Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 09-2017 sorted by title, page: 8

» Graph Learning From Data Under Laplacian and Structural Constraints
Abstract:
Graphs are fundamental mathematical structures used in various fields to represent data, signals, and processes. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for learning/estimating graphs from data. The proposed framework includes (i) formulation of various graph learning problems, (ii) their probabilistic interpretations, and (iii) associated algorithms. Specifically, graph learning problems are posed as the estimation of graph Laplacian matrices from some observed data under given structural constraints (e.g., graph connectivity and sparsity level). From a probabilistic perspective, the problems of interest correspond to maximum a posteriori parameter estimation of Gaussian–Markov random field models, whose precision (inverse covariance) is a graph Laplacian matrix. For the proposed graph learning problems, specialized algorithms are developed by incorporating the graph Laplacian and structural constraints. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.
Autors: Hilmi E. Egilmez;Eduardo Pavez;Antonio Ortega;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 11, issue:6, pages: 825 - 841
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph PCA Hashing for Similarity Search
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new hashing framework to conduct similarity search via the following steps: first, employing linear clustering methods to obtain a set of representative data points and a set of landmarks of the big dataset; second, using the landmarks to generate a probability representation for each data point. The proposed probability representation method is further proved to preserve the neighborhood of each data point. Third, PCA is integrated with manifold learning to lean the hash functions using the probability representations of all representative data points. As a consequence, the proposed hashing method achieves efficient similarity search (with linear time complexity) and effective hashing performance and high generalization ability (simultaneously preserving two kinds of complementary similarity structures, i.e., local structures via manifold learning and global structures via PCA). Experimental results on four public datasets clearly demonstrate the advantages of our proposed method in terms of similarity search, compared to the state-of-the-art hashing methods.
Autors: Xiaofeng Zhu;Xuelong Li;Shichao Zhang;Zongben Xu;Litao Yu;Can Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 19, issue:9, pages: 2033 - 2044
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph Signal Recovery via Primal-Dual Algorithms for Total Variation Minimization
Abstract:
We consider the problem of recovering a smooth graph signal from noisy samples taken on a subset of graph nodes. The smoothness of the graph signal is quantified in terms of total variation. We formulate the signal recovery task as a convex optimization problem that minimizes the total variation of the graph signal while controlling its global or node-wise empirical error. We propose a first-order primal-dual algorithm to solve these total variation minimization problems. A distributed implementation of the algorithm is devised to handle large-dimensional applications efficiently. We use synthetic and real-world data to extensively compare the performance of our approach with state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Peter Berger;Gabor Hannak;Gerald Matz;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 11, issue:6, pages: 842 - 855
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grasping Objects: The Relationship Between the Cage and the Form-Closure Grasp
Abstract:
In various industries, there is a need for low-cost, flexible robotic grasping systems that handle and classify different items, which usually involve low-cost grippers and reliable manipulations. One-degree-offreedom (1-DoF) two-pin or three-pin grippers are widely used in the automation of manufacturing processes because of their low cost and high reliability. However, some uncertainties introduced by the object and the gripper may affect the robustness of the grasp. The principle of caging enables us to deal with these uncertainties, and it is therefore important to study caging as a practical solution to improve the grasps of 1-DoF industrial grippers.
Autors: Jianhua Su;Hong Qiao;Chuankai Liu;Yongbo Song;Ailong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 84 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grid-Level Application of Electrical Energy Storage: Example Use Cases in the United States and China
Abstract:
Electrical energy storage (EES) systems are expected to play an increasing role in helping the United States and China-the world's largest economies with the two largest power systems-meet the challenges of integrating more variable renewable resources and enhancing the reliability of power systems by improving the operating capabilities of the electric grid. EES systems are becoming integral components of a resilient and efficient grid through a diverse set of applications that include energy management, load shifting, frequency regulation, grid stabilization, and voltage support.
Autors: Yingchen Zhang;Vahan Gevorgian;Caixia Wang;Xuejiao Lei;Ella Chou;Rui Yang;Qionghui Li;Liping Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 51 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground Moving Target Imaging and Motion Parameter Estimation With Airborne Dual-Channel CSSAR
Abstract:
This paper deals with the issue of ground moving target imaging and motion parameter estimation with an airborne dual-channel circular stripmap synthetic aperture radar (CSSAR) system. Although several methods of ground moving target motion parameter estimation have been proposed for the conventional airborne linear stripmap SAR, they cannot be applied to airborne CSSAR because the range history of a ground moving target for airborne CSSAR is different than that for airborne linear stripmap SAR. In this paper, the moving target’s range history for airborne dual-channel CSSAR and the target signal model after the displaced phase center antenna processing are derived, and a new ground moving target imaging and motion parameter estimation algorithm is developed. In this algorithm, the estimation of baseband Doppler centroid and its compensation are first performed. Then focusing is implemented in the 2-D frequency domain via phase multiplication, and the target is focused in the SAR image without azimuth displacement due to the compensation of the Doppler shift caused by its motion. Finally, the target’s motion parameters are estimated with its Doppler parameters and its position in the SAR image. Numerical simulations are conducted to validate the derived range history and the performance of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Yongkang Li;Tong Wang;Baochang Liu;Lei Yang;Guoan Bi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5242 - 5253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial
Abstract:
This Mini-Special Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques includes six expanded papers from the first IEEE MTT-S Latin American Microwave Conference (LAMC 2016), which was held in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, December 12–14, 2016.
Autors: Roberto S. Murphy;Vicente E. Boria-Esbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3085 - 3086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Modeling and Advanced Control of Wind Turbines/Wind Farms
Abstract:
The papers in this special section brings together papers focused on the recent advancements and breakthroughs in the technology of modeling and enhanced active/reactive power control of wind power conversion systems, ranging from components of wind turbines to wind farms.
Autors: J. Hu;Y. Hou;Z. Zhu;D. Xu;D. Xu;E. Muljadi;F. Liu;G. Iwanski;H. Geng;I. Erlich;J. Wen;L. Harnefors;L. Fan;M. S. El Moursi;P. C. Kjaer;R. J. Nelson;R. Cárdenas;S. Feng;S. Islam;W. Qiao;X. Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1105 - 1107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Circuits and Systems for the Internet of Things—From Sensing to Sensemaking
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the interconnection of everyday objects endowed with sensing, processing, communication and energy management capabilities [item 1) in the Appendix] (the “IoT nodes”). Being at the beginning of its “S curve” in terms of stage of adoption [item 2) in the Appendix] (see “innovators” in Fig. 1), the IoT promises to be the next big wave that will further raise the technological and economic impact of the semiconductor industry. More than a decade from now, the massive adoption of IoT technologies (see “late majority” in Fig. 1) is expected to expand the number of connected devices per person to the order of a thousand, thus reaching an unprecedented scale of trillions of connected devices [item 3) in the Appendix].
Autors: Massimo Alioto;Edgar Sánchez-Sinencio;Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2221 - 2225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Large-Scale Multimedia Data Retrieval, Classification, and Understanding
Abstract:
The papers in this special section focus on multimedia data retrieval and classification via large-scale systems. Today, large collections of multimedia data are explosively created in different fields and have attracted increasing interest in the multimedia research area. Large-scale multimedia data provide great unprecedented opportunities to address many challenging research problems, e.g., enabling generic visual classification to bridge the well-known semantic gap by exploring large-scale data, offering a promising possibility for in-depth multimedia understanding, as well as discerning patterns and making better decisions by analyzing the large pool of data. Therefore, the techniques for large-scale multimedia retrieval, classification, and understanding are highly desired. Simultaneously, the explosion of multimedia data puts urgent needs for more sophisticated and robust models and algorithms to retrieve, classify, and understand these data. Another interesting challenge is, how can the traditional machine learning algorithms be scaled up to millions and even billions of items with thousands of dimensionalities? This motivated the community to design parallel and distributed machine learning platforms, exploiting GPUs as well as developing practical algorithms. Besides, it is also important to exploit the commonalities and differences between different tasks, e.g., image retrieval and classification have much in common while different indexing methods evolve in a mutually supporting way.
Autors: J. Song;H. Jegou;C. Snoek;Q. Tian;N. Sebe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 19, issue:9, pages: 1965 - 1967
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Special Section on the Seventh IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS 2016) Aachen, Germany, September 28–30, 2016
Abstract:
The IEEE International Workshop on Applied Measurements for Power Systems (AMPS) is the main event promoted by TC-39 of the Instrumentation and Measurement Society (Measurements in Power Systems). It was held in Aachen, Germany, from September 28 to 30, 2016, and in its seventh edition was hosted again by the E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University. In the recent years, the workshop has continuously shown increasing numbers. It was, once more, a fruitful scientific meeting involving attendees from both industry and academia.
Autors: Carlo Muscas;Paolo Attilio Pegoraro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2214 - 2215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guided-Processing Outperforms Duty-Cycling for Energy-Efficient Systems
Abstract:
Energy efficiency is highly desirable for sensing systems in the Internet of Things. A common approach to achieve low-power systems is duty cycling, where components in a system are turned OFF periodically to meet an energy budget. However, this paper shows that such an approach is not necessarily optimal in energy efficiency, and proposes guided processing as a fundamentally better alternative. The proposed approach offers: 1) explicit modeling of performance uncertainties in system internals; 2) a realistic resource consumption model; and 3) a key insight into the superiority of guided processing over duty cycling. Generalization from the cascade structure to the more general graph-based one is also presented. Once applied to optimize a large-scale audio sensing system with a practical detection application, empirical results show that the proposed approach significantly improves the detection performance (up to 1.7 times and 4 times reduction in false alarm and miss rate, respectively) for the same energy consumption, when compared with the duty-cycling approach.
Autors: Long N. Le;Douglas L. Jones;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2414 - 2426
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware/Software Co-Design and VLSI Implementation for the Intelligent Surveillance System
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a hardware design for the intelligent surveillance system. We have developed a complete system-level solution on algorithm level, and then algorithm has been implemented in very-large-scale integration (VLSI). The behavior of the moving objects is evaluated using adaptive search method. We propose the method to track the moving people in successive frames by object boundary box and velocity without color cues or appearance model. Even though people are interacting with each other or the occlusion is occurring due to other foreground objects, still the proposed algorithm can perform well in such situations. Furthermore, we consider the distance of object from camera for an adaptive search range to deal with the people movement issue. Although foreground is similar to the background in some conditions, the proposed algorithm can still detect the object well. We also propose an embedded data compression technique, which does not only reduce the computational complexity, but also achieves high compression rate. The overall system is developed in a platform-based system-on-a-programmable-chip for demonstration of result. In VLSI implementation results, the logical gate count is 139.890 K and the throughput of foreground detection is 6403 K pixels/s.
Autors: Tsung-Han Tsai;Chih-Hao Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 17, issue:18, pages: 6077 - 6089
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonic Suppression and Stability Enhancement for Parallel Multiple Grid-Connected Inverters Based on Passive Inverter Output Impedance
Abstract:
In this paper, the inverter output impedance is passivized for solving the harmonic and the stability problems in the multiparallel inverters. The harmonics are easily aroused because of the disturbances, and the system stability is challenged by the grid impedance. Based on the simplified equivalent impedance model, the two problems are analyzed in the low-frequency (LF) band and the high-frequency (HF) band, respectively. Aiming at improving the LF performance, the weighted-proportional grid voltage feedforward and the harmonic quasi-resonant controller with phase compensation are proposed. The dynamic performance is enhanced with an additional current reference generation scheme. In order to improve the HF performance, a novel digital phase lead filter which brings the system back to a minimum-phase case is proposed. By the proposed control method, the high modulus of each inverter output impedance is guaranteed, while the phase angles of over the entire frequency band are avoided to be lower than −90°. The experiments based on four-parallel inverters have been conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Autors: Qiang Qian;Shaojun Xie;Liuliu Huang;Jinming Xu;Zhao Zhang;Binfeng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7587 - 7598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonising Coexistence of Machine Type Communications With Wi-Fi Data Traffic Under Frame-Based LBT
Abstract:
The existence of relatively long LTE data blocks within the licensed-assisted access (LAA) framework results in bursty machine-type communications (MTC) packet arrivals, which cause system performance degradation and present new challenges in Markov modeling. We develop an embedded Markov chain to characterize the dynamic behavior of the contention arising from bursty MTC and Wi-Fi data traffic in the LAA framework. Our theoretical model reveals a high-contention phenomenon caused by the bursty MTC traffic, and quantifies the resulting performance degradation for both MTC and Wi-Fi data traffic. The Markov model is further developed to evaluate three potential solutions aiming to alleviate the contention. Our analysis shows that simply expanding the contention window, although successful in reducing congestion, may cause unacceptable MTC data loss. A TDMA scheme instead achieves better MTC packet delivery and overall throughput, but requires centralized coordination. We propose a distributed scheme that randomly spreads the MTC access processes through the available time period. Our model results, validated by simulations, demonstrate that the random spreading solution achieves a near TDMA performance, while preserving the distributed nature of the Wi-Fi protocol. It alleviates the MTC traffic contention and improves the overall throughput by up to 10%.
Autors: Gordon J. Sutton;Ren Ping Liu;Y. Jay Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4000 - 4011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HEAL-WEAR: An Ultra-Low Power Heterogeneous System for Bio-Signal Analysis
Abstract:
Personalized healthcare devices enable low-cost, unobtrusive and long-term acquisition of clinically relevant biosignals. These appliances, termed wireless body sensor nodes (WBSNs), are fostering a revolution in health monitoring for patients affected by chronic ailments. Nowadays, WBSNs often embed complex digital processing routines, which must be performed within an extremely tight energy budget. Addressing this challenge, in this paper, we introduce a novel computing architecture devoted to the ultra-low power analysis of biosignals. Its heterogeneous structure comprises multiple processors interfaced with a shared acceleration resource, implemented as a coarse-grained reconfigurable array (CGRA). The CGRA mesh effectively supports the execution of the intensive loops that characterize biosignal analysis applications, while requiring a low reconfiguration overhead. Moreover, both the processors and the reconfigurable fabric feature single-instruction/multiple data (SIMD) execution modes to increase efficiency when multiple data streams are concurrently processed. The run-time behavior on the system is orchestrated by a lightweight hardware mechanism, which concurrently synchronizes processors for SIMD execution and regulates access to the reconfigurable accelerator. By jointly leveraging run-time reconfiguration and SIMD execution, the illustrated heterogeneous system achieves, when executing complex biosignal analysis applications, speedups of up to on the considered kernels and up to 37.2% overall energy savings, with respect to an ultra-low power multi-core platform, which does not feature CGRA acceleration.
Autors: Loris Duch;Soumya Basu;Rubén Braojos;Giovanni Ansaloni;Laura Pozzi;David Atienza;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2448 - 2461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Multiscale Method for Multirate Railway Traction Systems Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a general mathematical framework for implementing multirate analysis in railway traction systems by means of the heterogeneous multiscale methods is presented. The proposed approach considers the bidirectional interaction between the trains and the electrical feeding system preserving the intrinsic coupling between electrical and mechanical variables. The procedure for accommodating different models with different dynamics and time scales is revealed, tested, and validated by means of a realistic case of study.
Autors: Pablo Arboleya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2575 - 2580
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hiding Hardware Trojan Communication Channels in Partially Specified SoC Bus Functionality
Abstract:
On-chip bus implementations must be bug-free and secure to provide the functionality and performance required by modern system-on-a-chip (SoC) designs. Regardless of the specific topology and protocol, bus behavior is never fully specified, meaning there exist cycles/conditions where some bus signals are irrelevant, and ignored by the verification effort. We highlight the susceptibility of current bus implementations to Hardware Trojans hiding in this partially specified behavior, and present a model for creating a covert Trojan communication channel between SoC components for any bus topology and protocol. By only altering existing bus signals during the period where their behaviors are unspecified, the Trojan channel is very difficult to detect. We give Trojan channel circuitry specifics for AMBA AXI4 and advanced peripheral bus (APB), then create a simple system comprised of several master and slave units connected by an AXI4-Lite interconnect to quantify the overhead of the Trojan channel and illustrate the ability of our Trojans to evade a suite of protocol compliance checking assertions from ARM. We also create an SoC design running a multiuser Linux OS to demonstrate how a Trojan communication channel can allow an unprivileged user access to root-user data. We then outline several detection strategies for this class of Hardware Trojan.
Autors: Nicole Fern;Ismail San;Çetin Kaya Koç;Kwang-Ting Tim Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1435 - 1444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Context Modeling for Video Event Recognition
Abstract:
Current video event recognition research remains largely target-centered. For real-world surveillance videos, target-centered event recognition faces great challenges due to large intra-class target variation, limited image resolution, and poor detection and tracking results. To mitigate these challenges, we introduced a context-augmented video event recognition approach. Specifically, we explicitly capture different types of contexts from three levels including image level, semantic level, and prior level. At the image level, we introduce two types of contextual features including the appearance context features and interaction context features to capture the appearance of context objects and their interactions with the target objects. At the semantic level, we propose a deep model based on deep Boltzmann machine to learn event object representations and their interactions. At the prior level, we utilize two types of prior-level contexts including scene priming and dynamic cueing. Finally, we introduce a hierarchical context model that systematically integrates the contextual information at different levels. Through the hierarchical context model, contexts at different levels jointly contribute to the event recognition. We evaluate the hierarchical context model for event recognition on benchmark surveillance video datasets. Results show that incorporating contexts in each level can improve event recognition performance, and jointly integrating three levels of contexts through our hierarchical model achieves the best performance.
Autors: Xiaoyang Wang;Qiang Ji;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 39, issue:9, pages: 1770 - 1782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Contextual Attention Recurrent Neural Network for Map Query Suggestion
Abstract:
The query logs from an on-line map query system provide rich cues to understand the behaviors of human crowds. With the growing ability of collecting large scale query logs, the query suggestion has been a topic of recent interest. In general, query suggestion aims at recommending a list of relevant queries w.r.t. users' inputs via an appropriate learning of crowds' query logs. In this paper, we are particularly interested in map query suggestions (e.g., the predictions of location-related queries) and propose a novel model Hierarchical Contextual Attention Recurrent Neural Network (HCAR-NN) for map query suggestion in an encoding-decoding manner. Given crowds map query logs, our proposed HCAR-NN not only learns the local temporal correlation among map queries in a query session (e.g., queries in a short-term interval are relevant to accomplish a search mission), but also captures the global longer range contextual dependencies among map query sessions in query logs (e.g., how a sequence of queries within a short-term interval has an influence on another sequence of queries). We evaluate our approach over millions of queries from a commercial search engine (i.e., Baidu Map). Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides significant performance improvements over the competitive existing methods in terms of classical metrics (i.e., Recall@K and MRR) as well as the prediction of crowds' search missions.
Autors: Jun Song;Jun Xiao;Fei Wu;Haishan Wu;Tong Zhang;Zhongfei Mark Zhang;Wenwu Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1888 - 1901
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Dynamic Range Imaging Technology [Lecture Notes]
Abstract:
In this lecture note, we describe high dynamic range (HDR) imaging systems. Such systems are able to represent luminances of much larger brightness and, typically, a larger range of colors than conventional standard dynamic range (SDR) imaging systems. The larger luminance range greatly improves the overall quality of visual content, making it appear much more realistic and appealing to observers. HDR is one of the key technologies in the future imaging pipeline, which will change the way the digital visual content is represented and manipulated today.
Autors: Alessandro Artusi;Thomas Richter;Touradj Ebrahimi;Rafal K. Mantiuk;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 165 - 172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Energy Resolution Hyperspectral X-Ray Imaging for Low-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography
Abstract:
Contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) is an alternative to conventional X-ray mammography for imaging dense breasts. However, conventional approaches to CEDM require a double exposure of the patient, implying higher dose, and risk of incorrect image registration due to motion artifacts. A novel approach is presented, based on hyperspectral imaging, where a detector combining positional and high-resolution spectral information (in this case based on Cadmium Telluride) is used. This allows simultaneous acquisition of the two images required for CEDM. The approach was tested on a custom breast-equivalent phantom containing iodinated contrast agent (Niopam 150®). Two algorithms were used to obtain images of the contrast agent distribution: K-edge subtraction (KES), providing images of the distribution of the contrast agent with the background structures removed, and a dual-energy (DE) algorithm, providing an iodine-equivalent image and a water-equivalent image. The high energy resolution of the detector allowed the selection of two close-by energies, maximising the signal in KES images, and enhancing the visibility of details with the low surface concentration of contrast agent. DE performed consistently better than KES in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio of the details; moreover, it allowed a correct reconstruction of the surface concentration of the contrast agent in the iodine image. Comparison with CEDM with a conventional detector proved the superior performance of hyperspectral CEDM in terms of the image quality/dose tradeoff.
Autors: Silvia Pani;Sarene C. Saifuddin;Filipa I.M. Ferreira;Nicholas Henthorn;Paul Seller;Paul J. Sellin;Philipp Stratmann;Matthew C. Veale;Matthew D. Wilson;Robert J. Cernik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1784 - 1795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance Dummy Fill Insertion With Coupling and Uniformity Constraints
Abstract:
In deep-submicron very large scale integration manufacturing, dummy fills are widely applied to reduce topographic variations and improve layout pattern uniformity. However, the introduction of dummy fills may impact the wire electrical properties, such as coupling capacitance. Traditional tile-based method for fill insertion usually results in very large number of fills, which increases the cost of layout storage. In advanced technology nodes, solving the tile-based dummy fill design is more and more expensive. In this paper, we propose a high performance dummy fill insertion framework based on geometric properties to optimize multiple objectives simultaneously, including coupling capacitance, density variations and gradient. The experimental results for ICCAD 2014 contest benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods.
Autors: Yibo Lin;Bei Yu;David Z. Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1532 - 1544
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Sensitivity and Fast Acquisition Signal Processing Techniques for GNSS Receivers: From fundamentals to state-of-the-art GNSS acquisition technologies
Abstract:
Higher sensitivity and faster acquisition can be two conflicting goals for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) acquisition function, and both of the goals must be considered in the development of GNSS signal processing techniques to meet the demands for location-based services (LBSs) in GNSS-challenged environments. This article introduces the fundamentals of GNSS acquisition functions and various GNSS acquisition techniques for new GNSS signals and investigates recent acquisition techniques achieving high sensitivity and fast acquisition. It provides useful information for engineers who study state-of-the-art GNSS signal acquisition techniques and want to understand the challenges involved in improving GNSS acquisition sensitivity and acquisition time.
Autors: Seung-Hyun Kong;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 59 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Spatial Resolution Radiation Detection Using Distributed Fiber Sensing Technique
Abstract:
This paper studies perspectives on using optical fibers and distributed fiber sensing schemes to perform real-time-distributed gamma-ray radiation sensing with high spatial resolution. The radiation-induced optical property changes of aluminum-doped fibers were studied using cobalt-60 sources. The distributed optical loss of the aluminum-doped fiber was characterized using the Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry (Rayleigh OFDR). The optical loss of unprotected fiber under various gamma dose rates remains linear up to 100 grays (Gy). Using the gamma radiation-sensitive fiber, the localized optical loss measured by the Rayleigh OFDR was used to map the accumulated gamma radiation dosage on the entire surface of the cylinder with a 1-cm spatial resolution. Using electrical cables as a ubiquitous sensor platforms for fiber sensor deployment, this paper explores the potential for multifunctional distributed fiber sensor by integrating distributed fiber temperature and gamma ionizing radiation sensors in electrical cables for multifunctional measurements to improve the safety of nuclear power systems at both the component and system levels. As sensors that can readily be embedded in a wide variety of materials and structures, radiation-sensitive fibers can be low-cost and highly flexible tool to gauge the performance degradation and longevity of materials and components used in the nuclear power systems.
Autors: Mohamed A. S. Zaghloul;Aidong Yan;Rongzhang Chen;Ming-Jun Li;Robert Flammang;Michael Heibel;Kevin P. Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2569 - 2577
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Dimensional Computing as a Nanoscalable Paradigm
Abstract:
We outline a model of computing with high-dimensional (HD) vectors—where the dimensionality is in the thousands. It is built on ideas from traditional (symbolic) computing and artificial neural nets/deep learning, and complements them with ideas from probability theory, statistics, and abstract algebra. Key properties of HD computing include a well-defined set of arithmetic operations on vectors, generality, scalability, robustness, fast learning, and ubiquitous parallel operation, making it possible to develop efficient algorithms for large-scale real-world tasks. We present a 2-D architecture and demonstrate its functionality with examples from text analysis, pattern recognition, and biosignal processing, while achieving high levels of classification accuracy (close to or above conventional machine-learning methods), energy efficiency, and robustness with simple algorithms that learn fast. HD computing is ideally suited for 3-D nanometer circuit technology, vastly increasing circuit density and energy efficiency, and paving a way to systems capable of advanced cognitive tasks.
Autors: Abbas Rahimi;Sohum Datta;Denis Kleyko;Edward Paxon Frady;Bruno Olshausen;Pentti Kanerva;Jan M. Rabaey;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2508 - 2521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Filter-Integrated Class-F Power Amplifier Based on Dielectric Resonator
Abstract:
In this letter, a high-efficiency filter-integrated class-F power amplifier (PA) is presented. High-Q-factor dielectric resonator (DR) filter is employed as the output matching network of the class-F PA. Theoretical analysis is carried out to guide the impedance transformation from to that desired by the transistor at the operating frequency and the harmonic ones. Two transmission zeros are generated by the DR filter for realizing good skirt selectivity. Besides, metal cavity of the DR filter acts as heat sink for the transistor. For demonstration, a filter-integrated PA operating at 1.88 GHz is implemented. Comparison is made to show the advantages of this letter.
Autors: Jin-Xu Xu;Xiu Yin Zhang;Xiao-Qu Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 827 - 829
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Frequency Electromagnetic Induction Sensing of Nonmetallic Materials
Abstract:
We introduce a frequency-domain electromagnetic induction (EMI) instrument for detection and classification of objects with either high () or intermediate () electrical conductivity. While high conductivity metallic targets exhibit a quadrature peak response for frequencies in a traditional EMI regime under 100 kHz, the response of intermediate conductivity objects manifests at higher frequencies, between 100 kHz and 15 MHz. Materials such as carbon fiber or conducting salt solutions exhibit conductivities in this intermediate range and are undetectable by traditional low-frequency EMI instruments. To detect these intermediate conductivity targets, we developed a high-frequency EMI (HFEMI) instrument with a frequency range extended to 15 MHz. The HFEMI instrument requires novel hardware considerations, coil design, and data processing schemes. Most importantly, the wire lengths of transmit and receive coils are shorter than those of traditional frequency EMI sensors, so that the phase on the transmit and receive coils is nearly constant. We present the hardware and software aspects of the HFEMI instrument along with preliminary data, demonstrating its ability to detect intermediate conductive objects.
Autors: John Brevard Sigman;Benjamin E. Barrowes;Kevin O’Neill;Yinlin Wang;Janet E. Simms;Hollis H. Bennett;Donald E. Yule;Fridon Shubitidze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5254 - 5263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Order Divergence-Conforming Constrained Bases for Triangular Cells
Abstract:
This paper presents an algebraic technique for generating arbitrary-order divergence-conforming bases for curvilinear triangular cells. The bases are constructed by enforcing appropriate constraints on a linear combination of general functions and then extracting the desired bases using singular value decompositions. Koornwinder–Dubiner polynomials are chosen as the general function set. Basic constraints are presented to obtain divergence-conforming bases, and additional constraints are presented to further enforce the bases to be Nédélec. Results from a variety of problems are given to show that the bases exhibit high-order convergence and also produce systems that are relatively well conditioned compared to other basis sets.
Autors: John C. Young;Robert J. Adams;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4717 - 4727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Pass Negative Group Delay RC-Network Impedance
Abstract:
This brief describes a synthesis of high-pass negative group delay (NGD) network impedance. The fundamental expression of the high-pass NGD canonical transfer function is established. Based on the circuit impedance equivalent principle, the high-pass NGD first-order network that is constituted by RC lumped elements is identified. The identified topology basic NGD characteristics are formulated and analyzed. Then, the associated synthesis method in function of the desired NGD optimal level and cutoff frequency is established. The theory is validated by design, simulations, and measurements of proof-of-concept prototypes. A good agreement between the theoretical prediction and experimental results showing high-pass NGD response from 1 MHz with minimal level of about −10 ns is observed. The high-pass NGD function operates at high frequencies with first-order circuit.
Autors: Blaise Ravelo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1052 - 1056
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Transistor Memory Using Quantum Dots-Based Floating Gate
Abstract:
A novel nonvolatile floating-gate transistor memory device using CdSe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs) embedded the insulating polymer as a charge-storage layer along with the rational design of device structure is presented. The core–shell structure CdSe@ZnS QDs can efficiently trap both holes and electrons under the applied writing/erasing operations, resulting in a considerable threshold voltage shifts ( over 50 V and forming high-conductance (ON) and low-conductance (OFF) states at a gate voltage of 0 V. The value of threshold voltage shift is controlled by writing and erasing voltages, regardless with source–drain voltages. Furthermore, it exhibits a long retention time (the can maintain 76% at 108 s) and outstanding endurance characteristics (>500 cycles), demonstrating extraordinary stable and reliable memory property. Moreover, a thin layer of Al2O3 was introduced as tunneling dielectric layer which is essential for the high-performance floating-gate transistor memory device. The nonvolatile organic transistor memory devices using QDs-based floating gate show great potential application for high-performance organic memory devices.
Autors: Daobing Hu;Guocheng Zhang;Huihuang Yang;Jun Zhang;Cihai Chen;Shuqiong Lan;Huipeng Chen;Tailiang Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3816 - 3821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance SAW Resonator on New Multilayered Substrate Using LiTaO3 Crystal
Abstract:
To develop the high-performance filters and duplexers required for recent long-term evolution frequency bands in mobile handsets, a surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator is needed that has a higher quality (Q) and a lower temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). To achieve this, the authors focused on acoustic energy confinement in the depth direction for a rotated Y-X LiTaO3 (LT) substrate. Characteristics of multilayered substrates with low-impedance and high-impedance layers under LT layer were studied numerically in terms of acoustic energy distribution, phase velocity, coupling coefficient, and temperature characteristics employing a finite-element method simulation. After several calculations, a novel multilayered structure was developed that uses SiO2 for a low-impedance layer and AlN for a high-impedance layer under the thin LT layer. A one-port resonator using the new substrate was fabricated, and its experimental results showed that the developed resonator had a Bode-Q over 4000 and TCF of −8 ppm/°C, which are four times higher than and one-fifth as small as those of a conventional 4° YX-LT SAW resonator, respectively. By applying this technology, a band 25 duplexer with very narrow duplex gap was successfully developed, which shows extremely low insertion loss, steep cutoff characteristics, and stable temperature characteristics.
Autors: Tsutomu Takai;Hideki Iwamoto;Yuichi Takamine;Hisashi Yamazaki;Toshiyuki Fuyutsume;Haruki Kyoya;Takeshi Nakao;Hajime Kando;Masahiro Hiramoto;Takanori Toi;Masayoshi Koshino;Norio Nakajima;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1382 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Stacked Double-Layer N-Channel Poly-Si Nanosheet Multigate Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
A high-performance stacked double-layer N-channel poly-Si nanosheet (NS) multigate thin-film transistor (DLNS-TFT) is demonstrated successfully. The proposed device has low cost, is easy to fabricate, and is compatible with Si MOSFET, active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, and active-matrix liquid-crystal display fabrication. This DLNS-TFT reveals high driving current (> 105 A/um), high Ion/Ioff ratio (> 108), high mobility (42 cm2/Vs), and low parasitic resistance, when compared with single-layer nanosheet TFT. The DLNS-TFT also has a high density and satisfies the driving current monolithic multilayer 3-D IC in the ITRS 2015 version technology roadmap to the year 2030.
Autors: Lun-Chun Chen;Yu-Ru Lin;Yu-Shuo Chang;Yung-Chun Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1256 - 1258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power ${X}$ -Band 5-b GaN Phase Shifter With Monolithic Integrated E/D HEMTs Control Logic
Abstract:
A high-power -band GaN-based 5-b digital phase shifter with control logic circuit on-chip is demonstrated for the first time, which is implemented with monolithic integrated GaN E/D HEMTs fabrication process. Gate trench etching together with Al2O3 as gate dielectric is used to form the gate of the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Switched filter and high-pass/low-pass topology are used to design the 11.25°/22.5° and 45°/90°/180° phase shifters, respectively. A novel three stages control logic circuit is described and characterized. The fabricated 5-b phase shifter demonstrates an rms phase error less than 4.5°, an rms amplitude error less than 0.6 dB, an insertion loss less than 11 dB, and an input–output return loss better than −10 dB across 8.5–11.5 GHz for all 32 states. In addition, the phase shifter exhibits a typical input power of 34.8 dBm in the continuous wave power handling capability measurement at 9 GHz.
Autors: Weijun Luo;Hui Liu;Zongjing Zhang;Pengpeng Sun;Xinyu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3627 - 3633
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power High-Isolation RF-MEMS Switches With Enhanced Hot-Switching Reliability Using a Shunt Protection Technique
Abstract:
This paper presents a shunt protection technique to improve the hot-switching reliability of metal-contact radio-frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF-MEMS) switches. The proposed technique places shunt protection contacts in front of the main contact of an RF-MEMS metal contact switch to block RF signal while the main contact is switching ON or OFF. The shunt protection contact creates a local cold-switching condition for the main contact to increase the lifetime of the switch under hot-switching condition. The shunt protection technique can also increase the overall isolation of the switch. To demonstrate the technique, RF-MEMS switches with and without shunt protection were fabricated using all metal process. Compared with the unprotected switch, the protected switch has longer lifetime under hot-switching condition. The protected switch has >100-million cycles and up to 500-million cycles lifetime under the 1-W hot-switching condition, measured in open-air laboratory environment. Besides, the isolation of the shunt-protected switch is 70 dB at 1.0 GHz and 36 dB at 40 GHz, and the insertion loss is 0.30 dB at 1.0 GHz and 0.43 dB at 40 GHz.
Autors: Yuhao Liu;Yusha Bey;Xiaoguang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3188 - 3199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resistivity CMOS SOI Rectenna for Implantable Applications
Abstract:
The design and near-field characterization of an integrated rectenna on Globalfoundries 45-nm CMOS SOI technology are presented. The rectenna is intended for short range (below 8 cm) wireless powering and communication of integrated sensor systems and occupies an area of . Upon utilizing high (low)-resistivity Si substrate, the rectenna provides 1.2 (1.25) mW of dc power 1.1 (1.17) V rectified dc output voltage from a 0.95-GHz source with only 18 (30) dBm power feeding a horn antenna with 6-dB gain placed at a short distance (<5 mm) from the antenna. Efficient wireless power transfer at various applied powers and distances and through a 1-cm-thick chicken breast is demonstrated.
Autors: Alice Yi-Szu Jou;Reza Azadegan;Saeed Mohammadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 854 - 856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Sensitivity Gas-Pressure Sensor Based on Fiber-Tip PVC Diaphragm Fabry–Pérot Interferometer
Abstract:
We demonstrate a novel polyvinyl chloride (PVC) diaphragm-based fiber-tip Fabry–Perot interferometer for gas-pressure measurements with ultrahigh sensitivity. The PVC diaphragm has been coated to the end facet of a well-cut standard single-mode fiber by use of a plastic welder. An ultrahigh-pressure sensitivity of ∼65.5 nm/MPa at 1565 nm and a low-temperature cross sensitivity of ∼–5.5 kPa/°C have been experimentally demonstrated. The proposed sensor has advantages of high pressure sensitivity, miniature size, low cost, and easy fabrication.
Autors: Zhe Zhang;Changrui Liao;Jian Tang;Zhiyong Bai;Kuikui Guo;Maoxiang Hou;Jun He;Ying Wang;Shen Liu;Feng Zhang;Yiping Wang;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:18, pages: 4067 - 4071
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Temperature RF Material Characterization Using a Dual-Chambered Rectangular Waveguide Fixture
Abstract:
A rectangular waveguide (RWG) fixture is proposed for the high-temperature RF characterization of materials. Composed of two RWGs in a side-by-side or over–under orientation, the new apparatus permits the calibration and specimen measurements to be collected simultaneously reducing high-temperature measurement time by two full days over the traditional method. In addition, the permittivity and permeability, determined from measured -parameters, are independent of sample position and can be found in closed form. The design and construction of the dual-chambered RWG fixture are detailed. The closed-form, position-independent, permittivity and permeability extraction method is also discussed. Finally, high-temperature material characterization experiments are performed to validate the fixture. The errors in permittivity and permeability are estimated assuming uncertainties in sample thickness and measured -parameters.
Autors: Andrew E. Bogle;Milo W. Hyde;Michael J. Havrilla;Jeffrey S. Sovern;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2422 - 2427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Temperature Superconducting Magnetic Levitation Vehicles: Dynamic Characteristics While Running on a Ring Test Line
Abstract:
In the long-distance operation of the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic levitation (maglev) systems, the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are closely related to its security and stationarity, which require in-depth research to ensure its safe operation. Thus, we investigated the dynamic characteristics of the HTS maglev and assessed its safety and stationarity when running on a ring test line. In the experiments, the important parameters related to safety are lateral displacement (LD) and levitation height (LH). Results show that an appropriate low field-cooling height (FCH) is beneficial for its safe operation, and the maximum LD (MLD) should be considered in vehicle designs. Moreover, in other experiments, we tested the vibration acceleration of the HTS maglev vehicle using acceleration sensors and assessed its stationarity according to the Chinese National Standard GB5599-85, which is specifically published to assess the stationarity and security of railway vehicles by the China Ministry of Railways. The stationarity of the HTS maglev vehicle running on the ring test line is of good grade. When the secondary suspension and appropriate measures of vibration reduction are considered, the stationarity will be greatly improved.
Autors: Zigang Deng;Jipeng Li;Weihua Zhang;Yanfeng Gou;Yu Ren;Jun Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 12, issue:3, pages: 95 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Bilayer Phosphorene Nanoribbon Pressure Sensor Based on the Energy Gap Modulation Mechanism: A Theoretical Study
Abstract:
In this letter, bilayer phosphorene and its corresponding nanoribbons are utilized as pressure sensors due to their modulation mechanism under normal compressive strain. A multiscale simulation flow is implemented from the band structure to the current calculations. To obtain exact tight binding (TB) Hamiltonians and the following current results, unitary Wannier transformations are adopted, and interactions between the four nearest TB neighbors are considered. From the simulations, the sensitivity of the bilayer phosphorene pressure sensor was found to increase exponentially as the pressure increased due to the modulation mechanism. The sensitivity of zigzag bilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (zBPNRs) was further improved. At low pressures, the improvements are mainly derived from the restriction of the flat region. The sensitivities of zBPNRs reached KPa under a pressure of approximately 2.5 GPa, which indicates their potential application in pressure sensor arrays.
Autors: Yawei Lv;Qijun Huang;Sheng Chang;Hao Wang;Jin He;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1313 - 1316
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensing Probe Based on Deviation S-Shaped Microfiber
Abstract:
A deviation S-shaped microfiber was proposed and packaged in a capillary by glycerin solution. The high-temperature sensitivity performance was experimentally demonstrated. With the decrease in ambient temperature from 73.05 °C to 23.46 °C, the resonant dip on the transmission spectra red-shifts continually due to the co-operation between the refractive index increase of glycerol and the thermal expansion of packaging materials. The high sensitivity of ~11 nm/°C promises high-sensitive monitoring of the slight temperature fluctuation in some specific biological and chemical reaction process.
Autors: Jin Li;Qin Nie;Liting Gai;Hanyang Li;Haifeng Hu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:17, pages: 3699 - 3704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive, Fast-Responding, and Stable Photodetector Based on ALD-Developed Monolayer TiO2
Abstract:
In this paper, high-quality wafer-scale monolayer TiO2 films were synthesized via atomic layer deposition and their main characteristics were investigated. The deposited TiO2 monolayer films were subsequently utilized in photodetectors (PDs), which demonstrated considerable optoelectronic performance with ultrafast response (30 μs) and recovery (63 μs) time, high on/off ratio (220), good reversibility, and great long-term stability (less than 2% variation after 1000 cycles). The photoresponsivity (Rλ) and external quantum efficiency of 0.352 A/W and 109.12% were, respectively, attained at the incident laser power density of 118 mW/cm2 () and . These photoelectrical characteristics of the monolayer TiO2-based PDs confirmed that this TiO2 nanostructure could be an excellent candidate for various smart and portable applications such as UV-detection devices, photoswitches, high-speed optical communications, and image sensors.
Autors: Mohammad Karbalaei Akbari;Zhenyin Hai;Stephen Depuydt;Eugene Kats;Jie Hu;Serge Zhuiykov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 880 - 887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HNIP: Compact Deep Invariant Representations for Video Matching, Localization, and Retrieval
Abstract:
With emerging demand for large-scale video analysis, MPEG initiated the compact descriptor for video analysis (CDVA) standardization in 2014. Beyond handcrafted descriptors adopted by the current MPEG-CDVA reference model, we study the problem of deep learned global descriptors for video matching, localization, and retrieval. First, inspired by a recent invariance theory, we propose a nested invariance pooling (NIP) method to derive compact deep global descriptors from convolutional neural networks (CNNs), by progressively encoding translation, scale, and rotation invariances into the pooled descriptors. Second, our empirical studies have shown that a sequence of well designed pooling moments (e.g., max or average) may drastically impact video matching performance, which motivates us to design hybrid pooling operations via NIP (HNIP). HNIP has further improved the discriminability of deep global descriptors. Third, the technical merits and performance improvements by combining deep and handcrafted descriptors are provided to better investigate the complementary effects. We evaluate the effectiveness of HNIP within the well-established MPEG-CDVA evaluation framework. The extensive experiments have demonstrated that HNIP outperforms the state-of-the-art deep and canonical handcrafted descriptors with significant mAP gains of 5.5% and 4.7%, respectively. In particular the combination of HNIP incorporated CNN descriptors and handcrafted global descriptors has significantly boosted the performance of CDVA core techniques with comparable descriptor size.
Autors: Jie Lin;Ling-Yu Duan;Shiqi Wang;Yan Bai;Yihang Lou;Vijay Chandrasekhar;Tiejun Huang;Alex Kot;Wen Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 19, issue:9, pages: 1968 - 1983
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hole-Trapping Process at Al2O3/GaN Interface Formed by Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
The hysteresis of the capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of an Al2O3/n-GaN metal–insulator–semiconductor structure was evaluated under light (white LED)-irradiation and dark conditions. The hysteresis was not observed under the dark condition but was observed under the light-irradiation condition. The GaN surface was completely depleted in negative bias under the dark condition. The C–V characteristics indicated that the hysteresis is caused by hole trapping under the LED irradiation condition and that the holes are generated in the n-GaN surface by LED irradiation and subsequently injected into the Al2O3 films. When the holes are generated in the depletion region of GaN for any reason, such as a short generation lifetime, they can be trapped in the Al2O3 films.
Autors: Akinobu Teramoto;Masaya Saito;Tomoyuki Suwa;Tetsuo Narita;Rihito Kuroda;Shigetoshi Sugawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1309 - 1312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Horn Antenna With Reconfigurable Beam-Refraction and Polarization Based on Anisotropic Huygens Metasurface
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new horn antenna that can mechanically reconfigure the beam direction and polarization by combining a traditional linearly polarized horn antenna with an anisotropic Huygens metasurface. Three layers of Jerusalem-cross structures are integrated in a dielectric substrate to form the anisotropic Huygens metasurface; the entire structure has a thickness of about one fifteenth the working wavelength. By placing the metasurface in front of a traditional linearly polarized horn antenna, the main beam of the horn antenna is steered to a predetermined direction. Furthermore, the direction and polarization of the main beam are reconfigurable by rotating the anisotropic Huygens metasurface. The measured results of the antenna confirm the simulated results. Possible applications of the presented antenna include radar detection, base-station communications, and satellite communications.
Autors: Xiang Wan;Lei Zhang;Sheng Li Jia;Jia Yuan Yin;Tie Jun Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4427 - 4434
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How the Brain Processes Multimodal Technical Instructions (Remley, D; 2015) [Book review]
Abstract:
Crossing disciplinary boundaries is a common practice for today’s technical writer. The author offers an insightful look at how neurobiological and multimodal rhetorical concepts can inform instructional document design to improve learning. This book addresses an interdisciplinary audience of academic and industry professionals involved in employee training or instructional training material design. The goal here is to answer the question, “How does one learn new technical concepts?. To answer this, the book bridges theoretical concepts in the seemingly dissimilar fields of cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and rhetoric. While there is still much to be discussed within this vast interdisciplinary conversation, the author's synthesis and his resulting analysis model hold workplace and pedagogical value by providing an entry point through a shared goal: cognitive gain through effective technical instructional materials.
Autors: Sarah Johnson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 330 - 331
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Motion Tracking by Multiple RGBD Cameras
Abstract:
The advent of low-cost depth cameras, such as the Microsoft Kinect in the consumer market, has made many indoor applications and games based on motion tracking available to the everyday user. However, it is a large challenge to track human motion via such a camera because of its low-quality images, missing depth values, and noise. In this paper, we propose a novel human motion capture method based on a cooperative structure of multiple low-cost RGBD cameras, which can effectively avoid these problems. This structure can also manage the problem of body occlusions that appears when a single camera is used. Moreover, the whole process does not require training data, which makes this approach easily deployed and reduces operation time. We use the color image, depth image, and point cloud acquired in each view as the data source, and an initial pose is extracted in our optimization framework by aligning multiple point clouds from different cameras. The pose is dynamically updated by combining a filtering approach with a Markov model to estimate new poses in video streams. To verify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, we capture a wide variety of human actions via three cameras in indoor scenes and compare the tracking results of the proposed method to those of the current state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our system is tested on more complex situations, in which multiple humans move within a scene, possibly occluding each other to some extent. The actions of multiple humans are tracked simultaneously, which would assist group behavior analysis.
Autors: Zhenbao Liu;Jinxin Huang;Junwei Han;Shuhui Bu;Jianfeng Lv;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 2014 - 2027
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Humidity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity for Proton Gated Oxide Synaptic Transistor
Abstract:
Indium-tin-oxide synaptic transistors using proton conducting nanogranular phosphorosilicate glass as gate dielectric are fabricated. Humidity-dependent proton gating behaviors are observed. Moreover, synaptic plasticities are mimicked on the proton gated oxide synaptic transistors. Interestingly, enhanced synaptic facilitation is observed at higher relative humidity originated from the strengthened proton gating. An oxide synaptic transistor with humidity-dependent synaptic plasticities may find potential applications in neuromorphic platforms.
Autors: Li Qiang Guo;Juan Wen;Li Qiang Zhu;Yang Ming Fu;Hui Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1248 - 1251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Acoustic Noise Analysis Approach of Conventional and Mutually Coupled Switched Reluctance Motors
Abstract:
This paper presents a method to calculate the acoustic noise of conventional switched reluctance motor (CSRM) and mutually coupled switched reluctance motor (MCSRM). This method is based on dynamic electromagnetic models, combined with analytical estimation of the stator eigenmodes and radiation efficiency, considering the switching effects and frame effects. The proposed method is applied to predict and compare the acoustic noise performances of a CSRM and an MCSRM in a wide speed range. The results are validated using commercial finite element analysis software, JMAG for electromagnetics and ACTRAN for acoustics. An acceleration test based on a setup with a 12/8 CSRM is used for experimental validation. Results show that the proposed method can provide reliable prediction of main acoustic noises during acceleration.
Autors: Jianning Dong;James Weisheng Jiang;Brock Howey;Haoding Li;Berker Bilgin;Alan Dorneles Callegaro;Ali Emadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1042 - 1051
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Beamforming via the Kronecker Decomposition for the Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO Systems
Abstract:
Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) seamlessly integrates two wireless technologies, mmWave communications and massive MIMO, which provides spectrums with tens of GHz of total bandwidth and supports aggressive space division multiple access using large-scale arrays. Though it is a promising solution for next-generation systems, the realization of mmWave massive MIMO faces several practical challenges. In particular, implementing massive MIMO in the digital domain requires hundreds to thousands of radio frequency chains and analog-to-digital converters matching the number of antennas. Furthermore, designing these components to operate at the mmWave frequencies is challenging and costly. These motivated the recent development of the hybrid-beamforming architecture, where MIMO signal processing is divided for separate implementation in the analog and digital domains, called the analog and digital beamforming, respectively. Analog beamforming using a phase array introduces uni-modulus constraints on the beamforming coefficients. They render the conventional MIMO techniques unsuitable and call for new designs. In this paper, we present a systematic design framework for hybrid beamforming for multi-cell multiuser massive MIMO systems over mmWave channels characterized by sparse propagation paths. The framework relies on the decomposition of analog beamforming vectors and path observation vectors into Kronecker products of factors being uni-modulus vectors. Exploiting properties of Kronecker mixed products, different factors of the analog beamformer are designed for either nulling interference paths or coherently combining data paths. Furthermore, a channel estimation scheme is designed for enabling the proposed hybrid beamforming. The scheme estimates the angles-of-arrival (AoA) of data and interference paths by analog beam scanning and data-path gains - y analog beam steering. The performance of the channel estimation scheme is analyzed. In particular, the AoA spectrum resulting from beam scanning, which displays the magnitude distribution of paths over the AoA range, is derived in closed form. It is shown that the inter-cell interference level diminishes inversely with the array size, the square root of pilot sequence length, and the spatial separation between paths, suggesting different ways of tackling pilot contamination.
Autors: Guangxu Zhu;Kaibin Huang;Vincent K. N. Lau;Bin Xia;Xiaofan Li;Sha Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:9, pages: 2097 - 2114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Bidirectional Wireless EV Charging System Tolerant to Pad Misalignment
Abstract:
Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly popular as a means of future transport for sustainable living. However, wireless charging of EVs poses a number of challenges related to interoperability, safety, pad misalignment, etc. In particular, pad misalignments invariably cause changes in system parameters which in turn lead to increase in losses as well as reduction in power throughput, making the charging process long and inefficient. Consequently, wireless charging systems that are less sensitive to pad misalignments have become preferable. This paper, therefore, presents a hybrid wireless power transfer (WPT) system that charges EVs at constant rate despite large misalignments between charging pads. The proposed charging system uses a combination of two different resonant networks to realize a constant and efficient charging process. A mathematical model is also developed, showing as to how the two resonant networks can be combined to compensate for pad misalignments. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept as well as the accuracy of the mathematical model, theoretical performance is compared with both simulations and experimental results of a prototype 3.3 kW hybrid bidirectional WPT system. Results clearly indicate that the proposed hybrid WPT system is efficient and offers a constant charging profile over a wide range of spatial (three-dimensional) pad misalignments.
Autors: Lei Zhao;Duleepa J. Thrimawithana;Udaya K. Madawala;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7079 - 7086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Modulated Active Damping Control for DFIG-Based Wind Farm Participating in Frequency Response
Abstract:
This paper analyzes the influence of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farm (WF) participating in the frequency response (FR) on the oscillation modes of the power system and proposes a hybrid modulated active damping scheme to mitigate the potential power oscillations. The FR control would excite additional lightly damped electro-mechanical oscillation mode and deteriorate the damping for the primary interarea oscillation mode inside the power system. Moreover, the internal damping effect on the turbine torsional oscillation would be weakened resulting shaft damage risk if FR is required by the WF. The frequencies of those modes are usually close to each other. By integrated hybrid multiple active damping loops into the active and reactive power controller of the WF respectively, the damping control on all the oscillation modes can be improved at the same time. The analysis and effectiveness of the proposed scheme in this paper are verified by the time-domain simulations.
Autors: Hua Geng;Xinze Xi;Lu Liu;Geng Yang;Jin Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1220 - 1230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Oblique-Angle Deposited ITO/Silver Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Brighter Light Emitters
Abstract:
In this paper, hybrid transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) consisting of oblique-angle deposited indium tin oxide (OAD ITO) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) were developed forGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The 100-nm thick OAD ITO acted as an Ohmic contact to p-GaN with negligible light absorption having optical transmittance as high as approximately 99% at 450 nm, and Ag NWs acted as a favorable current spreader with sheet resistance as low as /sq. Consequently, the hybrid TCEs consisting of OAD ITO and Ag NWs yielded an optical transmittance of 93% at 450 nm, a sheet resistance of 18.9 /sq, and a specific contact resistance of cm2. LEDs fabricated with hybrid TCEs demonstrated improved electrical properties and greater optical output powers than the reference LEDs. This was due to the combined effects of the improved optical transparency, the enhanced current spreading, and the surface roughening effect.
Autors: Minkyung Baek;Munsik Oh;Bhaskar Parida;Min Soo Kim;Jae-Hyun Ryou;Hyunsoo Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3690 - 3695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Power Combining Rectenna Array for Wide Incident Angle Coverage in RF Energy Transfer
Abstract:
This paper discusses a new design approach that uses hybrid power combining rectenna array in radio frequency (RF) energy transfer systems to receive more energy in a wide incident angle range. A beam-forming matrix and a dc power management network (PMN) are introduced to the hybrid power combining. The normalized dc output power of the proposed hybrid power combining array is compared to the conventional power combining methods with regard to the incident wave angle, and the average received dc power is also calculated and compared. To experimentally verify the proposed hybrid combining array performance, four suspended patch antennas are attached to RF energy receiving architecture. A Butler matrix and quadrature hybrids are used for the beam-forming matrix in a hybrid power combining rectenna array. A reconfigurable voltage doubler rectifier with a dc PMN is used to convert RF energy to dc energy and delivers proper voltage to the load. The measured results of each component are presented. Moreover, an experimental verification using fabricated components for RF energy transfer is presented and the measured received dc output power of conventional and proposed structures is presented and compared.
Autors: Dong-Jin Lee;Soo-Ji Lee;In-June Hwang;Wang-Sang Lee;Jong-Won Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3409 - 3418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Stochastic-Deterministic Multiperiod DC Optimal Power Flow
Abstract:
Stochastic optimal power flow (OPF) formulations that minimize the expected operating costs over forecast scenarios generally result in lower costs than the standard (deterministic) OPF problem for power systems with significant forecast error, for example, from renewable energy sources. However, this type of stochastic OPF problem is more computationally demanding than the deterministic OPF, and even more so when storage units or ramp-constrained generators are included, as they require solving a multi-period OPF problem. We propose a hybrid method approaching the cost performance of the stochastic OPF problem and the computational burden of the deterministic OPF problem. Our method decomposes the problem into stochastic and deterministic subproblems, and relies on Benders’ Cuts to interface them. We present three versions of the method, which achieve different cost/computational burden trade-offs. The versions can be parametrized so that they scale well with the problem dimension. For one of the versions, we develop a multi-dimensional formulation of the Sandwich Algorithm, which is used to iteratively approximate a convex function. Through a case study using a 118-bus system, we find that our hybrid method achieves between 25% and 81% of the cost improvement of the stochastic OPF, but requires only 12 to 41% of the increased computation time required by the stochastic OPF. Both the hybrid method and the multi-dimensional Sandwich Algorithm can be used for problems outside of the field of power systems.
Autors: Olivier Mégel;Johanna L. Mathieu;Göran Andersson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3934 - 3945
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Synchronized PWM Schemes for Closed-Loop Current Control of High-Power Motor Drives
Abstract:
For high-power drives, switching frequency is usually restricted to several hundred hertz to minimize the switching losses. To maintain the current distortions and torque ripples at a reasonable level, synchronized pulse patterns with half-wave and quarter-wave symmetries are employed. The analytic compensation is derived by Fourier analysis to ensure the proportionality between the voltage reference and the output voltage of an inverter for pulse width modulation (PWM) with low pulse ratio. A simple yet very effective method with varying sampling rate is proposed to maintain synchronization even for fast dynamic processes. The fast and smooth transition between different PWM patterns is achieved by compensating phase angle of the voltage reference through the analysis of stator flux trajectories. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on a down-scaled 2.2-kW induction motor drives.
Autors: Haitao Yang;Yongchang Zhang;Guofeng Yuan;Paul D. Walker;Nong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6920 - 6929
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HypAp: A Hypervolume-Based Approach for Refining the Design of Embedded Systems
Abstract:
Designing complex embedded systems requires simultaneous optimization of multiple system performance metrics that can be addressed by applying Pareto-based multiobjective optimization techniques. At the end of this type of optimization process, designers always face Pareto fronts (PFs) including a large number of near-optimal solutions from which selecting the most proper system implementation is potentially infeasible. In this letter, for the first time, we present HypAp, a hypervolume-based automated approach to systematically help designers efficiently choose their preferred solutions after the optimization process. HypAp is a two-stage approach relying on clustering Pareto optimal solutions and then finding a subset of solutions that maximizes the hypervolume by using a genetic algorithm. The performance of HypAp is evaluated through applying HypAp to the PF by the case study of mapping applications on network-on-chip-based heterogeneous MPSoC.
Autors: Rabeh Ayari;Mahdi Nikdast;Imane Hafnaoui;Giovanni Beltrame;Gabriela Nicolescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 57 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Classification Based on Multiscale Spatial Information Fusion
Abstract:
In hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, the combination of spectral information and spatial information can be applied to enhance the classification performance. In order to better characterize the variability of spatial features at different scales, we propose a new framework called multiscale spatial information fusion (MSIF). The MSIF consists of three parts: multiscale spatial information extraction, local 1-D embedding (L1-DE), and information fusion. First, spatial filter with different scales is used to extract multiscale spatial information. Then, L1-DE is utilized to map the spectral information and spatial information at different scales into 1-D space, respectively. Finally, the obtained 1-D coordinates are used to label the unlabeled spatial neighbors of the labeled samples. The proposed MSIF captures intrinsic spatial information contained in homogeneous regions of different sizes by multiscale strategy. Since the spatial information at different scales is processed separately in MSIF, the variance of spatial information at different scales can be reflected. The use of L1-DE reduces computational cost by mapping high-dimensional samples into 1-D space. In MSIF, the L1-DE and information fusion are used iteratively, and the iterative process terminates in a finite number of steps. The algorithm analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results on four widely used HSI data sets show that the proposed method achieved higher classification accuracies compared with other state-of-the-art spectral–spatial classification methods.
Autors: Hong Li;Yalong Song;C. L. Philip Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5302 - 5312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Spectral-Spatial Feature Extraction via Tensor Principal Component Analysis
Abstract:
We consider the tensor-based spectral-spatial feature extraction problem for hyperspectral image classification. First, a tensor framework based on circular convolution is proposed. Based on this framework, we extend the traditional principal component analysis (PCA) to its tensorial version tensor PCA (TPCA), which is applied to the spectral-spatial features of hyperspectral image data. The experiments show that the classification accuracy obtained using TPCA features is significantly higher than the accuracies obtained by its rivals.
Autors: Yuemei Ren;Liang Liao;Stephen John Maybank;Yanning Zhang;Xin Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:9, pages: 1431 - 1435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hysteresis Switching Control of the Ćuk Converter Operating in Discontinuous Conduction Modes
Abstract:
In this brief, the behaviors of the Ćuk converter operating in discontinuous conduction modes (DCMs) under a hysteresis controlled switching are studied. The hysteresis switching is defined in terms of values of a common quadratic Lyapunov function and Lyapunov stability conditions are established for all possible switchings, which represent a DCM of operation. A set of simulation results are provided to illustrate the converter’s behaviors when the hysteresis switching control results in discontinuous modes of operation.
Autors: Aleksandra Lekić;Dušan M. Stipanović;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1077 - 1081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I Hear, Therefore I Know Where I Am: Compensating for GNSS Limitations with Cellular Signals
Abstract:
Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) have been the prevalent positioning, navigation, and timing technology over the past few decades. However, GNSS signals suffer from four main limitations.
Autors: Zaher Zak M. Kassas;Joe Khalife;Kimia Shamaei;Joshua Morales;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 111 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I tymshare do you? [Past Forward]
Abstract:
“There is no cloud,” goes the quip. “It’s just someone else’s computer.” It’s funny because it’s true: With cloud computing, your data and apps reside in a remote data center, which you share with many users even if it feels like it’s all just for you. Remarkably, a very similar mode of computing was also popular from the 1960s into the 1980s, when it was called time-sharing. At one point, the pioneering firm Tymshare boasted the world’s largest commercial computer network. Rivaling even the ARPANET, it gave customers the illusion of having a powerful machine at their disposal, even if it was really someone else’s.
Autors: David C. Brock;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 54, issue:9, pages: 60 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I/O Stack Optimization for Efficient and Scalable Access in FCoE-Based SAN Storage
Abstract:
Due to the high complexity in software hierarchy and the shared queue & lock mechanism for synchronized access, existing I/O stack for accessing the FCoE based SAN storage becomes a performance bottleneck, thus leading to a high I/O overhead and limited scalability in multi-core servers. In order to address this performance bottleneck, we propose a synergetic and efficient solution that consists of three optimization strategies for accessing the FCoE based SAN storage: (1) We use private per-CPU structures and disabling kernel preemption method to process I/Os, which significantly improves the performance of parallel I/O in multi-core servers; (2) We directly map the requests from the block-layer to the FCoE frames, which efficiently translates I/O requests into network messages; (3) We adopt a low latency I/O completion scheme, which substantially reduces the I/O completion latency. We have implemented a prototype (called FastFCoE, a protocol stack for accessing the FCoE based SAN storage). Experimental results demonstrate that FastFCoE achieves efficient and scalable I/O throughput, obtaining 1132.1K/836K IOPS (6.6/5.4 times as much as original Linux Open-FCoE stack) for read/write requests.
Autors: Yunxiang Wu;Fang Wang;Yu Hua;Dan Feng;Yuchong Hu;Wei Tong;Jingning Liu;Dan He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 28, issue:9, pages: 2514 - 2526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Annual Meeting: Colocation with ECCE [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 4 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ICRA 2017 in Singapore [Society News]
Abstract:
Autors: Malika Meghjani;Albert Causo;I-Ming Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 173 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifiability for Blind Source Separation of Multiple Finite Alphabet Linear Mixtures
Abstract:
We give under weak assumptions a complete combinatorial characterization of identifiability for linear mixtures of finite alphabet sources, with unknown mixing weights and unknown source signals, but known alphabet. This is based on a detailed treatment of the case of a single linear mixture. Notably, our identifiability analysis applies also to the case of unknown number of sources. We provide sufficient and necessary conditions for identifiability and give a simple sufficient criterion together with an explicit construction to determine the weights and the source signals for deterministic data by taking advantage of the hierarchical structure within the possible mixture values. We show that the probability of identifiability is related to the distribution of a hitting time and converges exponentially fast to one when the underlying sources come from a discrete Markov process. Finally, we explore our theoretical results in a simulation study. This paper extends and clarifies the scope of scenarios for which blind source separation becomes meaningful.
Autors: Merle Behr;Axel Munk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5506 - 5517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification and Sign-Ambiguity-Free Calculations of Reciprocal Characteristic Parameters in Microwave Applications
Abstract:
Various microwave circuit characterizations and measurements, such as extracting forward and backward propagation factors in thru-reflect-line calibration and choosing the correct reflection coefficient in the transmission/reflection method for material characterization, involve the calculation of complex reciprocal characteristic parameters. The calculation procedure is generally obstructed by assignment between the real physical parameters and the calculated values and sign choice of square roots. This letter shows that the complex reciprocal characteristic parameters can be explicitly differentiated by the relative magnitudes of their moduli, and the problems of parameter identification and sign choice can be eliminated by proper rearrangement of the operands in the square root function and the aid of complex hyperbolic functions. Therefore, the calculation formula for each of the reciprocal roots is fixed without undetermined signs and conforms to the passive or active conventions.
Autors: Kuen-Fwu Fuh;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 27, issue:9, pages: 773 - 775
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of partial discharges in power transformers: An approach driven by practical experience
Abstract:
High voltage power transformers are the most challenging equipment for asset managers in that their failures are often due to thermal, electrical, ambient, and mechanical stresses that interact in a synergic way. An accurate failure mode analysis is often prevented by the compound nature of the insulation (partly solid, partly liquid, self-regenerative, and highly flammable) and by the high probability that failures involve explosions. Insulation failure is, by far, the costlier event with an average cost of about $150,000 (1999) per outage [1]. Therefore, it is worthwhile to understand better the symptoms that indicate an imminent failure.
Autors: S. Ganeshan;J. Murugesan;A. Cavallini;F. Negri;B. Valecillos;U. Piovan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 23 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on the IEEE Administrative Meeting and Technical Talk in Abu Dhabi.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 136 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Standards Association P7007 ? Call for Participation [Standards]
Abstract:
Autors: Edson Prestes;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 176 - 176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Technical Talk at Al Ain University [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
On 1 June 2016, the College of Engineering at Al Ain University of Science and Technology (AAU), in conjunction with the Joint Chapter of the UAE IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society and IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Society along with the IEEE AAU student branch, organized a technical talk, "The Engineering of the Human Joint: Advances in Orthopedics Research and Computer Navigation" presented by Dr. Farid Amirouche of the University of Illinois at Chicago, United States.
Autors: Nazih Khaddaj Mallat;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:6, pages: 139 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Restoration: From Sparse and Low-Rank Priors to Deep Priors [Lecture Notes]
Abstract:
The use of digital imaging devices, ranging from professional digital cinema cameras to consumer grade smartphone cameras, has become ubiquitous. The acquired image is a degraded observation of the unknown latent image, while the degradation comes from various factors such as noise corruption, camera shake, object motion, resolution limit, hazing, rain streaks, or a combination of them. Image restoration (IR), as a fundamental problem in image processing and low-level vision, aims to reconstruct the latent high-quality image from its degraded observation. Image degradation is, in general, irreversible, and IR is a typical ill-posed inverse problem. Due to the large space of natural image contents, prior information on image structures is crucial to regularize the solution space and produce a good estimation of the latent image. Image prior modeling and learning then are key issues in IR research. This lecture note describes the development of image prior modeling and learning techniques, including sparse representation models, low-rank models, and deep learning models.
Autors: Lei Zhang;Wangmeng Zuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 34, issue:5, pages: 172 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imagined Hand Clenching Force and Speed Modulate Brain Activity and Are Classified by NIRS Combined With EEG
Abstract:
Simultaneous acquisition of brain activity signals from the sensorimotor area using NIRS combined with EEG, imagined hand clenching force and speed modulation of brain activity, as well as 6-class classification of these imagined motor parameters by NIRS-EEG were explored. Near infrared probes were aligned with C3 and C4, and EEG electrodes were placed midway between the NIRS probes. NIRS and EEG signals were acquired from six healthy subjects during six imagined hand clenching force and speed tasks involving the right hand. The results showed that NIRS combined with EEG is effective for simultaneously measuring brain activity of the sensorimotor area. The study also showed that in the duration of (0, 10) s for imagined force and speed of hand clenching, HbO first exhibited a negative variation trend, which was followed by a negative peak. After the negative peak, it exhibited a positive variation trend with a positive peak about 6–8 s after termination of imagined movement. During (−2, 1) s, the EEG may have indicated neural processing during the preparation, execution, and monitoring of a given imagined force and speed of hand clenching. The instantaneous phase, frequency, and amplitude feature of the EEG were calculated by Hilbert transform; HbO and the difference between HbO and Hb concentrations were extracted. The features of NIRS and EEG were combined to classify three levels of imagined force [at 20/50/80% MVGF (maximum voluntary grip force)] and speed (at 0.5/1/2 Hz) of hand clenching by SVM. The average classification accuracy of the NIRS-EEG fusion feature was 0.74 ± 0.02. These results may provide increased control commands of force and speed for a brain-controlled robot based on NIRS-EEG.
Autors: Yunfa Fu;Xin Xiong;Changhao Jiang;Baolei Xu;Yongcheng Li;Hongyi Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 1641 - 1652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Imitation Learning for Dynamic VFI Control in Large-Scale Manycore Systems
Abstract:
Manycore chips are widely employed in high-performance computing and large-scale data analysis. However, the design of high-performance manycore chips is dominated by power and thermal constraints. In this respect, voltage–frequency island (VFI) is a promising design paradigm to create scalable energy-efficient platforms. By dynamically tailoring the voltage and frequency of each island, we can further improve the energy savings within given performance constraints. Inspired by the recent success of imitation learning (IL) in many application domains and its significant advantages over reinforcement learning (RL), we propose the first architecture-independent IL-based methodology for dynamic VFI (DVFI) control in manycore systems. Due to its popularity in the EDA community, we consider an RL-based DVFI control methodology as a strong baseline. Our experimental results demonstrate that IL is able to obtain higher quality policies than RL (on average, 5% less energy with the same level of performance) with significantly less computation time and hardware area overheads (3.1X and 8.8X, respectively).
Autors: Ryan Gary Kim;Wonje Choi;Zhuo Chen;Janardhan Rao Doppa;Partha Pratim Pande;Diana Marculescu;Radu Marculescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 2458 - 2471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Impedance Modeling of Three-Phase Voltage Source Converters in DQ, Sequence, and Phasor Domains
Abstract:
This paper presents a modular approach for the impedance modeling of three-phase voltage source converters (VSC) by representing the VSC dynamics using three-by-three transfer matrix in the dq, sequence, and phasor domains. The transfer matrix form simplifies the modeling process by separately modeling the ac and dc side dynamics, and describing the VSC dynamics independent of the ac and dc side networks. It also explicitly captures coupling among the dominant frequency components of the ac and dc side voltages and currents in the off-diagonal elements. Modeling of the VSC ac and dc side impedances, including the effects of the network on the other side of the VSC, is presented using the transfer matrix models. Transfer matrix based impedance modeling in the three domains and several stability analysis case studies are presented for a VSC-based HVDC station in an offshore wind farm. It is shown that the coupling between the ac and dc networks, and between the positive and negative sequence components of the three-phase quantities, play an important role in the low-frequency stability of the VSC. Impedance models and stability analysis predictions are validated using the wind farm simulations.
Autors: Shahil Shah;Leila Parsa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1139 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Implementation of LLMF Control Algorithm for Three-Phase Grid-Tied SPV-DSTATCOM System
Abstract:
This paper proposes a three-phase single-stage grid integrated solar photovoltaic distributed static compensator (SPV-DSTATCOM) system using a leaky least mean fourth (LLMF) control algorithm. The prime contributions of this paper include: 1) the SPV generating system, which fulfills the active power requirement of connected loads and supplies the excess power to the grid; 2) the voltage-source converter (VSC) acts as a dc–ac inverter and DSTATCOM, which provides reactive power compensation, harmonics filtering, load balancing, power factor correction, zero voltage regulation, and mitigates several other power quality issues; 3) even when the SPV power is unavailable, the VSC operates as a DSTATCOM, which enhances the utilization factor of devices; and 4) the LLMF-based control approach for fundamental component extraction from load currents for good harmonics compensation as well as to keep the overall system stable and to achieve rapid response at changing conditions. The proposed system is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink as well as its performance is verified experimentally on a developed prototype.
Autors: Rahul Kumar Agarwal;Ikhlaq Hussain;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7414 - 7424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improve Control to Output Dynamic Response and Extend Modulation Index Range With Hybrid Selective Harmonic Current Mitigation-PWM and Phase-Shift PWM for Four-Quadrant Cascaded H-Bridge Converters
Abstract:
The selective harmonic current mitigation pulsewidth modulation (SHCM-PWM) technique can be used in cascaded multilevel converters to extend the harmonic reduction spectrum, reduce the coupling inductance and increase the efficiency. The offline SHCM-PWM technique has small number of switching transitions as its switching angles can only change once in a fundamental cycle and relatively long time delays because it uses FFT. As a result, its dynamic response has a lot to desire. As it will be proven in this paper, in four-quadrant power converters, to have a good transient dynamic response, both active and reactive power must be controlled at least two times in a fundamental cycle. In this paper, a hybrid modulation technique is introduced. The proposed technique uses SHCM-PWM under steady state and phase-shift PWM (PSPWM) under transient. In addition, in order to extend the modulation index range and ensure that SHCM-PWM can process four-quadrant active and reactive power, the constraints of the switching angles for the SHCM-PWM are modified. Simulations and experiments are conducted on a seven-level cascaded H-bridge converter to verify the proposed technique.
Autors: Amirhossein Moeini;Hui Zhao;Shuo Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6854 - 6863
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved 3-D Analytical Model for Axial-Flux Eddy-Current Couplings With Curvature Effects
Abstract:
An improved 3-D analytical model for axial-flux permanent-magnet eddy-current couplings is presented in this paper. As the problem is solved in a 3-D cylindrical coordinate system, the proposed model directly takes into account the radial edge effects and the curvature effects on the torque prediction without the need of any correction factor. It is shown that, the new analytical model is very accurate, even for the geometries where the curvature effects are very pronounced. Another advantage of the proposed model is the great reduction of computation time compared to 3-D finite-elements simulations and an easier adaptation for parametric studies and optimization.
Autors: Thierry Lubin;Abderrezak Rezzoug;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:9, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Carry-in Workload Estimation for Global Multiprocessor Scheduling
Abstract:
As an important and fundamental tool for analyzing the schedulability of a real-time task set on the multiprocessor platform, response time analysis (RTA) has been researched for several years on both Global Fixed Priority (G-FP) and Global Earliest Deadline First (G-EDF) scheduling. This paper proposes a new analysis that improves over current state-of-the-art RTA methods for both G-FP and G-EDF scheduling, by reducing their pessimism. The key observation is that when estimating the carry-in workload, all the existing RTA techniques depend on the worst case scenario in which the carry-in job should execute as late as possible and just finishes execution before its worst case response time (WCRT). But the carry-in workload calculated under this assumption may be over-estimated, and thus the accuracy of the response time analysis may be impacted. To address this problem, we first propose a new method to estimate the carry-in workload more precisely. The proposed method does not depend on any specific scheduling algorithm and can be used for both G-FP and G-EDF scheduling. We then propose a general RTA algorithm that can improve most existing RTA tests by incorporating our carry-in estimation method. To further improve the execution efficiency, we also introduce an optimization technique for our RTA tests. Experiments with randomly generated task sets are conducted and the results show that, compared with the state-of-the-art technologies, the proposed tests exhibit considerable performance improvements, up to 9 and 7.8 percent under G-FP and G-EDF scheduling respectively, in terms of schedulability test precision.
Autors: Quan Zhou;Guohui Li;Jianjun Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 28, issue:9, pages: 2527 - 2538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Using a Coherence-Based Estimator
Abstract:
While plane-wave imaging can improve the performance of power Doppler by enabling much longer ensembles than systems using focused beams, the long-ensemble averaging of the zero-lag autocorrelation R(0) estimates does not directly decrease the mean noise level, but only decreases its variance. Spatial variation of the noise due to the time-gain compensation and the received beamforming aperture ultimately limits sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate that the performance of power Doppler imaging can be improved by leveraging the higher lags of the autocorrelation [e.g., R(1), R(2),…] instead of the signal power (R(0)). As noise is completely uncorrelated from pulse-to-pulse while the flow signal remains correlated significantly longer, weak signals just above the noise floor can be made visible through the reduction of the noise floor. Finally, as coherence decreases proportionally with respect to velocity, we demonstrate how signal coherence can be targeted to separate flows of different velocities. For instance, we show how long-time-range coherence of microbubble contrast-enhanced flow specifically isolates slow capillary perfusion (as opposed to conduit flow).
Autors: Charles Tremblay-Darveau;Avinoam Bar-Zion;Ross Williams;Paul S. Sheeran;Laurent Milot;Thanasis Loupas;Dan Adam;Matthew Bruce;Peter N. Burns;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1901 - 1911
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Dynamic Dependability Assessment Through Integration With Prognostics
Abstract:
The use of average data for dependability assessments results in an outdated system-level dependability estimation, which can lead to incorrect design decisions. With increasing availability of online data, there is room to improve traditional dependability assessment techniques. Namely, prognostics is an emerging field, which provides asset-specific failure information that can be reused to improve the system-level failure estimation. This paper presents a framework for prognostics-updated dynamic dependability assessment. The dynamic behavior comes from runtime updated information, asset interdependencies, and time-dependent system behavior. A case study from the power generation industry is analyzed, and results confirm the validity of the approach for improved near real-time unavailability estimations.
Autors: Jose Ignacio Aizpurua;Victoria M. Catterson;Yiannis Papadopoulos;Ferdinando Chiacchio;Gabriele Manno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 893 - 913
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Handover Through Dual Connectivity in 5G mmWave Mobile Networks
Abstract:
The millimeter wave (mmWave) bands offer the possibility of orders of magnitude greater throughput for fifth-generation (5G) cellular systems. However, since mmWave signals are highly susceptible to blockage, channel quality on any one mmWave link can be extremely intermittent. This paper implements a novel dual connectivity protocol that enables mobile user equipment devices to maintain physical layer connections to 4G and 5G cells simultaneously. A novel uplink control signaling system combined with a local coordinator enables rapid path switching in the event of failures on any one link. This paper provides the first comprehensive end-to-end evaluation of handover mechanisms in mmWave cellular systems. The simulation framework includes detailed measurement-based channel models to realistically capture spatial dynamics of blocking events, as well as the full details of Medium Access Control, Radio Link Control, and transport protocols. Compared with conventional handover mechanisms, this paper reveals significant benefits of the proposed method under several metrics.
Autors: Michele Polese;Marco Giordani;Marco Mezzavilla;Sundeep Rangan;Michele Zorzi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:9, pages: 2069 - 2084
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Model of Synchronous Generators Internal Faults Based on Circuit-Coupled FEM
Abstract:
A precise simulation of the internal faults of synchronous generators is crucial for the design of the main protection scheme; therefore, an accurate model is necessary. In this paper, based on the circuit-coupled finite element method (CCFEM), an improved model of a synchronous generator with internal faults is proposed, wherein the localized model of each stator coil is built as per its actual structure. Using this model, the internal fault occurring inside the coil can be accurately simulated, better approximating the location of the actual fault point; thus, the fault currents can be calculated more accurately. The accuracy of the improved model is verified by a dynamic simulation experiment. Moreover, the electromagnetic magnitudes, such as the air gap flux density, fault currents, field current, and all the damper currents are investigated in detail, under fault conditions, thereby revealing the fault characteristics more clearly and providing a basis for designing protection schemes.
Autors: Baojun Ge;Shiyong Xiao;Zhihui Liu;Dajun Tao;Xiaobo Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 876 - 884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Perturbation Vector Generation Method for Accurate SRAM Yield Estimation
Abstract:
Accurate yield estimation under parametric variation is one of the most integral parts for robust and nonwasted circuit design. In particular, due to the significant impact of disparity on the high-replication circuit, precise yield estimation is essential in SRAM design. In this paper, we propose an enhanced perturbation vector generation method to improve the accuracy of the yield estimation of the conventional direct SRAM yield computation method, which are access disturb margin (ADM) and write margin (WRM) first, by splitting the concave yield metric space, the estimation error caused by linear approximation can be significantly reduced with minor increase in simulation runtime. In addition, to compensate the inaccuracy of the conventional perturbation vector, a calibration method to reflect the multi-dc condition in SRAM assist operations is also proposed. Numerical results show that 37% improved estimation accuracy and 29% reduced estimation error can be achieved compared to the conventional ADM/WRM in the wide voltage range.
Autors: Woong Choi;Jongsun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1511 - 1521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Sorting Architecture for ${K}$ -Best MIMO Detection
Abstract:
This brief presents an improved sorting architecture for -best multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection. In the proposed architecture, two properties of the -best MIMO detection are exploited for simplifications: the order among siblings from the same parent node can be easily identified; the order among the -best nodes is dispensable. Besides, the generalized mergesort-based architecture for the -best sorting is presented so that the proposed sorter can be constructed for any power-of-two and modulation scheme. Compared to the conventional ones, the proposed architecture lowers not only the hardware complexity but also the latency significantly.
Autors: Byeong Yong Kong;In-Cheol Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1042 - 1046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Synthetic Basis Functions Method for Nonperiodic Scaling Structures With Arbitrary Spatial Attitudes
Abstract:
Synthetic basis functions method (SBFM) is an improved approach of method of moment which utilizes fewer high-order synthetic functions to replace Rao-Wilton-Glisson functions to discretize surface currents and make inner products. Thus, this approach can drastically decrease the number of unknowns and lower the requirements of PC’s memory. Especially for periodic structures, computational efficiency will be improved sharply since synthetic functions defined on different subblocks can be set identical and the process of constructing synthetic functions needs to be calculated only once. However, for nonperiodic structures, this advantage no longer exists due to the diversities of synthetic functions defined on different subblocks. In that case, synthetic functions need to be calculated block by block. Targeted at this problem, an improved SBFM is proposed for nonperiodic scaling structures whose subblocks only share identical/similar contour features, but spatial attitudes, spatial positions, and geometrical sizes can be arbitrary. Based on theoretical analysis, the improved SBFM employs a special triangulating method for each subblock which makes synthetic functions defined on them reusable. In this way, synthetic functions need to be calculated only once too for nonperiodic scaling structures. Compared to traditional SBFM, this approach decreases the elapsed time of constructing synthetic functions and memory cost of synthetic functions’ expansion coefficients to ( is the number of subblocks) and is of great help in the analysis of large scale targets such as complex nonperiodic arrays. Finally, accuracy of this approach is validated by both simulating and measured results.
Autors: Yanlin Xu;Hu Yang;Junqi Lu;Weikang Yu;Wenlu Yin;Da Peng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4728 - 4741
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Synthetic Power Grid Modeling With Correlated Bus Type Assignments
Abstract:
This paper presents our study results on the correlated assignment of generation, load, or connection buses in a given grid topology and the development of an optimized search algorithm to improve the proposed synthetic grid model, called RT-nestedSmallWorld. A numerical measure, called “bus type entropy”, was proposed in an initial study on this subject to characterize the correlation of bus type assignments in realistic grids. In this paper, its definition has been redefined and improved with the help of some newly obtained data of realistic grids so that the scaling property of a real-world grid's entropy value versus the network size can be effectively captured with a curve-fitting approach. With the help of the derived scaling function, we will be able to determine an appropriate target entropy value that a correlated bus type assignment should assume in a specific N-bus grid network. Therefore, our previously proposed synthetic power grid modeling has been enhanced with a direct search procedure for the best bus type assignments in a specific N-bus grid topology, saving the mandatory, but most of the time unattainable, requirement of a set of realistic grid data with a comparable network size for identifying the search target. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach is examined based on some available grid data including the IEEE test cases, the NYISO-2935, the ERCOT-5633, and the WECC-16994 systems.
Autors: Seyyed Hamid Elyas;Zhifang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3391 - 3402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improved Tangent Space-Based Distance Metric for Lithographic Hotspot Classification
Abstract:
A distance metric of patterns is crucial to hotspot cluster analysis and classification. In this paper, we propose an improved tangent space (ITS)-based distance metric for hotspot cluster analysis and classification. The proposed distance metric is an important extension of the well-developed tangent space method in computer vision. It can handle patterns containing multiple polygons, while the traditional tangent space method can only deal with patterns with a single polygon. It inherits most of the advantages of the traditional tangent space method, e.g., it is easy to compute and is tolerant with small variations or shifts of the shapes. The ITS-based distance metric is a more reliable and accurate metric for hotspot cluster analysis and classification. We also propose a hierarchical density-based clustering method for hotspot clustering. It is more suitable for arbitrary shaped clusters.
Autors: Fan Yang;Subarna Sinha;Charles C. Chiang;Xuan Zeng;Dian Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1545 - 1556
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Pyramidal Tract Side Effect Prediction Using a Data-Driven Method in Subthalamic Stimulation
Abstract:
Objective: subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) is limited by the occurrence of a pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE) induced by electrical activation of the pyramidal tract. Predictive models are needed to assist the surgeon during the electrode trajectory preplanning. The objective of the study was to compare two methods of PTSE prediction based on clinical assessment of PTSE induced by STN DBS in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: two clinicians assessed PTSE postoperatively in 20 patients implanted for at least three months in the STN. The resulting dataset of electroclinical tests was used to evaluate two methods of PTSE prediction. The first method was based on the volume of tissue activated (VTA) modeling and the second one was a data-driven-based method named Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network (PyMAN) developed in our laboratory. This method was based on the nonlinear correlation between the PTSE current threshold and the 3-D electrode coordinates. PTSE prediction from both methods was compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results: 1696 electroclinical tests were used to design and compare the two methods. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values were significantly higher with the PyMAN method than with the VTA-based method (P < 0.05). Conclusion: the PyMAN method was more effective than the VTA-based method to predict PTSE. Significance: this data-driven tool could help the neurosurgeon in predicting adverse side effects induced by DBS during the electrode trajectory preplanning.
Autors: Clement Baumgarten;Yulong Zhao;Paul Sauleau;Cecile Malrain;Pierre Jannin;Claire Haegelen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2134 - 2141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of the Frequency Characteristics of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors on SiC Substrate
Abstract:
Analog applications attract increasing interest for graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs). GFET with a cutoff frequency of up to 427 GHz has been reported; however, the device suffered from the large parasitic parameters and poor drain current saturation, which made their maximum oscillation frequency lower than the cutoff frequency. In this letter, quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene transistors with a gate length of 60 nm and ultra-thin gate dielectric are fabricated by an improved, self-aligned, process. Good gate coupling is achieved, and parasitic parameters are suppressed to a significant extent. The as-measured extrinsic cutoff frequency reaches 70 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency reaches 120 GHz, which are the highest extrinsic frequencies reported for graphene transistors to date. Our results show the application potential of graphene RF devices in future high-speed electronic systems.
Autors: C. Yu;Z. Z. He;X. B. Song;Q. B. Liu;T. T. Han;S. B. Dun;J. J. Wang;C. J. Zhou;J. C. Guo;Y. J. Lv;Z. H. Feng;S. J. Cai;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 38, issue:9, pages: 1339 - 1342
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvement of Torque Capability of Permanent-Magnet Motor by Using Hybrid Rotor Configuration
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel hybrid rotor permanent-magnet (HRPM) motor to improve torque capability, including average torque and torque ripple. The key of the proposed motor is that it can utilize high PM torque of surface-inserted PM (SPM) rotor module and high reluctance torque of interior PM (IPM) rotor module at the same time. Meanwhile, the shifting angle of SPMs and open angle of air barriers are introduced to improve the average torque and reduce the torque ripple, respectively. The two variables are employed to create circumferential asymmetry of the rotor for generating an angular difference of the electromagnetic torque between adjacent N-pole and S-pole, thus minimizing torque ripple. In order to evaluate the proposed motor, an IPM motor and a SPM motor with the same dimension and volume of PM are used as benchmarks. Through theoretical analysis and experimental test, it is verified that the proposed HRPM motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously.
Autors: Guohai Liu;Gaohong Xu;Wenxiang Zhao;Xinxin Du;Qian Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 953 - 962
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improvements of Interfacial and Electrical Properties for Ge MOS Capacitor by Using TaYON Interfacial Passivation Layer and Fluorine Incorporation
Abstract:
Ge metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor with HfTiON/TaYON stacked gate dielectric treated by fluorine plasma is fabricated, and its interfacial and electrical properties are compared with its counterparts without the TaYON interfacial passivation layer or the fluorine-plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the sample exhibits excellent performances: low interface-state density ( cmeV, small flatband voltage (0.34 V), good capacitance–voltage behavior, small frequency dispersion, and low gate leakage current ( A/cm2 at V). These should be attributed to the suppressed growth of unstable Ge oxides on the Ge surface during gate dielectric annealing by the TaYON interlayer and fluorine incorporation, thus greatly reducing the defective states at/near the TaYON/Ge interface and improving the electrical properties of the device.
Autors: Yong Huang;Jing-Ping Xu;Lu Liu;Zhi-Xiang Cheng;Pui-To Lai;Wing-Man Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3528 - 3533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Execution Concurrency of Large-Scale Matrix Multiplication on Distributed Data-Parallel Platforms
Abstract:
Matrix multiplication is a dominant but very time-consuming operation in many big data analytic applications. Thus its performance optimization is an important and fundamental research issue. The performance of large-scale matrix multiplication on distributed data-parallel platforms is determined by both computation and IO costs. For existing matrix multiplication execution strategies, when the execution concurrency scales up above a threshold, their execution performance deteriorates quickly because the increase of the IO cost outweighs the decrease of the computation cost. This paper presents a novel parallel execution strategy CRMM (Concurrent Replication-based Matrix Multiplication) along with a parallel algorithm, Marlin, for large-scale matrix multiplication on data-parallel platforms. The CRMM strategy exploits higher execution concurrency for sub-block matrix multiplication with the same IO cost. To further improve the performance of Marlin, we also propose a number of novel system-level optimizations, including increasing the concurrency of local data exchange by calling native library in batch, reducing the overhead of block matrix transformation, and reducing disk heavy shuffle operations by exploiting the semantics of matrix computation. We have implemented Marlin as a library along with a set of related matrix operations on Spark and also contributed Marlin to the open-source community. For large-sized matrix multiplication, Marlin outperforms existing systems including Spark MLlib, SystemML and SciDB, with about , and speedup on average, respectively. The evaluation upon a real-world DNN workload also indicates that Marlin outperforms above systems by about , and speedup, respectively.
Autors: Rong Gu;Yun Tang;Chen Tian;Hucheng Zhou;Guanru Li;Xudong Zheng;Yihua Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 28, issue:9, pages: 2539 - 2552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving Large-Scale Image Retrieval Through Robust Aggregation of Local Descriptors
Abstract:
Visual search and image retrieval underpin numerous applications, however the task is still challenging predominantly due to the variability of object appearance and ever increasing size of the databases, often exceeding billions of images. Prior art methods rely on aggregation of local scale-invariant descriptors, such as SIFT, via mechanisms including Bag of Visual Words (BoW), Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD) and Fisher Vectors (FV). However, their performance is still short of what is required. This paper presents a novel method for deriving a compact and distinctive representation of image content called Robust Visual Descriptor with Whitening (RVD-W). It significantly advances the state of the art and delivers world-class performance. In our approach local descriptors are rank-assigned to multiple clusters. Residual vectors are then computed in each cluster, normalized using a direction-preserving normalization function and aggregated based on the neighborhood rank. Importantly, the residual vectors are de-correlated and whitened in each cluster before aggregation, leading to a balanced energy distribution in each dimension and significantly improved performance. We also propose a new post-PCA normalization approach which improves separability between the matching and non-matching global descriptors. This new normalization benefits not only our RVD-W descriptor but also improves existing approaches based on FV and VLAD aggregation. Furthermore, we show that the aggregation framework developed using hand-crafted SIFT features also performs exceptionally well with Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) based features. The RVD-W pipeline outperforms state-of-the-art global descriptors on both the Holidays and Oxford datasets. On the large scale datasets, Holidays1M and Oxford1M, SIFT-based RVD-W representation obtains a mAP of 45.1 and 35.1 percent, while CNN-based RVD-W achieve a mAP of 63.5 and 44.8 percent, all yielding superior performance to the - tate-of-the-art.
Autors: Syed Sameed Husain;Miroslaw Bober;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 39, issue:9, pages: 1783 - 1796
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving MOSFETs’ TID Tolerance Through Diamond Layout Style
Abstract:
This letter describes an experimental comparative study of the total ionizing dose (TID) effects due to Co-60 gamma irradiation between hexagonal (Diamond) and conventional rectangular gates metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), regarding the same bias conditions during irradiation. The transistors were manufactured by using the 350 nm commercial bulk complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuits (ICs) technology. The innovative hexagonal gate layout proposal can reduce the parameter deviations of TID effects in MOSFETs in, approximately, 30%, 400%, and 100% in terms of the threshold voltage, leakage drain current, and subthreshold slope, respectively, regarding the standard MOSFET counterparts. Therefore, the Diamond MOSFET can be considered as a low-cost alternative device to be used in space CMOS ICs applications.
Autors: L. E. Seixas;O. L. Gonçalez;R. Souza;S. Finco;R. G. Vaz;G. A. da Silva;S. P. Gimenez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 17, issue:3, pages: 593 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving SAR Automatic Target Recognition Models With Transfer Learning From Simulated Data
Abstract:
Data-driven classification algorithms have proved to do well for automatic target recognition (ATR) in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Collecting data sets suitable for these algorithms is a challenge in itself as it is difficult and expensive. Due to the lack of labeled data sets with real SAR images of sufficient size, simulated data play a big role in SAR ATR development, but the transferability of knowledge learned on simulated data to real data remains to be studied further. In this letter, we show the first study of Transfer Learning between a simulated data set and a set of real SAR images. The simulated data set is obtained by adding a simulated object radar reflectivity to a terrain model of individual point scatters, prior to focusing. Our results show that a Convolutional Neural Network (Convnet) pretrained on simulated data has a great advantage over a Convnet trained only on real data, especially when real data are sparse. The advantages of pretraining the models on simulated data show both in terms of faster convergence during the training phase and on the end accuracy when benchmarked on the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition data set. These results encourage SAR ATR development to continue the improvement of simulated data sets of greater size and complex scenarios in order to build robust algorithms for real life SAR ATR applications.
Autors: David Malmgren-Hansen;Anders Kusk;Jørgen Dall;Allan Aasbjerg Nielsen;Rasmus Engholm;Henning Skriver;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:9, pages: 1484 - 1488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Improving the Electrical Performance of a Quantum Well FET With a Shell Doping Profile by Heterojunction Optimization
Abstract:
This paper investigates the impacts of typical semiconductor material properties—electron affinity, bandgap, and dielectric constant, on the electrical performance of a p-type core–shell heterojunction nanowire FET by numerical simulations. At the heterojunction, a valence band offset of 200 meV forms a sufficient energy barrier confining the holes in the quantum well, resulting in the optimal OFF-state current. A higher dielectric constant of the shell region is found to be able to decrease the leakage current of the device. The optimum conditions from the parameter analysis are demonstrated by a realistic and achievable material combination of Si/SiGe for the core–shell configuration. This paper provides physical insights into the materialwise impacts for designing the proposed transistor showing the reduced OFF-current and a better subthreshold swing for low-power applications.
Autors: Malkundi Puttaveerappa Vijay Kumar;Chia-Ying Hu;Amey Mahadev Walke;Kuo-Hsing Kao;Tien-Sheng Chao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3563 - 3568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Incomplete-Leaf Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm for Multiscale Penetrable Objects Formulated With Volume Integral Equations
Abstract:
Recently introduced incomplete-leaf (IL) tree structures for multilevel fast multipole algorithm (referred to as IL-MLFMA) is proposed for the analysis of multiscale inhomogeneous penetrable objects, in which there are multiple orders of magnitude differences among the mesh sizes. Considering a maximum Schaubert–Wilton–Glisson function population threshold per box, only overcrowded boxes are recursively divided into proper smaller boxes, leading to IL tree structures consisting of variable box sizes. Such an approach: 1) significantly reduces the CPU time for near-field calculations regarding overcrowded boxes, resulting a superior efficiency in comparison with the conventional MLFMA where fixed-size boxes are used and 2) effectively reduces the computational error of the conventional MLFMA for multiscale problems, where the protrusion of the basis/testing functions from their respective boxes dramatically impairs the validity of the addition theorem. Moreover, because IL-MLFMA is able to use deep levels safely and without compromising the accuracy, the memory consumption is significantly reduced compared with that of the conventional MLFMA. Several examples are provided to assess the accuracy and the efficiency of IL-MLFMA for multiscale penetrable objects.
Autors: Manouchehr Takrimi;Özgür Ergül;Vakur B. Ertürk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4914 - 4918
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Individual Secrecy for the Broadcast Channel
Abstract:
This paper studies the problem of secure communications over broadcast channels under the individual secrecy constraints. That is, the transmitter wants to send two independent messages to two legitimate receivers in the presence of an eavesdropper, while keeping the eavesdropper ignorant of each message (i.e., the information leakage rate from each message to the eavesdropper is made vanishing). Building upon Carleial–Hellman’s secrecy coding, Wyner’s secrecy coding, and the framework of Marton’s coding together with techniques, such as rate splitting and indirect decoding, an achievable individual secrecy rate region is established with the characterization of capacity regions for some special cases. In particular, the individual secrecy capacity region for the linear deterministic model is fully characterized, and for the Gaussian model, a constant gap (i.e., 0.5 b within the individual secrecy capacity region) result is obtained. To illustrate the impact of different secrecy constraints on the corresponding capacity regions, comparisons are made with those satisfying joint secrecy and without secrecy constraints. Overall, when compared with the joint secrecy constraint, the results allow for trading off secrecy level and throughput in the system.
Autors: Yanling Chen;O. Ozan Koyluoglu;Aydin Sezgin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5981 - 5999
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Indoor Airborne Ultrasonic Wireless Communication Using OFDM Methods
Abstract:
Concerns still exist over the safety of prolonged exposure to radio frequency (RF) wireless transmissions and there are also potential data security issues due to remote signal interception techniques such as Bluesniping. Airborne ultrasound may be used as an alternative to RF for indoor wireless communication systems for securely transmitting data over short ranges, as signals are difficult to intercept from outside the room. Two types of air-coupled capacitive ultrasonic transducer were used in the implementation of an indoor airborne wireless communication system. One was a commercially available SensComp series 600 ultrasonic transducer with a nominal frequency of 50 kHz, and the other was a prototype transducer with a high- dielectric layer operating at higher frequencies from 200 to 400 kHz. Binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK), and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)-based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation methods were successfully implemented using multiple orthogonal subchannels. The modulated ultrasonic signal packets were synchronized using a wireless link, and a least-squares channel estimation algorithm was used to compensate the phase and amplitude distortion introduced by the air channel. By sending and receiving the ultrasonic signals using the SensComp transducers, the achieved maximum system data rate was up to 180 kb/s using 16-QAM with ultrasonic channels from 55 to 99 kHz, over a line-of-sight transmission distance of 6 m with no detectable errors. The transmission range could be extended to 9 and 11 m using QPSK and BPSK modulation schemes, respectively. The achieved data rates for the QPSK and BPSK schemes were 90 and 45 kb/s using the same bandwidth. For the high- ultrasonic transducers, a maximum data rate up to 800 kb/s with no measura- le errors was achieved up to a range of 0.7 m. The attainable transmission ranges were increased to 1.1 and 1.2 m with data rates of 400 and 200 kb/s using QPSK and BPSK, respectively.
Autors: Wentao Jiang;William M. D. Wright;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1345 - 1353
Publisher: IEEE
 

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