Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 09-2017 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Low-Cost Approach to the Skin Effect Compensation in Cylindrical Shunts
Abstract:
In this paper the development of a new design solution for high-current shunt resistors is presented, which allows achieving very good accuracy while requiring a simple and low-cost manufacturing process. It is based on a solid cylinder having the voltage measurement circuit which runs through two holes drilled in the cylinder itself. Starting from the well-known expression of the current density in a cylindrical conductor, the frequency response of the shunt is obtained in closed form as a function of the geometric parameters. In turn, the positions of the voltage measurement terminals are chosen by optimizing the frequency response function over a specified range. A shunt prototype has been manufactured and its measurement performance has been evaluated. The experimental results confirm the validity of the approach and highlight the significant improvement with respect to the single-hole cylindrical shunt which has been recently proposed by the authors. The obtained measurement accuracy is noticeable when compared with the ease of manufacturing.
Autors: Marco Faifer;Roberto Ferrero;Christian Laurano;Roberto Ottoboni;Sergio Toscani;Michele Zanoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2266 - 2273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Noise Charge Amplifier for the ELENA Trajectory, Orbit, and Intensity Measurement System
Abstract:
A low-noise head amplifier has been developed for the extra low energy antiproton ring beam trajectory, orbit, and intensity measurement system at CERN. This system is based on 24 double-electrode electrostatic beam position monitors installed around the ring. A head amplifier is placed close to each beam position monitor to amplify the electrode signals and generate a difference and a sum signal. These signals are sent to the digital acquisition system, about 50 m away from the ring, where they are digitized and further processed. The beam position can be measured by dividing the difference signal by the sum signal while the sum signal gives information relative to the beam intensity. The head amplifier consists of two discrete charge preamplifiers with junction field effect transistor (JFET) inputs, a sum and a difference stage, and two cable drivers. Special attention has been paid to the amplifier printed circuit board design to minimize the parasitic capacitances and inductances at the charge amplifier stages to meet the gain and noise requirements. The measurements carried out on the head amplifier showed a gain of 40.5 and 46.5 dB for the sum and difference outputs with a bandwidth from 200 Hz to 75 MHz and an input voltage noise density lower than . Twenty head amplifiers have been already installed in the ring and they have been used to detect the first beam signals during the first commissioning stage in November 2016.
Autors: Ricardo Marco-Hernández;Marco Baú;Marco Ferrari;Vittorio Ferrari;Flemming Pedersen;Lars Søby;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2465 - 2473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power NB-IoT Transceiver With Digital-Polar Transmitter in 180-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A fully integrated 750~960 MHz wireless transceiver (TRX) is presented for single-tone NB-IoT applications. Effective design methodologies and techniques, from the system level to circuit level, are proposed to address various design challenges while achieving low-power consumption. The TRX consists of a low-IF receiver with 180-kHz signal bandwidth, a digital polar transmitter with 3.75-kHz signal bandwidth, and a fractional-N frequency synthesizer. Passive current mixer is employed in the receiver to improve the linearity and avoid the sensitivity degradation due to 1/ noise. Automatic I/Q imbalance calibration is integrated to improve image rejection ratio (IRR) with the aid of external FPGA. The transmitter is implemented in the digital polar architecture to improve the narrow-band spectrum purity, integrated with an inverse Class-D digital power amplifier (DPA) to achieve high output power and efficiency. A Class-C voltage-controlled oscillator with automatic frequency control assisted the dynamic gate biasing technique is used in the fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizer. Two prototypes are implemented in 180-nm CMOS. By optimizing analog baseband configuration in the receiver and utilizing the revised thermometer-coding and binary-coding-based array placement in the DPA, the receiver achieves 4.0-dB noise figure, 48-dB IRR, and 60-dB PGA dynamic range, and the DPA outputs 23.2dBm maximum saturation power with 44.5% PAE. Furthermore, the transmitter system verifications demonstrate 3.87% error-vector magnitude (EVM) for 891 MHz /4-DQPSK signals at 18.87-dBm output power with −40-dBc out-of-band rejection. The transmitter achieves a dynamic range from −35 to 20 dBm when the demodulation EVM threshold of the sys- em is set to 10%.
Autors: Zheng Song;Xiliang Liu;Xiaokun Zhao;Qiongbing Liu;Zongming Jin;Baoyong Chi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2569 - 2581
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power SiGe BiCMOS 190-GHz Transceiver Chipset With Demonstrated Data Rates up to 50 Gbit/s Using On-Chip Antennas
Abstract:
This paper presents a 190-GHz direct conversion transceiver (TRX) chipset with on-chip antennas implemented in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology for short-distance high-data-rate wireless links. The transmitter (TX) consists of an active fundamental upconversion mixer, a local oscillator (LO) driver, and a passive balun for differential to single-ended conversion of the RF signal. The receiver (RX) is composed of a low-noise amplifier, an active fundamental mixer, an LO driver, a variable-gain baseband (BB) amplifier, and a totem-pole output stage. The wireless communication between TX and RX is enabled by on-chip monopole antennas, which are fabricated using standard wire-bonding tools. Measurements of the TRX chipset equipped with these antennas show a 6-dB BB link bandwidth of 20 GHz, corresponding to 40 GHz of the RF link bandwidth. In a data transmission test setup based on a BPSK modulation, data rates of up to 40 Gbit/s over 20 mm and up to 50 Gbit/s over 6 mm are demonstrated. Consuming only 122 mW in the RX and 32 mW in the TX, this leads to a very low required energy per transferred bit of 3.9 and 3.1 pJ for the 40- and 50-Gbit/s link, respectively.
Autors: David Fritsche;Paul Stärke;Corrado Carta;Frank Ellinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3312 - 3323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mathematical Model of Non-Diffusion-Based Mobile Molecular Communication Networks
Abstract:
This letter presents a mathematical model of molecular communication networks where mobile bio-nanomachines coordinate their motion by using non-diffusive surface-bound molecules for detecting and localizing spatially distributed targets in the environment. The mathematical model assumes that bio-nanomachines release two types of molecule: repellents to distribute bio-nanomachines in search of targets and attractants to attract distributed bio- nanomachines toward target locations. The two types of molecule assumed in this letter are non-diffusive, meaning that molecules bind to a surface in the environment, creating concentration gradients on the surface in order to distribute bio-nanomachines according to the target distribution. In this letter, we first develop dimensionless equations for the non-diffusion-based mobile molecular communication networks. We then perform mathematical analysis to show that, at steady-state, bio- nanomachines distribute according to a given target distribution. Finally, we demonstrate through numerical experiments that the bio-nanomachine distribution converges to the steady-state solution.
Autors: Satoru Iwasaki;Jian Yang;Tadashi Nakano;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1969 - 1972
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Consistent Estimation of Multiple Land Surface Parameters From MODIS Top-of-Atmosphere Time Series Data
Abstract:
Most methods for generating global land surface products from satellite data are parameter specific and do not use multiple temporal observations, which often results in spatial and temporal discontinuity and physical inconsistency among different products. This paper proposes a data assimilation (DA) scheme to simultaneously estimate five land surface parameters from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) time series reflectance data under clear and cloudy conditions. A coupled land surface–atmosphere radiative transfer model is developed to simulate TOA reflectance, and an ensemble Kalman filter technique is used to retrieve the most influential surface parameters of the coupled model, such as leaf area index, by combining predictions from dynamic models and the MODIS TOA reflectance data whether under clear or cloudy conditions. Then, the retrieved surface parameters are input to the coupled model to calculate four other parameters: 1) land surface reflectance; 2) incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR); 3) land surface albedo; and 4) the fraction of absorbed PAR (FAPAR). The estimated parameters are compared with those of the corresponding MODIS, the Global LAnd Surface Satellite, and the Geoland2/BioPar version 1 (GEOV1) products. Validation of the estimated parameters against ground measurements from several sites with different vegetation types demonstrates that this method can estimate temporally complete land surface parameter profiles from MODIS TOA time series reflectance data, with accuracy comparable to that of existing satellite products over the selected sites. The retrieved leaf area index profiles are smoother than the existing satellite products, and unlike the MOD09GA product, the retrieved surface reflectance values do not have the high peak values influenced by clouds. The use of the coupled land surface–atmosphere model a- d the DA technique ensures physical connections between the land surface parameters and makes it possible to calculate radiation-related parameters for clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions, which is an improvement for FAPAR retrieval compared with the MODIS and GEOV1 products. The retrieved FAPAR and PAR values can reveal the significant differences in them under clear and cloudy atmospheric conditions.
Autors: Hanyu Shi;Zhiqiang Xiao;Shunlin Liang;Han Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5158 - 5173
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millimeter-Wave Indoor Backscattering Channel Model for Environment Mapping
Abstract:
In this communication, we introduce a channel model for personal radar applications where a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) massive array is required to scan the environment and to reconstruct a map of it. The analysis is based on measurement campaigns, in a corridor and in an office room, performed using mm-wave massive arrays. In such a context, we aim at characterizing the channel from both a temporal and an angular perspective by exploiting a 2D CLEAN-like technique to extrapolate the multipath components and a K-means algorithm for clustering, where centroids statistics depend on the environment contour. The obtained channel model can be exploited for mapping algorithms based on backscattered radar measurements.
Autors: Anna Guerra;Francesco Guidi;Davide Dardari;Antonio Clemente;Raffaele D’Errico;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4935 - 4940
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millimeter-Wave Klystron Upconverter With a Higher Order Mode Output Cavity
Abstract:
Manufacturing of klystrons in the millimeter-wave frequency range is challenging due to the small size of the cavities and the ratio of the maximum gap voltage to the beam energy. The small dimensions also make difficult to produce devices with the output power required by a number of applications at millimeter wave, such as communications and spectroscopy. Operating with a higher order mode can be a potential solution, as a larger transverse size structure can be used. Unfortunately, high-order mode cavities have a lower impedance than in fundamental mode. In this paper is proposed a novel solution to overcome the reduced impedance by utilizing an upconverter, where all cavities except the output cavity are designed to work in high-order mode. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach, two klystron upconverters were designed. One has six cavities aiming to achieve a maximum output power of ~90 W at 105 GHz. The second klystron upconverter was a simpler three-cavity structure designed for quick prototype. Millimeter-wave measurements of the three-cavity klystron upconverter are presented.
Autors: Graeme Burt;Liang Zhang;David A. Constable;Huabi Yin;Chris J. Lingwood;Wenlong He;Claudio Paoloni;Adrian W. Cross;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3857 - 3862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Model-Based Strategy for Interturn Short-Circuit Fault Diagnosis in PMSM
Abstract:
A model-based method for interturn short-circuit fault detection and isolation in permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) is proposed in this paper. The fault detection is realized based on a residual current vector (RCV) generated by the difference between the measured stator currents and the stator currents estimated by a state observer. In order to avoid false alarms due to possible undesired perturbations, the sequence decomposition of the RCV is performed by employing different reference-frames. Thus, the proposed RCV allows the correct detection of interturn short-circuit faults and quantification of the fault severity in any faulty stator-phase winding. Moreover, since the back-EMF generated by the magnets is proportional to the rotor shaft speed, the electrical angular speed is estimated through the stator voltages measurement, without using a speed sensor. Simulation results from the three-phase PMSM dynamic model that allows considering the interturn short-circuit fault in any stator phase-windings are presented. The proposed method is validated using a three-phase PMSM prototype with modified stator windings. The robustness and the reliability of the proposal was tested for several interturn fault conditions under transient conditions including different disturbances.
Autors: Manuel A. Mazzoletti;Guillermo R. Bossio;Cristian H. De Angelo;Diego R. Espinoza-Trejo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7218 - 7228
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Plane Wave Model for Fast and Accurate Characterization of Layered Media
Abstract:
The accuracy and computational speed of ground penetrating radar (GPR) largely rely on the inverse model implemented. In most cases, both accuracy and processing speed cannot be achieved together because of the inherent limitation of modeling GPR signal in complex media. Full wave models (FWMs) are most promising approaches to characterize multilayered media. However, they are inefficient due to the requirement of significant time for integration over singularity. In this paper, a modified plane wave model (MPWM) is proposed to achieve accuracy and better computational speed. The model is derived based on the analytical solution of an FWM. It is versatile for finding response due to multilayered media. The rigorous analysis has shown the similarity between the proposed model and FWMs with cross-correlation value close to unity across a broad frequency spectrum and large ranges of media parameters. Model inversion is achieved by a novel layer stripping technique followed by a gradient-based method. Testing of layered media in laboratory environment demonstrates that the proposed MPWM has significant advantage over FWMs.
Autors: Subrata Maiti;Sarat Kumar Patra;Amitabha Bhattacharya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3492 - 3502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modular Multilevel Generic Pulse-Waveform Generator for Pulsed Electric Field Applications
Abstract:
High-voltage (HV) pulses are used in pulsed electric field (PEF) applications to provide an effective electroporation process, a process in which harmful microorganisms are disinfected when subjected to a PEF. Depending on the PEF application, different HV pulse specifications are required such as the pulse-waveform shape, the voltage magnitude, the pulse duration, and the pulse repetition rate. In this paper, a generic pulse-waveform generator (GPG) is proposed, and the GPG topology is based on half-bridge modular multilevel converter (HB-MMC) cells. The GPG topology is formed of four identical arms of series-connected HB-MMC cells forming an H-bridge. Unlike the conventional HB-MMC-based converters in HVdc transmission, the GPG load power flow is not continuous which leads to smaller size cell capacitors utilization; hence, smaller footprint of the GPG is achieved. The GPG topology flexibility allows the controller software to generate a basic multilevel waveform which can be manipulated to generate the commonly used PEF pulse waveforms. Therefore, the proposed topology offers modularity, redundancy, and scalability. The viability of the proposed GPG converter is validated by MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experimentation.
Autors: Mohamed A. Elgenedy;Ahmed Darwish;Shehab Ahmed;Barry W. Williams;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 2527 - 2535
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MPTCP-Based Network Architecture for Intelligent Train Control and Traffic Management Operations
Abstract:
This paper investigates a novel communication system architecture for traffic management and data control in railway scenarios. The proposed solution should be integrated in the existing European Railway Traffic Management System/European Train Control System, the most advanced and successful standard even outside the European countries. Our system integrates public land mobile networks that usually offer best-effort packet services, with a quality-of-service (QoS) guaranteed satellite network. It represents a cost-effective substitution for 4G and 5G networks, aiming to replace current well-known GSM-R standard. The coexistence of heterogeneous networks is guaranteed by the multi-path transmission control protocol (TCP) protocol that addresses specific “add and drop” subflow policies and priority handling logics, in order to realize efficient seamless handovers. Providing priority to TCP subflows corresponds to select QoS-guaranteed, and the best effort networks able to fulfill railway requirements. The logic of adding and dropping subflows exploits both a real-time check of the current status of the serving network and “a priori” network performance information. Experimental results have been carried out in both city and harsh environments, where the main performance metrics (i.e., average delay, jitter, and bit rate) have been assessed.
Autors: Yiwei Liu;Alessandro Neri;Agostino Ruggeri;Anna Maria Vegni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2290 - 2302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Agent Advanced Traveler Information System for Optimal Trip Planning in a Co-Modal Framework
Abstract:
We present an advanced traveler information system (ATIS) for public and private transportation, including vehicle sharing and pooling services. The ATIS uses an agent-based architecture and multi-objective optimization to answer trip planning requests from multiple users in a co-modal setting, considering vehicle preferences and conflicting criteria. At each set of users’ requests, the transportation network is represented by a co-modal graph that allows decomposing the trip planning problem into smaller tasks: the shortest routes between the network nodes are determined and then combined to obtain possible itineraries. Using multi-objective optimization, the set of user-vehicle-route combinations according to the users’ preferences is determined, ranking all possible route agents’ coalitions. The ATIS is tested for the real case study of the Lille metropolitan area (Nord Pas de Calais, France).
Autors: Mariagrazia Dotoli;Hayfa Zgaya;Carmine Russo;Slim Hammadi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2397 - 2412
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Objective Optimization Approach for Question Routing in Community Question Answering Services
Abstract:
Community Question Answering (CQA) has increasingly become an important service for people asking questions and providing answers online, which enables people to help each other by sharing knowledge. Recently, with accumulation of users and contents, much concern has arisen over the efficiency and answer quality of CQA services. To address this problem, question routing has been proposed which aims at routing new questions to suitable answerers, who have both high possibility and high ability to answer the questions. In this paper, we formulate question routing as a multi-objective ranking problem, and present a multi-objective learning-to-rank approach for question routing (MLQR), which can simultaneously optimize the answering possibility and answer quality of routed users. In MLQR, realizing that questions are relatively short and usually attached with tags, we first propose a tagword topic model (TTM) to derive topical representations of questions. Based on TTM, we then develop features for each question-user pair, which are captured at both platform level and thread level. In particular, the platform-level features summarize the information of a user from his/her history posts in the CQA platform, while the thread-level features model the pairwise competitions of a user with others in his/her answered threads. Finally, we extend a state-of-the-art learning-to-rank algorithm for training a multi-objective ranking model. Extensive experimental results on real-world datasets show that our MLQR can outperform state-of-the-art methods in terms of both answering possibility and answer quality.
Autors: Xiang Cheng;Shuguang Zhu;Sen Su;Gang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 1779 - 1792
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Stage Solution for NFV-Enabled Multicast Over the Hybrid Infrastructure
Abstract:
The network function virtualization-enabled multicast problem includes constructing traffic forwarding topology, deploying required functions and steering traffic through them. Currently, jointly taking them into consideration is still an open problem and we propose a multi-stage solution to solve it. Specifically, we separate the multicast traffic forwarding and function delivery. The traffic forwarding topology is constructed with minimum spanning tree and the function delivery is implemented with the backtracking strategy. Simulation results show that the proposed solution achieves good performance.
Autors: Bo Yi;Xingwei Wang;Min Huang;Anwei Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 2061 - 2064
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multivariate Approach for Patient-Specific EEG Seizure Detection Using Empirical Wavelet Transform
Abstract:
Objective: This paper investigates the multivariate oscillatory nature of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in adaptive frequency scales for epileptic seizure detection. Methods: The empirical wavelet transform (EWT) has been explored for the multivariate signals in order to determine the joint instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies in signal adaptive frequency scales. The proposed multivariate extension of EWT has been studied on multivariate multicomponent synthetic signal, as well as on multivariate EEG signals of Children's Hospital Boston-Massachusetts Institute of Technology (CHB-MIT) scalp EEG database. In a moving-window-based analysis, 2-s-duration multivariate EEG signal epochs containing five automatically selected channels have been decomposed and three features have been extracted from each 1-s part of the 2-s-duration joint instantaneous amplitudes of multivariate EEG signals. The extracted features from each oscillatory level have been processed using a proposed feature processing step and joint features have been computed in order to achieve better discrimination of seizure and seizure-free EEG signal epochs. Results: The proposed detection method has been evaluated over 177 h of EEG records using six classifiers. We have achieved average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values as 97.91%, 99.57%, and 99.41%, respectively, using tenfold cross-validation method, which are higher than the compared state of art methods studied on this database. Conclusion: Efficient detection of epileptic seizure is achieved when seizure events appear for long duration in hours long EEG recordings. Significance: The proposed method develops time–frequency plane for multivariate signals and builds patient-specific models for EEG seizure detection.
Autors: Abhijit Bhattacharyya;Ram Bilas Pachori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2003 - 2015
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nanosecond-Transient Fine-Grained Digital LDO With Multi-Step Switching Scheme and Asynchronous Adaptive Pipeline Control
Abstract:
This paper introduces a multi-step switching scheme for a digital low dropout regulator (DLDO) that emerges as a new way of achieving nanosecond-transient and fine-grained on-chip voltage regulation. The multi-step switching scheme takes advantage of the adaptive pipeline control and asynchronous clocking for area- and power-efficient digital controller utilization. It speeds up the transient response by varying the pass transistor sizing in two available lengths of coarse steps as per the perturbation, while maintaining a small output voltage ripple by toggling in a finer step at steady operation. A prototype proving the proposed concept, i.e., a 0.6–1.0-V input, 50–200-mV dropout, and 500-mA maximum loading DLDO with an on-chip 1.5-nF output capacitor, is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process to verify the effectiveness of this scheme. By employing the multi-step switching scheme and adaptive control, the DLDO achieved a fast transient response to nanoseconds loading current change, and a 100 mV per 10-ns reference voltage switching, as well as a resolution of 768 levels (~9.5 bits) with a 5-mV output ripple. The quiescent current consumed by this DLDO at steady operation is down to .
Autors: Fan Yang;Philip K. T. Mok;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2463 - 2474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Buck–Boost Converter With Low-Voltage Stress and Reduced Conducting Components
Abstract:
This paper presents a new buck–boost converter. Unlike the single-switch buck–boost converter, the proposed converter has low-voltage stresses on semiconductors. Moreover, although both the conventional two-switch buck–boost (TSBB) and the proposed converters have the same number of passive and active components, and the proposed converter can reduce the conduction loss as a result of having fewer conducting components. Therefore, the proposed converter obtained a higher efficiency than the TSBB converter. A 48-V output voltage and 150-W output power prototype was fabricated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.
Autors: Hyo-Soo Son;Jae-Kuk Kim;Jae-Bum Lee;Sang-Su Moon;Ji-Hoon Park;Seok-Hyun Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7030 - 7038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Electromagnetic Launcher by Sextupole Rails: Electromagnetic Propulsion and Shielding Numerical Validation
Abstract:
A novel sextupole rails electromagnetic launcher has been designed and validated with numerical simulations of electromagnetic propulsion and shielding. The sextupole rails and club-shaped projectile are proposed as that the club-shaped projectile carrying the sextupole toroidal currents is surrounded by the sextupole toroidal field created from the sextupole rails. The interaction between the toroidal magnetic field and the orthogonal toroidal currents results in the generation of axial acceleration force. The sextupole rails electromagnetic launcher can solve the problems of magnetic shielding without shielding coils or materials. The theoretical assessment of the propulsion force and magnetic shielding is performed by corresponding numerical validation based on finite-element simulations. The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the sextupole rails electromagnetic launcher represents high thrust/current ratios and productive magnetic shielding effect.
Autors: Xinpeng Xue;Tao Shu;Zhiyong Yang;Gang Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 2541 - 2545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Framework of Filter Bank Multi-Carrier: Getting Rid of Subband Orthogonality
Abstract:
Filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) entitles many advantages over orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and is considered to be a more competitive waveform in the future generation cellular communications. In current FBMC, the prototype filter is deliberately designed to meet the perfect reconstruction (PR) constraint to establish subband orthogonality in real domain, which may not be optimal from communication perspective. In this paper, we challenge the necessity of PR constraint by proposing a new FBMC framework, which directly accepts non-orthogonal transmission. The resulting imperfect reconstruction FBMC (iPR-FBMC) has several advantages over its PR FBMC counterpart: 1) the constraint on the prototype filter is relaxed; 2) more importantly, the prototype filter can now be optimized with new goal of improving the detection performance rather than having to meet the PR condition; and 3) it allows for more flexible subband management in multi-user scenario. We will show how those advantages can be exploited. Simulations show that with moderate increase in computational complexity, the proposed iPR-FBMC with optimized prototype filter has superior bit error rate (BER) performance to existing FBMC with PR constraint and even outperforms OFDM, especially in highly frequency selective channels. The findings may shed light into potential research on non-orthogonal FBMC without PR constraint.
Autors: Jian Dang;Zaichen Zhang;Liang Wu;Yongpeng Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3922 - 3932
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Harmonic Reduced Three-Phase Thyristor-Controlled Reactor for Static VAr Compensators
Abstract:
A new thyristor-controlled reactor scheme is presented in this paper, in which the total bank is split into one Δ- and one Y-connected reactor bank with the addition of a low-rating zig-zag autotransformer, instead of the conventional scheme using a Δ-connected reactor bank with a harmonic current filter. This arrangement prevents the triplen harmonics generated by the Y bank from entering into the supply system and at the same time, the combination results in cancellation of some major characteristic harmonics from the source current. Thus, without using any additional filters or phase-shifting two-winding transformer, this scheme facilitates reactive power control over a wide range and also meets the requisite harmonics standards. The scheme is simple and provides a cost-effective solution to the VAr compensation problem. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the proposed concept.
Autors: Susovan Mukhopadhyay;Dipten Maiti;Ambarnath Banerji;Sujit K. Biswas;Nirmal K. Deb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6898 - 6907
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Kind of Article for Reproducible Research in Intelligent Robotics [From the Field]
Abstract:
Autors: Fabio Bonsignorio;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 178 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Model for Resilient Distribution Systems by Microgrids Formation
Abstract:
Forming multiple micorgrids with distributed generators offers a resilient solution to restore critical loads from natural disasters in distribution systems. However, more dummy binary and continuous variables are needed with the increase of the number of microgrids, which will therefore increase the complexity of this model. To address this issue, this letter presents a new model to reformulate the micorgrid formulation problem in resilient distribution networks. Compared with the traditional model, the number of both binary and continuous variables is greatly reduced, such that the computational performance is significantly improved. Numerical results on IEEE test systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Autors: Tao Ding;Yanling Lin;Gengfeng Li;Zhaohong Bie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 4145 - 4147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Paradigm for Spectrum Sharing Between Cellular Wireless Communications and Radio Astronomy Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new paradigm for spectrum sharing between cellular wireless communications (CWC) and radio astronomy systems (RAS). In contrast to the existing paradigm of geographical and spectral isolation between CWC and RAS, this paper develops a three phase spectrum access, which enables geographical and spectral coexistence between CWC and RAS. Shared spectrum access zone (SSAZ) is created around the RAS site and CWC cells within the SSAZ follow the three phase spectrum access scheme while those outside the SSAZ have full spectrum access. In addition, system characteristics-based improved spectrum sharing is developed. Furthermore, a built-in fine tuning mechanism is presented for addressing mismatches between design and practical environments as well as for facilitating service evolutions. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed paradigm offers 1) certain guaranteed spectrum access to RAS, which is impossible in the existing paradigm, 2) capability to handle higher peak and mean traffics to CWC under spectrum restructuring of both CWC and RAS bands, and 3) overall improved spectrum utilization.
Autors: Yahia R. Ramadan;Hlaing Minn;Yucheng Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3985 - 3999
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New State-of-Charge Control Derivation Method for Hybrid Battery Type Integration
Abstract:
The hybrid of ex-transportation and conventional new battery system integration has started gaining interests within energy storage systems as number of electric vehicle on-road increases. Each module within such a system may consist of batteries with different charging/discharging rates, characteristics and also different nominal voltage levels. Control of these hybrid batteries within the same system is more challenging compared to conventional battery management systems, which mainly deal with the homogeneous battery system. One of the key issues is how to control the state-of-charge trajectory of the hybrid modules to maximize the investment on the new hybrid battery system. To cater this problem, this paper brings a new rigorous derivation method of state-of-charge control based on converter sample time. The proposed method generates desired current reference in each time step to distribute the power among hybrid modules such that their discharging or charging trajectories finish at the same time. This technique makes sure that the energy delivered/absorbed from each cell in a uniform manner maximizing the overall lifespan. Detailed derivation of the current sharing method and suitable module based adaptive bidirectional control architecture has also been presented. Modeling, analysis, and experimental validations are performed on a three-module-based grid-tie hybrid battery energy storage system prototype to validate analysis.
Autors: Nilanjan Mukherjee;Dipankar De;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 866 - 875
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Way for a New Generation [Editorial]
Abstract:
Autors: Cristian Quintero;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Adaptive Fuzzy Local Information $C$ -Means Clustering Algorithm for Remotely Sensed Imagery Classification
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel adaptive fuzzy local information c-means (ADFLICM) clustering approach for remotely sensed imagery classification by incorporating the local spatial and gray level information constraints. The ADFLICM approach can enhance the conventional fuzzy c-means algorithm by producing homogeneous segmentation and reducing the edge blurring artifact simultaneously. The major contribution of ADFLICM is use of the new fuzzy local similarity measure based on pixel spatial attraction model, which adaptively determines the weighting factors for neighboring pixel effects without any experimentally set parameters. The weighting factor for each neighborhood is fully adaptive to the image content, and the balance between insensitiveness to noise and reduction of edge blurring artifact to preserve image details is automatically achieved by using the new fuzzy local similarity measure. Four different types of images were used in the experiments to examine the performance of ADFLICM. The experimental results indicate that ADFLICM produces greater accuracy than the other four methods and hence provides an effective clustering algorithm for classification of remotely sensed imagery.
Autors: Hua Zhang;Qunming Wang;Wenzhong Shi;Ming Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5057 - 5068
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach to Array Manifold Calibration Using Single-Direction Information for Accurate Direction-of-Arrival Estimation
Abstract:
A method of array manifold calibration using one steering vector measured in a single direction is proposed. The phase information of the measured steering vector is used to derive a novel calibration matrix that is proposed to compensate for the relative phase distortion (RPD) at each antenna port. We also present a metric function defined as a standard deviation of the RPD to determine the optimum calibration angle, which provides intuition for the cause of the accuracy degradation in the direction-of-arrival estimation. To verify the feasibility, a seven-element circular array with identical microstrip patch antennas is fabricated for calibrating its array manifold using a single steering vector measured in a full anechoic chamber. The calibrated array manifold is then used to estimate the direction of arrival, and its accuracy is compared to the calibrated result obtained from the traditional least-squares method. The results demonstrate that the estimation error can be improved by 54.9° compared to the traditional least-squares method, when the number of measured steering vectors is extremely limited.
Autors: Gangil Byun;Hosung Choo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4952 - 4957
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Autonomous Initial Alignment Method for Strapdown Inertial Navigation System
Abstract:
In-motion alignment of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS) without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for autonomous vehicles. Considering the characteristics of SINS, this paper presents a dual-model-based in-motion alignment method for the odometer-aided SINS. Two inertial navigation calculation loops are established for an inertial measurement unit (IMU), one of which executes the in-motion gyrocompass horizontal alignment algorithm to decompose the body velocity measured by odometer to navigation frame and attenuate the disturbance. And the other is the attitude determination-based alignment loop, where the vector observation-based SINS alignment is executed. The contributions of the work presented here are twofold. First, the dual-model initial alignment (DMIA) algorithm for SINS is proposed, which introduces the idea of constructing multiple calculation loops for an IMU to maximize the advantages of SINS. Second, depending on the body-frame speed-aided attitude determination and navigation-frame speed-aided attitude determination, the body-frame velocity observation with disturbance is accurately decomposed to navigation frame with the noise attenuated by gyrocompass horizontal alignment. The experimental results show that the proposed DMIA algorithm can achieve a rapid and accurate in-motion alignment.
Autors: Jiangning Xu;Hongyang He;Fangjun Qin;Lubin Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:9, pages: 2274 - 2282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Bayesian Spatial–Temporal Random Field Model Applied to Cloud Detection From Remotely Sensed Imagery
Abstract:
With the fast advancement of remote sensing platforms and sensors, remotely sensed imagery (RSI) is increasingly being characterized by both high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. How to efficiently use the rich spatial and temporal information in RSI for highly accurate object detection and classification is an important research question. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of a probabilistic framework that is capable of fully accounting for the spatial–temporal information in RSI for improved applications. In this paper, we present a Bayesian spatial–temporal random field model that constitutes a complete probabilistic framework for fully explaining the spatial–temporal correlation in RSI, leading to an enhanced object detection approach that is used for cloud detection from RSI. Under the Bayesian theorem, the posterior distribution of a label field is decomposed into the label prior, the data likelihood, the temporal label likelihood, and the temporal data likelihood. To address the difficulties in modeling the complex spatial–temporal correlation effect in the temporal data likelihood, a stochastic sampling approach is presented. Based on the maximum a posteriori approach, the posterior distribution is seamlessly integrated into the graph-cut optimization framework, and, therefore, the model optimization can be efficiently solved. The proposed algorithm is tested for cloud detection on both simulated and real RSIs and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively exploit the spatial–temporal information for achieving higher detection accuracy.
Autors: Linlin Xu;Alexander Wong;David A. Clausi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 4913 - 4924
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Cross-Feedback Notch Filter for Synchronous Vibration Suppression of an MSFW With Significant Gyroscopic Effects
Abstract:
To effectively suppress the synchronous vibration torques for a magnetically suspended rotor (MSR) with significant gyroscopic effects and serious coupling dynamics, a novel cross-feedback notch filter is proposed in this paper. First, the coupled multi-input-multi-output active magnetic bearing rotor system is converted into an equivalent complex single-input single-output (SISO) system. The equivalent transformation aims at easing the controller design and extending the classical stability criterion to the complex coefficient frequency domain. Then, the principle and implementation of the proposed scheme used for synchronous vibration suppression over an entire rotational speed range is analyzed in details. The performance compared with the conventional decentralized notch filter is investigated. Moreover, the closed-loop stability, which based on the equivalent complex SISO system and complex-coefficient stability criterion is given. Experimental results on a magnetically suspended flywheel demonstrate the significant effect of the proposed method on both synchronous vibration suppression and stability preservation.
Autors: Cong Peng;Jinji Sun;Cunxiao Miao;Jiancheng Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7181 - 7190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel DC-Power Control Method for Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter
Abstract:
The cascaded H-bridge converter has been widely used in industry. The ability of dealing with unequal power generation among dc links is necessarily required in many applications, such as large-scale photovoltaic power plants and electric vehicles. In this paper, a novel dc-power control method (PCM) is proposed to keep the ac-current balance and maintain power generation ratios of each dc source at their expected values. A simplified modulation strategy is introduced to implement the proposed method, in which the duration times are modified directly by the correction value derived from the PCM method. To calculate and adjust the power generation ratios, a method based on first-in first-out (FIFO) data queue is utilized. The limitation and ranges of power generation ratio are analyzed in detail. DC power per phase can be controlled accurately by the proposed method in variable-frequency condition, even under larger power generation ratios. Results obtained from simulations and experiments are presented to verify the feasibilities and superiorities of the proposed method.
Autors: Zongbin Ye;Linlin Jiang;Zhiguo Zhang;Dongsheng Yu;Zhichuan Wang;Xianming Deng;Tyrone Fernando;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6874 - 6884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Elastic Force-Field to Influence Mediolateral Foot Placement During Walking
Abstract:
Bipedal gait can be stabilized through mechanically-appropriate mediolateral foot placement, although this strategy is disrupted in a subset of neurologically injured individuals with balance deficits. The goal of the present work was to develop a device to influence mediolateral foot placement during treadmill walking. We created a novel force-field using a combination of passive elasticity and active control; wires in series with extension springs run parallel to the treadmill belts and can be rapidly repositioned to exert mediolateral forces on the legs of users. This mechanical structure creates a channel-like force landscape that resists displacements of each leg away from its prescribed mediolateral position, producing near-linear effective mediolateral stiffness. The depth of these force-field channels can be predictably controlled by manipulating extension spring initial tension. In human testing, we found that the force-field can effectively “get-out-of-the-way” when desired, closely following the mediolateral leg trajectory with a delay of approximately 110 ms. The force-field can also encourage users to adjust their mediolateral foot placement in order to walk with either narrower or wider steps, without interfering with forward gait progression. Future work will test whether this novel device can help retrain a stable gait pattern in clinical populations.
Autors: Elizabeth T. Nyberg;Jordan Broadway;Christian Finetto;Jesse C. Dean;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 1481 - 1488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel GNSS Technique for Predicting Boreal Forest Attributes at Low Cost
Abstract:
One of the biggest challenges in forestry research is the effective and accurate measuring and monitoring of forest variables, as the exploitation potential of forest inventory products largely depends on the accuracy of estimates and on the cost of data collection. This paper presented a novel computational method of low-cost forest inventory using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals in a crowdsourcing approach. Statistical features of GNSS signals were extracted from widely available GNSS devices and were used for predicting forest attributes, including tree height, diameter at breast height, basal area, stem volume, and above-ground biomass, in boreal forest conditions. The basic evidence of the predictions is the physical correlations between forest variables and the responses of GNSS signals penetrating through the forest. The random forest algorithm was applied to the predictions. GNSS-derived prediction accuracies were comparable with those of the most accurate 2-D remote sensing techniques, and the predictions can be improved further by integration with other publicly available data sources without additional cost. This type of crowdsourcing technique enables the collection of up-to-date forest data at low cost, and it significantly contributes to the development of new reference data collection techniques for forest inventory. Currently, field reference can account for half of the total costs of forest inventory.
Autors: Jingbin Liu;Juha Hyyppä;Xiaowei Yu;Anttoni Jaakkola;Antero Kukko;Harri Kaartinen;Lingli Zhu;Xinlian Liang;Yunsheng Wang;Hannu Hyyppä;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 4855 - 4867
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hardware-Efficient Cochlea Model Based on Asynchronous Cellular Automaton Dynamics: Theoretical Analysis and FPGA Implementation
Abstract:
A novel cochlear model based on the nonlinear dynamics of an asynchronous cellular automaton is presented. Theoretical bifurcation analyses show that the model can mimic a nonlinear vector field of a differential equation cochlea model. It is then shown that the presented model can reproduce biologically measured frequency tuning curves of multiple species. In addition, the presented model is implemented in a field programmable gate array and experiments validate reproductions of the biological tuning curves. It is also shown that the presented model can be implemented by fewer hardware resources as compared to the differential equation cochlea model.
Autors: Kentaro Takeda;Hiroyuki Torikai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1107 - 1111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Hybrid Dual-PM Machine Excited by AC With DC Bias for Electric Vehicle Propulsion
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel hybrid-excited dual-PM machine for electric vehicle propulsion. The key is to use an integrated stator winding to replace the armature winding and the field winding in the conventional hybrid-excited machine. The stator winding is excited by ac current with dc bias, in which the ac component is used to produce the rotating armature field, while the dc bias current is used for the flux regulation. Therefore, the function of the ac and dc windings can be incorporated and realized by using just one set of winding. The torque density and flux regulating capability can be improved, and the winding configuration is also simplified. In addition, dual-PM excitation structure combines the advantage of stator-PM doubly salient machine and rotor-PM magnetic-geared machine, which can further enhance the torque capability. The operating principle and control strategy of the proposed machine are discussed. The electromagnetic performances are studied using the time-stepping finite-element method. A machine prototype is manufactured and experimental tests are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the machine design.
Autors: Qingsong Wang;Shuangxia Niu;Xiang Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6908 - 6919
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Implant Electrode Design Safe in the RF Field of MRI Scanners
Abstract:
Patients with medical implants are often unable to receive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic treatment, because the conductive leads can concentrate the RF excitation field and generate dangerous heating of nervous tissue. We propose a simple, low-cost solution that minimizes RF heating through the addition of one or more mutually coupled filars to the lead without significant increase in lead diameter. Simulations and measurements at 128 MHz are presented to verify the effect in 3 T MRI machines.
Autors: Steven McCabe;Jonathan Scott;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3541 - 3547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Linearization Variant of Reliability Costs in the Optimal Scheduling Model
Abstract:
Reliability costs are used to evaluate the influence of large-scale wind power integration on security constrained unit commitment (SCUC), but the nonlinear expressions of reliability costs increase the complexity of the SCUC model. To address this issue, this letter presents a novel variant to exactly linearize the nonlinear expressions. Compared with the traditional approach, the proposed variant can reduce the number of binary variables, such that the computational performance of the SCUC model is significantly improved. Numerical results of the IEEE reliability test system verify the effectiveness of the proposed variant.
Autors: Jiajun Lv;Tao Ding;Zhaohong Bie;Xifan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 4140 - 4142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Mirror-Aided Non-Imaging Receiver for Indoor $2\times 2$ MIMO-Visible Light Communication Systems
Abstract:
Indoor visible light communication (VLC) systems are now possible because of advances in light emitting diode and laser diode technologies. These lighting technologies provide the foundation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) data transmission through visible light. However, the channel matrix can be strongly correlated in indoor MIMO-VLC systems, preventing parallel data streams from being decoded. Here, in MIMO-VLC systems, we describe a mirror diversity receiver (MDR) design that reduces the channel correlation by both blocking the reception of light from one specific direction and improving the channel gain from light from another direction by utilizing a double-sided mirror deployed between the receiver’s photodetectors. We report on the channel capacity of the MDR system and the optimal height of its mirrors in terms of maximum channel capacity. We also derived analytic results on the effect of rotation on MDR’s performance. Based on numerical and experimental results, we show that the double-sided mirror has both constructive and destructive effects on the channel matrix. Our design can be used with previously described non-imaging systems to improve the performance of indoor VLC systems.
Autors: Ki-Hong Park;Hassan Makine Oubei;Wael G. Alheadary;Boon S. Ooi;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 5630 - 5643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel MMF Distribution Model for 3-D Analysis of Linear Induction Motor With Asymmetric Cap-Secondary for Metro
Abstract:
This paper develops a novel magnetomotive forces (mmfs) distribution model along the transverse direction for the 3-D analysis of linear induction motor, and it investigates the influence of a laterally asymmetric cap-secondary on the thrust, vertical force, lateral force, and efficiency in a prototype single-sided linear induction motor for linear metro. First, the mmf distribution model and its working conditions are defined, and the model is transferred into a mathematical model. Second, the air-gap flux and secondary eddy current in a prototype linear motor with a cap-secondary are obtained by a 3-D space harmonic analytical method. Third, the thrust, vertical force, lateral force, and efficiency of the test motor are analyzed with various lateral deflection, and the power factor in secondary is also presented. Finally, these results are experimentally verified by measurements on the test rig of the linear motor, and the comprehensive effect on the operating performance can be accurately calculated by the mmf model.
Autors: Gang Lv;Dihui Zeng;Tong Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 53, issue:9, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Reactive Survivable Virtual Network Embedding Scheme Based on Game Theory
Abstract:
In this paper, we tackle the virtual network (VN) embedding problem within Cloud’s backbone network by taking into consideration the impact of physical equipment outages. Our main focus is to improve the Cloud provider’s (CPs) revenue by: 1) maximizing the acceptance rate of VNs within the Cloud’s backbone and 2) minimizing the penalties induced by service disruption due to the hardware outages. This optimization problem is non-linear multi-objective and it has been proven to be NP-hard. To cope with this complexity, we propose an advanced coordination game for VN embedding (Advanced-CG-VNE). In this mapping (i.e., embedding) game, fictitious players are playing on behalf of the CP in order to maximize the turnover. The decision makers cooperate in aim to converge to a Nash Equilibrium that we prove the existence of and the matching with a social optimum. Two variants of Advanced-CG-VNE are proposed according to the virtual links embedding approach. The first one, denoted by Advanced-CG-VNE-unsplittable, embeds each virtual link in only one substrate path. The second variant, denoted by Advanced-CG-VNE-splittable, dispatches the required bandwidth of a virtual link among a set of substrate paths. Advanced-CG-VNE does not allocate any backup to handle service interruption caused by hardware failures. Our proposal adopts preventive and reactive mechanisms to palliate substrate failures. Based on extensive simulations to gauge the effectiveness of Advanced-CG-VNE, the obtained results show that our proposal outperforms the most prominent related strategies in terms of: 1) rejection rate of VNs; 2) rate of VNs impacted by physical failures; and 3) CPs turnover.
Autors: Oussama Soualah;Nadjib Aitsaadi;Ilhem Fajjari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 569 - 585
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Subspace Based Method for Compensation of Multiple CFOs in Uplink MIMO OFDM Systems
Abstract:
The tri-linear data model for an arbitrary multi-user uplink multiple input multiple output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system comprising orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access users and co-channel (CC) users is formulated in this letter. A novel subspace-based method for multi-access interference cancellation and CC data separation in multi-user MIMO OFDM systems, utilizing the independent manifolds spanned by user’s carrier frequency offset matrix, is proposed in this letter. The system constraints under which the proposed subspace nulling method works are derived, which includes the under-determined cases, where minimum mean square error/zero forcing methods fail.
Autors: Avik Santra;K. V. S. Hari;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1993 - 1996
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Wearable Apparatus to Measure Fingertip Forces in Manipulation Tasks Based on MEMS Barometric Sensors
Abstract:
Artificial tactile sensing is a challenging research topic in robotics, motor control, and rehabilitation engineering encompassing multi-disciplinary skills and different technologies. This paper presents the development of a wearable tactile thimble system using MEMS barometric sensors and flexible printed circuit board. Barometric sensors were carefully processed to make them able to transduce contact forces. Thumb, index, and medium fingers were equipped with an array of six sensing elements each, covering the central, lateral, and medial aspects of the fingertip. The sensor integration, signal read-out and processing, hardware architecture of the device, along with the calibration protocol, were described. The test results showed adequate sensitivity at very low forces with an almost linear transduction range up to about 4N (RMSE: 0.04N). Tests on object manipulation tasks highlighted the value of the proposed system demonstrating the ability of measuring both the force amplitude and contact points, demonstrating the suitability of barometric sensors for tactile applications.
Autors: Pietro Cerveri;Mauro Quinzi;Dario Bovio;Carlo Albino Frigo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 317 - 324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parallel Transportation Management and Control System for Bus Rapid Transit Using the ACP Approach
Abstract:
Bus rapid transit (BRT) has been proved to be an effective tool to improve mass transit services. However, BRT's adaptive operations like management and scheduling under different scenarios are too complicated to implement using traditional methods. The ACP approach, which is based on holism and complex system theory and consists of artificial systems (A), computational experiments (C) and parallel execution (P), offers an efficient new method to cope with these complex systems, including BRT. In this paper, the parallel transportation management and control system for BRT (PTMS-BRT) is presented, which is designed and implemented using the ACP approach. PTMS-BRT integrates such functions as BRT's monitoring, warning, forecasting, incident management, and real-time scheduling, to provide its operations smoother, safer, more efficient, and reliable. It has been piloted successfully in Guangzhou BRT to demonstrate it as another successful example of parallel transportation systems.
Autors: Xisong Dong;Yuetong Lin;Dayong Shen;Zhengxi Li;Fenghua Zhu;Bin Hu;Dong Fan;Gang Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2569 - 2574
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Parity Structure for Scalable QC-LDPC Codes With All Nodes of Degree Three
Abstract:
A novel block triple-diagonal (BTD) parity structure with all nodes of degree three is proposed for quasi-cyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The BTD structure without low node degree can effectively improve the error floor performance and, meanwhile, enable low complexity encoding. With this structure, we use a modulo-lifting technology to construct a family of QC-LDPC codes, which supports scalable code lengths with a simple and flexible encoding solution. The simulation results show that our coding schemes for short and moderate lengths achieve better performance in the error floor region.
Autors: Xiaoning Wu;Ming Jiang;Chunming Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1913 - 1916
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Passive Imaging System for Geometry Measurement for the Plasma Arc Welding Process
Abstract:
Automatic and flexible geometry measurement of the weld pool surface can help better understand the complex welding processes and even provide feedback to better control this process. Most of existing imaging systems use an additional source of illumination to remove the light interference coming from the welding arc but it is usually costly. This paper introduces a novel low-cost optical-sensor-based monitoring system working under passive mode to monitor the wire + arc additive manufacture process, particularly for plasma arc welding. Initially, configurations and parameters of camera are investigated to achieve good visualization of weld pool. A novel camera calibration methodology using the nozzle of a computer numerical control (CNC) machine is then proposed for this imaging system, allowing estimation of the camera position with respect to the inspecting surface and its orientation in an easy-to-use approach. The verification tests show that the average error of the calibration is less than 1 pixel. As a case study, an image analysis routine is proposed to measure the width of the bead during the welding process. The results show that the proposed system is effective to measure the dimension of weld pool.
Autors: Tomas Font comas;Chenglei Diao;Jialuo Ding;Stewart Williams;Yifan Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7201 - 7209
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physics-Based Vibrotactile Feedback Library for Collision Events
Abstract:
We present PhysVib: a software solution on the mobile platform extending an open-source physics engine in a multi-rate rendering architecture for automatic vibrotactile feedback upon collision events. PhysVib runs concurrently with a physics engine at a low update rate and generates vibrotactile feedback commands at a high update rate based on the simulation results of the physics engine using an exponentially-decaying sinusoidal model. We demonstrate through a user study that this vibration model is more appropriate to our purpose in terms of perceptual quality than more complex models based on sound synthesis. We also evaluated the perceptual performance of PhysVib by comparing eight vibrotactile rendering methods. Experimental results suggested that PhysVib enables more realistic vibrotactile feedback than the other methods as to perceived similarity to the visual events. PhysVib is an effective solution for providing physically plausible vibrotactile responses while reducing application development time to great extent.
Autors: Gunhyuk Park;Seungmoon Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 325 - 337
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Piggybacking Design Framework for Read-and Download-Efficient Distributed Storage Codes
Abstract:
Erasure codes are being extensively deployed in distributed storage systems instead of replication to achieve fault tolerance in a storage efficient manner. While traditional erasure codes are storage efficient, they can result in a significant increase in the amount of data access and downloaded during rebuilding of failed or otherwise unavailable nodes. In this paper, we present a new framework, which we call piggybacking, for constructing distributed storage codes that are efficient in the amount of data read and downloaded during rebuilding, while meeting requirements arising out of system considerations in data centers—maximum-distance-separability (MDS), high-rate, and a small number of so-called substripes. Under this setting, to the best of our knowledge, piggyback codes achieve the minimum average amount of data access and downloaded during rebuilding among all existing explicit solutions. The piggybacking framework also offers a rich design space for constructing codes for a variety of other settings. In particular, we construct codes that require minimum amount of data access and downloaded for rebuilding among all existing solutions for: 1) binary MDS array codes with more than two parities and 2) MDS codes with the smallest locality during rebuilding. In addition, we show how piggybacking can be employed to enable efficient repair of parity nodes in codes that address the rebuilding of only systematic nodes. The basic idea behind the piggybacking framework is to take multiple instances of existing codes and add carefully designed functions of the data from one instance to the others. This framework provides 25% to 50% savings in the average amount of data access and downloaded during rebuilding depending on the choice of the code parameters.
Autors: K. V. Rashmi;Nihar B. Shah;Kannan Ramchandran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5802 - 5820
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Power-Efficient Signal-Specific ADC for Sensor-Interface Applications
Abstract:
A novel signal-specific power-efficient analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed for sensor-interface applications. Instead of digitizing each analog sample independently, the proposed ADC determines the digital code corresponding to each new input sample by digitizing the difference of two consecutive samples. Therefore, for the applications with low-varying input signals, such as image sensors and ECG readouts, the difference of two consecutive samples is much smaller than the ADC full-scale range for the majority of the input samples, the power consumption of the capacitive digital-to-analog converter, the comparator, and the digital circuits of the proposed ADC is saved due to reducing the ADC activity. The prototype was fabricated using a 0.18- CMOS technology. Measurement results of 1 V, 8 bit, 20 kS/s ADC confirm that for a 10-kHz input sine wave, the effective number of bits is 7 while the power consumption of the entire ADC is 1.12 . However, for the same sampling rate, the power consumption is only 106 nW for a low-varying 100-Hz input sine wave.
Autors: Ehsan Rahiminejad;Mehdi Saberi;Reza Lotfi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1032 - 1036
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Power-Packed Issue
Abstract:
Welcome to the power and energy theme issue of IEEE Potentials. The following four articles will address highimpact topics in the world of power systems, written by energy experts from both industry and academia. I hope you enjoy reading them and gain a greater insight into this exciting field.
Autors: Edvina Uzunovic;Juan Carlos Montero Quiros;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 6 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Predictive Model for IC Self-Heating Based on Effective Medium and Image Charge Theories and Its Implications for Interconnect and Transistor Reliability
Abstract:
Spatially resolved precise prediction of local temperature is essential to evaluate Arrhenius-activated interconnect (e.g., electromigration) and transistor reliability (e.g., NBTI, HCI, and TDDB). A 3-D finite-element modeling (FEM) do provide excellent results, but the calculation is too time-consuming for a structure that involves eight to ten layers of percolating interconnects, especially for fast turn-around reliability modeling. Here, an analytical model that can quickly/accurately determine will reduce the design time of self-heated modern IC. In this paper, we 1) develop a physics-based electrothermal compact model for ICs to predict based on the synthesis of effective medium theory, image charge theory, and Rent’s rule; 2) validate our model against 3-D FEM and experimental data; and 3) predict back-end-of-line (BEOL) reliability (i.e., electromigration at each layer) based on the temperature profile. Since our analytical model predicts changes in with any given IC’s configuration (e.g., interconnect wire length and number distribution, metal volume fraction in BEOL, heat sinks mechanisms, materials, and type of devices), it suggests new opportunities for optimization of performance and reliability of modern ICs.
Autors: Woojin Ahn;Haojun Zhang;Tian Shen;Cathryn Christiansen;Patrick Justison;Sanghoon Shin;Muhammad Ashraful Alam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3555 - 3562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Cost/Benefit Analysis of Transmission and Distribution Asset Expansion Projects
Abstract:
The electric power industry often uses cost/benefit analysis to evaluate system expansion projects. This letter discusses a probabilistic formulation of cost/benefit analysis to incorporate uncertainty in the data used for these studies. A Gaussian statistical model is used and an example is shown relating to distribution engineering.
Autors: Gerald Thomas Heydt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 4151 - 4152
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Qualitative Study of Application-Level Caching
Abstract:
Latency and cost of Internet-based services are encouraging the use of application-level caching to continue satisfying users’ demands, and improve the scalability and availability of origin servers. Despite its popularity, this level of caching involves the manual implementation by developers and is typically addressed in an ad-hoc way, given that it depends on specific details of the application. As a result, application-level caching is a time-consuming and error-prone task, becoming a common source of bugs. Furthermore, it forces application developers to reason about a crosscutting concern, which is unrelated to the application business logic. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study of how developers handle caching logic in their web applications, which involved the investigation of ten software projects with different characteristics. The study we designed is based on comparative and interactive principles of grounded theory, and the analysis of our data allowed us to extract and understand how developers address cache-related concerns to improve performance and scalability of their web applications. Based on our analysis, we derived guidelines and patterns, which guide developers while designing, implementing and maintaining application-level caching, thus supporting developers in this challenging task that is crucial for enterprise web applications.
Autors: Jhonny Mertz;Ingrid Nunes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 43, issue:9, pages: 798 - 816
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Radio Frequency Sensor Array for Dielectric Constant Estimation of Multiphase Oil Flow in Pipelines
Abstract:
The measurement of the single phase portion in a multiphase flow is very important to oil and petrochemical industries. This paper presents a radio frequency (RF) sensor for dielectric constant estimation of two or three phase combinations of oil, water, and gas. The 28-port RF sensor was designed and optimized to operate at 250 MHz. Using the transmission coefficient of each RF sensor port, an equation was obtained for dielectric constant estimation by applying the least squares method. Three different static two phase combinations including oil–water, gas–water, gas–oil and three phase combination of oil–water–gas are experimentally validated with an average measured error percentages of 5.5%, 17.3%, 16% and 6.2%, respectively. A shake test for the three phase combination was performed to resemble an actual three phase flow and the average measured error was 9.3%. The proposed sensor can estimate two or three phase combinations of oil, water, and gas with an average error less than 10%. The proposed sensor is low cost, with low complexity and is the first to provide low error estimations to 2 or 3-phase static or dynamic flows.
Autors: Muhammad Tayyab;Mohammad S. Sharawi;Abdelsalam Al-Sarkhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 17, issue:18, pages: 5900 - 5907
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Random Linear Network Coding Accelerator in a 2.4GHz Transmitter for IoT Applications
Abstract:
Random linear network coding (RLNC) is an emerging coding technique, which can provide several advantages in wireless networks, such as throughput gains, increased data robustness, and better utilization of network resources. In this paper, we present the first custom VLSI implementation of RLNC, integrated with an ultralow-power 2.4-GHz transmitter. We examine its energy efficiency and error recovery performance in the context of Internet of Things applications, and we perform experiments quantifying its benefits when it operates separately and jointly with physical layer forward error correction (FEC) codes, as a joint channel and network coding scheme. The chip is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, occupies and consumes 580 pJ/bit for processing and transmitting data at 1 Mbps. The digital packet processor and encoder occupies , consists of an on-chip memory, a multi-rate convolutional encoder, and a RLNC accelerator with configurable redundancy, and consumes , operating at 0.4 V. For improved spectral efficiency, an on-chip pulse shaping filter is implemented, reducing side lobes by 28 dB while consuming . According to our over-the-air experiments, RLNC can provide an effective SNR improvement of 5.6 dB when combined with FEC rate 1/2, and 3.4 dB without FEC, at a packet error rate of .
Autors: Georgios Angelopoulos;Arun Paidimarri;Muriel Médard;Anantha P. Chandrakasan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2582 - 2590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reactive Power Sharing Strategy of VSG Based on Virtual Capacitor Algorithm
Abstract:
In the islanded microgrid, distributed generators are controlled with virtual synchronous generator (VSG) strategy to simulate rotor inertia and droop characteristics of synchronous generators, in order to enhance the voltage and frequency support capabilities. Since the capacity and location distribution of each VSG is random, the VSG output impedance, line impedance and its capacity are mismatched, resulting in inaccurate sharing of reactive power. Based on the study of reactive power sharing schemes without communication and system parameters detection, and aiming at the contradiction between reactive power sharing error and voltage control accuracy of existing schemes, a reactive power sharing strategy based on virtual capacitor is proposed. The strategy simulates characteristics of paralleling capacitor at the VSG output terminal, and compensates the output voltage according to adaptive control of VSG output reactive power, thus to reduce reactive power sharing error, and improve the voltage control accuracy meanwhile. The design of virtual capacitor parameters and a two VSG parallel system stability with proposed strategy are analyzed in this paper. The correctness and effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified by experiments.
Autors: Haizhen Xu;Xing Zhang;Fang Liu;Rongliang Shi;Changzhou Yu;Renxian Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7520 - 7531
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Real-Time Gait Event Detection for Lower Limb Prosthesis Control and Evaluation
Abstract:
Lower extremity amputees suffer from mobility limitations which will result in a degradation of their quality of life. Wearable sensors are frequently used to assess spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters providing the means to establish an interactive control of the amputee-prosthesis-environment system. Gait events and the gait phase detection of an amputee’s locomotion are vital for controlling lower limb prosthetic devices. The paper presents an approach to real-time gait event detection for lower limb amputees using a wireless gyroscope attached to the shank when performing level ground and ramp activities. The results were validated using both healthy and amputee subjects and showed that the time differences in identifying Initial Contact (IC) and Toe Off (TO) events were larger in a transfemoral amputee when compared to the control subjects and a transtibial amputee (TTA). Overall, the time difference latency lies within a range of ±50 ms while the detection rate was 100% for all activities. Based on the validated results, the IC and TO events can be accurately detected using the proposed system in both control subjects and amputees when performing activities of daily living and can also be utilized in the clinical setup for rehabilitation and assessing the performance of lower limb prosthesis users.
Autors: H. F. Maqbool;M. A. B. Husman;M. I. Awad;A. Abouhossein;Nadeem Iqbal;A. A. Dehghani-Sanij;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 1500 - 1509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reconfigurable 16/32 Gb/s Dual-Mode NRZ/PAM4 SerDes in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
While four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) standards are emerging to increase bandwidth density, the majority of standards use simple binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signaling. This paper presents a dual-mode NRZ/PAM4 serial I/O SerDes which can support both modulations with minimum power and hardware overhead relative to a dedicated PAM4 link. A source-series-terminated transmitter achieves 1.2- output swing and employs lookup table control of a 31-segment output digital-to-analog converter (DAC) to implement 4/2-tap feed-forward equalization in NRZ/PAM4 modes, respectively. Transmitter power is improved with low-overhead analog impedance control in the DAC cells and a quarter-rate serializer based on a tri-state inverter-based mux with dynamic pre-driver gates. The receiver implements an NRZ/PAM4 decision feedback equalizer that employs one finite impulse response and two infinite impulse response taps for first post-cursor and long-tail inter-symbol interference (ISI) cancellation, respectively. First post-cursor ISI cancellation is performed in these comparators to optimize the design’s timing, while the remaining ISI taps are subtracted in a preceding current integration summer for improved sensitivity. Fabricated in GP 65-nm CMOS, the transceiver occupies 0.074 mm2 area and achieves 16 Gb/s NRZ and 32 Gb/s PAM4 operation at 10.9 and 5.5 mW/Gb/s while operating over channels with 27.6 and 13.5 dB loss at Nyquist, respectively.
Autors: Ashkan Roshan-Zamir;Osama Elhadidy;Hae-Woong Yang;Samuel Palermo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2430 - 2447
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Refined Cluster-Analysis-Based Multibaseline Phase-Unwrapping Algorithm
Abstract:
As is well known, multibaseline phase unwrapping (PU) is put forward to overcome single-baseline PU in discontinuous-terrain-height estimation. This letter presents a refined algorithm based on the cluster analysis (CA)-based noise-robust efficient multibaseline PU algorithm proposed by H. Yu. The basic idea is to combine multiple interferometric synthetic aperture radar interferograms with different baseline lengths by a linear combination. The new interferograms after the linear combination increase the ambiguity heights. The number of resulting groups on the envelope of the intercept histogram is decreased and the distance between different intercept groups is widened. Compared with the conventional CA method, the significant advantage of the refined CA (RCA) algorithm is that it improves noise robustness when the intercept groups are densely distributed. The proposed RCA algorithm is validated using the simulated interferometric data. The results demonstrate that the noise robustness performance is better than that of the CA method.
Autors: Zhibiao Jiang;Jian Wang;Qian Song;Zhimin Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:9, pages: 1565 - 1569
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reliability-Aware Network Service Chain Provisioning With Delay Guarantees in NFV-Enabled Enterprise Datacenter Networks
Abstract:
Traditionally, service-specific network functions (NFs) (e.g., Firewall, intrusion detection system, etc.) are executed by installation-and maintenance-costly hardware middleboxes that are deployed within a datacenter network following a strictly ordered chain. NF virtualization (NFV) virtualizes these NFs and transforms them into instances of plain software referred to as virtual NFs (VNFs) and executed by virtual machines, which, in turn, are hosted over one or multiple industry-standard physical machines. The failure (e.g., hardware or software) of any one of a service chain’s VNFs leads to breaking down the entire chain and causing significant data losses, delays, and resource wastage. This paper establishes a reliability-aware and delay-constrained (READ) routing optimization framework for NFV-enabled datacenter networks. READ encloses the formulation of a complex mixed integer linear program (MILP) whose resolution yields an optimal network service VNF placement and traffic routing policy that jointly maximizes the achieved respective reliabilities of supported network services and minimizes these services’ respective end-to-end delays. A heuristic algorithm dubbed Greedy--shortest paths (GSP) is proposed for the purpose of overcoming the MILP’s complexity and develop an efficient routing scheme whose results are comparable to those of READ’s optimal counterparts. Thorough numerical analyses are conducted to evaluate the network’s performance under GSP, and hence, gauge its merit; particularly, when compared to existing schemes, GSP exhibits an improvement of 18.5% in terms of the average end-to-end delay as well as 7.4% to 14.8% in terms of reliability.
Autors: Long Qu;Chadi Assi;Khaled Shaban;Maurice J. Khabbaz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 554 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review on Distribution System State Estimation
Abstract:
Transition to a sustainable energy environment results in aggregated generator and load dynamics in the distribution network. State estimation is a key function in building adequate network models for online monitoring and analyzes. The requirements of distribution system state estimation (DSSE) is becoming stringent because of the needs of new system modeling and operation practices associated with integration of distributed energy resources and the adoption of advanced technologies in distribution network. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art technology, major hurdles, and challenges in DSSE development. The opportunities, paradigm shift, and future research directions that could facilitate the need of DSSE are discussed.
Autors: Anggoro Primadianto;Chan-Nan Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3875 - 3883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Electrochemical CO2 Sensor Utilizing Room Temperature Ionic Liquids
Abstract:
Next generation CO2 gas sensors require an enhancement of sensitivity and invariance with regards to CO 2 detection and environmental factors. For this study, we report and discuss the effective application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) toward the development of a stable electrochemical CO2 sensor that provides increased valuation toward commercial applications. We have investigated two RTILs on both gold and carbon paste electrodes on printed circuit boards over four different CO2 concentrations. We also have investigated another RTIL on a gold electrode for initial repeatability effects at two CO2 concentrations. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry, we compare and contrast the initial response behaviors for these RTILs for these sensors. This analysis has aided in the identification of robust combinations of RTIL/electrode toward environmental CO2 sensors.
Autors: Edward W. Graef;Rujuta D. Munje;Shalini Prasad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 826 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Wide-Area Measurement-Based Damping Controller for Networks With Embedded Multiterminal and Multiinfeed HVDC Links
Abstract:
Control strategies for power swing damping which use wide-area feedback signals need to be robust to partial/complete loss of communication and changes in operating points and topology. In addition, they should have a positive effect on all controllable swing modes and ensure adequate stability margins to avoid destabilization of untargeted modes. This paper proposes a control strategy for multiple embedded dc links (multiterminal or multiinfeed), which has all these attributes and is inherently able to provide wideband damping. The strategy uses only a limited set of nonlocal signals. These signals may be directly communicated to the dc links without having to be centrally collated with other system-wide measurements, thereby reducing communication delays. The strategy can easily be adapted during power system operation to achieve targeted damping of the critical swing modes.
Autors: Prashant Agnihotri;A. M. Kulkarni;Aniruddha M. Gole;Brian A. Archer;Tony Weekes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3884 - 3892
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A SAW-Less 2.4-GHz Receiver Front-End With 2.4-mA Battery Current for SoC Coexistence
Abstract:
A 2.4-GHz receiver for short-range communications with +6 dBm out-of-band IIP3 and only 2.4-mA battery current is presented. The single-ended input is coupled through an integrated transformer to a push–pull differential low-noise transconductance amplifier (LNTA) followed by a current mode passive mixer that drives a single-opamp biquad trans-impedance amplifier. This approach ensures sufficient linearity to enable coexistence with large out-of-band interference arising from other on-chip/on-board transceivers. An efficient block stacking technique is proposed to minimize the current drawn from a standard 1.8-V supply. The first stages of the two opamps used in the I and Q baseband Rauch filters are placed above and below the LNTA core, thereby sharing its dc current. Two active inductors isolate the RF and baseband signal paths. Several techniques are used to limit the impact of the 1/f noise of the RF blocks on the receiver and to minimize nonlinearities due to interactions between blocks sharing the same current. The entire receive signal path draws 2.4 mA from a 1.8-V supply and has a noise figure of 7.8 dB at 2.4 GHz and an out-of-band 1-dB compression point of −5 dBm. The chip, implemented in 28-nm LP CMOS, occupies an active area of 0.4 mm2.
Autors: Matteo Ramella;Ivan Fabiano;Danilo Manstretta;Rinaldo Castello;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2292 - 2305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Scalable High-Performance Priority Encoder Using 1D-Array to 2D-Array Conversion
Abstract:
In our prior study of an -bit priority encoder (PE), a so-called one-directional-array to two-directional-array conversion method is deployed to turn an -bit input data into an -bit matrix. Following this, an -bit PE and an -bit PE are employed to obtain a row index and column index. From those, the highest priority bit of -bit input data is achieved. This brief extends our previous work to construct a scalable architecture of high-performance large-sized PEs. An optimum pair of (, ) and look-ahead signal are proposed to improve the overall PE performance significantly. The evaluation is achieved by implementing a variety of PEs whose varies from 4-bit to 4096-bit in 180-nm CMOS technology. According to post-place-and-route simulation results, at PE size of 64 bits, 256 bits, and 2048 bits the operating frequencies reach 649 MHz, 520 MHz, and 370 MHz, which are 1.2 times, 1.5 times, and 1.4 times, as high as state-of-the-art ones.
Autors: Xuan-Thuan Nguyen;Hong-Thu Nguyen;Cong-Kha Pham;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 1102 - 1106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Adaptive Time-Based MPPT With 96.2% Tracking Efficiency and a Wide Tracking Range of 10 $\mu$ A to 1 mA for IoT Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel ultra-low power maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique with a wide tracking range. An indirect, non-interrupting approach using a novel timing-based algorithm is proposed. The proposed MPPT technique is self-adaptive and applicable to the various types of photovoltaic cells without external reconfiguration or the change of passive components. In addition, a variable gain is employed in the one-hot barrel shift register to reduce the transient response time. A test chip was fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology. The test chip can harvest energy with the input voltage range of 0.4 V to 1.7 V and the step response time of less than 100 ms at the minimum supply voltage of 0.8 V. The tracking efficiency is up to 96.2% when supplied by a photovoltaic micro-cell array using an irradiation range of 200 lux to 1000 lux.
Autors: Karim Rawy;Felix Kalathiparambil;Dominic Maurath;Tony Tae-Hyoung Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2334 - 2345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Shock Tube Experimental System for Communication Performance Evaluation Under the Time-Varying Plasma Flow Channel
Abstract:
Plasma sheath can severely affect the electromagnetic waves and lead to the radio blackout problem. Existing simulation works on the influence of plasma on communications, either failed to illustrate the high dynamics of the plasma or suffered from high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose an experimental system based on a shock tube to evaluate the communication performance over the plasma channel. In order to compare the performance of different modulation modes simultaneously, we initiatively mixed frequency-shift keying (FSK), pulse-position modulation, and quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) together in the transmission signal. Since the duration of the plasma generated by the shock tube is short in each experiment instance, we employ the achievable rate to evaluate the communication performance. Specifically, according to our experimental results, the communication performance of FSK is the best and most stable, while the QPSK is the worst and most unstable, indicating that the plasma channel has the greatest impact on the phase domain compared with the frequency domain and the time domain. Finally, the nonstationary and high dynamic characteristics of the plasma channel are verified in our designed experiment.
Autors: Xuantao Lyu;Chunxiao Jiang;Wei Feng;Ning Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 2450 - 2459
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Shoelace Antenna for the Application of Collision Avoidance for the Blind Person
Abstract:
A shoelace antenna for the application of collision avoidance for the blind person is proposed for the first time. A thin flexible metal wire is used to fabricate the antenna, which can run along with the shoelace without destroying the shoe or adding extra big structures. According to the investigations, to put the feeding probe at the bottom of the cross point is better than the locations around the string bowknot. To make the shoelace tighter or looser will influence the performance with an affordable variation. The effect of the biological tissues has been taken into account during the performance evaluation of the antenna. The measured fractional bandwidth is 11% with a resonance of 2.43 GHz in the ISM Band. The main lobe of the antenna points to the upper front direction with an angle of about 20°, which is suitable for the detecting of the anterior obstacles when walking. The measured results indicate reasonable performance for the shoelace antenna to serve as a tool for the blind person.
Autors: Gaosheng Li;Zhihao Tian;Gui Gao;Liang Zhang;Meng Fu;Yuwei Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 4941 - 4946
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simulator Study Comparing Characteristics of Manual and Automated Driving During Lane Changes of Long Combination Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper presents a back-to-back performance comparison of lane-change maneuvers using two automated driving approaches and manual driving. The lane changes were conducted in a moving-base truck driving simulator using an A-double long combination vehicle. One of the automated driving approaches was based on driver model control and the other used optimization-based control. The comparison addresses lane change and braking, both initiation and execution, from the perspective of driver behavior and defined characteristic variables. We also discuss combined braking and steering behavior using a moderately safety-critical lane-change scenario. The purpose of this paper is to improve driving automation in early development by comparing and learning from professional truck drivers to enable higher driver acceptance.
Autors: Peter Nilsson;Leo Laine;Bengt Jacobson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 18, issue:9, pages: 2514 - 2524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Chip Image Sensor Node With Energy Harvesting From a CMOS Pixel Array
Abstract:
This paper presents a single-chip image sensor node with energy harvesting from the pixel array. The design includes a pixel array that can be reconfigured to form an on-chip photovoltaic cell to harvest energy. An on-chip power management unit harvests energy from the pixel array, and delivers multiple regulated output voltage domains to power the sensor, image processor, and memory. The image processor is a low-overhead moving object detection unit to reduce the volume of transmitted data. The proposed sensor node is implemented on a single die in 130-nm technology. The pixel array demonstrates the peak harvested power of . The power dissipation of sensor is reduced by utilizing low-power circuit techniques, including block-level pipelining, power gating, and low-voltage memory. The system can be self-powered to process a frame at every 7 s. We discuss design approaches for improving the self-power performance. The noise characteristic of the reconfigurable sensor is analyzed, and the need for noise-robust moving object detection is evaluated for better image quality and improved self-power performance.
Autors: Jong Hwan Ko;Mohammad Faisal Amir;Khondker Zakir Ahmed;Taesik Na;Saibal Mukhopadhyay;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 2295 - 2307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Loop Approach for Time-Variant Reliability-Based Design Optimization
Abstract:
In the process of long-term use, the uncertainty of an engineering structure often presents time-variant or dynamic characteristics due to the influence of stochastic loads and material performance degradations. In such a situation, the structural design optimization will involve an important problem of time-variant reliability-based design optimization (TRBDO). Performing TRBDO involves a nested optimization, which will lead to extremely low computational efficiency. In this paper, a single-loop approach (SLA) is proposed to convert the nested optimization in TRBDO into a sequence iterative process composed of the time-variant reliability analysis (TRA), constraint discretization, and design optimization. In each iteration step, the TRA method based on stochastic process discretization is first used to calculate the time-variant reliability of constraints; second, through introducing the concept of the target reliability index of discretized time period and proposing the corresponding algorithm, each time-variant constraint is discretized into a series of time-invariant constraints to formulate a conventional reliability-based design optimization problem. The approach exhibits a good comprehensive performance in terms of efficiency and convergence. The validity and practicality of the SLA are validated by two numerical examples and a design problem for the chassis of a self-balancing vehicle.
Autors: Zhi Liang Huang;Chao Jiang;Xiao Ming Li;Xin Peng Wei;Teng Fang;Xu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 651 - 661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Phase Buck Matrix Converter With High-Frequency Transformer Isolation and Reduced Switch Count
Abstract:
In this paper, a new type of matrix converter (MC) also called a single-phase high-frequency transformer isolated (HFTI) buck MC is proposed. The proposed converter can provide step-down operation of the input voltage with various types of output voltages such as in-phase and out-of-phase output voltages, rectified (or positive) output voltage, and output voltage with step-changed frequency. By incorporating HFT isolation, the proposed MC saves an extra bulky line frequency transformer, which is required for the conventional MCs to provide electrical isolation and safety, when used in application such as dynamic voltage restorers, etc. Two different circuit variations of the proposed HFTI MC are presented with and without continuous output currents, with the latter having less passive components. The safe-commutation strategy is also employed for the proposed HFTI MC to provide current path for the inductor during dead-time, which avoids switch voltage spikes without adding any snubber circuits. The operation principle and circuit analysis of the proposed MC are presented, and switching strategies are also developed to obtain various output voltages. Moreover, a prototype of the proposed MC is fabricated, and experiments are performed to produce in-phase/out-of-phase and rectified output voltages, and output voltage with step-changed frequency.
Autors: Hafiz Furqan Ahmed;Honnyong Cha;Ashraf Ali Khan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 6979 - 6988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Smart Electrostatic Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Power Transmission Belts
Abstract:
Online condition monitoring of power transmission belts is essential to keep industrial belt-driven equipment functioning smoothly and reliably. This paper presents a smart electrostatic sensor that monitors belt motion through detection of static charge on the belt. A theoretical model is established using the method of moments for calculation of induced charge on strip-shaped electrodes placed in the vicinity of a belt moving both axially and transversely. The sensor unit converts the induced charge into proportional voltage signals using charge amplifiers and measures belt speed and vibration through cross correlation and spectral analysis, respectively. The performance of the smart electrostatic sensor is validated against a photoelectric rotary encoder and a laser displacement sensor. Comparative experimental results show that the belt speed can be measured with a relative error within ±2% over the range 1.7–15.5 m/s. The electrostatic sensor is capable of measuring the frequencies of transverse vibration accurately. Although absolute displacement cannot be measured due to the uncertain level of charge on the belt, the measurement results of relative vibration magnitudes for different modes and at different belt speeds are reasonably accurate.
Autors: Yonghui Hu;Shuai Zhang;Yong Yan;Lijuan Wang;Xiangchen Qian;Lu Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7313 - 7322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Snapback-Free Fast-Switching SOI LIGBT With Polysilicon Regulative Resistance and Trench Cathode
Abstract:
A snapback-free fast-switching lateral insulated-gate bipolar transistor (LIGBT) with low power loss and high ruggedness is proposed and investigated by simulation. The proposed device features a polysilicon regulative resistance (PR) and a trench cathode (TC), named PRTC LIGBT. The PR is employed to not only suppress the snapback effect by regulating the voltage drop between P+ anode and N-buffer, but also improve the tradeoff between the on-state voltage drop ( and turn-off loss (. The TC widens the hole current path and decreases the distributed resistance under N+ cathode, and thus delivers a high latch-up ruggedness. Additionally, the PRTC LIGBT exhibits a blocking characteristic irrelevant to P+ anode concentration (NA), like a p-i-n diode (P-well, N-drift, and N-buffer), owing to its undepleted N-buffer region. Simulation results show that the PRTC LIGBT eliminates the snapback and reduces the by 28% compared to the segmented trenches in the anode (STA) region LIGBT. Its short-circuit time is prolonged by 53% and 40% compared to those of the STA LIGBT and PR LIGBT (without TC), respectively.
Autors: Linhua Huang;Xiaorong Luo;Jie Wei;Kun Zhou;Gaoqiang Deng;Tao Sun;Dongfa Ouyang;Diao Fan;Bo Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3961 - 3966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spatial and Temporal Locality-Aware Adaptive Cache Design With Network Optimization for Tiled Many-Core Architectures
Abstract:
The spatial locality and the temporal locality of workloads are the root causes for cache designs to overcome the memory wall problem. However, the real memory access behavior for each of these applications can be very different. It gives the opportunities to explore further performance improvement due to different cache organization requirements. To address this issue, a spatial and temporal locality-aware adaptive cache is proposed, which dynamically partitions the private last level cache bank as prefetch region or victim region at runtime to explore the locality characteristics. The prefetch region speculates the data blocks in subsequent addresses to exploit the spatial locality, while the victim region collects the evicted data blocks from the upper memory hierarchy to exploit the temporal locality. Fast data prefetch with prioritized dynamic buffer management and adaptive burst-aware routing is realized in the proposed hybrid burst-support network-on-chip (HBNoC). By combining the adaptive cache partition with HBNoC, the off-chip misses and the on-chip network usage are greatly reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed adaptive cache design reduces up to 25% off-chip misses and improves 11.3% performance on average compared with the prior design, respectively.
Autors: Mingyu Wang;Zhaolin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 2419 - 2433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spectral CT Method to Directly Estimate Basis Material Maps From Experimental Photon-Counting Data
Abstract:
The proposed spectral CT method solves the constrained one-step spectral CT reconstruction (cOSSCIR) optimization problem to estimate basis material maps while modeling the nonlinear X-ray detection process and enforcing convex constraints on the basis map images. In order to apply the optimization-based reconstruction approach to experimental data, the presented method empirically estimates the effective energy-window spectra using a calibration procedure. The amplitudes of the estimated spectra were further optimized as part of the reconstruction process to reduce ring artifacts. A validation approach was developed to select constraint parameters. The proposed spectral CT method was evaluated through simulations and experiments with a photon-counting detector. Basis material map images were successfully reconstructed using the presented empirical spectral modeling and cOSSCIR optimization approach. In simulations, the cOSSCIR approach accurately reconstructed the basis map images (<1% error). In experiments, the proposed method estimated the low-density polyethylene region of the basis maps with 0.5% error in the PMMA image and 4% error in the aluminum image. For the Teflon region, the experimental results demonstrated 8% and 31% error in the PMMA and aluminum basis material maps, respectively, compared with −24% and 126% error without estimation of the effective energy window spectra, with residual errors likely due to insufficient modeling of detector effects. The cOSSCIR algorithm estimated the material decomposition angle to within 1.3 degree error, where, for reference, the difference in angle between PMMA and muscle tissue is 2.1 degrees. The joint estimation of spectral-response scaling coefficients and basis material maps was found to reduce ring artifacts in both a phantom and tissue sp- cimen. The presented validation procedure demonstrated feasibility for the automated determination of algorithm constraint parameters.
Autors: Taly Gilat Schmidt;Rina Foygel Barber;Emil Y. Sidky;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 36, issue:9, pages: 1808 - 1819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spectral-Efficient Transmission Scheme for Dimmable Visible Light Communication Systems
Abstract:
Dimming control is of vital importance for visible light communication (VLC) systems. Conventional dimmable transmission schemes based on compensation are spectrally inefficient. In this paper, we propose the use of two techniques, i.e., time-sharing and superposition, to construct spectral-efficient dimmable transmission schemes. For VLC systems with on-off keying (OOK) signaling, we present a general framework to construct dimmable transmission scheme by time-sharing among different dimming control codes. Arbitrary dimming target is achieved by adjusting the proportion of each dimming control code. We, then, give a practical construction of dimming control codes with semi-constant weight codes. We obtain optimal proportions of the semi-constant weight codes, which maximize the asymptotic spectral efficiency using linear programming. We also compute achievable rates of the proposed scheme under different dimming targets and different signal-intensity-to-noise-amplitude ratios. To achieve higher spectral efficiency (>1.0 (b/s)/Hz), we present a dimmable multilevel transmission scheme based on superposition. In the proposed scheme, the first ℓ-1 levels adopt traditional OOK modulation, whereas the ℓth level adopts the dimmable transmission scheme for OOK modulation. The transmitted signal is formed by superimposing modulated signals of the ℓ levels. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves a higher spectral efficiency than the state-of-the-art schemes. Hence, it provides an attractive candidate for dimmable VLC systems with demanding spectral efficiency.
Autors: Shancheng Zhao;Xiao Ma;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 35, issue:17, pages: 3801 - 3809
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A State-Independent Linear Power Flow Model With Accurate Estimation of Voltage Magnitude
Abstract:
Linearized power flow models are of great interest in power system studies such as contingency analyses and reliability assessments, especially for large-scale systems. One of the most popular models—the classical DC power flow model—is widely used and praised for its state independence, robustness, and computational efficiency. Despite its advantages, however, the DC power flow model fails to consider reactive power or bus voltage magnitude. This paper closes this gap by proposing a decoupled linearized power flow (DLPF) model with respect to voltage magnitude and phase angle. The model is state independent but is distinguished by its high accuracy in voltage magnitude. Moreover, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of the DLPF model with the purpose of accelerating its computation speed, leading to the fast DLPF (FDLPF) model. The approximation that is applied to obtain the FDLPF model from the DLPF model is justified by a theoretical derivation and numerical tests. The proposed methods are provably accurate and robust for several cases, including radial distribution systems, meshed large-scale transmission systems and ill-conditioned systems. Finally, expressions for sensitivity with regard to MW flow and bus voltage are provided as a potential application.
Autors: Jingwei Yang;Ning Zhang;Chongqing Kang;Qing Xia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3607 - 3617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stepwise Analytical Projected Gradient Descent Search for Hyperspectral Unmixing and Its Code Vectorization
Abstract:
We present, in this paper, a new methodology for spectral unmixing, where a vector of fractions, corresponding to a set of endmembers (EMs), is estimated for each pixel in the image. The process first provides an initial estimate of the fraction vector, followed by an iterative procedure that converges to an optimal solution. Specifically, projected gradient descent (PGD) optimization is applied to (a variant of) the spectral angle mapper objective function, so as to significantly reduce the estimation error due to amplitude (i.e., magnitude) variations in EM spectra, caused by the illumination change effect. To improve the computational efficiency of our method over a commonly used gradient descent technique, we have analytically derived the objective function’s gradient and the optimal step size (used in each iteration). To gain further improvement, we have implemented our unmixing module via code vectorization, where the entire process is “folded” into a single loop, and the fractions for all of the pixels are solved simultaneously. We call this new parallel scheme vectorized code PGD unmixing (VPGDU). VPGDU has the advantage of solving (simultaneously) an independent optimization problem per image pixel, exactly as other pixelwise algorithms, but significantly faster. Its performance was compared with the commonly used fully constrained least squares unmixing (FCLSU), the generalized bilinear model (GBM) method for hyperspectral unmixng, and the fast state-of-the-art methods, sparse unmixing by variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian (SUnSAL) and collaborative SUnSAL (CLSUnSAL) based on the alternating direction method of multipliers. Considering all of the prospective EMs of a scene at each pixel (i.e., without a priori knowledge which/how many EMs are actually present in a given pixel), we demonstrate that the accuracy due to VPGDU is considerably higher than that obtained by FCLSU, GBM, SUnSAL, and- CLSUnSAL under varying illumination, and is, otherwise, comparable with respect to these methods. However, while our method is significantly faster than FCLSU and GBM, it is slower than SUnSAL and CLSUnSAL by roughly an order of magnitude.
Autors: Fadi Kizel;Maxim Shoshany;Nathan S. Netanyahu;Gilad Even-Tzur;Jón Atli Benediktsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 4925 - 4943
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stimulus-Independent Hybrid BCI Based on Motor Imagery and Somatosensory Attentional Orientation
Abstract:
Distinctive EEG signals from the motor and somatosensory cortex are generated during mental tasks of motor imagery (MI) and somatosensory attentional orientation (SAO). In this paper, we hypothesize that a combination of these two signal modalities provides improvements in a brain–computer interface (BCI) performance with respect to using the two methods separately, and generate novel types of multi-class BCI systems. Thirty two subjects were randomly divided into a Control-Group and a Hybrid-Group. In the Control-Group, the subjects performed left and right hand motor imagery (i.e., L-MI and R-MI). In the Hybrid-Group, the subjects performed the four mental tasks (i.e., L-MI, R-MI, L-SAO, and R-SAO). The results indicate that combining two of the tasks in a hybrid manner (such as L-SAO and R-MI) resulted in a significantly greater classification accuracy than when using two MI tasks. The hybrid modality reached 86.1% classification accuracy on average, with a 7.70% increase with respect to MI (), and 7.21% to SAO () alone. Moreover, all 16 subjects in the hybrid modality reached at least 70% accuracy, which is considered the threshold for BCI illiteracy. In addition to the two-class results, the classification accuracy was 68.1% and 54.1% for the three-class and four-class hybrid BCI. Combining the induced brain signals from motor and somatosensory cortex, the proposed stimulus-independent hybrid BCI has shown improved performance with respect to individual modalities, reducing the portion of BCI-illiterate subjects, and provided novel types of multi-class BCIs.
Autors: Lin Yao;Xinjun Sheng;Dingguo Zhang;Ning Jiang;Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting;Xiangyang Zhu;Dario Farina;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 1674 - 1682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stochastic Adaptive Robust Optimization Approach for the Offering Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel approach for the offering strategy of a virtual power plant that participates in the day-ahead and the real-time energy markets. The virtual power plant comprises a conventional power plant, a wind-power unit, a storage facility, and flexible demands, which participate in the day-ahead and the real-time markets as a single entity in order to optimize their energy resources. We model the uncertainty in the wind-power production and in the market prices using confidence bounds and scenarios, respectively, which allows us to formul-ate the strategic offering problem as a stochastic adaptive robust optimization model. Results of a case study are provided to show the applicability of the proposed approach.
Autors: Ana Baringo;Luis Baringo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3492 - 3504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stretchable Microneedle Electrode Array for Stimulating and Measuring Intramuscular Electromyographic Activity
Abstract:
We have developed a stretchablemicroneedle electrode array (sMEA) to stimulate andmeasure the electrical activity of muscle across multiple sites. The technology provides the signal fidelity and spatial resolution of intramuscular electrodesacross a large area of tissue. Our sMEA is composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, conductive-PDMS traces, and stainless-steel penetrating electrodes. The traces and microneedles maintain a resistance of less than 10 when stretched up to a ~63% tensile strain, which allows for the full range of physiological motion of felinemuscle. The device and its constituent materials are cytocompatible for at least 28 days in vivo. When implanted in vivo, the device measures electromyographic (EMG) activity with clear compound motor unit action potentials. The sMEA also maintains a stable connection with moving muscle while electrically stimulating the tissue. This technology has direct application to wearable sensors, neuroprostheses, and electrophysiological studies of animals and humans.
Autors: Gareth S. Guvanasen;Liang Guo;Ricardo J. Aguilar;Ashton L. Cheek;Chancellor S. Shafor;Swaminathan Rajaraman;T. Richard Nichols;Stephen P. DeWeerth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 1440 - 1452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study of Solar Orbiter Spacecraft–Plasma Interactions Effects on Electric Field and Particle Measurements
Abstract:
We present numerical simulations of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft (SC)/plasma interaction performed with the SC–plasma interaction system software. Solar orbiter, to be launched in 2019, is dedicated to observe the sun and the solar wind. The SC will be equipped with both in situ and remote sensing instruments and will approach the sun as close as 0.28 AU. The whole SC will be subjected to an intense electromagnetic radiation flux (ten times that at the earth) leading to specific thermal and SC–plasma interactions issues. This paper investigates plasma interaction effects with two instruments: the radio and plasma waves and the electron analyzer system.
Autors: Stanislas Guillemant;Milan Maksimovic;Alain Hilgers;Filippo Pantellini;Laurent Lamy;Philippe Louarn;Vincent Génot;Christopher J. Owen;Jean-Charles Matéo-Vélez;Pierre Sarrailh;Sébastien L. G. Hess;Antonio Vecchio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 2578 - 2587
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study on Practically Unlimited Endurance of STT-MRAM
Abstract:
Magnetic tunnel junctions integrated for spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory are by far the only known solid-state memory element that can realize a combination of fast read/write speed and high endurance. This paper presents a comprehensive validation of high endurance of deeply scaled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) in light of various potential spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) use cases. A statistical study is conducted on the time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) properties and the dependence of the pMTJ lifetime on voltage, polarity, pulsewidth, duty cycle, and temperature. The experimental results coupled with TDDB models project write cycles. Furthermore, this work reports system-level workload characterizations to understand the practical endurance requirements for realistic memory applications. The results suggest that the cycling endurance of STT-MRAM is “practically unlimited,” which exceeds the requirements of various memory use cases, including high-performance applications such as CPU level-2 and level-3 caches.
Autors: Jimmy J. Kan;Chando Park;Chi Ching;Jaesoo Ahn;Yuan Xie;Mahendra Pakala;Seung H. Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3639 - 3646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Subpixel Target Detection Approach to Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
Hyperspectral image classification faces various levels of difficulty due to the use of different types of hyperspectral image data. Recently, spectral–spatial approaches have been developed by jointly taking care of spectral and spatial information. This paper presents a completely different approach from a subpixel target detection view point. It implements four stage processes, a preprocessing stage, which uses band selection (BS) and nonlinear band expansion, referred to as BS-then-nonlinear expansion (BSNE), a detection stage, which implements constrained energy minimization (CEM) to produce subpixel target maps, and an iterative stage, which develops an iterative CEM (ICEM) by applying Gaussian filters to capture spatial information, and then feeding the Gaussian-filtered CEM-detection maps back to BSNE band images to reprocess CEM in an iterative manner. Finally, in the last stage Otsu’s method is applied to converting ICEM-detected real-valued maps to discrete values for classification. The entire process is called BSNE-ICEM. Experimental results demonstrate BSNE-ICEM, which has advantages over support vector machine-based approaches in many aspects, such as easy implementation, fewer parameters to be used, and better false classification and precision rates.
Autors: Bai Xue;Chunyan Yu;Yulei Wang;Meiping Song;Sen Li;Lin Wang;Hsian-Min Chen;Chein-I Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 5093 - 5114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Supply-Demand Approach for Traffic-Oriented Wireless Resource Virtualization With Testbed Analysis
Abstract:
In face of the explosive service demands, solving the problem of spectrum scarcity is becoming more important than ever. To utilize the spectrum resources more thoroughly and efficiently, virtualization technologies have been proposed, which can be a means to mitigating resource granularity and increasing efficiency in heterogeneous network environments. In this paper, a traffic-oriented resource virtualization with demand-supply dynamic analysis is proposed for optimized resource allocation of heterogeneous networks with multiple types of services. On the supply side, i.e., the network side, a low-complexity matching game approach is introduced with the novel “Match-Degree” conception, which could be defined with the Grey relational analysis. The complexity of generating preference list can be reduced by unifying various dimensions of network parameters. On the demand side, i.e., the user side, bandwidth allocation algorithm is designed to consider the comprehensive network traffic characteristics, energy consumption, and network price factors, to maximize the overall utility. Except from theoretic analysis, simulation has also been employed to compare the proposed scheme with prior and traditional ones. To further verify the practicability, tractability, and effectiveness of the proposed demand-supply scheme, a test bed is designed and developed in this paper.
Autors: Zhiyong Feng;Lei Ji;Qixun Zhang;Wei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:9, pages: 6077 - 6090
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey of App Store Analysis for Software Engineering
Abstract:
App Store Analysis studies information about applications obtained from app stores. App stores provide a wealth of information derived from users that would not exist had the applications been distributed via previous software deployment methods. App Store Analysis combines this non-technical information with technical information to learn trends and behaviours within these forms of software repositories. Findings from App Store Analysis have a direct and actionable impact on the software teams that develop software for app stores, and have led to techniques for requirements engineering, release planning, software design, security and testing. This survey describes and compares the areas of research that have been explored thus far, drawing out common aspects, trends and directions future research should take to address open problems and challenges.
Autors: William Martin;Federica Sarro;Yue Jia;Yuanyuan Zhang;Mark Harman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 43, issue:9, pages: 817 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey on Story Generation Techniques for Authoring Computational Narratives
Abstract:
Computers are often used as tools to design, implement, and even visualize a variety of narrative forms. Many researchers and artists are now further attempting to engage the computer actively throughout the development of the narrative itself. Any form of computational narrative authoring is at some level always mixed-initiative , meaning that the processing capabilities of the computer are utilized with a varying degree to automate certain features of the authoring process. We structure this survey by focusing on two key components of stories, plot and space, and more specifically the degree to which these are either automated by the computer or authored manually. By examining the successes of existing research, we identify potential new research directions in the field of computational narrative. We also identify the advantages of developing a standard model of narrative to allow for collaboration between plot and space automation techniques. This would likely benefit the field of automated space generation with the strengths in the field of automated plot generation.
Autors: Ben Kybartas;Rafael Bidarra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 239 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Temperature Compensated Smart Nitrate-Sensor for Agricultural Industry
Abstract:
Extended research on the design and development of a smart nitrate sensor for monitoring nitrate concentration in surface and groundwater are reported in this paper. The developed portable sensing system consists of a planar interdigital sensor, associated electronics, instrumentation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based analysis. The system is capable of measuring nitrate concentrations in the range of 0.01–0.5 mg/L in ground and surface water. This paper extends our earlier work by including a temperature compensation capacity within the sensor. WiFi-based Internet of Things (IoT) has been included, making it a connected sensing system. The system is capable of sending data directly to an IoT-based web server, which will be useful to develop distributed monitoring systems in the future. The developed system has the potential to monitor the impact of industrial, agricultural, or urban activity on water quality, in real time.
Autors: Md. Eshrat E Alahi;Li Xie;Subhas Mukhopadhyay;Lucy Burkitt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 7333 - 7341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Theoretical Study of Velocity SAR Imaging of a Moving, Nonstationary Scene
Abstract:
The concept of the “velocity synthetic aperture radar” (VSAR)—a multiaperture sensor capable of measuring radial velocities in the scene and utilizing this information to correct motion-induced imaging distortions inherent to SAR—was proposed two decades ago. Lately, with the emergence of truly multichannel systems featuring antenna arrays with dozens of elements, the approach has been enjoying a renewed interest. The viability and effectiveness of the algorithm were successfully demonstrated in a series of airborne field campaigns that involved imaging both man-made targets and natural maritime features. These experiments and the wealth of resulting data also underscored the need for comprehensive mathematical descriptions of expected target signatures in the collected “image stacks” and for further refinements of the VSAR imaging theory. This paper addresses both tasks by building upon the available mathematical results developed for the along-track interferometric SAR imagery of distributed evolving targets. The approach allows simultaneous accounting for all essential effects known to impact SAR imagery of a target or an extended feature: its azimuth velocity, radial velocity and acceleration, as well as finite coherence time. The emphasis is on obtaining closed-form expressions that could readily illustrate the structure and behavior of the VSAR stack spectrum of such a target and help gauge anticipated focusing improvement stemming from the VSAR image correction. In particular, it is rigorously shown that the VSAR algorithm is successful in situations when SAR defocusing arises predominantly from radial motion and short coherence times—the resulting resolution is generally no worse than that of the corresponding real-aperture radar. On the other hand, strong defocusing due to azimuth translation may be problematic to compensate - ithin the VSAR approach framework.
Autors: Jakov V. Toporkov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 4972 - 4988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Threshold Voltage Model of Silicon-Nanotube-Based Ultrathin Double Gate-All-Around (DGAA) MOSFETs Incorporating Quantum Confinement Effects
Abstract:
In this paper, a quantum-mechanical threshold voltage model for ultrathin double gate-all-around DGAA MOSFETs has been developed by solving three-dimensional (3-D) Poisson's and 2-D Schrödinger's equations in the channel region. The parabolic potential approximation is considered for Poisson's equation solution, whereas a hollow cylindrical potential well in the channel region is assumed to solve Schrödinger's equation. Simple equations for the wave function and energy quantization in the channel of DGAA MOSFET have been formulated. Discretized energy levels have been used for channel charge calculation in subthreshold regime of device operation. The calculated channel charge is compared with a threshold charge to formulate the threshold voltage model. The effects of the device parameters such as the channel thickness, oxide thickness, doping, etc. on threshold voltage and DIBL have been extensively studied. The proposed model results have been verified by comparing with the numerical simulation results obtained from the 3-D device simulator Visual TCAD of Cogenda Int.
Autors: Arun Kumar;Shiv Bhushan;Pramod Kumar Tiwari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 868 - 875
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Threshold Voltage Model of Tri-Gate Junctionless Field-Effect Transistors Including Substrate Bias Effects
Abstract:
In this paper, the influence of substrate bias voltage and substrate-induced surface potential (SISP) on threshold voltage of tri-gate junctionless field-effect transistors (TG-JLFETs) has been investigated. For this purpose, a quasi-3-D threshold voltage model of TG-JLFETs is presented considering the effects of both back-bias voltage and a lightly doped substrate. To incorporate the effect of SISP on the threshold voltage, the boundary conditions at the silicon–buried oxide interface have been modified accounting for the potential difference between substrate surface and substrate bulk. Model results are compared with the simulation results obtained using 3-D visual TCAD device simulator from Cogenda.
Autors: Deepti Gola;Balraj Singh;Pramod Kumar Tiwari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 64, issue:9, pages: 3534 - 3540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Total-Power Radiometer Front End in a 0.25- $\mu \text{m}$ BiCMOS Technology With Low $1/{f}$ -Corner
Abstract:
This paper describes the analysis, design, and characterization of a high-sensitivity millimeter-wave total-power radiometer front-end integrated into a 0.25- SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. This prototype is composed of a two cascode stage low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a voltage-driven common-emitter square-law detector. The LNA is interfaced to the detector through a low transformation ratio (i.e., high-impedance node) to achieve an efficient wideband signal transfer. The front end achieves both a low -noise corner and a low noise-equivalent power (NEP) by combining a large area, high resistive value load resistor together with a minimum size heterojunction bipolar transistor. At 56 GHz and optimum bias, the prototype provides a 61-MV/W responsivity which combined with a 194-nV/Hz white noise level result in a 3.2-fW/Hz NEP when the input power is modulated with a frequency above the 30-Hz flicker noise corner. The achieved 3-dB NEP bandwidth is 6 GHz.
Autors: Satoshi Malotaux;Masoud Babaie;Marco Spirito;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 52, issue:9, pages: 2256 - 2266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two Channel System Approximation for Bandlimited Functions
Abstract:
The approximation of stable linear time-invariant (LTI) systems is studied for the Paley–Wiener space of bandlimited functions with absolutely integrable Fourier transform. For pointwise sampling, it is known that there exist stable LTI systems and functions such that the approximation process diverges, regardless of the oversampling factor. Recently, it was shown that the divergence can be overcome by using more general measurement functionals that are based on a complete orthonormal system. However, this approach requires the approximation process to have an increased bandwidth. In this paper, a two channel approximation process is presented that is uniformly convergent for all stable LTI systems and all functions in . An advantage of the two channel approach compared with the one channel approach is the reduction of the approximation bandwidth, which can be exactly the same as the input function bandwidth.
Autors: Ullrich J. Mönich;Holger Boche;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 63, issue:9, pages: 5496 - 5505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Step Semiglobal Filtering Approach to Extract DTM From Middle Resolution DSM
Abstract:
Many filtering algorithms have been developed to extract the digital terrain model (DTM) from dense urban light detection and ranging data or the high-resolution digital surface model (DSM), assuming a smooth variation of topographic relief. However, this assumption breaks for a middle-resolution DSM because of the diminished distinction between steep terrains and nonground points. This letter introduces a two-step semiglobal filtering (TSGF) workflow to separate those two components. The first SGF step uses the digital elevation model of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to obtain a flat-terrain mask for the input DSM; then, a segmentation-constrained SGF is used to remove the nonground points within the flat-terrain mask while maintaining the shape of the terrain. Experiments are conducted using DSMs generated from Chinese ZY3 satellite imageries, verified the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared with the conventional progressive morphological filter method, the usage of flat-terrain mask reduced the average root-mean-square error of DTM from 9.76 to 4.03 m, which is further reduced to 2.42 m by the proposed TSGF method.
Autors: Yanfeng Zhang;Yongjun Zhang;Zhang Yunjun;Zongze Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 14, issue:9, pages: 1599 - 1603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Uniquified Virtualization Approach to Hardware Security
Abstract:
Virtualization has well-known security advantages for operating systems and software, but current techniques do not address increasingly important hardware-security concerns. For widely deployed systems (e.g., Internet of Things) and safety-critical systems (e.g., defense and automobiles), protecting against device tampering is critical, but is often unavoidable due to the relative ease of side-channel attacks. In this letter, we present a novel usage of virtualization that limits damage from bitstream tampering to a single instance of a deployed system by employing unique virtual architectures (i.e., overlays) on field-programmable gate arrays.
Autors: Greg Stitt;Robert Karam;Kai Yang;Swarup Bhunia;
Appeared in: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 53 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unit Commitment Algorithm and a Compact MILP Model for Short-Term Hydro-Power Generation Scheduling
Abstract:
This paper presents a unit commitment algorithm that defines each unit discharge given the water head, the total plant downstream flow, the variable discharge upper limit, the unit efficiency curves, and the restricted operating zones in order to maximize power efficiency. This algorithm is part of the preprocessing phase that is intended to approximate a hydro-power production function that represents individualized unit decisions. A compact mixed-integer linear programming formulation, with fewer integer variables, based on an equivalent unit model and a piecewise linear generation function, is proposed. The unit commitment is integrated without increasing the model size and complexity due to the preprocessing phase. Moreover, the optimal aggregate decision is automatically converted to unit decisions by the proposed algorithm. The coordination with mid/long-term planning is performed by taking into account the power demand allocated to the hydro-power plants. Numerical tests on Brazilian hydro-power plants demonstrate that the proposed formulation has lower computational cost than unit individualized models considering a given accuracy level for the generation function approximation.
Autors: Lucas S. M. Guedes;Pedro de Mendonça Maia;Adriano Chaves Lisboa;Douglas Alexandre Gomes Vieira;Rodney Rezende Saldanha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 32, issue:5, pages: 3381 - 3390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A User Trust System for Online Games—Part I: An Activity Theory Approach for Trust Representation
Abstract:
In virtual worlds (including computer games), users develop trust relationships from their in-world interactions with others. However, these trust relationships end up not being represented in the data structures (or databases) of such virtual worlds, though they sometimes appear associated with reputation and recommendation systems. In addition, as far as we know, the user is not provided with a personal trust tool to sustain his/her decision-making while he/she interacts with other users in the virtual or game world. In order to come up with a computational formal representation of these personal trust relationships, we need to succeed in converting in-world interactions into reliable sources of trust-related data. In this paper, we develop the required formalisms to gather and represent in-world interactions—which are based on the activity theory—as well as a method to convert in-world interactions into trust networks. In the companion paper, we use these trust networks to produce a computational trust decision based on subjective logic. This solution aims at supporting in-world user (or avatar) decisions about others in the game world.
Autors: Rui Costa Cardoso;Abel J. P. Gomes;Mário M. Freire;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 305 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Utility-Based Joint Subcarrier and Power Allocation for Green Communications in Multi-User Two-Way Regenerative Relay Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate utility-based joint subcarrier and power allocation algorithms for improving the energy efficiency (EE) in multi-user two-way regenerative relay networks. With the objective of determining the best subcarrier allocation for each user pair, subcarrier pairing permutation, and power allocation to all the nodes, a network price is introduced to the power consumption as a penalty for the achievable sum rate, followed by the examination of its impact on the tradeoff between the EE and spectral efficiency. The formulated optimization problem is a non-convex mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, and thus a concave lower bound on the objective function and a series of convex transformations are applied to transform the problem into a convex one. Through dual decomposition, we propose a utility-based resource allocation algorithm for iteratively tightening the lower bound and finding the optimal solution of the primal problem. By exploring the structure of the obtained optimal solution, an optimal price that enables green resource allocation is found from the perspective of maximizing EE. Additionally, a suboptimal algorithm is investigated to strike a balance between computational complexity and optimality. Simulation results evince the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Keshav Singh;Ankit Gupta;Tharmalingam Ratnarajah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Sep 2017, volume: 65, issue:9, pages: 3705 - 3722
Publisher: IEEE
 

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