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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 10-2014 sorted by title, page: 0
» "Spring Forward, Fall Back" [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Autors: Wood, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 15, issue:6, pages: 6 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "Spring is in the Air" [Editorial]
Abstract:
That was what we all were thinking in January 2014 in Belgium. Instead of having cold and cleaning up some snow, we were wearing short-sleeves and light jackets. Nature got confused. Very unusual... For the first time, no white Christmas 2013 in G??vle, Sweden. But, many states in the U.S. were freezing. Very exceptional... 40 degrees Celsius in Monterey, California, in April 2014. The past year the weather has been behaving like a real out-lyer, far outside the uncertainty bounds... Although the weather can be very unpredictable and uncontrollable, each day weather forecasters are trying hard to be able to predict the weather and warn us for the unpredictable forces of nature. Weather forecasting is one of the most difficult sciences! One has to develop powerful models dealing with a huge amount of variables and taking into account a big uncertainty.
Autors: Moer, W.V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 17, issue:5, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.35 V time-domain-based instrumentation amplifier
Abstract:
A time-domain-based amplifier concept is proposed to obtain high-voltage gains with low power consumption and at an ultra-low supply voltage of 0.35 V. A prototype instrumentation amplifier designed using the proposed technique in the 180 nm technology consumes 210 nW of power and 0.1 mm2 of the active area.
Autors: Mohan, R.;Yan, L.;Gielen, G.;Van Hoof, C.;Yazicioglu, R.F.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:21, pages: 1513 - 1514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area
Abstract:
High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060 nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9 μm stripe width and 2.64 mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060 nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9° in lateral and 14° (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M2 is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm−2sr−1 is obtained. 100 μm wide and 3 mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.
Autors: Miah, M.J.;Kettler, T.;Posilovic, K.;Kalosha, V.P.;Skoczowsky, D.;Rosales, R.;Bimberg, D.;Pohl, J.;Weyers, M.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 105, issue:15, pages: 151105 - 151105-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 13.625 Gb/s real-time dual-band adaptive optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmissions over 25 km standard single-mode fibre intensity modulation and direct detection systems utilising strongly saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier intensity modulators
Abstract:
Record-high 13.625 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmissions are experimentally demonstrated over intensity modulation and direct detection-based 25 km standard single-mode fibres utilising 1.125 GHz reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) intensity modulators. The 7.375 Gb/s OFDM baseband (0-2 GHz) and 6.25 Gb/s OFDM passband (4.125-8.125 GHz) are adaptively modulated independently and sampled at 4 GS/s. Experimental results show that strongly saturated RSOAs can intensity-modulate adaptive bit- and power-loaded radio frequency (RF) OFDM signals having bandwidths approximately eight times higher than the 3 dB small-signal modulation bandwidths of the RSOAs.
Autors: Qianwu Zhang;Hugues-Salas, E.;Giddings, R.P.;Junjie Zhang;Min Wang;Jianming Tang;
Appeared in: IET Optoelectronics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 8, issue:5, pages: 175 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 142 GHz amplifier with 18.5 dB gain and 7.9 mw DC power in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A single-ended amplifier with a magnetic-coupled feedback embedded network is proposed and its small-signal equivalent circuit is analysed in detail. The embedded network cancels the effects of the gate-drain capacitor Cgd and introduces negative resistance into the transistor drain, so that the maximum power gain of the transistor could be achieved. Based on this design methodology, a 142 GHz amplifier with 18.5 dB power gain and 7.9 mW DC power has been implemented in 65 nm CMOS.
Autors: Xiangyu Meng;Baoyong Chi;Haikun Jia;Lixue Kuang;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:21, pages: 1513 - 1514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2.4 Ghz discrete-time receiver without subsampling mixer
Abstract:
A subsampling filter is proposed for a discrete-time receiver (DTR). This filter achieves signal discretisation, filtering and downconversion simultaneously. With the proposed subsampling filtering technique, the subsampling mixer in a conventional DTR is eliminated, which can reduce power, cost and noise. The first 2.4 GHz DTR prototype for Zigbee application is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. It achieves 23 dB conversion gain, 17.6 dB noise figure and -15 dBm IIP3. Operated from a single 1 V supply, the low-noise amplifier and following filter stages consume only 3.8 mW and the total receiver power consumption is 25.6 mW.
Autors: Fu-Chien Huang;Ming-Yeh Hsu;Tsung-Hsien Lin;Chorng-Kuang Wang;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:21, pages: 1549 - 1551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20-W Wavelength-Tunable Picosecond Yb-Doped Fiber MOPA Source Seeded by an NPR Mode-Locked Fiber Laser
Abstract:
We demonstrated a high-power wavelength-tunable picosecond Yb-doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier source without any tunable elements for the first time. This wavelength-tunable output was realized based on the birefringence-induced filter effect of the nonlinear polarization rotation mode-locked fiber laser, which worked as the seed source. Through cascaded single-mode Yb-doped fiber preamplifiers together with two double-cladding Yb-doped fiber amplifiers, the pulses were amplified up to 21.2-W output power in the wavelength range from 1038.4 to 1060 nm with a pulse duration of 9.5 ps, an optical signal-to-noise ratio of 25 dB, and a beam quality of 1.16 at the repetition rate of 178 MHz.
Autors: Lin, H.;Guo, C.;Ruan, S.;Wen, R.;Yu, J.;Liu, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 6, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2013 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest Winner: Observing Genomics and Phenotypical Patterns in the Developing Mouse Brain
Abstract:
The 2013 IEEE Scientific Visualization Contest focused on developmental neuroscience related to the mouse brain. In developmental neuroscience, researchers examine spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression to understand how brain structures evolve and vary over an organism's life. The Allen Developing Mouse Brain Atlas project generated expression data for thousands of genes with high spatial resolution over multiple developmental stages. These data have become an invaluable resource for neuroscientists and developmental biologists exploring interesting spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression. Given the extremely large amounts of data, it's desirable to apply visualization techniques to their access, analysis, and interpretation. The proposed visual-analytics system enables clear, insightful observations of the gene expression patterns for such data, focusing on structural patterns that vary across gene expression levels over six developmental stages. Users can explore patterns through specialized data-driven representations that capture emerging structure-function associations in the developing mouse brain. The system also provides an effective characterization of certain processes in the developing brain that could lead to further analysis.
Autors: Li, Qihang;Zachmann, Gabriel;Feng, David;Huang, Kun;Machiraju, Raghu;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 88 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Particle Modeling of Positive Streamer Inception From a Needle Electrode in Supercritical Nitrogen
Abstract:
Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. Here we investigate a possible source of these electrons in high density media: field ionization. Zener's model is used to obtain the field ionization rate of free electrons from impurities. Including this effect, we simulate the inception of positive streamers in supercritical , in a needle-to-plane electrode geometry. Our 3-D particle simulation shows how the discharge branches into positive streamer channels around the electrode.
Autors: Sun, A.;Teunissen, J.;Ebert, U.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 42, issue:10, pages: 2416 - 2417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Potential Distribution Measurement in Electrosurgery by a Flexible Multielectrode System
Abstract:
To analyze the electric field around bipolar resectoscopes, used in urology, in terms of reasons for late complications after a surgical treatment a flexible multielectrode system was developed to measure the 3-D potential distribution. A high spatial resolution is achieved with the least possible individual measurements under the conditions of a quasi-static electric field. A flexible arrangement and positioning of the measuring points in the vertical direction of the experimental environment enable an adjustable spatial resolution and the selection of the region of interest. The existing influence of the multielectrode system on the measuring results is described and a correction method is presented to achieve significant results. Thus, the multielectrode system is usable for a comparative study of bipolar resectoscopes varying in the arrangement of resection and return electrode.
Autors: Knopf, C.;Himmel, J.;Klockner, S.;Thelen, K.;Kanoun, O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 2447 - 2453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Simulation of Low-Temperature Plasma Development Under Pulsed Conditions
Abstract:
The development of a low-temperature plasma in a needle-protrusion to plane gap is investigated utilizing a 3-D particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision method implemented to run on single NVIDIA graphics processing unit. In addition to electron collisions, the model includes field detachment, photon tracking, and a drift-diffusion approximation for positive ions. The simulated geometry tracks several million electrons with 15- spatial resolution.
Autors: Fierro, A.S.;Dickens, J.C.;Neuber, A.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 42, issue:10, pages: 2864 - 2865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Simulation of Plasma's Rotation Behavior in High Current Vacuum Arcs Under Realistic Spatial Magnetic Field Profile
Abstract:
Based on a 3-D steady magnetohydrodynamic model, the high current vacuum arc subjected to a realistic spatial magnetic field generated by the cup-type contacts was simulated. The influence of the realistic spatial magnetic field profile on plasma's rotation behavior was analyzed. The distribution of the azimuthal velocity on anode side under realistic spatial magnetic field profile was quite different from that under uniform axial magnetic field.
Autors: Qian, Z.;Wang, L.;Jia, S.;Wang, H.;Huang, X.;Shi, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 42, issue:10, pages: 2708 - 2709
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-T ISFET front-end utilising parasitic device capacitance
Abstract:
A 3-T ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) chemical sensor that utilises the parasitic drain-gate capacitance of the device is proposed. It is compact and consumes extremely low power, and at the same time is immune to capacitive division. Additionally, it provides in-pixel amplification dependent on the ratio of passivation and feedback (parasitic) capacitance. The fabricated sensor achieves 200 mV/pH sensitivity using this amplification mechanism.
Autors: Yuanqi Hu;Georgiou, P.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:21, pages: 1507 - 1509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D IP
Abstract:
As a new and evolving technology, 3D printing is subject to a murky array of intellectual property laws. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/uXNWt1RgJuA is an audio recording from the Computing and the Law column, in which author Brian M. Gaff discusses how as a new and evolving technology, 3D printing is subject to a murky array of intellectual property laws.
Autors: Gaff, Brian M.;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 47, issue:10, pages: 9 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz duplexer design using dual-mode SIW filters with single-sided transmission zeros
Abstract:
A novel topology for designing 60 GHz duplexers is presented. Both the receiver (Rx) and transmitter (Tx) filters of the duplexer, which were constructed using dual-mode substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) cavities, can exhibit a single-sided transmission zero. The transmission zeros were arranged to achieve high channel isolation and frequency selectivity. The results confirm that the fabricated duplexer can achieve an Rx/Tx isolation higher than 30 dB.
Autors: Desong Wang;Kuo-Sheng Chin;Wenquan Che;Chih-Chun Chang;Yafen Wu;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:21, pages: 1529 - 1531
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz optically transparent microstrip antenna made of meshed AuGL material
Abstract:
In this study, a 60 GHz optically transparent microstrip (OTM) patch antenna array is designed, fabricated and measured. Gold meshes are implemented for the two layers of the antenna. A numerical parametric study on the positioning of the two meshed layers is performed to give design considerations and optimise both the electromagnetic and optical performances of OTM antennas at 60 GHz band. The simulation and measured results of the OTM antenna with a theoretical maximum transparency up to 74.6% are compared with a light reflecting reference antenna. Both antennas have similar reflection coefficients and radiating performances. This study provides practical design rules to fabricate high gain OTM antennas with performances similar to those of standard topologies at 60 GHz band, with the addition of high optical transparency.
Autors: Hautcoeur, J.;Talbi, L.;Hettak, K.;Nedil, M.;
Appeared in: IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 8, issue:13, pages: 1091 - 1096
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 keV Ar+-ion induced modification of microstructural, compositional, and vibrational properties of InSb
Abstract:
Room temperature irradiation of InSb(111) by 60 keV Ar+-ions at normal (0°) and oblique (60°) angles of incidence led to the formation of nanoporous structure in the high fluence regime of 1 × 1017 to 3 × 1018 ions cm−2. While a porous layer comprising of a network of interconnected nanofibers was generated by normal ion incidence, evolution of plate-like structures was observed for obliquely incident ions. Systematic studies of composition and structure using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman mapping, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed a high degree of oxidation of the ion-induced microstructures with the presence of In2O3 and Sb2O3 phases and presence of nanocrystallites within the nanoporous structures. The observed structural evolution was understood in terms of processes driven by ion-induced defect accumulation within InSb.
Autors: Datta, D.P.;Garg, S.K.;Satpati, B.;Sahoo, P.K.;Kanjilal, A.;Dhara, S.;Kanjilal, D.;Som, T.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 116, issue:14, pages: 143502 - 143502-10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -factor Test Voltage Function for Oscillating Lightning Impulses in Nonhomogenous Air Gaps
Abstract:
The -factor function, called the test voltage function, in present standards IEEE Standard 4-2013 and IEC 60060-1, was determined years ago for voltages not higher than 100 kV and with relative overshoots around 15%. This paper presents the results of -factor tests carried out for greater voltages up to 1.32 MV (equivalent to air-gap distances 2.5 m) and many test conditions. These test conditions are relative overvoltages, up to 35%, different damping ratios: from 0 (overshoot) to 35% (oscillating waveform), and different electrical configurations of a nonhomogenous electric field using air gap factors 1 (rod plane) up to 1,45 (rod conductor). The results show that the present -factor function stated in both standards does not represent insulation behavior for large air-gap distances when the gap factor is around 1. Only when the gap factor increases to 2, are the experimental -factor values closer to the standard -factor function. A general formula for the $k$ -factor, depending on the oscillation frequency, gap distance, and the electric-field nonhomogeneity, is derived from the performed tests, taking also into account the -factor results of the recent bibliography.
Autors: Garnacho, F.;Khamlichi, A.;Valladolid, A.;Simon, P.;Valcarcel, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 2254 - 2260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Factor Analysis of Reflectarray Elements Investigating the Effects From Angle of Incidence Using Floquet Modes
Abstract:
A theoretical approach to investigate the effects of incidence angle on reflection properties of reflectarray elements is developed for the first time. Utilizing coupled-mode theory and Floquet analysis, the dependence of reflection coefficient on incidence angles and plane of incidence is presented in terms of factors. A unit cell excited by a plane wave at different incidence angles is shown to have varying coupling conditions and reflection properties. Emphasis is laid on elements located on planes where extremities in performance tend to occur. Anomalous phase characteristics are observed for particular polarization and incidence angles. The antenna element properties are assessed in terms of maximum reflection loss and slope of the reflection phase. A thorough analysis is performed at band and the results obtained are verified using full-wave simulations. Reflection coefficients over a 749-element reflectarray aperture for a broadside radiation pattern are presented for a couple of cases and the effects of coupling conditions in conjunction with incidence angles are demonstrated. The presented theory provides explicit physical intuition and guidelines for efficient and accurate reflectarray design.
Autors: Karnati, K.K.;Yusuf, Y.;Ebadi, S.;Gong, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5017 - 5028
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Slot Photonic Crystal Microcavity for Refractive Index Gas Sensing
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a series of slot photonic crystal (PhC) microcavities, which operate as refractive index (RI) gas sensors. The cavities are simply composed of a silicon slab triangular photonic crystal with holes replaced by a slot, which do not require sophisticated design or high fabrication resolution. With the increase in , the quality factor of the cavity exponentially increases, which is explained by the envelope of electric field approaching a Gaussian profile. An slot PhC microcavity with a quality factor exceeding 30 000, sensitivity of 421 nm per RI unit (RIU), and detection limit down to RIU was experimentally demonstrated. The performance of the device is comparable with other fine-tuned PhC microcavity structures. Due to its simple structure and high fabrication tolerance, it could have wide applications in optical sensors.
Autors: Li, K.;Li, J.;Song, Y.;Fang, G.;Li, C.;Feng, Z.;Su, R.;Zeng, B.;Wang, X.;Jin, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 6, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Privacy for Collaborative Data Publishing
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the collaborative data publishing problem for anonymizing horizontally partitioned data at multiple data providers. We consider a new type of “insider attack” by colluding data providers who may use their own data records (a subset of the overall data) to infer the data records contributed by other data providers. The paper addresses this new threat, and makes several contributions. First, we introduce the notion of m-privacy, which guarantees that the anonymized data satisfies a given privacy constraint against any group of up to m colluding data providers. Second, we present heuristic algorithms exploiting the monotonicity of privacy constraints for efficiently checking m-privacy given a group of records. Third, we present a data provider-aware anonymization algorithm with adaptive m-privacy checking strategies to ensure high utility and m-privacy of anonymized data with efficiency. Finally, we propose secure multi-party computation protocols for collaborative data publishing with m-privacy. All protocols are extensively analyzed and their security and efficiency are formally proved. Experiments on real-life datasets suggest that our approach achieves better or comparable utility and efficiency than existing and baseline algorithms while satisfying m-privacy.
Autors: Goryczka, S.;Li Xiong;Fung, B.C.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 2520 - 2533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» - : A Predictive - for Reducing Writes on Phase Change Memory
Abstract:
Phase change memory (PCM) has been considered an attractive alternative to flash memory and DRAM. It has promising features, including non-volatile storage, byte addressability, fast read and write operations, and supports random accesses. However, there are challenges in designing algorithms for PCM-based memory systems, such as longer write latency and higher energy consumption compared to DRAM. In this paper, we propose a new predictive B+-tree index, called the Bp-tree, which is tailored for database systems that make use of PCM. Our Bp-tree reduces data movements caused by tree node splits and merges that arise from insertions and deletions. This is achieved by pre-allocating space on PCM for near future data. To ensure the space are allocated where they are needed, we propose a novel predictive model to ascertain future data distribution based on the current data. In addition, as in [4], when keys are inserted into a leaf node, they are packed but need not be in sorted order. We have implemented the Bp-tree in PostgreSQL and evaluated it in an emulated environment. Our experimental results show that the Bp-tree significantly reduces the number of writes, therefore making it write and energy efficient and suitable for a PCM-like hardware environment.
Autors: Weiwei Hu;Guoliang Li;Jiacai Ni;Dalie Sun;Kian-Lee Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 26, issue:10, pages: 2368 - 2381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.137 mm 9 GHz Hybrid Class-B/C QVCO With Output Buffering in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A compact realization of hybrid class-B/C quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) with output buffering is proposed. It employs a four-phase amplitude detector feedback loop to shift the operation mode from hybrid class-B/class-C to class-C after power up. The power-efficient class-C core allows quadrature-locking via passive capacitive coupling, whereas the auxiliary class-B core ensures a robust startup. For higher output drivability, PMOS-based source followers are stacked atop the QVCO for reusing its bias current and avoiding any AC-coupling networks. The buffered QVCO can directly drive up the 50- port of testers, or to withstand a large capacitive load in on-chip signal distribution. The fabricated 9 GHz QVCO in 65 nm CMOS draws 10.5 mW and exhibits -dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz offset. The active area is just 0.137 mm by using two compact spiral inductors with patterned ground shields.
Autors: Amin, M.T.;Mak, P.-I.;Martins, R.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 24, issue:10, pages: 716 - 718
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 2 Dual-Band Antenna Array for Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Handheld Reader Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, an aperture-coupled dual-band antenna array for ultra-high-frequency (UHF) and microwave band radio-frequency identification (RFID) handheld reader application is presented. The proposed two-element antenna array is composed of a feeding network, a ground plane with coupling apertures, patch radiators, and parasitic elements serving as directors. The spacing between the radiators is optimized to achieve the desired radiation patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed antenna features good impedance bandwidth, moderate gain, and good radiation efficiency from 840 to 960 MHz (covering a universal UHF band) and 2.38–2.48 GHz (microwave band). The antenna is well suited for applications in RFID handheld readers.
Autors: Hsu, H.-T.;Huang, T.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5260 - 5267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2-pJ/bit 16-Gb/s 60-GHz OOK Transmitter in 65-nm CMOS for Wireless Network-On-Chip
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a high-efficiency 60-GHz on–off keying (OOK) transmitter (TX) designed for wireless network-on-chip applications. Aiming at an intra-chip communication distance of 20 mm, the TX consists of a drive amplifier (DA), a high-speed OOK modulator, and a transformer-coupled voltage-controlled oscillator. For high efficiency, a common-source topology with a drain-to-gate neutralization technique is chosen for the DA. A detailed mathematical design methodology is derived for the neutralization technique. The bulk-driven OOK modulator employs a novel dual feedthrough cancellation technique, resulting in a 30-dB on–off ratio. Fabricated in a 65-nm bulk CMOS process, the TX consumes only 19 mW from a 1-V supply, and occupies an active area of . A maximum modulation data rate of 16 Gb/s with 0.75-dBm output power is demonstrated through measurements, which translates to a bit-energy efficiency of 1.2 pJ/bit.
Autors: Yu, X.;Sah, S.P.;Rashtian, H.;Mirabbasi, S.;Pande, P.P.;Heo, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2357 - 2369
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.35-V 16-Mb Twin-Bit-Cell Virtual-Ground-Architecture Embedded Flash Memory With a Sensing Current Protection Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, a 1.35 V 16 Mb twin-bit-cell virtual ground architecture embedded Flash memory is presented. To reduce the sensing margin loss caused by the side-leakage current in the virtual ground architecture memory array, a sensing current protection technique has been proposed. A reference voltage generating circuit for dynamic sensing window tracking is designed to maximize the sensing window under various PVT (Process-Voltage-Temperature) conditions. With the reference voltage generating circuit and a high performance sense amplifier, high speed read operation is achieved. As four bitlines have to be selected to read one bit, an S-D-P-P (Source-Drain-Protection-Protection) style column decoding methodology has been introduced to support the sensing current protection technique. The embedded Flash IP has been fabricated in a GSMC 90 nm 4 poly 4 metal CMOS process. The die size of the proposed Flash IP is 3.2 and the memory cell size is 0.16 . Access time of 36 ns at 1.35 V has been achieved.
Autors: Zhang, S.;Xiao, J.;Yang, G.;Hu, J.;Huang, M.;Zou, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2862 - 2868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1/2.5 inch VGA 400 fps CMOS Image Sensor With High Sensitivity for Machine Vision
Abstract:
Machine vision requires CMOS image sensors (CISs) with high frame rate, short exposure time, and fine spatial resolution. Recently, capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) is used in the high-speed pixel circuit to achieve high sensitivity by expediting the charge transfer from the photodiode to a tiny integration capacitor ( ). Existing CTIA pixel designs have large pixel sizes due to the multiple sampling capacitors and switches for global shutter and CDS, which unfavorably limits the spatial resolution. In this paper, we present a 400 fps CIS design with 640 × 480 pixel array for machine vision. With simplified pixel circuits, the new sensor has a CTIA pixel size of 8.7 × 8.22 µm 2 , which is the smallest in the category. The pixel implements a new multi-layer MOM capacitor with good uniformity as the tiny , which achieves high sensitivity (36.5 V/lux·s) without calibration. Pixel-wise CDS is implemented in this global-shutter CIS to minimize the pixel noise. The pixel signals are quantized by 640 column processing slices with 12 bit resolution at 411 kS/s. The size of the column SAR ADC is minimized with a simple calibration technique. The CIS is fabricated in a 0.18 µm mixed-signal CMOS process. The temporal noise is 15.6 e . With the new MOM capacitor, FPN of the CIS is 0.55% without calibration. The new pixel design achieves the highest sensitivity per unit area.
Autors: Xu, R.;Ng, W.C.;Yuan, J.;Yin, S.;Wei, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2342 - 2351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10/24-GHz CMOS/IPD Monopulse Receiver for Angle-Discrimination Radars
Abstract:
A new 10/24-GHz monopulse receiver is developed in this paper. The receiver consists of dual-band or broadband circuits such as low-noise amplifiers, a rat-race coupler, a switch, and mixers. These circuits are fabricated by a standard 0.18- CMOS or an integrated passive device (IPD) technology, and are integrated together in a flip-chip form. The overall chip area is 3.8 mm 3.6 mm. With power consumption of 90.6 mW, the receiver results in 16.5/6.9-dB gain, 9.2/14.6-dB noise figure, 22.3/ 23.7-dBminput , and 23.6/21.5-dB sum/difference amplitude ratio in the 10/24-GHz bands. Moreover, the monopulse measurement also demonstrates angle discrimination in the two bands. To authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an original dual-band CMOS monopulse receiver architecture for angle detection applications.
Autors: Wang, S.;Lin, W.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2999 - 3006
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 14-mW PLL-Less Receiver in 0.18- CMOS for Chinese Electronic Toll Collection Standard
Abstract:
The design of a 14-mW receiver without phase-locked loop for the Chinese electronic toll collection (ETC) system in a standard 0.18- CMOS process is presented in this brief. Since the previously published work was mainly based on vehicle-powered systems, low power consumption was not the primary goal of such a system. In contrast, the presented system is designed for a battery-powered system. Utilizing the presented receiver architecture, the entire receiver only consumes 7.8 mA, at the supply voltage of 1.8 V, which indicates a power saving of at least 38% compared with other state-of-the-art designs for the same application. To verify the performance, the bit error rate is measured to be better than , which well satisfies the Chinese ETC standard. Moreover, the sensitivity of the designed receiver can be readjusted to 50 dBm, which is required by the standard.
Autors: He, X.;Zhu, X.;Duan, L.;Sun, Y.;Ma, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 763 - 767
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15 MHz bandwidth, 60 Vpp, low distortion power amplifier for driving high power piezoelectric transducers
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and the realization of a linear power amplifier with large bandwidth (15 MHz) capable of driving low impedance ultrasonic transducers. The output current driving capability (up to 5 A) and low distortion makes it suitable for new research applications using high power ultrasound in the medical and industrial fields. The electronic design approach is modular so that the characteristics can be scaled according to specific applications and implementation details for the circuit layout are reported. Finally the characterization of the power amplifier module is presented.
Autors: Capineri, Lorenzo;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 85, issue:10, pages: 104701 - 104701-11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 240 × 180 130 dB 3 µs Latency Global Shutter Spatiotemporal Vision Sensor
Abstract:
Event-based dynamic vision sensors (DVSs) asynchronously report log intensity changes. Their high dynamic range, sub-ms latency and sparse output make them useful in applications such as robotics and real-time tracking. However they discard absolute intensity information which is useful for object recognition and classification. This paper presents a dynamic and active pixel vision sensor (DAVIS) which addresses this deficiency by outputting asynchronous DVS events and synchronous global shutter frames concurrently. The active pixel sensor (APS) circuits and the DVS circuits within a pixel share a single photodiode. Measurements from a 240×180 sensor array of 18.5 µm 2 pixels fabricated in a 0.18 µm 6M1P CMOS image sensor (CIS) technology show a dynamic range of 130 dB with 11% contrast detection threshold, minimum 3 µs latency, and 3.5% contrast matching for the DVS pathway; and a 51 dB dynamic range with 0.5% FPN for the APS readout.
Autors: Brandli, C.;Berner, R.;Yang, M.;Liu, S.-C.;Delbruck, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2333 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 25-to-28 Gb/s High-Sensitivity ( 9.7 dBm) 65 nm CMOS Optical Receiver for Board-to-Board Interconnects
Abstract:
To address the two main challenges concerning the design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA), namely, improving the sensitivity of the TIA without sacrificing bandwidth and suppressing inter-symbol interference (ISI) due to insertion loss, a 25 Gb/s optical receiver (RX) based on 65 nm CMOS technology, including a TIA and a PD operating at 1.3 wavelength, was developed. The key components of the TIA are a two-stage offset-cancelation scheme and a low-voltage output driver with peaking gain of 7.7 dB at 12.5 GHz. This driver performance is achieved by separating the equalizer function and output buffer of the driver. The TIA attains a sensitivity of 9.7 dBm (86- ) OMA and an eye opening of 65% at data rate of 25 Gb/s. The optical RX operates at 28 Gb/s with sensitivity of 8.2 dBm (121- ) OMA. Utilizing the CMOS TIA, an implemented VCSEL-based optical link operating at 850 nm wavelength achieves sensitivity of 7.3 dBm (98- ) OMA. Power consumption and power efficiency of the optical RX at data rate of 28 Gb/s are respectively 137.5 mW and 4.9 mW/Gb/s.
Autors: Takemoto, T.;Yamashita, H.;Yazaki, T.;Chujo, N.;Lee, Y.;Matsuoka, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2259 - 2276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Camera With Adaptable Background Light Suppression Using Pixel-Binning and Super-Resolution
Abstract:
This paper presents a CMOS time-of-flight (TOF) 3-D camera employing a column-level background light (BGL) suppression scheme for high-resolution outdoor imaging. The use of the column-level approach minimizes a pixel size for high-density pixel arrays. Pixel-binning and super-resolution can be adaptably applied for an optimal BGL suppression at given spatiotemporal resolutions. A prototype sensor has been fabricated by using 0.11 m CMOS processes. The sensor achieved a fill factor of 24% in a pixel pitch of 5.9 m which is the smallest among all the reported TOF cameras up to date. Measurement results showed the temporal noise of 1.47 cm-rms with a 100 ms integration time at a demodulation frequency of 12.5 MHz using a white target at 1 m distance. The non-linearity was measured as 1% over the range of 0.75 m 4 m. The BGL suppression over 100 klx was achieved from indoor and outdoor experiments, while the BGL-induced offset was maintained less than 2.6 cm under 0 100 klx.
Autors: Cho, J.;Choi, J.;Kim, S.-J.;Park, S.;Shin, J.;Kim, J.D.K.;Yoon, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2319 - 2332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 32-channel photon counting module with embedded auto/cross-correlators for real-time parallel fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
Abstract:
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds.
Autors: Gong, S.;Labanca, I.;Rech, I.;Ghioni, M.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 85, issue:10, pages: 103101 - 103101-9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45-dB, 150-Hz, and 18-mW Touch Controller for On-Cell Capacitive TSP Systems
Abstract:
A touch controller is proposed for on-cell capacitive touch screen panel systems, which adopts a newly proposed peaking noise detector and low-frequency rejection filters. Implemented in a 0.35- CMOS, the proposed touch controller with 3.3-V drive signal shows the maximum signal-to-noise ratio and scan rate of 45 dB and 150 Hz, respectively, while consuming 18 mW from a 3.3-V supply.
Autors: Jang, Y.;Ko, Y.;Choi, J.;Oh, H.;Lee, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 748 - 752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45 Linearly Polarized Hollow-Waveguide 16 16-Slot Array Antenna Covering 71–86 GHz Band
Abstract:
A 45 linearly polarized hollow-waveguide 16 16- slot array antenna is proposed for point-to-point wireless communication in the 71–76 GHz and 81–86 GHz bands. The antenna is composed of an equally-split corporate-feed circuit and 2 2-element sub-arrays which radiate the 45 linear polarization. Low sidelobe characteristics are obtained in the E-plane by diagonal placement of the square antenna rotating by 45 degrees. To suppress cross polarization, a radiating narrow-slot pair is adopted. The sub-array is designed by a genetic algorithm and 25.7% reflection bandwidth for is obtained by decreasing the of two eigenmodes of the radiating element. A 16 16-element array is fabricated by diffusion bonding of thin copper plates. The total thickness is 3.2 mm which is less than 1 free space wavelength. A high gain of 32.9 dBi, high antenna efficiency of 86.6% and low sidelobe characteristics of -dB first sidelobe levels are measured at the center frequency of 78.5 GHz. Further, the broadband characteristics of reflection , show a gain of more than 31.4 dBi, and low cross polarization of less than dB are achieved over the 71–86 GHz band.
Autors: Tomura, T.;Hirokawa, J.;Hirano, T.;Ando, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5061 - 5067
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 49-to-62 GHz Quadrature VCO With Bimodal Enhanced-Magnetic-Tuning Technique
Abstract:
A bimodal enhanced-magnetic-tuning technique is proposed to extend the frequency tuning range of millimeter-wave (mmW) quadrature VCOs (QVCOs). First, the conventional magnetic tuning is reviewed, and its limitations for the frequency tuning at mmW frequencies are high-lighted. To enlarge the variable range of the magnetic field, a new transformer-based topology called enhanced-magnetic-tuning (EMT) is proposed and analyzed. In addition, by switching the polarity of the phase shift of the coupling currents, both of the two intrinsic modes in a quadrature VCO are exploited to ideally double the frequency tuning range. With a generic model, the proposed bimodal enhanced-magnetic-tuning (B-EMT) is analyzed mathematically and compared with the conventional frequency tuning techniques. Implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process, the QVCO prototype with the proposed B-EMT technique and 1-bit digitally controlled varactor measures a tuning range of 24% from 48.8 to 62.3 GHz and phase noise of 89 to 96 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset while drawing 13 to 25 mA from a 1.2-V supply, corresponding to FoM from 173 to 176 dBc and from 181 to 184 dBc/Hz.
Autors: Wu, L.;Luong, H.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 3025 - 3033
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gb/s, 10 ns Power-On-Time, 36 W Off-State Power, Fast Power-On Transmitter for Energy Proportional Links
Abstract:
A fast power-on transmitter architecture that enables energy proportional communication for server and mobile platforms is presented. The proposed architecture and circuit techniques achieve fast power-on capability in voltage mode output driver by using fast-digital regulator, and in the clock multiplier by accurate frequency pre-setting and periodic reference insertion. To ease timing requirements, an improved edge replacement logic circuit for the clock multiplier is proposed. The proposed transmitter demonstrates energy proportional operation over wide variations of link utilization, and is therefore suitable for energy efficient links.
Autors: Anand, T.;Elshazly, A.;Talegaonkar, M.;Young, B.;Hanumolu, P.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2243 - 2258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gbps 1.6 mW/G bps/CH Adaptive Crosstalk Cancellation Scheme With Reference-less Digital Calibration and Switched Termination Resistors for Single-Ended Parallel Interface
Abstract:
A low power adaptive crosstalk cancellation for single-ended parallel interface is presented. A fast digital calibration which accurately detects the amount of crosstalk without a reference clock (reference-less) is proposed. To transfer calibration information from a receiver to a transmitter without additional channels, switched termination resistors (STR) are implemented. The reference-less adaptation and STR schemes achieve low power consumption and small area. A crosstalk compensator with simple structure is placed at transmitter-side, and it requires less design effort and low power. The proposed adaptive crosstalk cancellation scheme rapidly determines the optimum calibration point only during 4-cycle calibration time, and eliminates from 50% to 87.1% of the crosstalk-induced jitter (CIJ). It operates up to 5 Gbps consuming 1.6 mW/Gbps/CH in a 130 nm CMOS.
Autors: Hwang, K.-D.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 3016 - 3024
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.8 nW 9.1-ENOB 1-kS/s Local Asynchronous Successive Approximation Register ADC for Implantable Medical Device
Abstract:
This brief presents a 10-bits successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with a sampling rate of 1 kS/s for implantable medical devices. This ADC is implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process in which leakage current will be a key design parameter. It imposes the highest degree of simplicity in the design of the ADCs architecture. Thus, the transistor count is minimized, which reduces not only the active power, but also the number of leakage sources. The modified top-plate -based switching offers energy efficient switching at the capacitive-DAC (CDAC) and uses simple control logic. In addition, the proposed asymmetrical metal-oxide-metal capacitor reduces the size of the CDAC by 90% for a given gain error. Furthermore, the input referred offset voltage of the dynamic comparator can be improved by the top-plate -based switching method at system level without using any additional transistor. The other building blocks are also simplified for lower power consumption. This ADC occupies an area of 0.046 . At 0.9 V and 1 kS/s, the 10-bits ADC consumes 5.8 nW, in which, 2.34 nW is contributed by leakage power consumption. The ADC achieves 9.1-ENOB and an energy efficiency of 10.94-fJ/conversion step.
Autors: Tang, H.;Sun, Z.C.;Chew, K.W.R.;Siek, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 2220 - 2224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-Bit 1 GS/s Pipeline ADC Using Incomplete Settling With Background Sampling-Point Calibration
Abstract:
A 6-bit 1 GS/s single-channel pipeline ADC using an incomplete settling concept is presented. A background sampling-point calibration is proposed to adjust MDAC sampling point so that low gain and low bandwidth opamp can be utilized to conserve power. The prototype ADC in 65-nm CMOS process exhibits an INL of 0.76/ 0.68 LSB and a DNL of 0.72/ 0.68 LSB. Its ENOB is 5.25 bits at Nyquist input frequency with the conversion rate of 1 GS/s. It consumes 62 mW including calibration circuit power at 1 V supply and occupies an active chip area of 0.3 .
Autors: Tseng, C.-J.;Lai, C.-F.;Chen, H.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2805 - 2815
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Based Noise Optimization for CMOS Folded-Cascode Operational Amplifier
Abstract:
Noise optimization is a challenging problem for nanoscale metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor circuits. This brief presents a technique that uses transconductance-to-drain current -dependent transistor-noise parameters to explore the design space and to evaluate tradeoff decisions. An expression for the corner frequency of the folded-cascode amplifier is derived. The design process demonstrated in this brief using the folded-cascode amplifier is applicable to a wide class of amplifier circuits.
Autors: Ou, J.;Ferreira, P.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 783 - 787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bag-of-Importance Model With Locality-Constrained Coding Based Feature Learning for Video Summarization
Abstract:
Video summarization helps users obtain quick comprehension of video content. Recently, some studies have utilized local features to represent each video frame and formulate video summarization as a coverage problem of local features. However, the importance of individual local features has not been exploited. In this paper, we propose a novel Bag-of-Importance (BoI) model for static video summarization by identifying the frames with important local features as keyframes, which is one of the first studies formulating video summarization at local feature level, instead of at global feature level. That is, by representing each frame with local features, a video is characterized with a bag of local features weighted with individual importance scores and the frames with more important local features are more representative, where the representativeness of each frame is the aggregation of the weighted importance of the local features contained in the frame. In addition, we propose to learn a transformation from a raw local feature to a more powerful sparse nonlinear representation for deriving the importance score of each local feature, rather than directly utilize the hand-crafted visual features like most of the existing approaches. Specifically, we first employ locality-constrained linear coding (LCC) to project each local feature into a sparse transformed space. LCC is able to take advantage of the manifold geometric structure of the high dimensional feature space and form the manifold of the low dimensional transformed space with the coordinates of a set of anchor points. Then we calculate the norm of each anchor point as the importance score of each local feature which is projected to the anchor point. Finally, the distribution of the importance scores of all the local features in a video is obtained as the BoI representation of the video. We further differentiate the importance of local feat- res with a spatial weighting template by taking the perceptual difference among spatial regions of a frame into account. As a result, our proposed video summarization approach is able to exploit both the inter-frame and intra-frame properties of feature representations and identify keyframes capturing both the dominant content and discriminative details within a video. Experimental results on three video datasets across various genres demonstrate that the proposed approach clearly outperforms several state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Lu, S.;Wang, Z.;Mei, T.;Guan, G.;Feng, D.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 1497 - 1509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Approach to Automated Optical Inspection for Solder Jet Ball Joint Defects in the Head Gimbal Assembly Process
Abstract:
Automation or selective automation is adopted as a solution to most productivity problems in the hard disk drive (HDD) industry as the industry continues to grow at a 40% compounded annual growth rate. An automated production line for manufacturing the head gimbal assembly (HGA) has been developed as part of the automation solution. In the automated HGA production line, a solder jet ball (SJB) soldering station connects the suspension circuit to the slider body. We propose a Bayesian approach to automated optical inspection (AOI) of the SJB joint in the HGA process, implementing Tree Augmented Naïve Bayes Network (TAN-BN) plus check classifier in-situ using GeNIe/SMILE within the inspection software. The system is further enhanced with a result checker, achieving an overall accuracy of 91.52% with 660 production parts in a blind test.
Autors: Mak, C.W.;Afzulpurkar, N.V.;Dailey, M.N.;Saram, P.B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 11, issue:4, pages: 1155 - 1162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Networks Structure Learning and Reasoning-Based Byproduct Gas Scheduling in Steel Industry
Abstract:
It is very crucial for the byproduct gas system in steel industry to perform an accurate and timely scheduling, which enables to reasonably utilize the energy resources and effectively reduce the production cost of enterprises. In this study, a novel data-driven-based dynamic scheduling thought is proposed for the real-time gas scheduling, in which a probability relationship described by a Bayesian network is modeled to determine the adjustable gas users that impact on the gas tanks level, and to give their scheduling amounts online by maximizing the posterior probability of the users' operational statuses. For the practical applicability, the obtained scheduling solution can be further verified by a recurrent neural network reported in literature. To indicate the effectiveness of the proposed data-driven scheduling method, the real gas flow data coming from a steel plant in China are employed, and the experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide real-time and scientific gas scheduling solution for the energy system of steel industry.
Autors: Zhao, J.;Wang, W.;Sun, K.;Liu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 11, issue:4, pages: 1149 - 1154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A better test than turing [News]
Abstract:
The Turing test is a flawed metric for human-level AI. Can Winograd schemas do better? In June 2014, a computer program named Eugene was able to convince 33 percent of the humans it chatted with that it was a real 13-year-old Ukrainian boy named Eugene Goostman. The experience was part of an artificial intelligence contest held by the University of Reading, in England. Eugene was declared to be the first AI to have passed the Turing test𠄺lan Turing's 1950 attempt to provide a framework for determining whether machines can think.
Autors: Ackerman, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 51, issue:10, pages: 20 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A brief overview of weather radar technologies and instrumentation
Abstract:
Weather radar technologies and instrumentation play a vital role in early warning of severe weather. For example, the annual impacts of adverse weather on the U.S. national highway system and roads are staggering: 7,400 weather-related deaths and 1.5 million weather-related crashes [1]. In addition, US$4.2 billion is lost each year as a result of air traffic delays attributed to weather. Research on high-impact weather is broadly motivated by society's need to improve the prediction of these weather events. The research approaches to accomplish this goal vary significantly with the inherent predictability of the weather system. For example, the current forecast approaches for issuing warnings of short-lived events, such as tornadoes and flash floods, are primarily based on observations with a focus on advanced Doppler radar measurements.
Autors: Yeary, M.;Cheong, B.L.;Kurdzo, J.M.;Tian-You Yu;Palmer, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 17, issue:5, pages: 10 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cascaded Distributed Amplifier Operating Up to 110 GHz Using SiGe HBTs
Abstract:
A cascade distributed amplifier (DA) is designed and analyzed in this letter. The proposed DA is fabricated in 0.13 SiGe HBTs process and patterned ground micro-strips are deployed for the design of distributed inductors to achieve high-Q in the transmission line (TL). In addition, negative resistors and capacitors are used to widen the bandwidth. Gain boosting techniques are also used to ensure gain flatness throughout the band. The fabricated DA achieves an average gain of 17.5 dB and 14.5 dB gain at 110 GHz. 7.5 and 2.7 dBm saturated output power are obtained at 50 and 100 GHz, respectively. The total chip size is 0.8 mm 1.8 mm, including the bond pads.
Autors: Li, Y.;Ling, G.W.;Xiong, Y.-Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 24, issue:10, pages: 713 - 715
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CFAR Adaptive Subspace Detector Based on a Single Observation in System-Dependent Clutter Background
Abstract:
In this paper, the problem of detecting target in system-dependent clutter (SDC) background with a single observation from the test cell is researched. Classical detectors, such as the generalized likelihood ratio detectors (GLRDs) and the adaptive matched filters (AMFs), etc., usually deal with the clutter and the noise as a whole. The low rank detectors (LRDs) make use of the low rank property of the clutter to improve the detection performance. However, the performance of LRDs degrades when the signal is not orthogonal with respect to (w.r.t.) the clutter. In this paper, an adaptive subspace detector for SDC (SDC-ASD) background which deals with the clutter and the noise separately is proposed. The SDC-ASD designs the test statistic by replacing the signal and the clutter covariance matrix with their maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs). Its theoretical false alarm probability and detection probability are analytically deduced. Analytical results show that the test statistic has the form of non-central F distribution. Besides, it is shown that the SDC-ASD has constant false alarm rate (CFAR) performance w.r.t. the clutter and the noise. Numerical experiments are provided to validate the detection performance of the SDC-ASD in dealing with the target detection in SDC background.
Autors: Shiwen Lei;Zhiqin Zhao;Zaiping Nie;Qing-Huo Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:20, pages: 5260 - 5269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Changing Climate: Data Show Warming Trends Ahead [From the Editor]
Abstract:
Discusses trends in global warming and assesses the implications for the power and electricity supply industry worldwide.
Autors: Olken, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A charge transfer complex nematic liquid crystalline gel with high electrical conductivity
Abstract:
We describe the rheological, dielectric and elastic properties of a nematic liquid crystal gel created using an anthrylidene derivative of arjunolic acid, a chiral triterpenoid, obtained from the extracts of the wood of Terminalia arjuna. In this novel gel, having the electron-donor and acceptor components as minority constituents, the gelation and strengthening of charge-transfer complex (CTC) formation are seen to be occurring concomitantly. In addition to being mechanically strong with a large storage modulus, the gel with the maximized CTC exhibits Frank bend elastic constant values that approach nanonewton levels. The highlight of the study is the observation of 4–5 orders of magnitude increase in electrical conductivity for this gel, a value that is higher than even in the CT complexes of 2-d ordered columnar structures. A further important advantage of the present system over the columnar complex is that the high conductivity is seen for ac probing also, and owing to the nematic nature can be switched between its anisotropic limits. Some of these features are ascribed to a specific molecular packing architecture, which reduces the trapping of the charge carriers.
Autors: Bhargavi, R.;Nair, Geetha G.;Krishna Prasad, S.;Majumdar, R.;Bag, Braja G.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 116, issue:15, pages: 154902 - 154902-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circularly Polarized Pattern Diversity Antenna for Hemispherical Coverage
Abstract:
In this communication, a circularly polarized (CP) antenna is proposed for satellite communication applications. The proposed antenna consists of two parts. One part is in-phase-fed folded monopoles with omnidirectional CP radiation pattern, and the other part is sequential-fed L-shaped monopoles with broadside CP radiation pattern. By combining the two parts as a pattern diversity antenna, upper hemispherical coverage with left-handed circular polarization (LHCP) is achieved in a small volume of ( is the free-space wavelength). A prototype of the proposed antenna operating at 1.575 GHz has been built and tested. The measured overlapping bandwidth for both the two patterns with 10-dB impedance bandwidth and 3-dB axial-ratio (AR) is 6.7% (1.515–1.62 GHz), also with high port isolation. In addition, the AR and gain coverage over the upper hemisphere is discussed in detail.
Autors: Deng, C.;Li, Y.;Zhang, Z.;Feng, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5365 - 5369
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A clip-on Zeeman slower using toroidal permanent magnets
Abstract:
We present the design of a zero-crossing Zeeman slower for 85Rb using rings of flexible permanent magnets. The design is inexpensive, requires no power or cooling, and can be easily attached and removed for vacuum maintenance. We show theoretically that such a design can reproduce a magnetic field profile of a standard zero-crossing Zeeman slower. Experimental measurements of a prototype and comparisons to theoretical simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the design and point toward future improvements. Simulations show an atom flux similar to other Zeeman slowers.
Autors: Krzyzewski, S.P.;Akin, T.G.;Dahal, Parshuram;Abraham, E.R.I.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 85, issue:10, pages: 103104 - 103104-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Column Driver Architecture With Double Time-Division Multiplexing RDACs for TFT-LCD Applications
Abstract:
This study proposes a thin-film-transistor (TFT) liquid crystal display (LCD) column driver architecture with double time-division multiplexing (TDM) resistor-string digital-to-analog converters (RDACs). A row of sample-and-hold circuits is used as a multiplexer to obtain a high multiplex ratio without requiring low temperature polysilicon TFTs on the display panel. The double TDM operation is proposed to compensate for the kickback noise produced by the output buffer. To improve the linearity of the DAC and the uniformity of the column driver, quasibootstrapped switches are used in the multiplexer to connect the DACs and output buffers. The column driver prototype was implemented by using 0.35 m/0.5 m CMOS technology with a worst positive-polarity differential nonlinearity/integral nonlinearity (DNL/INL) of 0.77/0.77 LSB and a negative-polarity DNL/INL of 0.79/0.79 LSB. The average data conversion rate of the RDAC is 18.2 MSPS and the die area per channel is only 0.017 mm .
Autors: Lu, C.-W.;Yin, P.-Y.;Lin, Y.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2352 - 2364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Communication Model to Decouple the Path Planning and Connectivity Optimization and Support Cooperative Sensing
Abstract:
When multiple mobile robots (e.g., robotic equipment and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)) are deployed to work cooperatively, it is usually difficult to jointly optimize the algorithms involving the following two aspects: finding optimal paths and maintaining reliable network connectivity. This is due to the fact that both these objectives require the manipulation of sensors' physical locations. We introduce a new relay-assisted communication model to decouple these two aspects so that each one can be optimized independently. However, using additional relay nodes is at the expense of an increased number of transmissions and reduced spectrum efficiency. Theoretical results based on mutual information and average data rate of the model reveal that such drawbacks can be compensated if the sensor nodes are carefully arranged into groups. Based on these results, we further propose a pairing strategy to maximize the spectrum efficiency gain. Simulation experiments have confirmed the performance of this strategy in terms of improved efficiency. We provide a simple example to demonstrate the application of this model in cooperative sensing scenarios where multiple UAVs are deployed to explore an unknown area.
Autors: Luo, C.;McClean, S.I.;Parr, G.;Wang, Q.;Wang, X.;Grecos, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 3985 - 3997
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact 30-W AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on Silicon Substrate With Output Power Density of 8.1 W/mm at 8 GHz
Abstract:
A 29.4-W -band high-power amplifier has been substantialized using GaN on high-resistive silicon substrate. The developed GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with 3.6-mm gate periphery provides 29.4-W output power and 8-dB small signal gain at 8 GHz with power added efficiency of 39.4% under pulse condition at a duty of 10% with a pulsewidth 100 s. Load-pull measurement at 8 GHz demonstrates an output power density of 8.1 W/mm. To the best of our knowledge, the presented amplifier exhibits the highest power density, delivering W of output power in -band for GaN HEMTs technology on silicon substrate.
Autors: Lee, M.;Kim, D.;Eom, S.;Cha, H.;Seo, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 995 - 997
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ρR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions
Abstract:
A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ∼1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.
Autors: Rosenberg, M.J.;Zylstra, A.B.;Frenje, J.A.;Rinderknecht, H.G.;Gatu Johnson, M.;Waugh, C.J.;Seguin, F.H.;Sio, H.;Sinenian, N.;Li, C.K.;Petrasso, R.D.;Glebov, V.Yu.;Hohenberger, M.;Stoeckl, C.;Sangster, T.C.;Yeamans, C.B.;LePape, S.;Mackinnon, A.J.;Bio
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 85, issue:10, pages: 103504 - 103504-11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Transregional Model for Digital CMOS Circuits Operating Near Threshold
Abstract:
Power dissipation is currently one of the most important design constraints in digital systems. In order to reduce power and energy demands in the foremost technology, namely CMOS, it is necessary to reduce the supply voltage to near the device threshold voltage. Existing analytical models for MOS devices are either too complex, thus obscuring the basic physical relations between voltages and currents, or they are inaccurate and discontinuous around the region of interest, i.e., near threshold. This paper presents a simple transregional compact model for analyzing digital circuits around the threshold voltage. The model is continuous, physically derived (by way of a simplified inversion-charge approximation), and accurate over a wide operational range: from a few times the thermal voltage to approximately twice the threshold voltage in modern technologies.
Autors: Keller, S.;Harris, D.M.;Martin, A.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 2041 - 2053
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparison of the formation of bubbles and water droplets in vegetable and mineral oil impregnated transformer paper
Abstract:
Bubble formation from paper insulation during overload is important to understand because it can cause a transformer to fail. This phenomenon has been investigated in a mineral oil-paper system, but not in vegetable oil. This study investigated bubble formation during overload in a vegetable oil impregnated paper system and the results were compared to a mineral oil (Shell Diala B) which was studied previously using similar test equipment and method. The limiting hot-spot temperatures for bubbles and water droplets in vegetable oil for paper with water content between 1 - 6 % were determined. The water content of paper measurement which is critical when setting the winding temperature limit was evaluated using both a moisture sensor and Karl-Fischer titration method.
Autors: Perkasa, C.Y.;Lelekakis, N.;Czaszejko, T.;Wijaya, J.;Martin, D.;Perkasa, C.Y.;Lelekakis, N.;Czaszejko, T.;Wijaya, J.;Martin, D.;Perkasa, C.Y.;Lelekakis, N.;Czaszejko, T.;Wijaya, J.;Martin, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 2111 - 2118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparison of the voltage withstand properties of ester and mineral oils
Abstract:
EO has proved to be a viable substitute for MO. Its dielectric performance is always comparable with, if not superior to that of MO, at least when new, dried, and highly purified. The smaller permittivity mismatch between pressboard and EO, compared to that between pressboard and MO, leads to a more uniform field distribution at the oil/pressboard interface. We have observed that EO has higher PDIVs than MO for corona and creepage discharges. However, our understanding of the oil/pressboard interface is incomplete. There is a lack of standardization in PDIV measurements, particularly in the case of creepage discharges. Because industry is striving to provide new insulating oils for use at increased transmission voltages, improving electrical testing techniques and the understanding of the oil/pressboard interface is important.
Autors: Azcarraga, C.G.;Cavallini, A.;Piovan, U.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 30, issue:5, pages: 6 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Approach to Universal Piecewise Nonlinear Regression Based on Trees
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate adaptive nonlinear regression and introduce tree based piecewise linear regression algorithms that are highly efficient and provide significantly improved performance with guaranteed upper bounds in an individual sequence manner. We use a tree notion in order to partition the space of regressors in a nested structure. The introduced algorithms adapt not only their regression functions but also the complete tree structure while achieving the performance of the “best” linear mixture of a doubly exponential number of partitions, with a computational complexity only polynomial in the number of nodes of the tree. While constructing these algorithms, we also avoid using any artificial “weighting” of models (with highly data dependent parameters) and, instead, directly minimize the final regression error, which is the ultimate performance goal. The introduced methods are generic such that they can readily incorporate different tree construction methods such as random trees in their framework and can use different regressor or partitioning functions as demonstrated in the paper.
Autors: Vanli, N.D.;Kozat, S.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:20, pages: 5471 - 5486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Study Over VLAD and Product Quantization in Large-Scale Image Retrieval
Abstract:
This paper deals with content-based large-scale image retrieval using the state-of-the-art framework of VLAD and Product Quantization proposed by Jegou as a starting point. Demonstrating an excellent accuracy-efficiency trade-off, this framework has attracted increased attention from the community and numerous extensions have been proposed. In this work, we make an in-depth analysis of the framework that aims at increasing our understanding of its different processing steps and boosting its overall performance. Our analysis involves the evaluation of numerous extensions (both existing and novel) as well as the study of the effects of several unexplored parameters. We specifically focus on: a) employing more efficient and discriminative local features; b) improving the quality of the aggregated representation; and c) optimizing the indexing scheme. Our thorough experimental evaluation provides new insights into extensions that consistently contribute, and others that do not, to performance improvement, and sheds light onto the effects of previously unexplored parameters of the framework. As a result, we develop an enhanced framework that significantly outperforms the previous best reported accuracy results on standard benchmarks and is more efficient.
Autors: Spyromitros-Xioufis, E.;Papadopoulos, S.;Kompatsiaris, I.Y.;Tsoumakas, G.;Vlahavas, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 16, issue:6, pages: 1713 - 1728
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Design Technique for Electric-Vehicle Traction Machines
Abstract:
This paper describes a new design technique for electric-vehicle traction machines in order to achieve high efficiency against a defined driving cycle such as the New European Drive Cycle, while satisfying the required torque–speed operating range and other volumetric and thermal design constraints. This paper is undertaken as a part of the Personal Mobility Project funded by the European Union. By analyzing the energy distribution of a given driving cycle, the energy efficiency of the traction machine over the driving cycle can be characterized against a number of representative points, and the design optimization can be carried out with respect to these points. This dramatically reduces the computation time of the design optimization process, while improving the energy efficiency of the traction machines. The utility of the design technique has been illustrated through design case studies and its effectiveness validated by experimental results.
Autors: Lazari, P.;Wang, J.;Chen, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 3203 - 3213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Viewing Angle Controllable Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Display
Abstract:
In this paper, a blue phase liquid crystal display with fringe-field electrodes in the bottom substrate and a plane common electrode in the top substrate is proposed. For the wide viewing mode, the contrast ratio is above 1000:1 in most all directions; for the narrow viewing angle controllable mode, the high contrast ratio (above 500:1) can be hold in a narrow viewing area. The viewing angle changes continuously and uniformly from very wide viewing angle to narrow viewing angle when the top common electrode applies variable bias voltages. Moreover, the effect of permittivity of the insulation layer which is between the liquid crystal and pixel electrodes is researched, the results show that the insulation layer with high permittivity can obviously reduce the operating voltage.
Autors: Yanfeng Li;Yubao Sun;Yanli Zhao;Peng Li;Hongmei Ma;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 10, issue:10, pages: 799 - 803
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control Scheme for Storageless DVR Based on Characterization of Voltage Sags
Abstract:
Voltage sag remains a serious power-quality (PQ) problem by being the most common and causing more economic losses. The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a definitive solution to address the voltage-related PQ problems. Conventional topologies operate with a dc link, which makes them bulkier and costlier; it also imposes limits on the compensation capability of the DVR. Topologies with the same functionality, operating without the dc link by utilizing a direct ac–ac converter, are preferable over the conventional ones. Since no storage device is employed, these topologies require improved information on instantaneous voltages at the point of common coupling and need flexible control schemes depending on these voltages. Therefore, a control scheme for DVR topologies with an ac–ac converter, based on the characterization of voltage sags is proposed in this paper to mitigate voltage sags with phase jump. The proposed control scheme is tested on an interphase ac–ac converter topology to validate its efficacy. Detailed simulations to support the same have been carried out in MATLAB, and the results are presented. The results of real-time testing of the scheme on a single-phase model of the topology to compensate various sag types using DSPF28335 are also presented.
Autors: Jothibasu, S.;Mishra, M.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 2261 - 2269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coordinated Design of PSSs and UPFC-based Stabilizer Using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper details a new coordinated design between power system stabilizers (PSSs) and a unified power flow controller (UPFC) using genetic algorithms (GAs). A GA scheme determines the optimal location for a UPFC while tuning its control parameters, resulting in the optimization of the quantity, parameters, and locations of PSSs under different operating conditions. The problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimization problem in order to maximize the damping ratio(s) of electromechanical modes, matching different numbers of PSSs with a UPFC. The approach is successfully tested on the New England–New York interconnected system (a 16-machine and 68-bus system), proving its effectiveness in damping local and interarea modes of oscillations.
Autors: Hassan, L.H.;Moghavvemi, M.;Almurib, H.A.F.;Muttaqi, K.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 2957 - 2966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A crystalline oxide passivation for Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN
Abstract:
In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction are performed to study the formation of a crystalline oxide on the AlGaN surface. The oxidation of the AlGaN surface is prepared by annealing and remote N2 + O2 plasma pretreatments resulting in a stable crystalline oxide. The impact of the oxide on the interface state density is studied by capacitance voltage (C-V) measurements. It is found that a remote plasma exposure at 550 °C shows the smallest frequency dispersion. Crystalline oxide formation may provide a novel passivation method for high quality AlGaN/GaN devices.
Autors: Qin, Xiaoye;Dong, Hong;Kim, Jiyoung;Wallace, Robert M.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 105, issue:14, pages: 141604 - 141604-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Damper Driven Robotic End-Point Manipulator for Functional Rehabilitation Exercises After Stroke
Abstract:
Stroke survivors may benefit from robotic assistance for relearning of functional movements. Current assistive devices are either passive, limited to only two dimensions or very powerful. However, for reach training, weight compensation and a little assistance with limited power is sufficient. We designed and evaluated a novel three-dimensional robotic manipulator, which is able to support the arm weight and assist functional reaching movements. Key points of the design are a damper-based drive train, giving an inherently safe system and its compact and lightweight design. The system is force actuated with a bandwidth of up to 2.3 Hz, which is sufficient for functional arm movements. Maximal assistive forces are 15 N for the up/down and forward/backward directions and 10 N for the left/right direction. Force tracking errors are smaller than 1.5 N for all axes and the total weight of the robot is 25 kg. Furthermore, the device has shown its benefit for increasing reaching distance in a single-case study with a stroke subject. The newly developed system has the technical ability to assist the arm during movement, which is a prerequisite for successful training of stroke survivors. Therapeutic effects of the applied assistance need to be further evaluated. However, with its inherent safety and ease of use, this newly developed system even has the potential for home-based therapeutic training after stroke.
Autors: Westerveld, A.J.;Aalderink, B.J.;Hagedoorn, W.;Buijze, M.;Schouten, A.C.;Kooij, H.v.d.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2646 - 2654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dense and Direct Approach to Visual Servoing Using Depth Maps
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel 3-D servoing approach using dense depth maps to perform robotic tasks. With respect to position-based approaches, our method does not require the estimation of the 3-D pose (direct), nor the extraction and matching of 3-D features (dense), and only requires dense depth maps provided by 3-D sensors. Our approach has been validated in various servoing experiments using the depth information from a low-cost Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) sensor. Positioning tasks are properly achieved despite noisy measurements, even when partial occlusions or scene modifications occur. We also show that, in cases where a reference depth map cannot be easily available, synthetic ones generated with a rendering engine still lead to satisfactory positioning performances. Application of the approach to the navigation of a mobile robot is also demonstrated.
Autors: Teuliere, C.;Marchand, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 30, issue:5, pages: 1242 - 1249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A design of Si-based nanoplasmonic structure as an antenna and reception amplifier for visible light communication
Abstract:
Visible light communication has been widely investigated due to its larger bandwidth and higher bit rate, and it can combine with the indoor illumination system that makes it more convenient to carry out. Receiving and processing the visible light signal on chip request for nanophotonics devices performing well. However, conventional optical device cannot be used for light-on-chip integration at subwavelength dimensions due to the diffraction limit. Herein, we propose a design of Si-based nanoplasmonic structure as an antenna and reception amplifier for visible light communication based on the interaction between Si nanoparticle and Au nanorod. This device integrates the unique scattering property of high-refractive index dielectric Si nanoparticles, whose scattering spectrum is dependent on the particle size, with the localized surface plasmon resonance of Au nanorod. We calculated the spectra collected by plane detector and near field distribution of nanostructure, and theoretically demonstrate that the proposed device can act as good receiver, amplifier and superlens during the visible light signal receiving and processing. Besides, unlike some other designs of nanoantenna devices focused less on how to detect the signals, our hybrid nanoantenna can realize the transfer between the scattering source and the detector effectively by Au nanorod waveguides. These findings suggest that the designed nanoplasmonic structure is expected to be used in on-chip nanophotonics as antenna, spectral splitter and demultiplexer for visible light communication.
Autors: Yan, J.H.;Lin, Z.Y.;Liu, P.;Yang, G.W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 116, issue:15, pages: 154307 - 154307-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Design Technique of MRI Active Shield Gradient Coil Using Node Current Potentials and Triangular Finite Elements
Abstract:
A design technique to calculate winding patterns of active shield gradient coils has been developed with the design tool using current potential and singular value decomposition (SVD) (DUCAS), which is a computer code to construct sheet current distributions on arbitrary surfaces using current potential (CP), triangular finite elements, and regularization of truncated SVD. The DUCAS calculates sheet currents on current carrying surfaces (CCSs) of CCS1 for the main coil and CCS2 for the shield coil, so as to reconstruct a gradient field and a magnetic field shielding iteratively. The iterative calculation converged in roughly ten steps. The obtained magnetic field showed very accurate shielding of below T with the gradient magnetic field. Then, the sheet currents on CCSs were discretized as filament currents for conductor placements along CP contours. The applicability of this technique has been confirmed by test designs. Furthermore, it was understood that optimization of the CCS2 shape could be possible using the developed technique.
Autors: Abe, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 50, issue:10, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A doubly curved elliptical crystal spectrometer for the study of localized x-ray absorption in hot plasmas
Abstract:
X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plasmas over a wide range of both temperature and density. However, such a measurement is often limited to probing plasmas with temperatures well below that of the x-ray source in order to avoid object plasma emission lines from obscuring important features of the absorption spectrum. This has excluded many plasmas from being investigated by this technique. We have developed an x-ray spectrometer that provides the ability to record absorption spectra from higher temperature plasmas than the usual approach allows without the risk of data contamination by line radiation emitted by the plasma under study. This is accomplished using a doubly curved mica crystal which is bent both elliptically and cylindrically. We present here the foundational work in the design and development of this spectrometer along with initial results obtained with an aluminum x-pinch as the object plasma.
Autors: Cahill, Adam D.;Hoyt, Cad L.;Pikuz, Sergei A.;Shelkovenko, Tania;Hammer, David A.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 85, issue:10, pages: 103114 - 103114-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doubly Hierarchical MoM for High-Fidelity Modeling of Multiscale Structures
Abstract:
We propose a novel doubly hierarchical method of moments for the analysis of large and multiscale structures. A reciprocal multilevel matrix compression method (rMLMCM) is combined with the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA), and they are used for the small-scale and large-scale cluster interactions, respectively. The resulting system is preconditioned following the hierarchical multiresolution-incomplete LU approach, which has proven successful for solving multiscale complex structures. The proposed method is applied to electromagnetic compatibility analysis of the real life, complex structures. Numerical results demonstrate the proposed preconditioned rMLMCM/MLFMA is effective also for large structures with strongly nonuniform discretization.
Autors: Li, M.;Francavilla, M.A.;Vipiana, F.;Vecchi, G.;Fan, Z.;Chen, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 56, issue:5, pages: 1103 - 1111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dutch Approach to Cybersecurity through Participation
Abstract:
At the end of 2013, the Dutch government published its second National Cyber Security Strategy, a major step in the development of the governmental approach to cybersecurity. This document stresses the importance of increasing cyber resilience through participation. The challenge of securing this entire domain is too large for any one organization. Therefore, the Dutch have chosen to engage the private sector, and foster participation to face the challenge together. In typical Dutch style, the government encourages voluntary, bottom-up participation and, thus, invites public and private parties to the table to discuss common threats and identify areas for collaboration. The recently formed Dutch National Cyber Security Centre plays a crucial role in coordinating, facilitating, encouraging and supporting such participation.
Autors: Clark, Kas;Stikvoort, Don;Stofbergen, Eelco;van den Heuvel, Elly;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 27 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dynamic and ultrafast group delay tuning mechanism in two microcavities side-coupled with a waveguide system
Abstract:
We theoretically propose a dynamic and ultrafast group delay tuning mechanism in two microcavities side-coupled to a waveguide system through external optical pump beams. The optical Kerr effect modulation method is applied to improve tuning rate with response time of subpicoseconds or even femtoseconds. The group delay of an all-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency effect can be controlled by tuning either the frequency of photonic crystal microcavities or the propagation phase of line waveguide. Group delay is controlled between 5.88 and 70.98 ps by dynamically tuning resonant frequencies of the microcavities. Alternatively, the group delay is controlled between 1.86 and 12.08 ps by dynamically tuning the propagation phase of line waveguide. All observed schemes are analyzed rigorously through finite-difference time-domain simulations and coupled-mode formalism. Results show a new direction toward microstructure integration optical pulse trapping and all-optical dynamical storage of light devices in optical communication and quantum information processing.
Autors: Wang, Boyun;Wang, Tao;Tang, Jian;Li, Xiaoming;Zhu, Youjiang;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 116, issue:13, pages: 133101 - 133101-9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Decoupling Approach to Robust T–S Fuzzy Model-Based Control
Abstract:
In this paper, a dynamic decoupling approach is proposed to improve the robust Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy model-based control to cope with system uncertainty, input actuator nonlinearity, and input time delay. First, the basic dynamic decoupling concept is introduced by involving virtual input dynamics, such that the system uncertainty and control input are decoupled in each fuzzy rule. This leads to simplified linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions. Next, the dynamic decoupling approach is extended to controlling uncertain systems with input actuator nonlinearity (e.g., saturation, quantization, dead-zone, etc.) or time-varying input delay. Due to the decoupling between uncertainty, actuator nonlinearity, and input delay, more relaxed stability conditions are obtained for the asymptotic stability and control performance. Furthermore, the limit on the initial condition is removed when considering input saturation. Larger and faster time-varying state and input delays are allowed under fewer LMIs. Finally, to show the advantages of the developed control method, numerical simulations are carried out on an inverted pendulum (subject to either the saturation, quantization, or delay input), a delay mass–spring–damper system, and a delay truck–trailer system.
Autors: Chiu, C.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 1088 - 1100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fair and Maximal Allocator for Single-Cycle On-Chip Homogeneous Resource Allocation
Abstract:
Traditional allocators for network-on-chip (NoC) routers suffer from either poor-matching quality or limited fairness. We propose a waterfall (WTF) allocator targeting homogeneous resource allocation, which provides single-cycle maximal matching while guaranteeing strong fairness based on the round-robin principle. It can be implemented with a loop-free structure. In 90 nm technology, the allocator operates at about 1 GHz clock frequency. We compare WTF with wave-front, separable-input-first, and separable-output-first allocators and find that it is at least 10% smaller, has 50% less delay under high load, and uses 3% less power than any of these alternatives. Also, WTF is at least as fair or clearly fairer. We also find that in a 4 4 circuit switched NoC the use of WTF gives up to 20% higher network performance.
Autors: Liu, S.;Jantsch, A.;Lu, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 2229 - 2233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Blind Rendezvous Method by Alternate Hop-and-Wait Channel Hopping in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Rendezvous is an essential operation for secondary users communicating in a cognitive radio network (CRN). Because it is infeasible to employ a common control channel in a licensed spectrum, blind rendezvous is an expected solution and generally estimated by the criteria of asynchronous rendezvous support, guaranteed rendezvous, asymmetric model support, heterogeneity of roles, and short time-to-rendezvous (TTR). Most existing blind rendezvous methods fail to fully satisfy these criteria or have considerable TTR significantly increased with the number of channels. This paper presents a new alternate hop-and-wait channel hopping method, called E-AHW, which can support fast blind rendezvous. By assigning each secondary user a unique alternate channel hopping sequence composed of HOP/WAIT-mode subsequences, all blind rendezvous criteria can be satisfied with shorter TTR. According to simulation results, the performance of E-AHW is better than existing methods. Moreover, using E-AHW, the average value and standard deviation of time intervals between two rendezvous are also less than other methods. Thus, E-AHW can provide an efficient and stable communication environment.
Autors: I-Hsun Chuang;Hsiao-Yun Wu;Yau-Hwang Kuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 13, issue:10, pages: 2171 - 2184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Locking-in and Low Jitter PLLWith a Process-Immune Locking-in Monitor
Abstract:
In this brief, a digital-control adaptive phase-locked loop (PLL) with a digital locking-in monitor (LIM) consisting of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) and a bandwidth control unit (BCU) is proposed to reduce the locking time as well as to suppress the jitter when locked. It uses a delay-independent threshold in a dual-slope transfer function to detect the locked state according to the counting result of the proposed TDC, which feeds to the BCU to switch the bandwidth of PLL. Then the PLL is switched from a wide loop bandwidth (6 MHz) to a narrow bandwidth (3 MHz) in the locked state. To verify the proposed scheme, the proposed adaptive PLL is implemented in a TSMC 0.18 1P6M CMOS process with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The measurement results show that the locking time is reduced by 67% while with a RMS jitter of only 8.79 ps when operating at 1.6 GHz.
Autors: Li, C.;Lee, C.;Hu, M.;Chou, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 2216 - 2220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Semianalytical Solution of a 2-D Dielectric-Filled and Coated Rectangular Groove
Abstract:
The Kobayashi potential (KP) method is a fast and powerful semianalytical technique which can be used to find the scattered field of canonical objects. In this paper, the KP method is used to study the electromagnetic scattering from a 2-D loaded groove in a ground plane coated by a dielectric layer for transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations. Initially, the problem is solved for the electromagnetic fields in the dielectric layer. Then, the field contribution from the groove is expressed in terms of Bessel eigenfunctions in air, dielectric layer, and the groove. After applying the KP method and by using the Weber-Schafheitlin discontinuous integrals, the governing equations of infinite summations with unknown coefficients are obtained. The summations are effectively truncated with high numerical accuracy. Subsequently, boundary conditions are applied to determine the unknown coefficients. The finite-element method and convergence analysis are used for validation. Finally, the influence of the lossy coating dielectric layer and filling material on the scattered field is investigated.
Autors: Ghalamkari, B.;Tavakoli, A.;Dehmollaian, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 5099 - 5107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Sparse Reluctance- and Capacitance-Based Solver for the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit Method
Abstract:
A new technique for the reluctance method applied to the partial element equivalent circuit method for the time-domain analysis is presented which is well suited to be combined with acceleration techniques. In particular, taking advantage of the rank deficiency of the magnetic and electric field couplings, a new technique for the sparsification of reluctance and capacitance matrices is adopted. Furthermore, the multiscale block decomposition technique has been applied to fast fill these matrices. Finally, the sparse multifrontal LU factorization has been adopted to efficiently compute the global solution. Numerical results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach in terms of speedup and accuracy.
Autors: Romano, D.;Antonini, G.;Daroui, D.;Ekman, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 56, issue:5, pages: 1077 - 1086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Feedback Technique to Compensate for AM-PM Distortion in Linear CMOS Class-F Power Amplifier
Abstract:
An amplitude-phase (AM-PM) linearization technique using a direct drain-gate feedback method in a cascode CMOS amplifier is proposed. This technique consists of a series-connected capacitor and an inductor coupling the residue of the RF signal drain. The coupled RF ac signal to gate node of the common gate stage (CG) prevents the CG stage from entering the triode region at a high output power region. In this respect, the parasitic gate-drain capacitance sustains a constant value, achieving an enhancement in linearity. To verify the superior performance of the proposed technique, a CMOS PA was fabricated using a commercial 0.18 process. The experimental results show that the implemented PA delivers a PAE of 34.2% at an output power of 26.7 dBm for a 10 MHz 3G LTE signal at Band 5/8 (824–915 MHz), and has an improved spectral performance of over 5 dBc.
Autors: Kim, J.H.;Park, C.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 24, issue:10, pages: 725 - 727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A flexible Quagga-based virtual network with FIB aggregation
Abstract:
The rapid increase in routers?? forwarding table size is raising serious concerns for ISPs. In particular, it exhausts the routers?? forwarding hardware capacity, leading to more frequent upgrades and higher cost. In this article, we present the development of a virtual network framework based on open source software that demonstrates how solutions to this impending problem can be implemented and studied. The system is capable of emulating an operational network environment with intradomain and inter-domain routing protocols as well as real-world Internet routing traffic. By adding performance monitoring and FIB aggregation capabilities to this system, we are able to evaluate the performance of FIB aggregation algorithms in a realistic network environment.
Autors: Abraham, J.P.;Liu, Y.;Wang, L.;Zhang, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 47 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible, Event-Driven Digital Filter With Frequency Response Independent of Input Sample Rate
Abstract:
This paper presents a clockless digital filter able to process inputs of different rates and formats, synchronous or asynchronous, with no adjustment needed to handle each input type. The filter is designed using a mix of asynchronous and real-time digital hardware, and for this reason relies on neither a clock nor the input data rate for setting its frequency response. The modular architecture of the filter, including delay segments with separated data and timing paths and a pipelined multi-way adder, allows easy extensions for different data widths. The filter was used as part of an ADC/DSP/DAC system which maintains its frequency response intact for varying sample rates without requiring any internal change. This property is not possible for any synchronous DSP system. The 16-tap, 8-bit FIR filter, integrated in a 130 nm CMOS process, includes on-chip automatic delay tuning, and for certain inputs, has signal-to-error ratio which exceeds that of clocked systems.
Autors: Vezyrtzis, C.;Jiang, W.;Nowick, S.M.;Tsividis, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2292 - 2304
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Floating Memristor Emulator Based Relaxation Oscillator
Abstract:
In this paper, a flux-controlled memristor emulator with floating terminals by making use of four current conveyors is newly proposed. By replacing the three resistors in the positive and negative feedback loops of a typical relaxation oscillator respectively, three cases of memristor emulator based oscillating circuits are theoretically constructed and mathematically analyzed. To further probe the practicability and inherent features of the new memristor emulator and oscillator, experimental tests are carried out and the measured experimental results show differences from typical relaxation oscillators, this new memristor emulator based oscillator can provide novel and steady oscillating behaviors. The comparison of measured data with theoretical analysis is in good agreement, which further confirms the practicability of this new memristor emulator and oscillator.
Autors: Yu, D.;Iu, H.H.-C.;Fitch, A.L.;Liang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2888 - 2896
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Formula for Radiation Loss in Substrate Integrated Waveguide
Abstract:
Substrate integrated waveguide, an emerging technology for microwave and millimeter-wave circuits, is affected by three loss mechanisms: ohmic and dielectric losses, standard waveguides, and radiation leakage. While ohmic and dielectric losses can be accurately determined by the analytical formulas of the equivalent rectangular waveguide, no equations are available for radiation leakage. This paper presents the derivation of a formula to calculate the attenuation constant due to radiation leakage in substrate integrated waveguide interconnects.
Autors: Pasian, M.;Bozzi, M.;Perregrini, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 62, issue:10, pages: 2205 - 2213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Analysis of Computational Imaging Systems: Role of Signal Prior, Sensor Noise and Multiplexing
Abstract:
Over the last decade, a number of computational imaging (CI) systems have been proposed for tasks such as motion deblurring, defocus deblurring and multispectral imaging. These techniques increase the amount of light reaching the sensor via multiplexing and then undo the deleterious effects of multiplexing by appropriate reconstruction algorithms. Given the widespread appeal and the considerable enthusiasm generated by these techniques, a detailed performance analysis of the benefits conferred by this approach is important. Unfortunately, a detailed analysis of CI has proven to be a challenging problem because performance depends equally on three components: (1) the optical multiplexing, (2) the noise characteristics of the sensor, and (3) the reconstruction algorithm which typically uses signal priors. A few recent papers [12], [30], [49] have performed analysis taking multiplexing and noise characteristics into account. However, analysis of CI systems under state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms, most of which exploit signal prior models, has proven to be unwieldy. In this paper, we present a comprehensive analysis framework incorporating all three components. In order to perform this analysis, we model the signal priors using a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). A GMM prior confers two unique characteristics. First, GMM satisfies the universal approximation property which says that any prior density function can be approximated to any fidelity using a GMM with appropriate number of mixtures. Second, a GMM prior lends itself to analytical tractability allowing us to derive simple expressions for the `minimum mean square error' (MMSE) which we use as a metric to characterize the performance of CI systems. We use our framework to analyze several previously proposed CI techniques (focal sweep, flutter shutter, parabolic exposure, etc.), giving conclusive answer to the question: `How much performance gain is due to use of a signal prior and how much is due to multipl- xing? Our analysis also clearly shows that multiplexing provides significant performance gains above and beyond the gains obtained due to use of signal priors.
Autors: Mitra, K.;Cossairt, O.S.;Veeraraghavan, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 36, issue:10, pages: 1909 - 1921
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency-Agile RF Frontend Architecture for Multi-Band TDD Applications
Abstract:
Pub DtlEmerging wireless standards specify dozens of bands spanning several octaves, which need to be supported in form-factor and energy constrained mobile devices targeting ubiquitous connectivity. However, in current multi-band radio implementations, significant redundancy is still the norm in the RF frontend. This work introduces an improved architecture for multi-band, time-division duplexed (TDD) radios, which replaces multiple narrowband frontend components with a frequency-agile solution, tunable over a wide frequency range. A highly digital architecture is adopted, leading to a fully integrated solution wherein both efficiency and achievable frequency range benefit from CMOS scaling. A prototype is integrated in 45 nm SOI CMOS. Peak PA output power is 27.7 0.5 dBm from 1.3 to 3.3 GHz, with up to 30% total efficiency at 2 V. For TDD LTE applications, better than 30 dBc ACLR and 30 dB EVM is measured with 64 QAM, 20 MHz signals from 1.44 to 3.41 GHz, with up to 17.2% average efficiency and 23.4 dBm average power. The LNA achieves 14 dB, NF = 4.4 1.6 dB and IIP 7 dBm from 1.3 to 3.3 GHz while drawing just 6 mA from 1 V. The demonstrated frequency range covers a total of 11 TDD bands .
Autors: Goswami, S.;Kim, H.;Dawson, J.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2127 - 2140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency-Domain Algorithm for Dynamic Synchrophasor and Frequency Estimation
Abstract:
Next-generation phasor measurement units (PMUs) are expected to play a key role for monitoring the behavior of future smart grids. While most of the PMUs used nowadays in transmission networks rely on static phasor models, more sophisticated representations and stricter accuracy requirements are needed to track amplitude, phase, and frequency changes of power waveforms in strongly dynamic scenarios as those expected in future distribution systems. In this paper, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based algorithm based on a dynamic phasor model (referred to as interpolated dynamic DFT-based synchrophasor estimator) is used to estimate not only amplitude and phase of the collected waveforms, but also their frequency and rate of change of frequency. The performances of the proposed method are evaluated through multiple simulations in different steady-state and transient conditions described in the Standard IEEE C37.118.1-2011.
Autors: Petri, D.;Fontanelli, D.;Macii, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 63, issue:10, pages: 2330 - 2340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Full 3-D Dynamically Adaptive Unstructured Grid Finite-Volume Approach to Simulate Multiple Branching in Streamer Propagation
Abstract:
Electron-spot-induced multiple branching and trajectory deviation of streamer microdischarges in air was simulated using a 3-D unstructured adaptive mesh finite-volume approach along with the air plasma streamer model proposed by Morrow et al. Images illustrating the effect of electron spots on the propagation trajectory, i.e., deviation, simple branching, multiple branching, are presented and commented.
Autors: Benkhaldoun, F.;Fort, J.;Hassouni, K.;Karel, J.;Scarella, G.;Trdlicka, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 42, issue:10, pages: 2420 - 2421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Self-Contained Logarithmic Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation SoC With Wireless Telemetry and Wireless Power Management
Abstract:
Although closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) promises treatment of many neurological disorders, an implantable system-on-chip (SoC) implementing an effective closed-loop DBS algorithm has not been demonstrated. This work introduces a logarithmic, closed-loop DBS system that detects and processes low-frequency brain field signals to control and adapt stimulation currents. The system records and processes neural signals with four low-noise neural amplifier (LNA) channels, a multiplexed logarithmic ADC, and two high-pass and two low-pass digital logarithmic filters. Logarithmic processing saves power and achieves high dynamic range. A logarithmic domain digital signal processor (DSP) and PI-controller controls eight current stimulator channels and enables closed-loop stimulation. An RF transceiver, a clock generator, and a power harvester are also included in the system to achieve a complete implantable SoC. The 4 mm 180 nm CMOS prototype consumes a total of 468 W for recording and processing neural signals, for stimulation, and for two-way wireless communication.
Autors: Rhew, H.-G.;Jeong, J.;Fredenburg, J.A.;Dodani, S.;Patil, P.G.;Flynn, M.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2213 - 2227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fused Floating-Point Three-Term Adder
Abstract:
This paper presents improved architectures for a fused floating-point three-term adder. The fused floating-point three-term adder performs two additions in a single unit to achieve better performance and better accuracy compared to a network of traditional floating-point two-term adders, which is referred to as a discrete design. In order to further improve the performance of the three-term adder, several optimization techniques are applied including a new exponent compare and significand alignment, dual-reduction, early normalization, three-input leading zero anticipation, compound addition/rounding and pipelining. The proposed design is implemented for both single and double precision and synthesized with a 45 nm CMOS standard-cell library. The improved fused floating-point three-term adder reduces the area and power consumption by about 20% and reduces the latency by about 35% compared to a discrete floating-point three-term adder. Based on the data flow analysis, the proposed three-term adder can be split into three pipeline stages. Since the latencies of three pipeline stages are fairly well balanced, the throughput is increased to 2.7 times that of the non-pipelined design.
Autors: Sohn, J.;Swartzlander, E.E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 61, issue:10, pages: 2842 - 2850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy Measure Approach to Systems Reliability Modeling
Abstract:
Our objective here is to study the role that fuzzy measures can play in systems reliability modeling. We first introduce some basic ideas from fuzzy measure theory and then introduce some specialized ideas about fuzzy measures, cardinality index, and attitudinal character, which will later be useful in comparing systems reliability. Basic ideas of reliability modeling and the role of the system structure function are discussed. The system's signatures associated with a structure function are introduced and we show their relationship to expected time to system failure. We show how we can model a systems structure function using a fuzzy measure's. A description of the role of a measures cardinality index and attitudinal character in providing tools for comparing systems reliability is provided. We describe how to obtain a structure model of a complex system using aggregation operators and the measure representation of individual components.
Autors: Yager, R.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 1139 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Genomic Analysis Pipeline and Its Application to Pediatric Cancers
Abstract:
We present a cancer genomic analysis pipeline which takes as input sequencing reads for both germline and tumor genomes and outputs filtered lists of all genetic mutations in the form of short ranked list of the most affected genes in the tumor, using either the Complete Genomics or Illumina platforms. A novel reporting and ranking system has been developed that makes use of publicly available datasets and literature specific to each patient, including new methods for using publicly available expression data in the absence of proper control data. Previously implicated small and large variations (including gene fusions) are reported in addition to probable driver mutations. Relationships between cancer and the sequenced tumor genome are highlighted using a network-based approach that integrates known and predicted protein-protein, protein-TF, and protein-drug interaction data. By using an integrative approach, effects of genetic variations on gene expression are used to provide further evidence of driver mutations. This pipeline has been developed with the aim to be used in assisting in the analysis of pediatric tumors, as an unbiased and automated method for interpreting sequencing results along with identifying potentially therapeutic drugs and their targets. We present results that agree with previous literature and highlight specific findings in a few patients.
Autors: Zeller, M.;Magnan, C.N.;Patel, V.R.;Rigor, P.;Sender, L.;Baldi, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 11, issue:5, pages: 826 - 839
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Group-Discrimination-Based Access Point Selection for WLAN Fingerprinting Localization
Abstract:
Access point (APs) selection approaches have been used in location fingerprinting systems to improve positioning accuracy and to reduce computational overhead. Although the interference between APs is unavoidable due to the overlapped channel, traditional methods treat APs individually by assuming independence among them. This paper proposes a novel group discriminant (GD)-based AP selection approach for improving location fingerprinting, in which the dependence between APs is considered. The proposed GD approach focuses on measuring the positioning capabilities of each group of APs instead of ranking APs based on their individual importance. It utilizes the risk function from support vector machines (SVMs) to estimate the GD value by maximizing the margin between reference locations. Moreover, this paper proposes a faster version, namely, recursive feature elimination (RFE-GD), to find a suboptimal solution of GD efficiently. This paper applies the proposed algorithms to realistic wireless local area networks (WLANs). Experimental results from two different test beds demonstrate that GD and RFE-GD outperform traditional AP selection schemes, reducing the mean localization error by 40.58%–41.13%. The experiments based on different fingerprinting approaches also confirm the advantages of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Lin, T.;Fang, S.;Tseng, W.;Lee, C.;Hsieh, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 3967 - 3976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Heuristic Method to Compute the Approximate Postinverses of a Fuzzy Matrix
Abstract:
This paper considers the problem of computing the approximate inverses of a fuzzy matrix under max–min composition. A polynomial-time algorithm is proposed to construct an approximate postinverse by minimizing an evaluation function, which balances two different distance measures. The obtained approximate postinverse contains no zero columns unless the given fuzzy matrix itself contains zero rows. Subsequently, the techniques for solving fuzzy relational equations are applied to obtain all the approximate postinverses of equal quality.
Autors: Li, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 22, issue:5, pages: 1347 - 1351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Modulation Bandwidth, 110 GHz Power-DAC Cell for IQ Transmitter Arrays With Direct Amplitude and Phase Modulation
Abstract:
This paper studies the maximum Baud rate and the scalability to the W-Band of the mm-wave power-DAC transmitter architecture. Proof-of-concept implementations of a single DAC lane and of a 2×2 IQ transmitter array are reported in 45 nm SOI CMOS. The DAC cell achieved 29 GHz OOK and 29 GHz BPSK modulation bandwidth and 2×44 Gb/s BPSK+OOK data rates for carriers in the 100–110 GHz range. The corresponding energy efficiency is 7.5 pJ/bit at an output power of 12 dBm. For the 2×2 IQ array, an EVM of 9.0% is estimated over a 12 GHz bandwidth, from large signal power and S-parameter phase measurements.
Autors: Balteanu, A.;Shopov, S.;Voinigescu, S.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2103 - 2113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High Resolution Interface for Kelvin Impedance Sensing
Abstract:
Pub DtlImpedance sensing, together with impedance spectroscopy is a powerful tool detecting charge and mass transfer phenomena at complex interfaces between materials. It is widely used in electrochemical interfaces characterization and biosensing techniques. Recently, it has been proposed as a reliable readout technique to probe biomolecular interactions on modified electrodes in enzyme biosensors, DNA biosensors and immunosensors. Unfortunately, the requirements of impedance characterization accuracy, precision and dynamic range demanded by some specific application is usually accomplished by using cumbersome laboratory instrumentation. In this paper we present a fully integrated standalone, high precision, low power, 4-core impedance sensing interface to be implemented in the fast-growing application field of the ubiquitous sensing. The interface is based on a fully digital approach based on a ΔΣ demodulation that is able to achieve 15 bit of resolution, 150 ppm of temperature accuracy and dynamic ranges varying from 86 dB to 95 dB according to the impedance configuration. The 4-core chip has been implemented in 0.35 µm CMOS technology and occupies an area of 9 mm .
Autors: Crescentini, M.;Bennati, M.;Tartagni, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 49, issue:10, pages: 2199 - 2212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency and High-Accuracy Fully Automatic Collaborative Face Annotation System for Distributed Online Social Networks
Abstract:
The development of fully automatic face annotation techniques in online social networks is currently very important for effective management and organization of a large number of personal photos shared on social network platforms. In this paper, we first propose the personalized hierarchical database access architecture for each member by taking advantage of various social network context types to substantially reduce time consumption. Next, we construct the personalized and adaptive fused face recognition (FR) unit for each member, which uses the AdaBoost algorithm to fuse several different types of base classifiers to produce highly reliable face annotation results. Additionally, to efficiently select suitable personalized face recognizers and then effectively merge multiple personalized face recognizer results, we propose two collaborative FR strategies: the owner with a highest priority rule and using a weighted majority rule for query photos within our collaborative FR framework. The experiment results demonstrate that the evaluation methodologies produced -measure and Similarity accuracy rates that were, respectively, 64.03% and 63.05% higher for the proposed method in comparison to other state-of-the-art face annotation methods, as well as demonstrating that our method can result in a reduction in overall processing time of 78.06%.
Autors: Huang, S.;Jiau, M.;Hsu, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Oct 2014, volume: 24, issue:10, pages: 1800 - 1813
Publisher: IEEE
 

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