representing the probability of track detection as an analytic function of time and target motion parameters. By this approach, the optimization of the detection probability subject to sensor kinodynamic constraints can be formulated as an optimal control problem. Using the proposed detection probability function, the necessary conditions for optimality can be derived using calculus of variations, and solved numerically using a variational iteration method (VIM). The simulation results show that sensor state and control trajectories obtained by this approach bring about a significant increase in detection probability compared to existing strategies, and require a computation that is significantly reduced compared to direct methods.
Autors: Wei, H.;Ferrari, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 60, issue:10, pages: 2773 - 2778
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Helical-Waveguide Gyro-TWT at the Third Cyclotron Harmonic
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a design of a broadband powerful -band gyroamplifier with an interaction circuit in the form of a helically corrugated waveguide operating at the third cyclotron harmonic. An analysis of stability of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) with respect to parasitic wave-beam interactions at the operating and nonoperating cyclotron harmonics has been performed, and the range of parameters at which the gyro-TWT is zero-drive stable is found. Moreover, a comparison with a traditional smooth-waveguide gyro-TWT revealed that the helical-waveguide gyro-TWT possess superior stability characteristics at higher cyclotron harmonics. For a set of parameters attractive for possible applications, the 3-D particle-in-cell simulations were performed, according to which the proposed gyro-TWT yielded a 6% amplification bandwidth with the maximum output power of 80 kW and gain of 25 dB for a 10-A, 70-kV electron beam.
Autors: Mishakin, S.V.;Samsonov, S.V.;Denisov, G.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 3387 - 3392
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Management Circuit Using Multiwinding Upconversion Current Transformer for Power-Line Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-efficiency management circuit using a multiwinding upconversion current transformer (CT) for power-line energy harvesting. Due to sharing the same loop for matching and charging in a low working frequency (50 Hz), the traditional matching circuit of the CT has a low Q value and low magnetoelectric efficiency, and it cannot be used in both a weak power-line current and a heavy load. A multiwinding CT upconversion matching circuit with a higher Q value is developed. Higher charging power (> 175%) and a larger ultimate charging voltage (> 150%) in a weak power-line current (1-100 A) can be obtained by using an independent upconversion resonant matching loop. The matching circuit can efficiently work at a wider load capacitance. In order to drive a wireless sensor with higher power consumption, an instantaneous discharging circuit that is suitable for weak energy harvesting (<; 700 μW) is developed. The instantaneous discharging circuit can accumulate weak energy from a CT transducer during a long period, and it can provide a higher power output in a very short time. The management circuit can drive a wireless sensor with an output power of 60 mW at a distance of over 40 m. The multiwinding high-efficiency upconversion management circuit can be used in many other low-frequency energy harvesters.
Autors: Ping Li;Yumei Wen;Ziqiang Zhang;Shiqiang Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 6327 - 6335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance 2×27 MVA Machine Test Bench Based on Multilevel IGCT Converters
Abstract:
In this paper, a high-performance 22 MW/27 MVA test bench using a pumpback topology is introduced for testing electrical machines. It proposes a cost-effective concept that works reliably even with a weak grid. A paralleling concept of two three-level integrated gate-commutated thyristor (IGCT) converters is presented. I generates a five-level pulse pattern with low harmonic distortion at 600-Hz carrier frequency and 80-Hz load frequency. The selected magnetic device minimizes the circulating current, which ensures the full power utilization of IGCT converters. Moreover, the control concept works reliably at 7.5 times of the carrier-to-load frequency ratio while there is a sine filter and a variable-frequency transformer between the converter and load machines. This test bench has been experimentally validated at the customer site.
Autors: Shen, J.;Schroder, S.;Qu, B.;Zhang, Y.;Chen, K.;Zhang, F.;Li, Y.;Liu, Y.;Dai, P.;Zhang, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 51, issue:5, pages: 3877 - 3889
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Performance Source Engineered Charge Plasma-Based Schottky MOSFET on SOI
Abstract:
In this paper, we address an important issue of low ON current in a Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET by proposing a novel structure of Schottky MOSFET on silicon on insulator. The proposed Schottky device employs a dual material at the source side and is being named as the source engineered SB MOSFET (SE-SB-MOSFET). Erbium silicide (ErSi1.7) is used as the main source material, and Hafnium is used as a source extension. The use of Hafnium as a source extension induces an n+-type charge plasma in an undoped silicon film, which significantly reduces the SB thickness. A calibrated simulation study has shown that the ON current ( ) and have increased by 225 and , respectively, in the proposed device in comparison with the conventional SB-MOSFET device. The ac analysis has shown that the cutoff frequency ( ) in the proposed SE-SB-MOSFET ( GHz) has increased by as compared with the conventional SB-MOSFET ( GHz). Furthermore, the performance of the proposed device has been tested at the circuit level also. It has been observed from the transient analysis that a significant reduction in switching ON delay ( ) and switching OFF delay (33%) has been achieved in the proposed SE-SB-MOSFET-b- sed inverter in comparison with the conventional device-based inverter. Furthermore, the use of the charge plasma concept makes the fabrication of the proposed device relatively easy as it uses low thermal budget.
Autors: Bashir, F.;Loan, S.A.;Rafat, M.;Alamoud, A.R.M.;Abbasi, S.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 3357 - 3364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Power Low-Loss Continuously Tunable Bandpass Filter With Transversely Biased Ferrite-Loaded Coaxial Resonators
Abstract:
This paper presents a technology for high-power low-loss continuously tunable RF filters demonstrated by the example of a two-pole coupled-resonator filter. The resonators are shortened coaxial cavities loaded with ferrite inserts, where an externally applied transverse dc magnetic bias controls the center frequency. The filter is analyzed by simulations that take into account the inhomogeneity of the bias field. A prototype is manufactured and tested, exhibiting a tuning span of 41% in which the unloaded factor varies in the range from 1223 to 2425. Good correspondance is observed between simulation and measurement results. Furthermore, the power-handling capability of the filter is discussed and the ionization breakdown limit under normal conditions is estimated to be 800 W. The filter’s linearity is characterized by a standard two-tone test, where the level of the third-order passive intermodulation product is observed to be dBm at an input fundamental tone level of 2 43 dBm.
Autors: Acar, O.;Johansen, T.K.;Zhurbenko, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 3425 - 3432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Precision Motion Control Based on a Periodic Adaptive Disturbance Observer in a PMLSM
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel disturbance compensation scheme to attenuate periodic disturbances on repetitive motion using permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs), and this scheme is called the periodical adaptive disturbance observer. The scheme is based on assumptions that all measured states and disturbances are periodic and repetitive when the tasks executed by PMLSM motion systems have periodic and repetitive characteristics. In the proposed control scheme, a lumped disturbance is estimated by the classical linear disturbance observer (DOB) for the initial time period and stored in memory storages. It consists of parametric errors multiplied by states, friction force, and force ripple, and then, it is updated for each time period by the periodic adaptation law. This scheme requires no mathematical models of disturbances and adaptation laws of model parameters such as the mass of the mover and viscous friction coefficient. Also, it is possible to compensate for disturbances above as well as below the bandwidth of the Q-filter (LPF) of DOB. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by various experiments that take into account varying frequency components of disturbances along the operating speed of a mover of PMLSM such as force ripple and friction force.
Autors: Kwanghyun Cho;Jonghwa Kim;Seibum Ben Choi;Sehoon Oh;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 2158 - 2171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Pressure, Flowing Liquid Dielectric Pulse-Forming Line
Abstract:
Liquid dielectrics as switching media are of special interest because of their higher breakdown field strength than that of compressed gases, especially in the case of ultrafast nanosecond charging, better thermal management, and removal of eroded electrode material while circulating through the switch. The pulse-forming line (PFL) presented here is designed to operate together with our own Marx generators. It is comprised of a peaking switch with, compared with the previous design, an increased high-pressure operability up to 4000 kPa and an additional annular crowbar electrode. The geometry of the peaking switch electrodes was optimized with computational fluid dynamics simulations, in order to ensure a laminar liquid flow through the switch with flow rates up to 55 mL/s. Galden-type HT270 perfluoropolyether fluid was chosen as the liquid dielectric. The breakdown field strength showed a significant pressure dependency, which is due to the high gas solubility of Galden. At a pressure of 3950 kPa and a gap distance of 0.25 mm, a maximum breakdown field strength of 14.3 MV/cm has been reported, an increase of 360% compared with the breakdown field strength of 3.8 MV/cm at atmospheric pressure. The minimum peaking switch rise time was 220 ps; the corresponding peak voltage rise time amounted to V/s. With the addition of the crowbar electrode, an ultrashort monopolar output pulse with a characteristic pulsewidth of 210 ps was achieved. First, the results of a repetitive operation of the PFL driven by an inductive Marx generator will be discussed.
Autors: Bischoff, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 43, issue:10, pages: 3381 - 3384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Higher-Order Tensor Vessel Tractography for Segmentation of Vascular Structures
Abstract:
A new vascular structure segmentation method, which is based on a cylindrical flux-based higher order tensor (HOT), is presented. On a vessel structure, the HOT naturally models branching points, which create challenges for vessel segmentation algorithms. In a general linear HOT model embedded in 3D, one has to work with an even order tensor due to an enforced antipodal-symmetry on the unit sphere. However, in scenarios such as in a bifurcation, the antipodally-symmetric tensor embedded in 3D will not be useful. In order to overcome that limitation, we embed the tensor in 4D and obtain a structure that can model asymmetric junction scenarios. During construction of a higher order tensor (e.g. third or fourth order) in 4D, the orientation vectors lie on the unit 3-sphere, in contrast to the unit 2-sphere in 3D tensor modeling. This 4D tensor is exploited in a seed-based vessel segmentation algorithm, where the principal directions of the 4D HOT is obtained by decomposition, and used in a HOT tractography approach. We demonstrate quantitative validation of the proposed algorithm on both synthetic complex tubular structures as well as real cerebral vasculature in Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) datasets and coronary arteries from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) volumes.
Autors: Cetin, S.;Unal, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Oct 2015, volume: 34, issue:10, pages: 2172 - 2185
Publisher: IEEE
 

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