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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 09-2013 sorted by title, page: 0
» "A Little In Front O' The Next"
Abstract:
For many people, the first experience of Paul Brokaw is a job interview. Unfortunately, for many people, it is also their last. It?s not that Paul makes the interview uncomfortable. On the contrary, it is relaxed and friendly. It feels more like the meeting of old colleagues than a formal interview. It is quickly apparent, however, that this is going to be something different, and whatever you trained for, whatever you think you know, it?s not going to be enough.
Autors: Mangelsdorf, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 5, issue:3, pages: 29 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "I Love Deadlines ..." [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Autors: Wood, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 14, issue:6, pages: 6 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "Integrated Circuits and Systems for a Mobile Society" Is Theme of 9th Annual A-SSCC Conference in Singapore, 11-13 November 2013 [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Held for the first time this year in Singapore, at the Resorts World Convention Centre, A-SSCC 2013 will have a special industry program and a student design contest in addition to its customary sessions on analog circuits and systems, data converters, digital circuits and systems, SOC and signal processing systems, radio frequency, wireline and mixed-signal circuits, emerging tech and applications, and memory. The conference theme, Integrated Circuits and Systems for a Mobile Society, was selected to encourage paper submissions on new circuits and systems for mobile computing.
Autors: Xu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 5, issue:3, pages: 59 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "One Transistor, Two Transistors, Three"
Abstract:
There are 24 hours in a day; and, then there?s the night!? This, I had just learned, was always going to be the answer to the question, ?How can we possibly finish this project by then??
Autors: Holloway, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 5, issue:3, pages: 21 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Seeing” ENF: Power-Signature-Based Timestamp for Digital Multimedia via Optical Sensing and Signal Processing
Abstract:
Electric Network Frequency (ENF) fluctuates slightly over time from its nominal value of 50 Hz/60 Hz. The fluctuations in ENF remain consistent across the entire power grid including when measured at physically distant geographical locations. The light intensity from such indoor lighting as fluorescent lamps and incandescent bulbs, which are connected to the power mains, varies in accordance with the ENF, and the fluctuations can be recorded using visual sensors. In this paper, mechanisms using optical sensors and video cameras to record and validate the presence of ENF fluctuations in indoor lighting are presented. Spectrogram and subspace-based signal processing techniques are applied to such recordings to extract the ENF signal by estimating its instantaneous frequencies as a function of time. A high correlation is observed between the ENF fluctuations obtained from indoor lighting and that of the ENF signal captured directly from the power mains supply. A similar mechanism is then used to demonstrate the presence of ENF signals in video recordings taken in different geographical areas. Experimental results show that ENF signals are present in visual recordings made in different geographical areas and can be used as a natural timestamp for optical sensor recordings and video surveillance recordings conducted in indoor lighting environments. Robustness of ENF fluctuation traces under strong compression and CMOS rolling shutter cameras is discussed. Applications of the ENF signal analysis to tampering detection of surveillance video recordings and forensic binding of the audio and visual track of a video are also demonstrated. An analytical model based on an autoregressive process is also developed for ENF signals, and the effectiveness of using innovation sequences from the model for timestamp verification is demonstrated.
Autors: Garg, R.;Varna, A.L.;Hajj-Ahmad, A.;Min Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 8, issue:9, pages: 1417 - 1432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “SRF Theory Revisited” to Control Self-Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) for Unbalanced and Nonlinear Loads
Abstract:
The protection of the sensitive unbalanced nonlinear loads from sag/swell, distortion, and unbalance in supply voltage is achieved economically using the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). A simple generalized algorithm based on basic synchronous-reference-frame theory has been developed for the generation of instantaneous reference compensating voltages for controlling a DVR. This novel algorithm makes use of the fundamental positive-sequence phase voltages extracted by sensing only two unbalanced and/or distorted line voltages. The algorithm is general enough to handle linear as well as nonlinear loads. The compensating voltages when injected in series with a distribution feeder by three single-phase H-bridge voltage-source converters with a constant switching frequency hysteresis band voltage controller tightly regulate the voltage at the load terminals against any power quality problems on the source side. A capacitor-supported DVR does not need any active power during steady-state operation because the injected voltage is in quadrature with the feeder current. The proposed control strategy is validated through extensive simulation and real-time experimental studies.
Autors: Kanjiya, P.;Singh, B.;Chandra, A.;Al-Haddad, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 49, issue:5, pages: 2330 - 2340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-D Combline Leaky-Wave Antenna With the Open-Stopband Suppressed: Design Considerations and Comparisons With Measurements
Abstract:
The design of a 1-D planar periodic combline leaky-wave antenna that avoids the open-stopband effects as the beam is scanned through broadside is discussed and verified experimentally. This antenna radiates from nearly resonant stubs, which ensures a small leakage constant and hence a high directivity, and shows a single beam scanning through its space harmonic in the X-band frequency range. The open-stopband suppression is obtained by applying a recently proposed matching technique within the unit cell that is experimentally validated here for the first time. Measurements are made of the phase and leakage constants, the S-parameters, and the realized gain patterns. Comparisons are made with numerical values obtained from specialized and commercial software and very good agreement is found in all cases.
Autors: Williams, J.T.;Baccarelli, P.;Paulotto, S.;Jackson, D.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4484 - 4492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1/f noise in micrometer-sized ultrathin indium tin oxide films
Abstract:
We have measured the low-frequency noises of ultrathin indium tin oxide films to investigate the effect of post annealing on the noise level. The noises obtained obey an approximate 1/f law in the frequency range f ≈ 0.1–20 Hz. The microstructures and grain sizes of our films were altered by adjusting the annealing conditions. An enhancement of the noise level was observed for those samples comprising smaller grains, where numerous grain boundaries exist. This enhancement in the noise level is ascribed to atomic diffusion along grain boundaries or dynamics of two-level systems near the grain boundaries.
Autors: Yeh, Sheng-Shiuan;Hsu, Wei-Ming;Lee, Jui-Kan;Lee, Yao-Jen;Lin, Juhn-Jong;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 103, issue:12, pages: 123118 - 123118-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 11th International System-on-Chip (SoC) Conference Scheduled at UC Irvine in October: Student Design Contest Submissions Open Through 31 September [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Autors: Olstein, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 5, issue:3, pages: 65 - 66
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 120 fs, 4.2 nJ pulses from an all-normal-dispersion, polarization-maintaining, fiber laser
Abstract:
We present a laser architecture that simultaneously makes use of all the key features that the fiber technology has to offer, and delivers pulses that can be de-chirped into the 100 fs region. The reported all-normal-dispersion laser outputs a 10 MHz train of linearly polarized, 4.2 nJ pulses that can be de-chirped down to 120 fs. These are the shortest recompressed, nanojoule pulses obtained from an all-fiber-integrated single-polarization laser to date. The cavity can sustain a wide variety of dissipative solitons. It is mode-locked with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror which ensures flexible self-starting operation and long-term reliability. Combined with the integrated all-PM design, the laser is environmentally robust and insensitive against temperature variations and mechanical vibrations.
Autors: Aguergaray, Claude;Hawker, Ryan;Runge, Antoine F.J.;Erkintalo, Miro;Broderick, Neil G.R.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 103, issue:12, pages: 121111 - 121111-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D tracking doppler: a new method to limit spectral broadening in pulsed wave doppler
Abstract:
Transit time broadening is a major limitation in pulsed wave (PW) Doppler, especially when the angle between the flow direction and the ultrasound beam is large. The associated loss in frequency resolution may give severe overestimation of blood velocities, and finer details in the spectral display are lost. By using plane wave transmissions and parallel receive beamforming, multiple PW Doppler signals can be acquired simultaneously in a 2-D region. This enables tracking of the moving blood scatterers over a longer spatial distance to limit transit time broadening. In this work, the new method was tested using in vitro ultrasound recordings from a flow phantom, and in vivo recordings from a human carotid artery. The resulting 2-D tracking Doppler spectra showed significantly reduced spectral broadening compared with Doppler spectra generated by Welch's method. The reduction in spectral broadening was 4-fold when the velocity was 0.82 m/s and the beam-to-flow angle was 62°. A signal model was derived and the expected Doppler power spectra were calculated, showing good agreement with experimental data. Improved spectral resolution was shown for beam-to-flow angles between 40° and 82°.
Autors: null;null;null;null;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2.4-GHz 10-Mb/s BFSK Embedded Transmitter With a Stacked-LC DCO for Wireless Testing Systems
Abstract:
A 2.4-GHz industrial scientific and medical band binary frequency-shift-keying transmitter embedded in the Hypothesis, Odyssey, and Yield (HOY) wireless test system is presented and implemented, based on a 0.18-μm CMOS process. With the digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) using a stacked-LC tank, this transmitter occupies an area of only 0.1 mm2 and has a measured phase noise of -111.8 dBc/Hz at a 500-kHz offset. The effects of stacking a spiral inductor over the other circuits are considered and examined using two DCO test chips. Both the antenna and the power amplifier are eliminated as a result of the short distance of transmission. By adopting an open-loop modulation architecture, a data rate of 10 Mb/s can be achieved. For a supply voltage of 1.5 V, the power consumption is only 9.2 mW and the emission output power measured at a distance of 1 cm is greater than -60 dBm.
Autors: Chi-Ying Lee;Chih-Cheng Hsieh;Jenn-Chyou Bor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1727 - 1737
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2012 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Polarization Domains in Barium Titanate
Abstract:
The winners of the 2012 IEEE Visualization Contest combined methods from molecular, flow, and scalar data visualization to reveal the characteristics and processes in the contest data. Because the simulated material didn't behave according to theory from textbooks, one challenge was to find meaningful visualizations to facilitate exploratory analysis. The contest winners created an interactive visual-analysis application based on MegaMol, their visualization framework. The tailored visualizations revealed data characteristics such as thermal vibrations and the spatial distribution of polarization domains. Domain expert knowledge verified the results. This video at http://youtu.be/RXnNKekY7VE shows the dataset used and the development of vector clusters over time.
Autors: Scharnowski, Katrin;Krone, Michael;Sadlo, Filip;Beck, Philipp;Roth, Johannes;Trebin, Hans-Rainer;Ertl, Thomas;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 9 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Simulations and Design of Multistage Depressed Collectors for Sheet Beam Millimeter Wave Vacuum Electron Devices
Abstract:
There is an increasing interest in sheet electron beam-based vacuum electron devices from the microwave through terahertz region. As with standard pencil beam devices, it is desirable to increase overall net efficiency through the use of multistage depressed collectors. The sheet electron beam, however, brings unique challenges to this task due to the elliptical cross section of the beam. This paper focuses on the comprehensive 3-D simulation modeling of the electron beam dynamics for the ac modulated sheet beam topology from the beam-wave interaction region up to the designed energy recovery structure, i.e., the multistage depressed collector. For purposes of illustration, the design and analysis of a five-stage depressed collector for a W-band sheet beam klystron using the 3-D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) finite difference time domain code MAGIC is described herein. Numerous PIC simulations were carried out to determine the optimum operating parameters. The effects of the secondary electrons on the recovery efficiency and the electron back streaming were both investigated. To accommodate the elliptical cross section of the sheet beam, the option of adding a racetrack-like structure to decrease the back streaming was also explored. Through optimization, a recovery efficiency of 88.38% was achieved, with a minimized total electron back-streaming fraction of 0.25%.
Autors: Shi, Z.;Gamzina, D.;Barnett, L.R.;Baig, A.;Luhmann, N.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2912 - 2917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30 GHz Linear High-Resolution and Rapid Millimeter Wave Imaging System for NDE
Abstract:
High-resolution millimeter-wave imaging for nondestructive testing applications offers certain unique and practical advantages. Traditionally, imaging for this purpose is performed by raster scanning a single probe/antenna across a two-dimensional (2D) grid. Raster scanning requires bulky, slow and expensive scanning platforms, in addition to being a slow process. Utilizing an array of probes significantly reduces these limitations. This paper presents the design of a linear one-dimensional millimeter wave imaging array operating at 30 GHz and capable of rapid image production. The imaging array is 150 mm long, operates in quasi-mono-static reflection mode, and provides coherent vector reflection coefficient data for generating high spatial resolution synthetic aperture radar images. This imaging array performs fast electronic scan along one dimension and may be readily moved along the other direction to produce 2D images, greatly reducing the required scan time compared to raster scanning. The design and utility of this imaging array along with several imaging examples are presented in this paper.
Autors: Ghasr, M.T.;Kharkovsky, S.;Bohnert, R.;Hirst, B.;Zoughi, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4733 - 4740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30th Anniversary of VLSI-TSA and VSLI-DAT Celebrated in April: Plenary and Special Session Stars Dazzle Joint Conference [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Autors: Wu, C.;Ho, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 5, issue:3, pages: 66 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30th Wireless World Research Forum [From the Guest Editor]
Abstract:
The articles in this special section were presented at the 30th Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) was held in Oulu, Finland, on 23??25 April 2013.
Autors: Katz, M.;Kumar, V.;Ismail, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 8, issue:3, pages: 28 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 & 16 Years Ago
Abstract:
A summary of articles published in Computer 32 and 16 years ago.
Autors: Holmes, Neville;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 46, issue:9, pages: 20 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 35- Bragg Reflector Waveguide Modulator for High-Speed and Energy-Saving Operation
Abstract:
We fabricated a slow-light Bragg reflector waveguide modulator and carried out both static and dynamic characterizations on this compact device. Extinction ratios of over 8 dB were obtained with low voltage swing such as 0.5 V. We demonstrated a 3-dB modulation bandwidth over 13 GHz in small-signal response characterization on a 35- -long device, which has a parasitic capacitance of 0.4 pF. Through further reducing the device length and achieving impedance matching, the result reveals its potential in reaching ultra-high modulation bandwidth over 100 GHz. Ultra-low power consumption much ¡100 fJ/bit is prospective thanks to the device's low voltage swing.
Autors: Gu, X.;Shimada, T.;Matsutani, A.;Koyama, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 25, issue:18, pages: 1766 - 1769
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D for the Web
Abstract:
This special issue features three articles on interactive 3D developments for the Web. Two articles discuss exploiting GPU ubiquity and performance; the other applies current Web3D languages to a real-world education challenge.
Autors: Macedonia, Michael;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 33, issue:5, pages: 24 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Strain Assessment in Ultrasound (Straus): A Synthetic Comparison of Five Tracking Methodologies
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper evaluates five 3D ultrasound tracking algorithms regarding their ability to quantify abnormal deformation in timing or amplitude. A synthetic database of B-mode image sequences modeling healthy, ischemic and dyssynchrony cases was generated for that purpose. This database is made publicly available to the community. It combines recent advances in electromechanical and ultrasound modeling. For modeling heart mechanics, the Bestel–Clement–Sorine electromechanical model was applied to a realistic geometry. For ultrasound modeling, we applied a fast simulation technique to produce realistic images on a set of scatterers moving according to the electromechanical simulation result. Tracking and strain accuracies were computed and compared for all evaluated algorithms. For tracking, all methods were estimating myocardial displacements with an error below 1 mm on the ischemic sequences. The introduction of a dilated geometry was found to have a significant impact on accuracy. Regarding strain, all methods were able to recover timing differences between segments, as well as low strain values. On all cases, radial strain was found to have a low accuracy in comparison to longitudinal and circumferential components.
Autors: De Craene, M.;Marchesseau, S.;Heyde, B.;Gao, H.;Alessandrini, M.;Bernard, O.;Piella, G.;Porras, A.R.;Tautz, L.;Hennemuth, A.;Prakosa, A.;Liebgott, H.;Somphone, O.;Allain, P.;Makram Ebeid, S.;Delingette, H.;Sermesant, M.;D'hooge, J.;Saloux, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 32, issue:9, pages: 1632 - 1646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5.8-GHz Series/Parallel Connected Rectenna Array Using Expandable Differential Rectenna Units
Abstract:
This communication demonstrates series and/or parallel connection of the differential rectenna units. The differential rectenna unit provides high expandability of rectenna arrays due to its balanced structure. The proposed rectenna array produces higher voltage and/or more current by the series and/or parallel connection of the rectenna units. In the measurement, 30% RF-DC conversion efficiency at the power density of 0.03 was achieved in all the case of series and/or parallel four-units connected rectenna array. The maximum conversion efficiency was about 38% in the case of the series-parallel connection. As the proposed rectenna arrays can be easily expanded to large scale integrated rectenna arrays, it will be practically attractive for wireless power transmission.
Autors: Sakamoto, T.;Ushijima, Y.;Nishiyama, E.;Aikawa, M.;Toyoda, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4872 - 4875
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50 years in the development of insulating liquids
Abstract:
The role of electrical insulation is critical for the proper operation of electrical equipment. Power equipment cannot operate without energy losses, which lead to rises in temperature. It is therefore essential to dissipate the heat generated by the energy losses, especially under high load conditions. Failing to do so results in premature aging, and ultimately to failure of the equipment. Heat dissipation can be achieved by circulating certain liquids, which also ensure electrical insulation of energized conductors. The insulating-fluids market is therefore likely to be dominated by liquids, leaving to gases (such as compressed air and SF6) limited applications in power equipment such as circuit breakers and switchgear [1]?????????[3]. Several billion liters of insulating liquids are used worldwide in power equipment such as transformers (power, rectifier, distribution, traction, furnace, potential, current) [4], resistors [5], reactors [6], capacitors [7], cables [8], bushings [9], circuit breakers [10], tap changers [11], thyristor cooling in power electronics, etc. [12]. In addition to their main functions of protecting solid insulation, quenching arc discharges, and dissipating heat, insulating liquids can also act as acoustic dampening media in power equipment such as transformers. More importantly, they provide a convenient means of routine evaluation of the condition of electrical equipment over its service life. Indeed, liquids play a vital role in maintaining the equipment in good condition (like blood in the human body). In particular they are responsible for the functional serviceability of the dielectric (insulation) system, the condition of which can be a decisive factor in determining the life span of the equipment [13]. Testing the physicochemical and electrical properties of the liquids can provide information on incipient electrical and mechanical failures. In some equipment, liquid samples can be obtained without service interruption.
Autors: null;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 29, issue:5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50 years of electrical-stress control in cable accessories
Abstract:
Maxwell and Felici developed the theoretical basis of geometrical stress control during the period 1846 to 1862. The first practical implementation, however, was that of Nagel in Germany in 1906 (Figure 1). He developed the so- called Nagel-bushing on the basis of conductive layers [1]. Around the same time, the Swiss professor Kuhlmann invented the refractive method [2]. His aim was to decrease the electrical stress at the points where it was highest, rather than distributing it to other areas. The famous Rogowski profile was introduced in 1923. The basic principles are the same today, although the applications have become more complex, and stress control is still an important research area in HV engineering. Developments in stress control during the last 50 years (Figure 1) have been due mainly to new materials and production processes, and modern technologies, which have made it possible to create cable accessories of more compact design and to improve their reliability. These developments have included impedance stress control based on heat-shrinkable tubing, and nonlinear stress control. In both cases the driving force was the need to improve the stress-control system of cable accessories.
Autors: null;null;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 29, issue:5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 500 Bipolar Integrated OR/NOR Gate in 4H-SiC
Abstract:
Successful operation of low-voltage 4H-SiC n-p-n bipolar transistors and digital integrated circuits based on emitter coupled logic is reported from to 500 . Nonmonotonous temperature dependence (previously predicted by simulations but now measured) was observed for the transistor current gain; in the range –300 it decreased when the temperature increased, while it increased in the range 300 –500 . Stable noise margins of were measured for a 2-input OR/NOR gate operated on supply voltage from 0 to 500 for both OR and NOR output.
Autors: Lanni, L.;Malm, B.G.;Ostling, M.;Zetterling, C.-M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 34, issue:9, pages: 1091 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G on the Horizon: Key Challenges for the Radio-Access Network
Abstract:
Toward the fifth generation (5G) of wireless/mobile broadband, numerous devices and networks will be interconnected and traffic demand will constantly rise. Heterogeneity will also be a feature that is expected to characterize the emerging wireless world, as mixed usage of cells of diverse sizes and access points with different characteristics and technologies in an operating environment are necessary. Wireless networks pose specific requirements that need to be fulfilled. In this respect, approaches for introducing intelligence will be investigated by the research community. Intelligence shall provide energy- and cost-efficient solutions at which a certain application/service/quality provision is achieved. Particularly, the introduction of intelligence in heterogeneous network deployments and the cloud radio-access network (RAN) is investigated. Finally, elaboration on emerging enabling technologies for applying intelligence will focus on the recent concepts of software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV).
Autors: Demestichas, P.;Georgakopoulos, A.;Karvounas, D.;Tsagkaris, K.;Stavroulaki, V.;Lu, J.;Xiong, C.;Yao, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 8, issue:3, pages: 47 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60th Anniversary of the IEEE IAS PCIC [History]
Abstract:
For the first time since 1981, the IEEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee (PCIC) annual conference will be held in Chicago. Scheduled for 23 September, this will be the 60th PCIC annual conference. In view of these noteworthy aspects, it seems appropriate to review the history of the PCIC.
Autors: Bried, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 800-nA Process-and-Voltage-Invariant 106-dB PSRR PTAT Current Reference
Abstract:
This brief presents a novel process-and-voltage-invariant proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current reference. The proposed circuit is designed and fabricated in 180-nm mixed-mode CMOS technology. Measurement results show that the varies only by 2.4% across 18 test chips. One thousand Monte Carlo simulation runs show that the maximum deviation from the desired value of the PTAT current is 5.4%. The proposed PTAT current reference uses a process, voltage, and temperature (PVT)-invariant resistor circuit having variation reduced by 4.2 times, as compared to a fixed biased MOSFET. The proposed PTAT current reference draws only 800-nA current from the supply voltage and also exhibits a high dc power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of 106 dB. This brief also presents a PVT-invariant transconductance using the implemented PVT-invariant resistor.
Autors: Amaravati, A.;Dave, M.;Baghini, M.S.;Sharma, D.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 577 - 581
Publisher: IEEE
 
» /GaN-Based Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetectors Covered With Au Nanoparticles
Abstract:
GaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors (PDs) with a layer were fabricated. To increase performance, the /GaN-based PDs were covered with Au nanoparticles. The reverse leakage current decreased by more than two orders of magnitude with a 10-V applied bias and a 95-fold increase of the rejection ratio (250/360 nm) was achieved with a 1-V applied bias after the PDs were covered with Au nanoparticles. There was an obvious response at 490 nm because of the surface plasmon resonance in Au nanoparticles. The results indicate that Au nanoparticles can be used to improve the performance of optoelectronic devices.
Autors: Huang, Z.-D.;Weng, W.-Y.;Chang, S.-J.;Hua, Y.-F.;Chiu, C.-J.;Tsai, T.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 25, issue:18, pages: 1809 - 1811
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thin Film Paper Transistors
Abstract:
In this work, we report on the fabrication of hybrid n-channel thin film transistors using paper as substrate and gate insulator, and indium oxide thin films as channel layer, and contacts for the source, drain and gate respectively. Capacitor paper having 10 thickness was used. thin films were grown by pulsed electron beam deposition method at room temperature. The gate leakage current was 20 nA at 5 V and the on/off current ratio up to , limited mainly by the gate leakage. The transfer characteristics – showed a memory effect with a threshold voltage of 0.8 V in “0” state and in “1” state. The drain current-voltage characteristics family – showed saturation currents up to 3.5 mA in “1”state and about in “0” state. The subthreshold swing was 0.3-0.5 V/decade.
Autors: Gherendi, F.;Nistor, M.;Mandache, N.B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 9, issue:9, pages: 760 - 763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thin Film Paper Transistors
Abstract:
In this work, we report on the fabrication of hybrid n-channel thin film transistors using paper as substrate and gate insulator, and indium oxide thin films as channel layer, and contacts for the source, drain and gate respectively. Capacitor paper having 10 thickness was used. thin films were grown by pulsed electron beam deposition method at room temperature. The gate leakage current was 20 nA at 5 V and the on/off current ratio up to , limited mainly by the gate leakage. The transfer characteristics – showed a memory effect with a threshold voltage of 0.8 V in “0” state and in “1” state. The drain current-voltage characteristics family – showed saturation currents up to 3.5 mA in “1”state and about in “0” state. The subthreshold swing was 0.3-0.5 V/decade.
Autors: Gherendi, F.;Nistor, M.;Mandache, N.B.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 9, issue:9, pages: 760 - 763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.008 500 469 kS/s Frequency-to-Digital Converter Based CMOS Temperature Sensor With Process Variation Compensation
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a temperature sensor based on a frequency-to-digital converter with digitally controlled process compensation. The proposed temperature sensor utilizes ring oscillators to generate a temperature dependent frequency. The adjusted linear frequency difference slope is used to improve the linearity of the temperature sensor and to compensate for process variations. Furthermore, an additional process compensation scheme is proposed to enhance the accuracy under one point calibration. With one point calibration, the resolution of the temperature sensor is 0.18 and the maximum inaccuracy of 20 measured samples is less than over a temperature range of . The entire block occupies 0.008 in 65 nm CMOS and consumes 500 at a conversion rate of 469 kS/s.
Autors: Hwang, S.;Koo, J.;Kim, K.;Lee, H.;Kim, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2241 - 2248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.008 500 469 kS/s Frequency-to-Digital Converter Based CMOS Temperature Sensor With Process Variation Compensation
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a temperature sensor based on a frequency-to-digital converter with digitally controlled process compensation. The proposed temperature sensor utilizes ring oscillators to generate a temperature dependent frequency. The adjusted linear frequency difference slope is used to improve the linearity of the temperature sensor and to compensate for process variations. Furthermore, an additional process compensation scheme is proposed to enhance the accuracy under one point calibration. With one point calibration, the resolution of the temperature sensor is 0.18 and the maximum inaccuracy of 20 measured samples is less than over a temperature range of . The entire block occupies 0.008 in 65 nm CMOS and consumes 500 at a conversion rate of 469 kS/s.
Autors: Hwang, S.;Koo, J.;Kim, K.;Lee, H.;Kim, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2241 - 2248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.32 THz SiGe 4x4 Imaging Array Using High-Efficiency On-Chip Antennas
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a 0.32 THz 4x4 imaging array based on an advanced SiGe technology. Each pixel is composed of a high efficiency on-chip antenna meeting all metal-density rules, which is coupled to a SiGe detector and a low noise CMOS operational amplifier. A quartz superstrate is used on top of the imaging chip to improve the radiation efficiency. The array results in an average NEP of 34 pW/Hz at an IF of 10–100 kHz for a detector bias current of 50–150 µA, a responsivity of 18 kV/W and a 3-dB bandwidth of 25 GHz. The power consumption is 2.4 mW/pixel. Extensive measurements are presented which show the challenges encountered in obtaining accurate measurements at THz frequencies using a quasi-optical set-up, and the decisions taken to quote the average NEP values.
Autors: Uzunkol, M.;Gurbuz, O.D.;Golcuk, F.;Rebeiz, G.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2056 - 2066
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.7–2.7-GHz Blocker-Tolerant Compact-Size Single-Antenna Receiver for Wideband Mobile Applications
Abstract:
Pub DtlPassive-mixer-first receivers have recently demonstrated flexible, low-noise, and high-linearity performance. Likewise, capacitive coupling element antennas have been demonstrated to be a viable choice for mobile handset integration. This paper combines these two advances into a single-antenna wideband receiver that achieves a 0.7–2.7-GHz reception band. The compact-size wideband tunable antenna achieves an efficiency of 45%–69% and occupies a volume of 2500 . The front-end integrated circuit achieves an input compression point of 5 dBm with a noise figure of 4 dB while occupying only 0.3 of active die area. Additionally, an interface impedance study is performed to find the optimal impedances around the passive mixer and to demonstrate the different design tradeoffs of a passive-mixer-first receiver. A local oscillator duty-cycle adjustment circuit and its effect on the receiver performance is also presented.
Autors: Kaltiokallio, M.;Valkonen, R.;Stadius, K.;Ryynanen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3339 - 3349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal
Abstract:
It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.
Autors: Mitu, M.L.;Toader, D.;Banu, N.;Scurtu, A.;Ticos, C.M.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 114, issue:11, pages: 113305 - 113305-10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 108–114 GHz 4 4 Wafer-Scale Phased Array Transmitter With High-Efficiency On-Chip Antennas
Abstract:
This paper presents a W-band wafer-scale phased- array transmitter with high-efficiency on-chip antennas. The 4 4 array is based on an RF beamforming architecture with an equiphase distribution network and phased shifters placed on every element. The differential on-chip antennas are implemented using a 100 thick quartz superstrate and with a simulated efficiency of at 110 GHz. The phased array is designed with low mutual coupling between the elements and results in a stable active antenna impedance versus scan angle. The phased array is built in the Jazz SBC18H3 SiGe BiCMOS process, and is 6.5 6.0 . Measurements show two-dimensional pattern scanning capabilities with a directivity of 17.0 dB, an array gain of at 110 GHz, and an EIRP of 23–25 dBm at 108–114 GHz. The power consumption is 3.4 W from a 1.9 V supply. To our knowledge, this work represents the first W-band wafer-scale phased array to-date. The application areas are in point-to-point communication systems in the 100–120 GHz range.
Autors: Shin, W.;Ku, B.-H.;Inac, O.;Ou, Y.-C.;Rebeiz, G.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2041 - 2055
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 243 GHz LNA Module Based on mHEMT MMICs With Integrated Waveguide Transitions
Abstract:
For use in a millimeter-wave direct detection radiometer for earth remote sensing, we have developed a low-noise amplifier (LNA) module with a small-signal gain of 19.5 dB at 243 GHz and a 3 dB bandwidth of 40 GHz. The implemented three-stage LNA MMIC has been manufactured using a 50 nm gate length metamorphic HEMT (mHEMT) technology on 50 m thick GaAs substrates. Each of the two on-chip integrated E-plane probe waveguide transitions offers a transmission loss of only 0.5 dB at 243 GHz including a 7.5 mm long WR-3.4 waveguide. Due to the low-loss packaging, the LNA module achieves a low noise figure of only 6.0 dB at room temperature.
Autors: Hurm, V.;Weber, R.;Tessmann, A.;Massler, H.;Leuther, A.;Kuri, M.;Riessle, M.;Stulz, H.P.;Zink, M.;Schlechtweg, M.;Ambacher, O.;Narhi, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 23, issue:9, pages: 486 - 488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3.3/2.5 V-Supply 2400 mV-Swing Single-Ended SiGe BiCMOS Driver With Programmable Preemphasis for 3 Gb/s Data Transmission Over 75 Coaxial Cable
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a quad single-ended cable driver delivering 2400 mV swing on each channel when double-terminated with 75 loads from a 3.3 V termination supply. Fabricated in 0.18 SiGe BiCMOS it implements a switched current source to replace the conventional current steering emitter-coupled pair, with output swing controlled via replica biasing in place of a current mirror. All outputs meet industry-standard specifications for SD (270 Mb/s), HD (1.485 Gb/s), and 3G (2.97 Gb/s) data rates across the industrial temperature range, and the device is rated to withstand 4 kV human body model electrostatic discharge. The high swing can be applied directly to compensate for broadband implementation losses or configured to provide up to 9 dB of programmable preemphasis, extending the specified compliance point to the far end of 2 5 m (3G rate) or 40 m (HD rate) of Belden 1694A coaxial cable.
Autors: Davies, P.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2128 - 2141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3.8-mW 3.5–4-GHz Regenerative FM-UWB Receiver With Enhanced Linearity by Utilizing a Wideband LNA and Dual Bandpass Filters
Abstract:
Pub DtlA low-power regenerative frequency-modulated ultra-wideband (FM-UWB) receiver with wideband signal reception and linear FM–AM conversion is implemented in 65-nm CMOS for short-range communication systems. Different from the conventional regenerative FM-UWB receiver having the narrowband low-noise amplifier (LNA), the proposed receiver employs a wideband LNA and dual bandpass filters (BPFs) to improve the robustness against narrowband interference and frequency shift-keying demodulation with a relaxed requirement of the BPF. A 3.5–4-GHz FM-UWB receiver consisting of a stacked LNA, dual BPFs, two envelop detectors, and a subtractor successfully performs FM demodulation through wireless transmission from a 100-kb/s FM-UWB transmitter, consuming the total power of 3.8 mW.
Autors: Chen, F.;Zhang, W.;Rhee, W.;Kim, J.;Kim, D.;Wang, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3350 - 3359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments
Abstract:
The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 μm diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.
Autors: Smith, Doran D.;Alexson, Dimitri A.;Garbini, Joseph L.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 84, issue:9, pages: 095110 - 095110-13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-Bit, 1.6 GS/s Low Power Flash ADC, Based on Offset Calibration and Segmentation
Abstract:
Pub DtlA low power 4-bit, 1.6 GS/s flash ADC is presented. A new power reduction technique which masks the unused blocks in a semi-pipeline chain of latches and encoders is introduced. The proposed circuit determines the unused blocks based on a pre-sensing of the signal. Moreover, a reference voltage generator with very low static power dissipation is used. Novel techniques to reduce the sensitivity to dynamic noise are proposed to suppress the noise effects on the reference generator. The proposed circuit reduces the power consumption by 20 percent compared to the conventional structure when a Nyquist rate OFDM signal is applied. The INL and DNL of the converter are smaller than 0.3 LSB after calibration. The converter offers 3.8 effective number of bits (ENOB) at 1.6 GS/s sampling rate with a low frequency input signal and more than 1.8 GHz effective resolution bandwidth (ERBW) at this sampling rate. The converter consumes mere 15.5 mW from a 1.8 V supply, yielding an FoM of 695 fJ/conversion.step and occupies 0.3 mm in a 0.18 m standard CMOS process.
Autors: Chahardori, M.;Sharifkhani, M.;Sadughi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2285 - 2297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.8-GHz Dividerless Subharmonically Injection-Locked All-Digital PLL With a FOM of 252.5 dB
Abstract:
A subharmonically injection-locked all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) is presented to achieve both low power and low phase noise simultaneously. This ADPLL uses a bang-bang phase detector to maintain the phase locking without a time-to-digital converter, and the dividers can be disabled to reduce the power. In addition, a subharmonically injection-locked technique is used to achieve a low phase noise. This ADPLL is fabricated in a 40-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology. Its power consumption is 3.661 mW for a supply voltage of 1.1 V. The measured phase noise is equal to 122.33 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz. The integrated root-mean-square jitter is 123.4 fs for the offset frequency from 1 kHz to 100 MHz. The calculated figure of merit is equal to 252.5 dB.
Autors: Lee, I.-T.;Zeng, K.-H.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 547 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gb/s Single-Ended Parallel Receiver With Adaptive Crosstalk-Induced Jitter Cancellation
Abstract:
This paper presents an adaptive far-end crosstalk cancellation scheme for a single-ended parallel receiver. The adaptation engine is embedded in a single representative channel CDR, and the receiver efficiently reduces the crosstalk noise with a minimal cost in hardware and power consumption. In addition, the proposed scheme can be applied to any given CDR and equalizing circuits. The receiver is fabricated in 0.13 µm CMOS technology and achieves a reduction of FEXT-induced jitter up to 75%. The receiver consumes 65 mW at 5 Gb/s (4.3 mW/Gb/s/pin) including a PLL for global clock distribution.
Autors: Lee, S.-K.;Kim, B.;Park, H.-J.;Sim, J.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2118 - 2127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 to 45 GHz Distributed Mixer With Cascoded Complementary Switching Pairs
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis letter presents a 5 to 45 GHz broadband distributed mixer implemented by using a standard CMOS process. The proposed mixer uses a cascoded complementary switching pair to improve port-to-port isolation. The proposed mixer also forms a four-stage distributed topology to achieve a broad bandwidth and reduce conversion loss (CL). The distributed mixer achieves a wide operation bandwidth from 5 to 45 GHz; a low CL of 11 to 13.2 dB; good LO-to-RF, LO-to-IF, and RF-to-IF isolations from 33 to 47 dB, 28 to 53 dB, and 32 to 48 dB, respectively, at an LO power level of 8 dBm with a low 1.4 mW dc power consumption.
Autors: Lin, Y.-S.;Lu, C.-L.;Wang, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 23, issue:9, pages: 495 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-Bit 1.25-GS/s 4x-Capacitive-Folding Flash ADC in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a 5-bit 1.25-GS/s folding flash ADC. The prototype achieves a folding factor of four with a capacitive folding technique that only consumes dynamic power. Incorporated with various calibration schemes, folding errors and the comparator's threshold inaccuracies are corrected, thus allowing a low input capacitance of 80 fF. The design is fabricated using 65-nm digital CMOS technology and occupies 0.007 mm . The maximum DNL and INL post calibration are 0.67 and 0.47 LSB, respectively. Measurement results show that the ADC can achieve 1.25 GS/s at 1-V supply with a total power consumption of 595 W. In addition, it exhibits a mean ENOB of 4.8b at dc among ten chips, which yields an FoM of 17 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Chan, C.-H.;Zhu, Y.;Sin, S.-W.;U, S.-P.;Martins, R.P.;Maloberti, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2154 - 2169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 53-to-75-mW, 59.3-dB HRR, TV-Band White-Space Transmitter Using a Low-Frequency Reference LO in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
Pub DtlA TV-band white-space transmitter covering a 16x-wide spectrum from 54 to 864 MHz is described. It features a systematic codesign between the architecture and circuits to address the harmonic-mixing problem. Specifically, it incorporates two-stage 6-/14-path harmonic-rejection mixers and low-Q passive-RC/-CLC filters to manage the unwanted harmonic emission fully on chip, achieving an uncalibrated harmonic rejection ratio (HRR) of minimally 59.3 dB (16 samples) for all in-/out-band harmonics. The employed 8-/16-phase LO generator is based on injection-locked 4-/8-phase correctors and even-ratio-only frequency dividers to save the LO-path power (2.5 to 14.2 mW) while lowering the required reference LO frequency (432 to 864 MHz). Without any predistortion, the EVM tested under a 64-QAM OFDM digital-TV signal is 2.9% at 96 MHz, 3.3% at 384 MHz, and 4.0% at 600 MHz. The first (second) adjacent channel leakage ratio is 46 dBc ( 43 dBc) at 6 MHz (12 MHz) offset. The power consumption is 53.1 to 75.2 mW and active area is 0.93 mm in 65-nm CMOS.
Autors: Un, K.-F.;Mak, P.-I.;Martins, R.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2078 - 2089
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 67-mW 10.7-Gb/s 60-GHz OOK CMOS Transceiver for Short-Range Wireless Communications
Abstract:
Pub DtlA low-power and high data-rate fully integrated 60-GHz on–off keying (OOK) transceiver for short-range wireless communication is demonstrated. The transceiver consists of a switch, transmitter, and receiver and uses OOK modulation for a compact and low-power design. With a highly efficient Tx, high-speed modulator/demodulator, and wideband characteristic, the transceiver has low-power and high data-rate capability. Implemented in 90-nm CMOS technology, the transmitter and the receiver consume 31 and 36 mW at 10.7 Gb/s and occupy an active footprint of 0.15 and , respectively. The transceiver with an on-board Yagi–Uda antenna achieves 10.7-Gb/s wireless OOK data transmission over 10 cm at a bit-error rate of less than for pseudorandom binary sequence. As a result, the proposed transceiver achieves energy efficiency of 6.26 pJ/bit.
Autors: Byeon, C.W.;Yoon, C.H.;Park, C.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3391 - 3401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6T-SRAM With a Post-Process Electron Injection Scheme That Pinpoints and Simultaneously Repairs Disturb Fails for 57% Less Read Delay and 31% Less Read Energy
Abstract:
A post-process carrier injection scheme for 6T-SRAM is proposed. The proposed scheme pinpoints and simultaneously repairs only cells that have low read disturb margin by injecting electrons to the strong pass gate transistor. Compared with the conventional electron injection scheme that injects electrons to either side of the pass gate transistor of all cells, the proposed scheme achieves 57% less BL delay, 31% less read energy, 32 ~ 256 times shorter injection time and 3% area reduction. The concept is validated with 2, 64, 128 kb SRAM in 40 nm standard CMOS process. Experiments show around 40 mV operation margin increase after the proposed injection.
Autors: Miyaji, K.;Suzuki, T.;Miyano, S.;Takeuchi, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2239 - 2249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 700-V Device in High-Voltage Power ICs With Low On-State Resistance and Enhanced SOA
Abstract:
This paper presents a 700-V high-voltage laterally diffused metal-oxide–semiconductor (LDMOS) field-effect transistor with a p-body_Extension reduce surface field (RESURF) structure. Experimental results demonstrate that the low ON resistance and breakdown voltage (BV)- figure of merit approach the ideal Baliga's power law, in addition, breaks the quasi-saturation limitation with enhanced device safe operating area (SOA). The optimal charge balance and geometrical design to achieve the lowest specific ON resistance with the desired maximum high BV are displayed and discussed by simulations and experimental results. The 2-D simulations confirmed that, compared with conventional triple-RESURF structures, the presented device provides a fourfold reduction in the surface electric field on the source side and a 32% improvement in blocking voltage. The specific ON resistance demonstrates superior 40% lower performance than published Junction Isolation LDMOS device families. In addition, its twofold increase in SOA extension can improve the performance of circuit designs for switching power supply applications.
Autors: Yang, F.-J.;Gong, J.;Su, R.-Y.;Huo, K.-H.;Tsai, C.-L.;Cheng, C.-C.;Liou, R.-H.;Tuan, H.-C.;Huang, C.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2847 - 2853
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 75-µW, 16-Channel Neural Spike-Sorting Processor With Unsupervised Clustering
Abstract:
Pub DtlEnergy-efficient spike-sorting DSPs are necessary to allow for the real-time processing of multi-channel, wireless, implantable neural recordings. Online, unsupervised clustering forms an integral part of on-chip spike sorting. However, previous spike-sorting DSPs did not include unsupervised clustering due to the large memory required for its implementation. We demonstrate the first multi-channel spike-sorting DSP chip that includes online, unsupervised clustering. On-chip clustering has been made possible by using a two-stage implementation of an online clustering algorithm, a noise-tolerant distance metric, and selectively clocked high-V register banks. The 16-channel spike-sorting chip, implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process, has a power dissipation of 75 µW at a supply voltage of 270 mV. The implementation of on-chip clustering provides a 240x reduction in the output data rate, which is 3x higher than the data-rate reduction obtained from previous spike-sorting DSP chips.
Autors: Karkare, V.;Gibson, S.;Markovic, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2230 - 2238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 81-dB Dynamic Range 16-MHz Bandwidth Modulator Using Background Calibration
Abstract:
Pub DtlA fourth-order discrete-time delta-sigma modulator (DSM) was fabricated using a 65-nm CMOS technology. It combines low-complexity circuits and digital calibrations to achieve high speed and high performance. The DSM is a cascade of two second-order loops. It has a sampling rate of 1.1 GHz and an input bandwidth of 16.67 MHz with an oversampling ratio of 33. It uses high-speed opamps with a dc gain of only 10. Two different types of digital calibrations are used. We first employ the integrator leakage calibration to correct the poles of the integrators. We then apply the noise leakage calibration to minimize the leaking quantization noise from the first loop. The noise leakage calibration also relaxes the component-matching requirements. Both calibrations can operate in the background without interrupting the normal DSM operation. The chip's measured signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio and dynamic range are 74.32 and 81 dB, respectively. The chip consumes 94 mW from a 1 –V supply. The active area is .
Autors: Wu, S.-H.;Wu, J.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2170 - 2179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 900 MHz Beam Steering Parasitic Antenna Array for Wearable Wireless Applications
Abstract:
A 900 MHz wearable beam steering antenna array is proposed. A wideband driven dipole when assisted by several varactor diode controlled parasitic dipoles allows the array beam to be steered in the azimuth. Antenna array prototypes fabricated using copper, conductive fabrics and conductive threads show good bandwidth and radiation performance. The array when placed against an anatomically correct human body model shows that the array beam can be steered along 3 distinct angles, 0, 45, and 315 degrees with 5.9 dBi peak gain.
Autors: Islam, Md.R.;Ali, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4520 - 4527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -FIR-DAC for Multi-Bit Modulators
Abstract:
In this paper, a new digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is proposed for multi-bit continuous-time sigma-delta modulators ( Ms). This -finite-impulse-response-DAC ( -FIR-DAC) digitally converts the multi-bit output of the quantizer to a 1.5-bit signal at a higher rate and then injects it to the modulator loop filter by using a 1.5-bit DAC. An FIR filter is merged into 1.5-bit DAC to improve the clock jitter insensitivity. Furthermore, a new implementation of FIR-DAC is presented to reduce the output rate of -FIR-DAC down to the original rate of the modulator. This reduced rate -FIR-DAC (RR- -FIR-DAC) can be used in both continuous-time and discrete-time Ms. Theoretical analysis supported by simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance, clock jitter immunity and robustness against DAC elements mismatch in the proposed modulators.
Autors: Pakniat, H.;Yavari, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2321 - 2332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -FIR-DAC for Multi-Bit Modulators
Abstract:
In this paper, a new digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is proposed for multi-bit continuous-time sigma-delta modulators ( Ms). This -finite-impulse-response-DAC ( -FIR-DAC) digitally converts the multi-bit output of the quantizer to a 1.5-bit signal at a higher rate and then injects it to the modulator loop filter by using a 1.5-bit DAC. An FIR filter is merged into 1.5-bit DAC to improve the clock jitter insensitivity. Furthermore, a new implementation of FIR-DAC is presented to reduce the output rate of -FIR-DAC down to the original rate of the modulator. This reduced rate -FIR-DAC (RR- -FIR-DAC) can be used in both continuous-time and discrete-time Ms. Theoretical analysis supported by simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance, clock jitter immunity and robustness against DAC elements mismatch in the proposed modulators.
Autors: Pakniat, H.;Yavari, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2321 - 2332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bandwidth-Adaptive Preamplifier
Abstract:
Pub DtlWe propose an adaptive microphone preamplifier that adjusts its power consumption according to the input signal's bandwidth. A chip prototype of the adaptive preamplifier for speech processing was fabricated in a 0.5-µm CMOS process. The adaptive preamplifier's measured input referred noise is 3 µV and its total harmonic distortion is −40 dBc for an 80-mV input amplitude. These noise and distortion specifications remain virtually constant over the preamplifier's range of bandwidth adaptation. The adaptive preamplifier consumes 65 µW of power. This is achieved with no degradation in speech quality, when compared to a conventional preamplifier of fixed bandwidth, and as measured by the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) score.
Autors: Du, D.;Odame, K.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 2142 - 2153
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Approach for System Reliability Analysis With Multilevel Pass-Fail, Lifetime and Degradation Data Sets
Abstract:
Reliability analysis of complex systems is a critical issue in reliability engineering. Motivated by practical needs, this paper investigates a Bayesian approach for system reliability assessment and prediction with multilevel heterogeneous data sets. Two major imperatives have been handled in the proposed approach, which provides a comprehensive Bayesian framework for the integration of multilevel heterogeneous data sets. In particular, the pass-fail data, lifetime data, and degradation data at different system levels are combined coherently for system reliability analysis. This approach goes beyond the alternatives that deal with solely multilevel pass-fail or lifetime data, and presents a more practical tool for real engineering applications. In addition, the indices for reliability assessment and prediction are constructed coherently within the proposed Bayesian framework. It gives rise to a natural manner of incorporating this approach into a decision-making procedure for system operation and management. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated with reliability analysis of a navigation satellite.
Autors: Peng, W.;Huang, H.-Z.;Xie, M.;Yang, Y.;Liu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 689 - 699
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bin Packing Heuristic for On-Line Service Placement and Performance Control
Abstract:
The ever-increasing size and complexity of cloud computing, data centers, virtualization, web services, and other forms of distributed computing make automated and effective service management increasingly important. This article treats the service placement problem as a novel generalization of the on-line vector packing problem. This generalization of the service placement problem does not require a priori knowledge of the service resource profiles, allows for resource profiles to change over time, and allows services to be moved once placed on a server. An on-line self-organizing model profiles resource supplies and demands arranging services in a placement based on their resulting quality rating. A policy-driven asymmetric matrix norm quantifies the quality of the placement allowing for administrative preferences regarding service performance versus service inclusion. Service resource usage profiles' variations cause changes in their assigned placement quality; forcing new, better server placements to be found. Because some placements perform better, a proportional integral derivative controller for performance feedback adjusts the services' actual profile according to service's individual response times. This large scale system autonomically organizes placement of services in response to changes in demand and network disruptions. This article presents theorems which demonstrate the theoretical basis for the model. The article includes empirical results from the implementation of this model in a self-organizing testbed of web servers and services.
Autors: Reynolds, M.Brent;Hulce, Don R.;Hopkinson, Kenneth M.;Oxley, Mark E.;Mullins, Barry E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 326 - 339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Blind Receiver with Multiple Antennas in Impulsive Noise Modeled as the Sub-Gaussian Distribution via the MCMC Algorithm
Abstract:
Receivers with an antenna array based on the assumption of Gaussian noise have experienced poor performance in extremely low-frequency/very-low-frequency (ELF/VLF) communication systems, in which the noise is highly impulsive. In this paper, a blind receiver with multiple antennas for channels with impulsive noise is developed to estimate signal and channel parameters jointly by using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm. The impulsive noise is modeled as the sub-Gaussian distribution, which is widely applied. Simulation results show that the blind receiver can rapidly converge, and excellent performance can be achieved.
Autors: Ying, W.;Jiang, Y.;Liu, Y.;Li, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 62, issue:7, pages: 3492 - 3497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Logarithmic Power Detector in 0.13- m CMOS
Abstract:
A broadband logarithmic (log) power detector with a wide dynamic range has been developed using a 0.13 m CMOS process. The proposed power detector consists of three signal amplification and rectification branches combined in parallel for broadband operation. The required linearity and dynamic range are provided by high-linearity rectifier design using active degeneration technique. The fabricated power detector chip has a size of 1.0 mm 0.75 mm and consumes 35.2 mW. The power detector shows a dynamic range wider than 43 dB with dB log error up to 14 GHz. Over 50 dB dynamic range is achieved at 16 GHz with a slightly higher log error of dB.
Autors: Kim, K.;Kwon, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 23, issue:9, pages: 498 - 500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A case for three-dimensional stacking of tightly coupled data memories over multi-core clusters using low-latency interconnects
Abstract:
Shared tightly coupled data memories are key architectural elements for building multi-core clusters in programmable accelerators and embedded systems, as they provide a convenient shared memory abstraction while avoiding cache coherence overheads. The performance of these memories largely depends on the architecture of the interconnect used between processing elements (PEs) and memory banks. The advent of three-dimensional (3D) technology has provided new opportunities to increase design modularity and reduce latency and manufacturing cost. In this study, the authors propose two 3D network architectures: C-logarithmic interconnect (LIN) and Distributed logarithmic interconnect (D-LIN) (designed in synthesisable RTL), which allow modular stacking of multiple L1 memory dies over a multi-core cluster with a limited number of PEs. The authors have used two through-silicon-via technologies: the state-of-the-art micro-bumps and the promising and dense Cu??Cu direct bonding. The overhead of electrostatic discharge protection circuits has been considered, as well. Architectural simulation results demonstrate that, in processor-to-L1-memory context, C-LIN and D-LIN perform significantly better than traditional network-on-chips and simple time-division multiplexing buses. Furthermore, post-layout results show that the proposed 3D architectures achieve comparable speed against their 2D counterparts, whereas enabling modularity: from 256 kB to 2 MB L1 memory configurations with a single mask set.
Autors: Azarkhish, E.;Loi, I.;Benini, L.;
Appeared in: IET Computers & Digital Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 7, issue:5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Case Study of Spectral Signature Detection in Multimodal and Outlier-Contaminated Scenes
Abstract:
Mapping localized spectral features in complex scenes demands sensitive and robust detection algorithms. This letter investigates two aspects of large images that can harm matched filter (MF) detection performance. First, multimodal backgrounds may violate normality assumptions. Second, outlier features can trigger false detections due to large projections onto the target vector. We review two state-of-the-art methods designed to resolve these issues. The background clustering of Funk models multimodal backgrounds, and the mixture-tuned (MT) MF of Boardman and Kruse addresses outliers. We demonstrate that combining the two methods has additional performance benefits. An MT cluster MF shows effective performance on simulated and airborne data sets. We demonstrate target detection scenarios that evidence multimodality, outliers, and their combination. These experiments explore the performance of the component algorithms and the practical circumstances that can favor a combined approach.
Autors: Thompson, D.R.;Mandrake, L.;Green, R.O.;Chien, S.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1021 - 1025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cloud-Oriented Content Delivery Network Paradigm: Modeling and Assessment
Abstract:
Cloud-oriented content delivery networks (CCDNs) constitute a promising alternative to traditional content delivery networks. Exploiting the advantages and principles of the cloud, such as the pay as you go business model and geographical dispersion of resources, CCDN can provide a viable and cost-effective solution for realizing content delivery networks and services. In this paper, a hierarchical framework is proposed and evaluated toward an efficient and scalable solution of content distribution over a multiprovider networked cloud environment, where inter and intra cloud communication resources are simultaneously considered along with traditional cloud computing resources. To efficiently deal with the CCDN deployment problem in this emerging and challenging computing paradigm, the problem is decomposed to graph partitioning and replica placement problems while appropriate cost models are introduced/adapted. Novel approaches on the replica placement problem within the cloud are proposed while the limitations of the physical substrate are taken into consideration. The performance of the proposed hierarchical CCDN framework is assessed via modeling and simulation, while appropriate metrics are defined/adopted associated with and reflecting the interests of the different identified involved key players.
Autors: Papagianni, Chrysa;Leivadeas, Aris;Papavassiliou, Symeon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 287 - 300
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Fractional- PLL-Based Microwave Chemical Sensor With 1.5% Permittivity Accuracy
Abstract:
Pub DtlA highly sensitive CMOS-based sensing system is proposed for permittivity detection and mixture characterization of organic chemicals at microwave frequencies. The system determines permittivity by measuring the frequency difference between two voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs); a sensor oscillator with an operating frequency that shifts with the change in tank capacitance due to exposure to the material under test (MUT) and a reference oscillator insensitive to the MUT. This relative measurement approach improves sensor accuracy by tracking frequency drifts due to environmental variations. Embedding the sensor and reference VCOs in a fractional- phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer enables material characterization at a precise frequency and provides an efficient material-induced frequency shift read-out mechanism with a low-complexity bang–bang control loop that adjusts a fractional frequency divider. The majority of the PLL-based sensor system, except for an external fractional frequency divider, is implemented with a 90-nm CMOS prototype that consumes 22 mW when characterizing material near 10 GHz. Material-induced frequency shifts are detected at an accuracy level of 15 and binary mixture characterization of organic chemicals yield maximum errors in permittivity of 1.5%.
Autors: Elhadidy, O.;Elkholy, M.;Helmy, A.A.;Palermo, S.;Entesari, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3402 - 3416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Transmitter Leakage Canceller for WCDMA Applications
Abstract:
A transmitter (TX) leakage canceller is proposed for improving the dynamic range of the receiver (RX) for wideband code division multiple access applications. A TX leakage canceller circuit in this paper is simple in implementation and has low noise figure (NF) contribution. It is a feed-forward canceller that samples a reference signal from the TX output and injects the amplitude-adjusted and phase-rotated signal to the RX chain. The canceller circuit is integrated with a low-noise amplifier and implemented in a 0.18- CMOS technology. A cancellation of 23 dB is achieved with only 10-mA current consumption increase and low NF increase.
Autors: Kim, H.;Woo, S.;Jung, S.;Lee, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3373 - 3380
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Collaborative and Scalable Platform for On-Demand IPTV Services
Abstract:
As a promising standard of television, Internet protocol television (IPTV) gains increasing popularity with its on-demand services. However, supporting scalable on-demand IPTV services remains to be an important challenge. Existing IPTV architecture dedicates a regional station to serve subscribers in the respective region regardless of temporal and spatial dynamics in service demand. This may cause significant imbalance of resource utilization and service provisioning delay among stations, especially with increasing subscribers and service catalog. In this paper, we propose CiTV, a collaborative Internet TV service platform that achieves efficient and scalable IPTV service delivery through interstation collaboration. First, CiTV employs a novel request dispatching algorithm that enables stations to autonomously dispatch requests among themselves and achieves low per-view cost and load variance at the same time. Second, CiTV also leverages a distributed content placement algorithm to globally optimize content utilization at multistation level, which is important for deployment scalability. Last but not the least, CiTV also ensures service delivery quality and efficiency through fine-grained collaboration scope control. We perform both theoretical and empirical analysis of CiTV. Our experiment results suggest that CiTV significantly improves the scalability of on-demand IPTV services for the existing IPTV architecture.
Autors: Meng, Shicong;Liu, Ling;Yin, Jianwei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 6, issue:3, pages: 358 - 372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Common Subexpression Elimination Tree Algorithm
Abstract:
Pub DtlA common subexpression elimination algorithm is proposed to minimize the complexity of the multiple constant multiplication operation. The coefficients (constants) of the multiple constant multiplication are represented using the binary signed digit number system. The binary signed digit representations of each coefficient are enumerated using the representation tree. The algorithm traverses the tree to calculate the possible subexpressions at each node. Each subexpression is used to find a possible decomposition for the coefficient to be encoded. A complexity formula is proposed to compare the decompositions. The algorithm is designed to prune the tree when it finds a decomposition with minimum complexity. This reduces the search space while minimizing the hardware complexity. Results show that the algorithm has better performance than other published algorithms including linear programming optimization methods. The algorithm outperforms the subexpression sharing method in that uses only the canonical signed-digit representations.
Autors: Al-Hasani, F.;Hayes, M.P.;Bainbridge-Smith, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2389 - 2400
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator
Abstract:
A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.
Autors: Mohania, Praveen;Mahawar, Ashish;Shrivastava, Purushottam;Gupta, P.D.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 84, issue:9, pages: 094703 - 094703-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Circularly Polarized Antenna Using an Array of Folded-Shorted Patches
Abstract:
The development and optimization of a circularly polarized (CP) antenna using an array of four folded-shorted patch elements is investigated. The realized antenna is compact ( by ), highly integrated, and offers good radiation performance at 400 MHz. A compact coupler-based feeding network for the four elements within the array, integrated into the antenna ground plane, provides a sequential 90 phase difference between the radiating folded-shorted patches. This very compact CP antenna design may be useful for microsatellite and other miniaturized phased array systems for communications.
Autors: Podilchak, S.K.;Caillet, M.;Lee, D.;Antar, Y.M.M.;Chu, L.C.Y.;Cain, J.;Hammar, M.;Caldwell, D.;Barron, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4861 - 4867
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact SPICE Model of Unipolar Memristive Devices
Abstract:
This paper introduces a compact SPICE model of unipolar memristive devices. The model is based on the unipolar memristive system equations with the assistance of two resistance switching velocity functions for controlling the SET and RESET processes, respectively. Our model is highly parameterized by providing various adjustable model parameters. We verify the functionality of our model by the HSPICE simulation with parameters abstracted from a real device and a previous model. As an example of model application, we successfully use the model to simulate the stateful logic operations of the memristive implication gate circuit. Compared with previous models, the proposed model is of good efficiency, accuracy, and usability.
Autors: Fang, X.;Yang, X.;Wu, J.;Yi, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 12, issue:5, pages: 843 - 850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Analysis of Speed Profile Models for Wrist Pointing Movements
Abstract:
Following two decades of design and clinical research on robot-mediated therapy for the shoulder and elbow, therapeutic robotic devices for other joints are being proposed: several research groups including ours have designed robots for the wrist, either to be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with shoulder and elbow devices. However, in contrast with robots for the shoulder and elbow which were able to take advantage of descriptive kinematic models developed in neuroscience for the past 30 years, design of wrist robots controllers cannot rely on similar prior art: wrist movement kinematics has been largely unexplored. This study aimed at examining speed profiles of fast, visually evoked, visually guided, target-directed human wrist pointing movements. One thousand three-hundred ninety-eight (1398) trials were recorded from seven unimpaired subjects who performed center-out flexion/extension and abduction/adduction wrist movements and fitted with 19 models previously proposed for describing reaching speed profiles. A nonlinear, least squares optimization procedure extracted parameters' sets that minimized error between experimental and reconstructed data. Models' performances were compared based on their ability to reconstruct experimental data. Results suggest that the support-bounded lognormal is the best model for speed profiles of fast, wrist pointing movements. Applications include design of control algorithms for therapeutic wrist robots and quantitative metrics of motor recovery.
Autors: Vaisman, L.;Dipietro, L.;Krebs, H.I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 756 - 766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Study Into Intrabody Communication Measurements
Abstract:
One of the main objectives of research into intrabody communication (IBC) is the characterization of the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals. However, such characterization is strongly influenced by the conditions under which the experiments are performed. In addition, the outcomes reported in the literature vary according to the measurement method used, frequently making comparisons among them unfeasible. Further studies are still required in order to establish a methodology for IBC characterization and design. In this paper, both galvanic and capacitive coupling setups have been implemented and a comprehensive set of measurements has been carried out by analyzing fundamental IBC parameters such as optimum frequency range, maximum channel length, and type of electrodes, among others. Consequently, practical conclusions regarding the experimental conditions that optimize IBC performance for each coupling technique have been obtained.
Autors: Callejon, M.A.;Naranjo-Hernandez, D.;Reina-Tosina, J.;Roa, L.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 62, issue:9, pages: 2446 - 2455
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computational Framework for Prioritization of Events in Fault Tree Analysis Under Interval-Valued Probabilities
Abstract:
In probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the assessed events can be prioritized using risk importance measures, which are functions of the events' failure probabilities. These probabilities can be uncertain, and consequently the resulting prioritization can be uncertain too. In this paper, we present a framework for computing the impacts of this uncertainty, which is modeled by interval-valued probabilities that establish lower and upper bounds, within which the probability may vary. Specifically, we make pairwise comparisons between events so that an event is said to dominate another if its risk importance measure is at least as high for all event probabilities that are within their respective intervals, and strictly higher for some probabilities. The dominance relations establish a partial order which can be visualized as a directed acyclic graph. We illustrate our method by analyzing the fault tree that represents the residual heat removal system of a nuclear reactor. The results for this fault tree with 31 events and 147 minimal cut sets was solved in seconds using a tailored algorithm. Theoretical properties of the algorithm suggest that much larger models can still be solved in reasonable time.
Autors: Toppila, A.;Salo, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 583 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Construction of Quantum LDPC Codes From Cayley Graphs
Abstract:
We study a construction of quantum LDPC codes proposed by MacKay, Mitchison, and Shokrollahi. It is based on the Cayley graph of together with a set of generators regarded as the columns of the parity-check matrix of a classical code. We give a general lower bound on the minimum distance of the quantum code in where is the minimum distance of the classical code. This bound is logarithmic in the blocklength of the quantum code. When the classical code is the repetition code, we are able to compute the exact parameters of the associated quantum code which are .
Autors: Couvreur, A.;Delfosse, N.;Zemor, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 59, issue:9, pages: 6087 - 6098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Continuous Secure Scheme in Static Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In heterogeneous sensor networks (HSNs), which use existing key predistribution schemes, network security will significantly decline with time. In this paper, a continuous secure scheme is proposed based on two-dimensional backward key chains. In the scheme, powerful sensors do not need to be equipped with tamper-resistant hardware. Analysis and simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the performance of existing schemes in resilience against node capture attacks throughout the lifecycle of static HSNs.
Autors: Zhou, Boqing;Wang, Jianxin;Li, Sujun;Cheng, Yun;Wu, Jie;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 1868 - 1871
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Crystal-Less Self-Synchronized Bit-Level Duty-Cycled IR-UWB Transceiver System
Abstract:
Pub DtlA self-synchronized dual-band OOK IR-UWB transceiver system for short-range, low-data rate sensor networks is demonstrated. The transceiver system utilizes asynchronous non-coherent energy detection coupled with a novel pulse-coupled injection-locking scheme to synchronize transceivers throughout the network at nanosecond-scale precision. The pulse-coupled synchronization scheme compensates for intrinsic frequency variation so that all timing in the system can be derived from an integrated relaxation oscillator operating at a nominal frequency of 150 KHz. A low-jitter PLL and simple combinational logic is used for timing generation and control. The system is duty cycled between the expected arrival times of the sync and data pulses, allowing a demonstrated average RF duty cycle of less than 1% while being able to maintain synchronization for nearly 1 million cycles. Total measured system power consumption is 119 while actively communicating with 1200 bit packets. The transceiver was designed in a 90 nm IBM CMOS process and occupies 1.7 of active area.
Autors: Wang, X.Y.;Dokania, R.K.;Apsel, A.B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 2488 - 2501
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Crystal-Less Temperature-Independent Reconfigurable Transmitter Targeted for High-Temperature Wireless Acoustic Telemetry Applications
Abstract:
A reconfigurable acoustic telemetry transmitter that employs crystal-less temperature-independent frequency reference has been realized in a 1- silicon-on-insulator complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process. The transmitter can be configured to transmit either a three-channel chirp signal or a six-channel on–off keying (OOK) signal to provide flexibility based on channel characteristics. Different frequencies derived from the crystal-less temperature-independent frequency reference are directly modulated by input data before being combined and sent through a multiple-feedback low-pass filter. The resulting three-channel chirp signal achieves a total data rate of 60 b/s, whereas the six-channel OOK signal achieves a total data rate of 120 b/s. The frequency reference is realized through a frequency-locked loop that employs a resistor–capacitor phase shifter with a resistor temperature coefficient cancellation technique. It achieves a frequency inaccuracy of 1.94% over the temperature range of . Consuming 9 mW and occupying 25 , this brief is the first reported integrated solution targeted for high-temperature acoustic telemetry in oil-drilling applications with the highest reported data rate.
Autors: Zhou, L.;Annamalai, M.;Koh, J.;Je, M.;Yao, L.;Heng, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 60, issue:9, pages: 542 - 546
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cylindrical Higher-Order FDTD Algorithm With PML and Quasi-PML
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop an higher-order finite-difference time-domain (HO-FDTD) scheme with a cylindrical grid for time-domain Maxwell's equations. The stability and dispersion property of the scheme is investigated and it is shown that larger cells decrease the numerical phase error, which makes it significantly lower than the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for low and medium discretizations, and the HO-FDTD scheme has an advantage of multiresolution time-domain (MRTD) in general. Moreover, two absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) are derived for the cylindrical HO-FDTD grids. The first one is the PML based on stretched coordinates, and the other is the straightforward extension of Berenger's perfectly matched layer (PML) that is named quasi-PML (QPML) as it is no longer perfectly matched for cylindrical interfaces. The absorbing effectiveness of the two ABCs are compared and the numerical simulations validate that both PML schemes can provide a satisfactory absorbing boundary condition, while the QPML can save more computation time and computer memory.
Autors: Chen, Y.;Liu, Y.;Chen, B.;Zhang, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4695 - 4704
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Diagnostic Approach for Advanced Tracking of Commercial Vehicles With Time Window Constraints
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a fleet supervision system used to monitor on-road evolutions of commercial transport vehicles. This monitoring is accomplished by the automatic dispatch, during crossing of a tracking location, of information issued from the localization system on the vehicle. This information can be sent to a server through a direct Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol connection in a general packet radio service network (GPRS) or through a satellite network. The information is provided by the system to some allowed users via an Internet website. The fleet supervision system also enables analyzing messages sent by vehicles to identify differences between real data and planned data. We are more particularly interested in the diagnostics of delays, which can take place during deliveries. In fact, while crossing already fixed tracking locations, these delays are detected as early as possible, and their consequences are predicted so that corrective or preventive actions are undertaken as soon as possible.
Autors: Boufaied, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 1470 - 1479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete Point Estimate Method for Probabilistic Load Flow Based on the Measured Data of Wind Power
Abstract:
Probabilistic load flow (LF) calculation is the first step to evaluate the potential impact of the integrated wind power on the power system. Although research works show that the wind speed can be modeled by a Weibull probability density function (pdf), due to the nonlinear relationship between the wind speed and the wind power as well as many other influencing factors, it is hard to fit wind power to any common pdfs. At the same time, the relationship between the input and output variables of LF calculation is nonlinear. In view of the two characteristics, the point estimate method and Gram–Charlier expansion method are combined. Based only on the sample data of the wind power, the expectation, variance, and cumulative distribution of the output random variables can be estimated with the method by times of LF calculation, where is the number of input stochastic variables, eliminating the need for the distribution of the input variables. The simulation results on the New England Test System and New York Power Pool (NETS-NYPP) system and the actual Northeast China Grid show that the proposed method provides higher precision with less computation burden. The method can also be applied to other problems with uncertainty factors whose distribution is unknown in the power system.
Autors: Ai, X.;Wen, J.;Wu, T.;Lee, W.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 49, issue:5, pages: 2244 - 2252
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Algorithm for Identifying Information Hubs in Social Networks
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of identifying the top-k information hubs in a social network. Identifying top-k information hubs is crucial for many applications such as advertising in social networks where advertisers are interested in identifying hubs to whom free samples can be given. Existing solutions are centralized and require time stamped information about pair-wise user interactions and can only be used by social network owners as only they have access to such data. Existing distributed algorithms suffer from poor accuracy. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to identify information hubs that preserves user privacy. Our method can identify hubs without requiring a central entity to access the complete friendship graph. We achieve this by fully distributing the computation using the Kempe-McSherry algorithm, while addressing user privacy concerns. We evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed technique using three real-world data set; The first two are Facebook data sets containing about 6 million users and more than 40 million friendship links. The third data set is from Twitter and comprises of a little over 2 million users. The results of our analysis show that our algorithm is up to 50% more accurate than existing algorithms. Results also show that the proposed algorithm can estimate the rank of the top-k information hubs users more accurately than existing approaches.
Autors: Ilyas, Muhammad U.;Shafiq, M.Zubair;Liu, Alex X.;Radha, Hayder;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 31, issue:9, pages: 629 - 640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Newton Method for Network Utility Maximization–I: Algorithm
Abstract:
Most existing works use dual decomposition and first-order methods to solve Network Utility Maximization (NUM) problems in a distributed manner, which suffer from slow rate of convergence properties. This paper develops an alternative distributed Newton-type fast converging algorithm for solving NUM problems. By using novel matrix splitting techniques, both primal and dual updates for the Newton step can be computed using iterative schemes in a decentralized manner. We propose a stepsize rule and provide a distributed procedure to compute it in finitely many iterations. The key feature of our direction and stepsize computation schemes is that both are implemented using the same distributed information exchange mechanism employed by first order methods. We describe the details of the inexact algorithm here and in part II of this paper , we show that under some assumptions, even when the Newton direction and the stepsize in our method are computed within some error (due to finite truncation of the iterative schemes), the resulting objective function value still converges superlinearly in terms of primal iterations to an explicitly characterized error neighborhood. Simulation results demonstrate significant convergence rate improvement of our algorithm relative to the existing first-order methods based on dual decomposition.
Autors: Wei, E.;Ozdaglar, A.;Jadbabaie, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 2162 - 2175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doherty Architecture With High Feasibility and Defined Bandwidth Behavior
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a complete and rigorous theoretical investigation of a Doherty architecture with a novel output combining network. The benefits in terms of bandwidth and feasibility held by the proposed topology are investigated and compared with the conventional one. In particular, the theoretical analysis demonstrates that the proposed output combiner allows to implement a Doherty amplifier with defined bandwidth (narrower or broader) without worsening in performances. Moreover, the proposed solution results in a more feasible structure with respect to the classical one, especially when high output power levels are sought. The theoretical results are validated through the design and realization of a prototype based on commercial GaN active devices. Experimental results show 42-dBm output power and 65% peak efficiency with a flat behavior in the 1.95–2.25-GHz frequency band (i.e., 14% of relative bandwidth) under continuous wave signal. Moreover, 50% average efficiency at 38-dBm average output power with 45 dBc of adjacent channel power ratio is demonstrated under 5-MHz 3GPP driving signal using a simple polynomial digital pre-distortion.
Autors: Giofre, R.;Piazzon, L.;Colantonio, P.;Giannini, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 3308 - 3317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Layer Broadband Compact UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Platform Tolerant Application
Abstract:
Pub DtlIn this paper, we present a compact tag antenna for radio frequency identification (RFID) application. By embedding four parasitic planar inverted-F antennas under the top patch, four adjacent resonant modes are excited simultaneously and the impedance bandwidth is broadened to 140 MHz or more, which fully covers the entire worldwide ultra high frequency (UHF) band (860–960 MHz). The proposed antenna is printed on two FR4 substrates with a total volume of . The measured read range was 4 m in a copper plate sized of 500 mm 500 mm. Experimental studies demonstrate that the proposed antenna could work properly on general tagged objects.
Autors: Zhang, J.;Long, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 61, issue:9, pages: 4447 - 4455
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Paradigm for Spectrally Efficient Half-Duplex Multi-Antenna Relaying
Abstract:
This paper presents a spectrally efficient protocol for half-duplex multi-relay systems in block fading channels where a direct source-destination link is unavailable. The proposed protocol adaptively selects either successive interference cancelation (SIC) or joint decoding according to the causal decoding status of each relay. We also adopt dynamic refreshing that restarts the protocol whenever it is advantageous to do so, even if the relay decoding set (the set of relays that are able to decode the message) is not empty. The achievable diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) of the proposed protocol with m-antenna nodes is analyzed via a Markov chain whose states are related to the cardinality of a decoding set. This protocol strictly improves the DMT of the existing DF half-duplex relay-selection protocols without decoding delay, and in the low multiplexing gain region is able to meet the DMT upper bound. The main contributions of the paper are the state-dependent decoding strategies in DF multi-relay systems and also the dynamic refresh for the flushing of residual interferences in the system, concepts that may find usefulness beyond the gains in the high-SNR regime.
Autors: Kim, Young-bin;Choi, Wan;Jung, Bang Chul;Nosratinia, Aria;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 12, issue:9, pages: 4680 - 4691
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fair QoS-Aware Resource-Allocation Scheme for Multiradio Multichannel Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the problem of resource allocation in multiradio multichannel (MRMC) networks. Specifically, under the consideration of diverse quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, we propose a fair QoS-aware resource-allocation scheme for MRMC networks. In this scheme, channel allocation, multipath routing, link scheduling, and radio assignment are jointly considered. The proposed scheme is obtained by formulating the resource-allocation problem into a cross-layer network utility maximization (NUM) problem, in which resources are allocated to services with proportional fairness. To avoid oscillation among optimal solutions due to the use of multipath routing, we transform the optimization program into an equivalent program by utilizing the proximal optimization algorithm. Then, we obtain the optimal solution of the latter by the decomposition method. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme indeed achieves proportional fairness according to diverse QoS requirements while maximizing utility.
Autors: Long, Y.;Li, H.;Pan, M.;Fang, Y.;Wong, T.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 62, issue:7, pages: 3349 - 3358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast PV Power Tracking Control Algorithm With Reduced Power Mode
Abstract:
This paper presents a fast maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control algorithmfor the photovoltaic (PV) in a hybrid wind–PV system, in which the PV generatormay also need to work in a reduced power mode (RPM) to avoid dynamic overloading. The two control modes, MPPT and RPM, are inherently compatible and can be readily implemented, without the need of a dumping load for the RPM. Following the establishment of a dynamic system model, the study develops the guidelines to determine the variables of a direct hill-climbing method for MPPT: the perturbation time intervals and the magnitudes of the applied perturbations. These results are then used to optimally set up a variable-step size incremental conductance (VSIC) algorithm along with adaptive RPM control. The power tracking performance and power limiting capability are verified by simulation and experiment.
Autors: Ahmed, A.;Ran, L.;Moon, S.;Park, J.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 565 - 575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast RFID Identification Protocol with Low Tag Complexity
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel Query window Tree (QwT) protocol is proposed and presented. Based on the Query Tree (QT), a fast anti-collision protocol with low tag complexity (which preserves the memoryless feature of the QT) is achieved. The QwT effectively controls the number of responded bits from tags by adopting a dynamic-size `window'. As a result, the tags of the proposed QwT deliver exclusively the bits that are required by the window controlled at the reader, rather than sending their full ID. Simulations show that the QwT positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by a tag and as a result mitigates latency.
Autors: Landaluce, Hugo;Perallos, Asier;Zuazola, I.J.Garcia;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 1704 - 1706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Feature-Metric-Based Affinity Propagation Technique for Feature Selection in Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
Relevant component analysis has shown effective in metric learning. It finds a transformation matrix of the feature space using equivalence constraints. This paper explores this idea for constructing a feature metric (FM) and develops a novel semisupervised feature-selection technique for hyperspectral image classification. Two feature measures referred to as band correlation metric (BCM) and band separability metric (BSM) are derived for the FM. The BCM can measure the spectral correlation among the bands, while the BSM can assess the class discrimination capability of a single band. The proposed feature-metric-based affinity propagation (AP) (FM-AP) technique utilizes exemplar-based clustering, i.e., AP, to group bands from original spectral channels with the FM. Experimental results are conducted on two hyperspectral images and show the advantages of the proposed technique over traditional feature-selection methods.
Autors: Chen Yang;Sicong Liu;Bruzzone, L.;Renchu Guan;Peijun Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1152 - 1156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A ferromagnetic insulating substrate for the epitaxial growth of topological insulators
Abstract:
Cr2Ge2Te6 is proposed as an insulating ferromagnetic substrate for the growth of tetradymite-type topological insulators, based on a refined characterization of its transport, magnetic, optical, and calculated electronic properties. It is found to be a soft ferromagnet with no visible magnetic domains over relatively large length scales and to be highly insulating with an indirect band gap and low carrier concentration. Further we present the fabrication of Bi2Te3-Cr2Ge2Te6 heterostructure samples by chemical vapor deposition and show that crystals of the two phases are oriented such that the hexagonal Te planes are aligned at their interfaces.
Autors: Ji, Huiwen;Stokes, R.A.;Alegria, L.D.;Blomberg, E.C.;Tanatar, M.A.;Reijnders, Anjan;Schoop, L.M.;Liang, Tian;Prozorov, R.;Burch, K.S.;Ong, N.P.;Petta, J.R.;Cava, R.J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Sep 2013, volume: 114, issue:11, pages: 114907 - 114907-7
Publisher: IEEE
 

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