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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 09-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» 1 X 12 even fanout using multimode interference optical beam splitter on silicon nanomembrane
Abstract:
A compact silicon nanomembrane based 1 X 12 multimode interference coupler (MMI) fabricated on silicon-on-insulator is presented. The strip waveguide structure provides the smallest device size for a single stage MMI with 12 output channels. The MMI exhibits high uniformity up to 0.72 dB and has low loss of 1.13 dB using tranverse-electric (TE) polarised light at 1550 nm wavelength.
Autors: Kwong, D.;Zhang, Y.;Hosseini, A.;Liu, Y.;Chen, R.T.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:18, pages: 1281 - 1283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gb/s Operation of RSOA Using a Delay Interferometer
Abstract:
We report on the use of a delay interferometer (DI) to transmit 10-Gb/s optical signals from a 1.5-GHz-bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). The DI acts as a two-tap optical equalizer, compensating for the severe bandwidth limitation imposed by the RSOA. We demonstrate the successful transmission of 10.7-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals over 50-km standard single-mode fiber with a 0.3-dB penalty.
Autors: Kim, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 22, issue:18, pages: 1379 - 1381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gb/s Optical Transceiver Using the Yuen 2000 Encryption Protocol
Abstract:
A 10-Gb/s optical transceiver using the Yuen 2000 (Y-00) encryption protocol was developed. The key device in the transceiver, a 10-GS/s, 10-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) LSI, was fabricated using 0.25- m SiGe BiCMOS technology. Circuit techniques such as segmented architecture, parasitic capacitance separation using the base-common transistor, and the usage of a common mode logic (CML) driver were employed to minimize glitches. The Y-00 transceiver equipped with the DAC LSI operated at 10 Gb/s. Moreover, a 300-km transmission experiment performed at a data rate of 10 Gb/s proved that the developed transceiver can be used in a practical application when forward error correction is applied.
Autors: Ohhata, K.;Hirota, O.;Honda, M.;Akutsu, S.;Doi, Y.;Harasawa, K.;Yamashita, K.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:18, pages: 2714 - 2723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 12b 50 MS/s 0.18 μm CMOS ADC with highly linear input variable gain amplifier
Abstract:
A 12b 50 MS/s 0.18 μm CMOS ADC with a highly linear variable gain amplifier (VGA) for medical ultrasound and CCD image sensor applications is presented. The proposed four-step pipeline ADC optimises power and chip area at target specifications while the front-end VGA, based on a conventional approximated log function, employs a merged capacitor switching scheme to improve the VGA gain linearity. The proposed input VGA shows a linearity error less than 0.013 dB in a gain range from 23 to 0 dB by a 0.2 dB step. The measured prototype ADC with an active die area of 1.09 mm2 shows a maximum SNDR and SFDR of 62.6 and 73.1 dB, respectively, and consumes 28.1 mW at 1.8 V and 50 MS/s.
Autors: Choi, M.-H.;Ahn, G.-C.;Lee, S.-H.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:18, pages: 1254 - 1256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1K Element Antenna System for Mobile Direct Broadcasting Satellite Reception
Abstract:
This paper describes the design methodology and low-cost solutions implemented in a low-cost 1K–element phased array system for mobile direct broadcasting satellite (DBS) reception. The techniques and configurations used to reduce the cost and complexity of the system are described in this paper. Moreover, the design of a novel compact sub-array antenna to reduce the overall size of the system , the signal processing unit to suppress the noise on feedback channel and the mechanical structure to make the system agile, light and low cost are presented. Three efficient, model-free beamforming techniques are discussed and their performances in terms of convergence speed and steady state behavior are compared using several road tests. Results show that the developed intelligent antenna can meet the stringent requirements of the highly dynamic mobile applications.
Autors: Mousavi, P.;Fakharzadeh, M.;Safavi-Naeini, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 56, issue:3, pages: 340 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 200-mm-diameter neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma etcher and silicon etching
Abstract:
The authors developed a neutral beam source consisting of a 200-mm-diameter inductively coupled plasma etcher and a graphite neutralization aperture plate based on the design of a neutral beam source that Samukawa etal [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L779 (2001)] developed. They measured flux and energy of neutral particles, ions, and photons using a silicon wafer with a thermocouple and a Faraday cup and calculated the neutralization efficiency. An Ar neutral beam flux of more than 1 mA/cm2 in equivalent current density and a neutralization efficiency of more than 99% were obtained. The spatial uniformity of the neutral beam flux was within ±6% within a 100 mm diameter. Silicon etching using a F2-based neutral beam was done at an etch rate of about 47 nm/min, while Cl2-based neutral beam realized completely no undercut. The uniformity of etch rate was less than ±5% within the area. The etch rate increased by applying bias power to the neutralization aperture plate, which shows that accelerated neutral beam was successfully obtained. These results indicate that the neutral beam source is scalable, making it possible to obtain a large-diameter and uniform neutral beam, which is inevitable for application to mass production.
Autors: Kubota, Tomohiro;Nukaga, Osamu;Ueki, Shinji;Sugiyama, Masakazu;Inamoto, Yoshimasa;Ohtake, Hiroto;Samukawa, Seiji;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1169 - 1174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 205-GHz (Al,In)N/GaN HEMTs
Abstract:
We report 55-nm gate AlInN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) featuring a short-circuit current gain cutoff frequency of at room temperature, a new record for GaN-based HEMTs. The devices source a maximum current density of 2.3 A/mm at and show a measured transconductance of 575 mS/mm, which is the highest value reported to date for nonrecessed gate nitride HEMTs. Comparison to state-of-the-art thin-barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMTs suggests that AlInN/GaN devices benefit from an advantageous channel velocity under high-field transport conditions.
Autors: Sun, H.;Alt, A. R.;Benedickter, H.;Feltin, E.;Carlin, J.-F.;Gonschorek, M.;Grandjean, N. R.;Bolognesi, C. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 31, issue:9, pages: 957 - 959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 240-GHz Gain-Bandwidth Product Back-Side Illuminated AlInAs Avalanche Photodiodes
Abstract:
We demonstrate an AlInAs–InGaAs separate absorption, grading, and multiplication avalanche photodiode (APD) with a very thin avalanche layer operating at 1550 nm for 10-Gb/s optical transmission achieving simultaneously high responsivity (0.9 A/W at ), very low excess noise factor , and very high gain-bandwidth product of 240 GHz. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a back-side illuminated planar junction AlInAs–InGaAs APD achieved such performances.
Autors: Lahrichi, M.;Glastre, G.;Derouin, E.;Carpentier, D.;Lagay, N.;Decobert, J.;Achouche, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 22, issue:18, pages: 1373 - 1375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Printers Proliferate [Hands On]
Abstract:
For years, visionary engineers have been touting the idea of a cheap box about the size of a microwave oven that could build arbitrary solid objects out of plastic, ceramics, metal, ice, and even living cells.
Autors: Wallich, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 47, issue:9, pages: 23 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Radome-Enclosed Aperture Antenna Analyses and Far-Side Radiation
Abstract:
Physical optics integral representations of the fields are given for the 3-D model of the aperture antenna with specified ampliphase excitation law enclosed in a radome. The problem is reduced to finding fields of a plane wave diffracted on the “symmetrized” radome. This model is used for calculations of radiation patterns and for analyses of far-field radiation. Peculiarities of the ray pattern and caustics are analyzed using geometrical optics (geometrical theory of diffraction) method. The contribution of the stationary phase points in the aperture to the far-side radiation has been investigated. Results of numerical calculations are presented.
Autors: Sukharevsky, I. V.;Vazhinsky, S. V.;Sukharevsky, I. O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 2843 - 2849
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Spot Modeling for Automatic Segmentation of cDNA Microarray Images
Abstract:
Spot segmentation—the second essential stage of cDNA microarray image analysis—constitutes a challenging process. At present, several up-to-date spot-segmentation techniques or software programs—proposed in the literature—are often characterized as “automatic.” On the contrary, they are in effect not fully automatic since they require human intervention in order to specify mandatory input parameters or to correct their results. Human intervention, however, can inevitably modify the actual results of the cDNA microarray experiment and lead to erroneous biological conclusions. Therefore, the development of an automated spot-segmentation process becomes of exceptional interest. In this paper, an original and fully automatic approach to accurately segmenting the spots in a cDNA microarray image is presented. In order for the segmentation to be accomplished, each real spot of the cDNA microarray image is represented in a three-dimensional (3-D) space by a 3-D spot model. Each 3-D spot model is determined via an optimization problem, which is solved by using a genetic algorithm. The segmentation of real spots is conducted by drawing the contours of their 3-D spot models. The proposed method has been compared with various published and established techniques, using several synthetic and real cDNA microarray images that contain thousands of spots. The outcome has shown that the proposed method outperforms prevalent existing techniques. It is also noise resistant and yields excellent results even under adverse conditions such as the appearance of spots of various sizes and shapes.
Autors: Zacharia, E.;Maroulis, D. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 181 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3.7 mW 24 GHz LNA with 10.1 dB gain and 4.5 dB NF in 0.18 μm CMOS technology
Abstract:
A low-power 24 GHz low-noise amplifier (LNA) with flat and low noise figure (NF) using standard 0.18 mm CMOS technology is demonstrated. The low-power LNA consists of three cascaded common-source stages biased in the weak inversion region. To achieve sufficient gain, a series peaking inductor (LG3) was added to the input terminal of the third stage to boost the gain (simulation shows a 78.9% improvement (from 5.7 to 10.2 dB) at 24 GHz). Flat and low NF was achieved by adopting a slightly under-damped Q-factor for the second-order NF frequency response. Shunt RC feedback in conjunction with a low-Q RL load were adopted in the third stage to achieve excellent output impedance matching. The 24 GHz LNA achieved S21 of 10.1 dB and NF of 4.5 dB with a power dissipation (PDC) of only 3.7 mW, the lowest PDC ever reported for a 24 GHzband CMOS LNA with S21 greater than 10 dB.
Autors: Lee, J.-H.;Chen, C.-C.;Lin, Y.-S.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:19, pages: 1310 - 1312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 and 16 Years Ago
Abstract:
In 1954, when vacuum tubes and magnetic cores were the switching and memory components used in computers, the cost of performing 100,000 multiplications was 1.26 dollars. In 1978, as a result of the advances in LSI technology, it is less than 1 cent.
Autors: Holmes, N.;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 43, issue:9, pages: 11 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3DCLIMBER: Climbing and manipulation over 3D structures?
Abstract:
 Research highlights: ? Design and development of a pole climbing robot for inspection of 3D structures with bent section and T-junctions. ? Studying minimum degrees of freedom for the purpose. ? Climbing and manipulation over 3D structures with bends and branches. ? Increasing the manipulation accuracy by using interoceptive sensors: accelerometers and low cost IR range sensors.

Autors: This paper describes the development of a novel pole climbing robot with the ability of climbing and manipulating across 3D structures, like petrochemical pipelines. The robot consists of a 4-DOF serial climbing mechanism and two grippers. Unlike man
Appeared in: Mechatronics
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3GPP Mobile Multimedia Services [Standards in a Nutshell]
Abstract:
The 3rd Generation Partner-ship Project (3GPP) is developing and standardizing a wide range of advanced mobile multimedia services along with their radio access and network technologies. 3GPP targets to match or exceed the user experience of the personal computer (PC)-based services over the Internet, while at the same time facilitating unlimited receiver mobility, thus enabling ubiquitous service access for the user. This article gives an overview of the mobile multimedia services standardized by 3GPP. Those services can be classified based on their characteristics and target application scenarios into conversational, streaming, and other services. The related enablers, namely the media codecs and formats, are also presented.
Autors: Bouazizi, I.;Jarvinen, K.;Hannuksela, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 125 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3M boosts portfolio with $943m bid for Cogent
Abstract:
3M is to buy Cogent Systems for $10.50 a share - $943m - to enhance its security portfolio. Cogent provides finger, palm, face and iris biometric systems for governments, law enforcement agencies, and commercial enterprises.
Autors: [No author name available]
Appeared in: Biometric Technology Today
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 50 Years of Robotics [From the Guest Editors]
Abstract:
In this issue, we celebrate the 50 years of robotics, following up on the theme from this year's IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) held in Anchorage, Alaska. The exact beginning of robotics is difficult to pin down and the topic for future historians of our field. Humankind has a long fascination with machines built in our image. Such machines were mentioned by the ancient Greeks, described by Al-Jazari in the 13th century, and designed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 15th century. Human- and animal-like machines, automata, were a major fad in Europe in the 18th century with the flute player, the musician, the draughtsman, and the digesting duck. The term robot was coined in a 1920s play by Karel Čapek, and Isaac Asimov published his first robot story in 1940. A common theme was the creation or the depiction of a machine that could emulate a human.
Autors: Kumar, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 17, issue:3, pages: 8 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 6.2 Å materials step up
Abstract:
The highest cutoff frequency of double heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) fabricated using 6.2 Å materials has been demonstrated by researchers at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the US. The team fabricated InAlAsSb/InGaSb HBTs with high conductivity InAsSb layers, and achieved record operation up to 59 GHz, along with improved DC characteristics. The development of these devices is of particular interest for high-speed signal conversion or power limited millimetre-wave applications such as in space or telecommunications.
Autors: Champlain, J.G.;Magno, R.;Bass, R.;Park, D.;Boos, J.B.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:19, pages: 1305 - 1305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 65-, 45-, and 32-nm Aluminium and Copper Transmission-Line Model at Millimeter-Wave Frequencies
Abstract:
An improved analytical model of the CMOS 65-, 45-, and 32-nm silicon technology integrated transmission line is proposed. This model is derived from previous classical ones used for printed circuits board lines. Improvements have been performed to take into account the size of integrated lines. The study is validated up to millimeter-wave frequencies for different linewidths realized with various metal levels. Accurate results allow the model to be implemented in commercial computer-aided design software commonly used for millimeter-wave designs. A comparison with commercial tools is carried out.
Autors: Quemerais, T.;Moquillon, L.;Fournier, J.-M.;Benech, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 2426 - 2433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 9μW 88dB DR fully-clocked switched-opamp ΔΣ modulator with novel efficient resonator
Abstract:
A 9μW 88dB dynamic range (DR) switched-opamp (SO) ΔΣ modulator is presented. A new SO with a fully switched-off scheme is proposed, which results in a 50% power saving and double figure-of-merit over the traditional structure. Also, a novel resonator is applied to realise a zero-optimising coefficient of 1/100 with 75% power and 70% area reduction compared with the conventional one.
Autors: Xu, J.;Wu, X.;Zhao, M.;Shen, J.;Liu, B.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:19, pages: 1313 - 1315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» λ∼3.36 μm room temperature InGaAs/AlAs(Sb) quantum cascade lasers with third order distributed feedback grating
Abstract:
We report on the development of strain compensated InGaAs/AlAs(Sb) quantum cascade lasers, incorporating a buried third order distributed feedback grating. Single mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of ∼30 dB has been achieved in the wavelength range of 3.358–3.380 μm for temperatures between 270 and 360 K. The threefold increase in grating pitch size, compared with a first order grating, allows conventional photolithographic techniques to be used for single mode laser fabrication.
Autors: Commin, J. P.;Kennedy, K.;Revin, D. G.;Zhang, S. Y.;Krysa, A. B.;Cockburn, J. W.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 97, issue:11, pages: 111113 - 111113-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» (7×7) reconstruction as barrier for Schottky-barrier formation at the Ga/Si(111) interface
Abstract:
We report the change in electronic properties of the Ga/Si interface by monitoring the Ga(3d) core-level photoelectron spectra and electron diffraction induced by submonolayer Ga adsorption on Si(111)-7×7 surface. The spectra shows a flat band for submonolayer coverages, attributed to the metallic nature of the Si(111)-7×7 reconstruction and a premetallic band structure of two-dimensional Ga islands. At 1 ML, electron diffraction pattern shows metallic (7×7) to semiconducting (1×1) phase-transition and the spin-orbit split branching ratio of Ga(2p) core level attain the metallic bulk value, and the barrier assumes the Schottky–Mott value while full width half maxima and branching ratio attain bulk values.
Autors: Kumar, Praveen;Kumar, Mahesh;Shivaprasad, S. M.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 97, issue:12, pages: 122105 - 122105-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» a-plane GaN hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a-plane GaN templates with and without use of TiN intermediate layers
Abstract:
Thick a-plane GaN films were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on a-plane GaN templates prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and also on a-plane MOCVD templates using in situ nitridized Ti underlayers. The growth on a-GaN showed improved crystalline quality with increasing hydride vapor phase epitaxy thickness, while MOCVD template quality had little effect. With 30 nm Ti films deposited on the templates and converted to TiN islands by nitridation during growth, the authors obtained thick (350 μm), freestanding a-GaN films detached from the template. Microcathodoluminescence spectra of the growth surface showed intense band edge luminescence at 3.47 eV at 90 K with no defect bands. Spectra taken from the surface turned to the substrate were dominated by stacking fault-related bands at 3.42, 3.3, and 3.0 eV, similar to the spectra of the a-GaN templates. X-ray measurements showed the freestanding a-GaN layers consisted of misoriented large grains of a-GaN with halfwidth for individual grains close to 300–400 arcsec and halfwidth anisotropy with respect to sample rotation around the [11-20] direction.
Autors: Polyakov, A. Y.;Markov, A. V.;Mezhennyi, M. V.;Donskov, A. A.;Malakhov, S. S.;Govorkov, A. V.;Kozlova, Yu. P.;Pavlov, V. F.;Smirnov, N. B.;Yugova, T. G.;Lee, I.-H.;Han, J.;Sun, Q.;Pearton, S. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1039 - 1043
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ferroelectric Thin-Film Capacitors for Flexible Nonvolatile Memory Applications
Abstract:
This letter reports the fabrication of (PZT) thin-film capacitors on flexible plastic substrates. The PZT film was formed on a wafer using a sol–gel method and transferred to a thin plastic substrate using an elastomeric stamp. The PZT film on the plastic substrate showed a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a of and a of 1.1 V at a supplied voltage of 3 V, which are similar to those observed for PZT films on rigid wafers, as well as stable operation under an 8-mm bending radius. These characteristics suggest promising applications in flexible electronic systems.
Autors: Rho, J.;Kim, S. J.;Heo, W.;Lee, N-E.;Lee, H-S.;Ahn, J-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 31, issue:9, pages: 1017 - 1019
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Controller Design Using an Alternative to Youla Parameterization
Abstract:
All controllers of a SISO LTI system are parameterized thanks to the relation between Bounded Real Lemma and Positive Real Lemma. This new parameterization shares the same features with Youla parameterization, namely on the convexity of norm constraints for the closed-loop transfer functions. However, it can deal with low-order controllers and can be extended easily for the systems with polytopic uncertainty. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via an academic example.
Autors: Khatibi, H.;Karimi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 2119 - 2123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Controller Design Using an Alternative to Youla Parameterization
Abstract:
All controllers of a SISO LTI system are parameterized thanks to the relation between Bounded Real Lemma and Positive Real Lemma. This new parameterization shares the same features with Youla parameterization, namely on the convexity of norm constraints for the closed-loop transfer functions. However, it can deal with low-order controllers and can be extended easily for the systems with polytopic uncertainty. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via an academic example.
Autors: Khatibi, H.;Karimi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 2119 - 2123
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS Technology Featuring f /f of 240/330 GHz and Gate Delays Below 3 ps
Abstract:
A 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS technology for millimeter-wave applications is presented. This technology features high-speed HBTs with peak transit frequencies of 240 GHz, maximum oscillation frequencies of 330 GHz, and breakdown voltages of 1.7 V along with high-voltage HBTs ( , , ) integrated in a dual gate oxide RF-CMOS process. Ring oscillator gate delays of 2.9 ps, low-noise amplifiers for 122 GHz, and LC oscillators with fundamental-mode oscillation frequencies above 200 GHz are demonstrated.
Autors: Rucker, H.;Heinemann, B.;Winkler, W.;Barth, R.;Borngraber, J.;Drews, J.;Fischer, G. G.;Fox, A.;Grabolla, T.;Haak, U.;Knoll, D.;Korndorfer, F.;Mai, A.;Marschmeyer, S.;Schley, P.;Schmidt, D.;Schmidt, J.;Schubert, M. A.;Schulz, K.;Tillack, B.;Wolansky,
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1678 - 1686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS Technology Featuring f /f of 240/330 GHz and Gate Delays Below 3 ps
Abstract:
A 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology for millimeter-wave applications is presented. This technology features high-speed HBTs with peak transit frequencies fT of 240 GHz, maximum oscillation frequencies fmax of 330 GHz, and breakdown voltages BVCEO of 1.7 V along with high-voltage HBTs (fT = 50 GHz,fmax = 130 GHz, BVCEO = 3.7 V) integrated in a dual gate oxide RF-CMOS process. Ring oscillator gate delays of 2.9 ps, low-noise amplifiers for 122 GHz, and LC oscillators with fundamental-mode oscillation frequencies above 200 GHz are demonstrated.
Autors: Rücker, H.;Heinemann, B.;Winkler, W.;Barth, R.;Borngraber, J.;Drews, J.;Fischer, G.G.;Fox, A.;Grabolla, T.;Haak, U.;Knoll, D.;Korndörfer, F.;Mai, A.;Marschmeyer, S.;Schley, P.;Schmidt, D.;Schmidt, J.;Schubert, M.A.;Schulz, K.;Tillack,
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1678 - 1686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5V 320MHz 8bit×8bit pipelined multiplier in 130nm CMOS process
Abstract:
This paper presents an 8×8bit pipelined multiplier operating at 320MHz under 0.5V supply voltage. Using PMOS forward body bias technique, the modified full adder and the new D flip-flop with synchronous output are combined and implemented in the proposed pipelined multiplier to achieve high operation speed at supply voltages as low as 0.5V. The proposed pipelined multiplier is fabricated in 130nm CMOS process. It operates up to 320MHz and the power consumption is only 1.48mW at 0.5V. Moreover, the power consumption of the proposed pipelined multiplier at 0.5V is reduced over 5.7 times than that of the traditional architecture at...
Autors: Wei-Bin, Yang , Chao-Cheng, Liao , Yung-Chih, Liang
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 1- 600- Current Reference Circuit Consisting of Subthreshold CMOS Circuits
Abstract:
A low-power CMOS current reference circuit was developed using a 0.35- standard CMOS process technology. The circuit consists of MOSFET circuits operating in the subthreshold region and uses no resistors. It compensates for the temperature effect on mobility and threshold voltage of MOSFETs and generates a reference current that is insensitive to temperature and supply voltage. Theoretical analyses and experimental results showed that the circuit generates a stable reference current of 100 nA. The temperature coefficient of the current was 520 at best and 600 on average in the range of 0 –80 . The line regulation was 0.2%/V in a supply voltage range of 1.8–3 V. The power dissipation was 1 , and the chip area was 0.015 . Our circuit would be suitable for use in subthreshold-operated power-aware large-scale integrations.
Autors: Ueno, K.;Hirose, T.;Asai, T.;Amemiya, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 57, issue:9, pages: 681 - 685
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.1-Gb/s 115-pJ/bit Configurable MIMO Detector Using 0.13- CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This brief presents an efficient and configurable multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) signal detector design solution and its high-speed IC implementation. This detector can support 2 2/3 3/4 4 MIMO and quadratic phase-shift keying/16-state quadratic amplitude modulation (QAM)/64-state QAM modulation configurations. The detection algorithm employs an early-pruned technique that can reduce up to 46% node extensions in the K-Best sphere decoder while maintaining an almost maximum-likelihood performance. A parallel multistage folded very large scale integration architecture is accordingly developed that can achieve high detection throughput and configurability. To further improve the IC implementation efficiency, this detector also uses a candidate-sharing structure for partial Euclidean distance calculation and a two-stage sorter for survivor node selection. A test chip has been fabricated using 0.13- single-poly- and eight-metal (1P8M) CMOS technology with a core area of 3.9 . Operating at 1.2-V supply with 137.5-MHz clock, the chip achieves 1.1-Gb/s throughput and consumes 115 pJ per bit, representing 40% more energy efficient than state of the art in the open literature.
Autors: Liu, L.;Ye, F.;Ma, X.;Zhang, T.;Ren, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 57, issue:9, pages: 701 - 705
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.3-GHz 350-mW Hybrid Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer in 90-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) based on a hybrid design with a maximum operating frequency of 1.3 GHz. The proposed hybrid design is capable of extending the resolution of traditional nonlinear digital-to-analog converter (DAC)-based DDFS by adding a linear slope component to the approximated sine wave produced from a nonlinear DAC via an additional linear DAC. With an 11-bit combined DAC, the prototype DDFS produces a minimum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 52 dBc from dc up to Nyquist frequency when clocked at 1.3 GHz. This 90-nm CMOS chip occupies 2 including bond pads and dissipates 350 mW with a 1.2-V digital supply and 2.5-V analog supply. The FOM of this chip is measured at 1207.9 .
Autors: Yeoh, H. C.;Jung, J.-H.;Jung, Y.-H.;Baek, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1845 - 1855
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20-Gs/s Track-and-Hold Amplifier in InP HBT Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a 20-Gs/s track-and-hold amplifier (THA) fabricated InP HBT technology. This THA is capable of operating under relatively high input voltages. The THA uses a fully differential architecture with a switched emitter–follower. To mitigate the pedestal error due to the feedthrough attenuation network, we added degeneration resistors in the feedthrough attenuation block. Measured total harmonic distortion is below at low input frequencies, and at frequency of 9.9 GHz.
Autors: Yamanaka, S.;Sano, K.;Murata, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 2334 - 2339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 25 MHz Bandwidth 5th-Order Continuous-Time Low-Pass Sigma-Delta Modulator With 67.7 dB SNDR Using Time-Domain Quantization and Feedback
Abstract:
This paper introduces a continuous-time low-pass sigma-delta modulator operating with a seven-phase 400 MHz clocking scheme to control time-based processing in the 3-bit two-step quantizer and main digital-to-analog converter (DAC). An on-chip voltage-controlled oscillator and a complementary injection-locked frequency divider are utilized for low-jitter clock signal generation with multiple phases, allowing 3-bit pulse-width modulated feedback with a single-element DAC to avoid performance degradation from unit element mismatch problems associated with conventional multi-bit DACs.
Autors: Lu, C.-Y.;Onabajo, M.;Gadde, V.;Lo, Y.-C.;Chen, H.-P.;Periasamy, V.;Silva-Martinez, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1795 - 1808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2D autocorrelation method for assessing mixture homogeneity as applied to bipolar plates in fuel cell technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a methodology based on spatial autocorrelation function for assessing homogeneity of a mixture and more particularly for determining the size and the number of defects in the bulk of a mixture or materials. Intensity and scale of segregation are used as conceptual tools for assessing mixture homogeneity, and have been specially adapted for this particular case. Their performances are investigated for detecting defects in a product manufactured from a dry powder mixture, a bipolar plate used in fuel cell technology, through a simulation of the product on Matlab (92).
Autors: C., Mayer-Laigle , C., Gatumel , H., Berthiaux
Appeared in: Advanced Powder Technology
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 6- W Chip-Area-Efficient Output-Capacitorless LDO in 90-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
An output-capacitorless low-dropout regulator (LDO) compensated by a single Miller capacitor is implemented in a commercial 90-nm CMOS technology. The proposed LDO makes use of the small transistors realized in nano-scale technology to achieve high stability, fast transient performance and small voltage spikes under rapid load-current changes without the need of an off-chip capacitor connected at the LDO output. Experimental result verifies that the proposed LDO is stable for a capacitive load from 0 to 50 pF (estimated equivalent parasitic capacitance from load circuits) and with load capability of 100 mA. Moreover, the gain-enhanced structure provides sufficient loop gain to improve line regulation to 3.78 mV/V and load regulation to 0.1 mV/mA, respectively. The embedded voltage-spike detection circuit enables pseudo Class-AB operation to drive the embedded power transistor promptly. The measured power consumption is only 6 W under a 0.75-V supply. The maximum overshoot and undershoot under a 1.2-V supply are less than 66 mV for full load current changes within 100-ns edge time, and the recovery time is less than 5 s.
Autors: Guo, J.;Leung, K. N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1896 - 1905
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6- W Chip-Area-Efficient Output-Capacitorless LDO in 90-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
An output-capacitorless low-dropout regulator (LDO) compensated by a single Miller capacitor is implemented in a commercial 90-nm CMOS technology. The proposed LDO makes use of the small transistors realized in nano-scale technology to achieve high stability, fast transient performance and small voltage spikes under rapid load-current changes without the need of an off-chip capacitor connected at the LDO output. Experimental result verifies that the proposed LDO is stable for a capacitive load from 0 to 50 pF (estimated equivalent parasitic capacitance from load circuits) and with load capability of 100 mA. Moreover, the gain-enhanced structure provides sufficient loop gain to improve line regulation to 3.78 mV/V and load regulation to 0.1 mV/mA, respectively. The embedded voltage-spike detection circuit enables pseudo Class-AB operation to drive the embedded power transistor promptly. The measured power consumption is only 6 μW under a 0.75-V supply. The maximum overshoot and undershoot under a 1.2-V supply are less than 66 mV for full load current changes within 100-ns edge time, and the recovery time is less than 5 μs.
Autors: Jianping Guo;Ka Nang Leung;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1896 - 1905
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60 GHz Phase Shifter Integrated With LNA and PA in 65 nm CMOS for Phased Array Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of a 60 GHz phase shifter integrated with a low-noise amplifier (LNA) and power amplifier (PA) in a 65 nm CMOS technology for phased array systems. The 4-bit digitally controlled RF phase shifter is based on programmable weighted combinations of I/Q paths using digitally controlled variable gain amplifiers (VGAs). With the combination of an LNA, a phase shifter and part of a combiner, each receiver path achieves 7.2 dB noise figure, a 360 phase shift range in steps of approximately 22.5 , an average insertion gain of 12 dB at 61 GHz, a 3 dB-bandwidth of 5.5 GHz and dissipates 78 mW. Consisting of a phase shifter and a PA, one transmitter path achieves a maximum output power of higher than 8.3 dBm, a 360 phase shift range in 22.5 steps, an average insertion gain of 7.7 dB at 62 GHz, a 3 dB-bandwidth of 6.5 GHz and dissipates 168 mW.
Autors: Yu, Y.;Baltus, P. G. M.;de Graauw, A.;van der Heijden, E.;Vaucher, C. S.;van Roermund, A. H. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1697 - 1709
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz OOK Receiver With an On-Chip Antenna in 90 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A low power 60-GHz on-off-keying (OOK) receiver has been implemented in a commercial 90 nm RF CMOS process. By employing a novel on-chip antenna together with architecture optimization, the receiver achieves a sensitivity of 47 dBm at a bit-error rate (BER) of less than 10 . Using a commercial transmitter with transmit power of 1.5 dBm, a transmission distance of 5 cm can be achieved at 1.2 Gbps data rate. In this design, the on-chip antenna minimizes the packaging loss, while energy detection at RF allows architecture simplification. Both techniques contribute to the receiver's low power consumption of 51 mW, excluding test buffers. This leads to a bit energy efficiency of 28 pj/bit at 1.8 Gbps. The total die area is 3.8 mm with the on-chip antenna occupying almost half of it.
Autors: Kang, K.;Lin, F.;Pham, D.-D.;Brinkhoff, J.;Heng, C.-H.;Guo, Y. X.;Yuan, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1720 - 1731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 64 Channel Programmable Closed-Loop Neurostimulator With 8 Channel Neural Amplifier and Logarithmic ADC
Abstract:
This paper describes a neurostimulation IC for use in advanced closed-loop neurostimulation applications, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment and research of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease. This system senses and filters neural activity with eight pre-amplifiers, a 200 kS/s 8-bit log ADC and digital filters and incorporates 64 programmable current-stimulation channels. The entire device, implemented in 0.18 CMOS, occupies 2.7 and consumes 89 in normal operation mode and 271 in configuration mode from a 1.8 V supply.
Autors: Lee, J.;Rhew, H.-G.;Kipke, D. R.;Flynn, M. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1935 - 1945
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9-bit, 14 μW and 0.06 mm Pulse Position Modulation ADC in 90 nm Digital CMOS
Abstract:
This work presents a compact, low-power, time-based architecture for nanometer-scale CMOS analog-to-digital conversion. A pulse position modulation ADC architecture is proposed and a prototype 9 bit PPM ADC incorporating a two-step TDC scheme is presented as proof of concept. The 0.06 prototype is implemented in 90 nm CMOS and achieves 7.9 effective bits across the entire input bandwidth and dissipates 14 at 1 MS/s.
Autors: Naraghi, S.;Courcy, M.;Flynn, M. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1870 - 1880
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 90 nm CMOS 11 dBm IIP3 4 mW Dual-Band LNA for Cellular Handsets
Abstract:
A dual-band cross-coupled common-gate low noise amplifier (LNA) utilizing post distortion cancellation is introduced. A differential pair biased in weak inversion is used to cancel the third-order intermodulation (IMD3) distortion of the main amplifier. An on-chip circuit is used for biasing the main and auxiliary amplifier. The IIP3 of the LNA is improved by more than 4 dB in both bands, located at 1.8 and 2 GHz, respectively. The IIP3 of the amplifier is 11 dBm, the gain is 15 and 16 dB, and the Noise Figure (NF) is 4 and 3.5 dB in the low and high bands, respectively. The LNA is implemented in a 90 nm CMOS process and draws 4 mA from a 1 V supply.
Autors: Zare Fatin, G. H.;Koozehkanani, Z. D.;Sjoland, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 20, issue:9, pages: 513 - 515
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Modification Neuroadaptive Control Architecture for Discrete-Time Systems
Abstract:
This brief extends the new neuroadaptive control framework for continuous-time nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems based on a -modification architecture to discrete-time systems. As in the continuous-time case, the discrete-time update laws involve auxiliary terms, or -modification terms, predicated on an estimate of the unknown neural network weights which in turn involve a set of auxiliary equations characterizing a set of affine hyperplanes. In addition, we show that the -modification terms in the discrete-time update law are designed to minimize an error criterion involving a sum of squares of the distances between the update weights and the family of affine hyperplanes.
Autors: Volyanskyy, K. Y.;Haddad, W. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1507 - 1511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Modification Neuroadaptive Control Architecture for Discrete-Time Systems
Abstract:
This brief extends the new neuroadaptive control framework for continuous-time nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems based on a -modification architecture to discrete-time systems. As in the continuous-time case, the discrete-time update laws involve auxiliary terms, or -modification terms, predicated on an estimate of the unknown neural network weights which in turn involve a set of auxiliary equations characterizing a set of affine hyperplanes. In addition, we show that the -modification terms in the discrete-time update law are designed to minimize an error criterion involving a sum of squares of the distances between the update weights and the family of affine hyperplanes.
Autors: Volyanskyy, K. Y.;Haddad, W. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 21, issue:9, pages: 1507 - 1511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Framework for Image Segmentation With Spatially Varying Mixtures
Abstract:
A new Bayesian model is proposed for image segmentation based upon Gaussian mixture models (GMM) with spatial smoothness constraints. This model exploits the Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM) probability density to model the mixing proportions (i.e., the probabilities of class labels) and a Gauss–Markov random field (MRF) on the Dirichlet parameters to impose smoothness. The main advantages of this model are two. First, it explicitly models the mixing proportions as probability vectors and simultaneously imposes spatial smoothness. Second, it results in closed form parameter updates using a maximum a posteriori (MAP) expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Previous efforts on this problem used models that did not model the mixing proportions explicitly as probability vectors or could not be solved exactly requiring either time consuming Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or inexact variational approximation methods. Numerical experiments are presented that demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model for image segmentation compared to other GMM-based approaches. The model is also successfully compared to state of the art image segmentation methods in clustering both natural images and images degraded by noise.
Autors: Nikou, C.;Likas, A.;Galatsanos, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 19, issue:9, pages: 2278 - 2289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Beginner's Guide to 6-D Vectors (Part 1)
Abstract:
A rigid body has six degrees of motion freedom, so why not use six-dimensional (6-D) vectors to describe its motions and the forces acting upon it? In fact, some roboticists already do this, and the practice is becoming more common. The purpose of this tutorial is to present a beginner's guide to 6-D vectors in sufficient detail that a reader can begin to use them as a practical problem-solving tool right away. This tutorial covers the basics, and Part 2 will cover the application of 6-D vectors to a variety of robot kinematics and dynamics calculations.
Autors: Featherstone, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 17, issue:3, pages: 83 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bio-Inspired Scheme for Coordinated Online Search
Abstract:
We present a novel scheme for coordinated search by autonomous agents that is inspired by collective forms of intelligence present in group predators. In the scheme proposed, a group of agents is tasked to find several targets over a search area. The sensing technology is imperfect so there are non-negligible probabilities for false positives and false negatives. Agents maintain two data ‘trails’ across potential target locations that have been explored. One trail is associated with the frequency with which a given location has been probed while the other relates to the current likelihood that a target is present. Each agent independently chooses a decision that is aimed at maximizing the chance of detecting a target without unnecessary duplication in probing. By endowing agents with this simple optimization rule, we show that a form of collective intelligence emerges as agents successfully coordinate indirectly (i.e., they locate all targets) through active manipulation of the trails in a relatively fast fashion. This feature guarantees the proposed scheme is both reconfigurable and scalable.
Autors: Garcia, A.;Li, C.;Pedraza, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 55, issue:9, pages: 2142 - 2147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Quasi-Optical Terahertz Detector Utilizing a Zero Bias Schottky Diode
Abstract:
A quasi-optical broadband terahertz detector using a zero bias Schottky diode mounted on a self-complimentary sinuous antenna has been developed. Design and characterization of this detector are described. Measurements show that a responsivity of 300–1000 V/W covering the frequency range of 150–440 GHz has been achieved. The detector performance has been compared to waveguide detectors covering four frequency bands up to 600 GHz. A recent measurement at 600–900 GHz yielded the same output voltage as a waveguide detector. The noise equivalent power level of this detector is estimated to be 5–20 based on the measurements of similar detectors.
Autors: Liu, L.;Hesler, J. L.;Xu, H.;Lichtenberger, A. W.;Weikle, R. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 20, issue:9, pages: 504 - 506
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bubble-activated Micropump with High-frequency Flow Reversal
Abstract:
With the increasing demand for thermal management in electronic cooling applications, the development of heat dissipation devices has become extremely important. This paper presents the development of a novel bubble-activated micropump with high-frequency flow reversal using embedded electrodes in a closed fluidic microchannel. This bubble-activated micropump consists of a microfluidic chamber structure and microelectrodes on a glass substrate that is assembled using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastic sheet. First, the bubble-activated micropump was fabricated on a silicon substrate by spin-coating, curing, and molding using negative photoresist SU-8 2035 as the mold material. Second, a phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was introduced into...
Autors: Shih-Chi, Chan , Chia-Ray, Chen , Cheng-Hsien, Liu
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Bus-Bar-Like Power Module Based on Three-Dimensional Power-Chip-on-Chip Hybrid Integration
Abstract:
This paper focuses on a new generation of power modules, trying to optimize the tradeoff between thermal and electromagnetic interference (EMI) managements. At the same time, the packaging technique is considered in order to simplify the implementation of the power dies while improving the reliability of the structure. The approach considers the hybrid integration of the power dies, one on top of the other, into a 3-D power-chip-on-chip configuration. Due to this structure, the power dies can directly be inserted within electrical plates, with the whole structure emulating a bus-bar-like power module. This paper presents the characteristics and the benefits of this approach. Then, it focuses on the practical characterizations of two prototypes having their active components packaged with the presented technique: a buck converter structure and a full-bridge single-phase diode rectifier. Both of them are based on double-sided thermal cooling, and electrothermal contacts are obtained by pressure. The prototypes exhibit great performances while offering really reduced parasitic and EMI coupling.
Autors: Vagnon, E.;Jeannin, P.-O.;Crebier, J.-C.;Avenas, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 2046 - 2055
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cascode modulated class-E power amplifier for wireless communications
Abstract:
A cascode modulated CMOS class-E power amplifier (PA) is presented in this paper. It is shown that by applying a modulated signal to the gate of the cascode transistor the output power is modulated. The main advantage of the proposed technique is a high 35dB output power dynamic range. The peak power added efficiency (PAE) is 35%. The concept of the cascode power control of class-E RF PA operating at 2.2GHz with 18dBm output power was implemented in a CMOS technology and the performance has been verified by measurements. The prototype CMOS PA is tested by single tone excitation...
Autors: Daniel, Sira , Pia, Thomsen , Torben, Larsen
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A case study of induced eddy currents
Abstract:
The present work aims to study the distribution of eddy (or Foucault)-current stream lines induced within a conducting slab of a non-magnetic material when crossing, with a constant velocity and perpendicularly, a permanent magnetic field. The computation of the magnetic field induced by these currents will also be performed. The purpose of this study is to provide a basic theoretical background to be used in the development of a new transducer.
Autors: Maria, Teresa Restivo
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Chat with Ruzena Bajcsy [Turning Point]
Abstract:
Autors: Corke, P.I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 17, issue:3, pages: 104 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circuit-Level Substrate Current Model for Smart-Power ICs
Abstract:
This paper presents a new modeling methodology accounting for generation and propagation of minority carriers that can be used directly in circuit-level simulators in order to estimate coupled parasitic currents. The method is based on a new compact model of basic components (p-n junction and resistance) and takes into account minority carriers at the boundary. An equivalent circuit schematic of the substrate is built by identifying these basic elements in the substrate and interconnecting them. Parasitic effects such as bipolar or latch-up effects result from the continuity of minority carriers guaranteed by the components’ models. A structure similar to a half-bridge perturbing sensitive n-wells has been simulated. It is composed by four p-n junctions connected together by their common p-doped sides. The results are in good agreement with those obtained from physical device simulations.
Autors: Lo Conte, F.;Sallese, J.-M.;Pastre, M.;Krummenacher, F.;Kayal, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 2433 - 2439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A client-server architecture for remotely controlling a robot using a closed-loop system with a biological neuroprocessor
Abstract:
This paper introduces an open-source real-time system that controls remotely a robot using Human Neuroblastoma cultures and a client-server architecture. Multielectrode Arrays Setups have been designed for direct culturing neural cells over silicon or glass substrates, providing the capability to stimulate and record simultaneously populations of neural cells. However it is very difficult to attach this neural cells to the robot structure due to the special conditions of the biological material. The main objective of this research is to build a client-server system for remotely connecting a robot to a neural culture in a closed-loop experimentation. The robot sensors will...
Autors: Daniel, de Santos , Víctor, Lorente , Félix, de la Paz , José Manuel, Cuadra , José R., Alvarez-Sánchez , ...
Appeared in: Robotics and Autonomous Systems
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A co-operative beamforming solution for eliminating multi-hop communications in wireless sensor networks
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new system architecture for continuous monitoring wireless sensor networks, utilizing recent developments in the areas of cooperative beam-forming, radio frequency integrated circuit technology, and spread-spectrum techniques. In the proposed system, nodes are activated only when they are triggered to send their own data to the fusion center directly, without burdening the network with MAC layer collisions and energy-consuming routing algorithms, thus guaranteeing long lifetime cycles. The nodes consist of a simple active reflector circuit which is synchronized by an incident wave transmitted by a distant base station. Since the nodes can be deployed in large numbers, the network acts as a single antenna array with high directive gain pointing towards the direction of the fusion center. At the receiver, data from each node can be de-multiplexed with the use of a frequency shift keying direct sequence spread spectrum modulation scheme that enables multiple access without destroying the beamforming characteristics of the network.
Autors: Kalis, A.;Kanatas, A.G.;Efthymoglou, G.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:7, pages: 1055 - 1062
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Collaborative Recommender System Based on Space-Time Similarities
Abstract:
The Internet of Things (IoT) concept promises a world of networked and interconnected devices that provides relevant content to users. Recommender systems can find relevant content for users in IoT environments, offering a user-adapted personalized experience. Collaboration-based recommenders in IoT environments rely on user-to-object, space-time interaction patterns. This extension of that idea takes into account user location and interaction time to recommend scattered, pervasive context-embedded networked objects. The authors compare their proposed system to memory-based collaborative methods in which user similarity is based on the ratings of previously rated items. Their proof-of-concept implementation was used in a real-world scenario involving 15 students interacting with 75 objects at Carlos III University of Madrid.
Autors: Munoz-Organero, M.;Ramíez-González, G.A.;Munoz-Merino, P.J.;Delgado Kloos, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 81 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Evaluation of High-Level Hardware Synthesis Using Reed–Solomon Decoder
Abstract:
Using the example of a Reed–Solomon decoder, we provide insights into what type of hardware structures are needed to be generated to achieve specific performance targets. Due to the presence of run-time dependencies, sometimes it is not clear how the C code can be restructured so that a synthesis tool can infer the desired hardware structure. Such hardware structures are easy to express in an HDL. We present an implementation in Bluespec, a high-level HDL, and show a 7.8 improvement in performance while using only 0.45 area of a C-based implementation.
Autors: Agarwal, A.;Ng, M. C.;Arvind,;
Appeared in: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 2, issue:3, pages: 72 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Flux Variance and Surface Renewal Methods With Eddy Covariance
Abstract:
Sensible and latent heat fluxes are important parameters for understanding energy/mass interactions. At present, there are a number of methods available to estimate these fluxes, with varying degrees of difficulty and success. In the present study, we explore the use of the flux variance method and the surface renewal method to estimate the sensible and latent heat fluxes in two agricultural sites in China. The results of these two methods were compared to direct measurements using eddy covariance. The study sites, a wheat field in a semi-arid area and a rice paddy in a humid area provide an opportunity to examine two extreme conditions. In the arid conditions, both estimation methods provided similar sensible heat flux estimations but higher latent heat flux estimations with respect to the eddy covariance measurements. The sum of the estimated sensible and latent heat fluxes was in good agreement with measurements. In the rice paddy, sensible heat flux estimated by both methods showed similar results, whereas latent heat fluxes estimation were 1.2 times greater than eddy covariance measurements. The surface renewal method underestimated the Bowen ratio over the rice paddy, but overestimated it over the wheat field. In conclusion, both methods appear more appropriate for the estimation of sensible heat flux rather than for latent heat flux, in particular in humid environments.
Autors: Zhao, X.;Liu, Y.;Tanaka, H.;Hiyama, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 3, issue:3, pages: 345 - 350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cu-Plate-Bonded System-in-Package (SiP) With Low Spreading Resistance of Topside Electrodes for Voltage Regulators
Abstract:
This paper presents a system-in-package (SiP) with Cu-plate bonding for voltage regulators. The SiP reduces the power loss by 23% and the thermal resistance by 44% compared to those of a SiP with wire bonding. Copper plates reduce the spreading resistance of the topside electrodes in the MOSFETs, leading to lower power loss. They also act as heat spreaders, leading to lower thermal resistance. The lower power loss and lower thermal resistance contribute toward decreasing a topside temperature that is 18.5  C less than that of a wire-bonded SiP. The Cu plate in the low-side MOSFET has a slit at the center that reduces solder strain between the die and lead frame by 12%. The Cu plates in the high-side and low-side MOSFETs have bumps projecting into the solder layer, resulting in a solder layer that is uniform and thick enough to relax the solder strain.
Autors: Hashimoto, T.;Uno, T.;Shiraishi, M.;Kawashima, T.;Akiyama, N.;Matsuura, N.;Akagi, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 25, issue:9, pages: 2310 - 2319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deadlock-free Routing Algorithm for Dynamically Reconfigurable Networks-on-Chip
Abstract:
We address routing in Networks-On-Chip (NoC) architectures that use irregular mesh topologies with Long-Range Links (LRL). These topologies create difficult conditions for routing algorithms, as standard algorithms assume a static, regular link structure and exploit the uniformity of regular meshes to avoid deadlock and maintain routability. We present a novel routing algorithm that can cope with these irregular topologies and adapt to runtime LRL insertion and topology reconfiguration.Our approach to accommodate dynamic topology reconfiguration is to use a new technique that decomposes routing relations into two stages: the calculation of output ports on the current minimal path, before the application...
Autors: Chris, Jackson , Simon J., Hollis
Appeared in: Microprocessors and Microsystems
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Delay-Based Multicast Overlay Scheme for WDM Passive Optical Networks With 10-Gb/s Symmetric Two-Way Traffics
Abstract:
We propose a delay-based multicast overlay scheme to superimpose a multicast differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulated signal on a point-to-point downstream inverse-return-to-zero (IRZ) modulated signal in a wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON). By adjusting the synchronization of the DPSK and the IRZ modulation on the downstream carrier, simple and flexible multicast control could be realized. We have successfully demonstrated the proposed scheme for three different traffics, namely 10-Gb/s IRZ downstream point-to-point data, 10-Gb/s DPSK downstream multicast data, and 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) upstream re-modulated data, respectively. An error floor of is observed for the multicast data when it is disabled. The effect of timing misalignment on the downstream DPSK/IRZ orthogonal modulation and the upstream re-modulation is analyzed. We also study the case when the data rates of the multicast and downstream point-to-point data are different.
Autors: Xu, J.;Zhang, Y.;Chen, L.-K.;Chan, C.-K.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:18, pages: 2660 - 2666
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delivery System for Streaming Video Over DiffServ Networks
Abstract:
In this letter, we develop a general delivery system for streaming using various coding standards over DiffServ (DS) networks. In the delivery system, the coder at the application layer pre-marks the compressed data according to their importance in terms of the current configuration and characteristics of the coder. Then the system maps these pre-marks to a fixed number of source marks at the real-time transport protocol layer. In terms of the current network congestion state, the edge router of a DS network uses the improved two rate three color maker to map these source marks to differentiated services code points. At last, the core routers transmit these packets according to the per-hop forwarding behaviors. Experimental results show that this system can greatly improve the end-to-end delivery quality of a streaming application.
Autors: Chen, L.;Liu, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 20, issue:9, pages: 1255 - 1259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct-Conversion CMOS RF Receiver Reconfigurable From 2 to 6 GHz
Abstract:
A CMOS direct-conversion receiver with only one signal path is reconfigurable from 2 to 6 GHz in the RF band and from 3.6 to 54 MHz in the channel bandwidth. By employing a voltage feedback in a common-gate low-noise amplifier (LNA), the input matching of the LNA can be reconfigured for each RF band by simply changing the resonant frequency of the load network. The frequency characteristics of the active-RC channel selection filter with an R-2R ladder is automatically tuned by a one-shot tuning circuit. Implemented in 0.18- m RF CMOS technology, the whole receive path shows 4.6–5.6-dB noise figure while consuming 65–75 mA from a 1.8-V supply depending on the mode of operation.
Autors: Park, J.;Kim, S.-N.;Roh, Y.-S.;Yoo, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 2326 - 2333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A distributed and energy-efficient framework for Neyman-Pearson detection of fluctuating signals in large-scale sensor networks
Abstract:
To address the challenges inherent to a problem of practical interest - of Neyman-Pearson detection of fluctuating radar signals using wireless sensor networks, we propose in this paper a distributed and energy-efficient framework. Such framework is scalable with respect to the network size, and is able to greatly reduce the dependence on the central fusion center. It assumes a clustering infrastructure, and addresses signal processing and communications related issues arising from different layers. This framework includes a distributed scheduling protocol and a distributed routing protocol, which enable sensor nodes to make their own decisions about information transmissions, without requiring the knowledge of the network global information. In this framework, energy efficiency manifests itself at different network layers in a distributed fashion, and a balance between the detection performance and the energy efficiency is also attained.
Autors: Yang, Y.;Blum, R.S.;Sadler, B.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 28, issue:7, pages: 1149 - 1158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doppler Robust Max-Min Approach to Radar Code Design
Abstract:
This correspondence considers the problem of robust waveform design in the presence of colored Gaussian disturbance under a similarity and an energy constraint. We resort to a max-min approach, where the worst case detection performance (over the possible Doppler shifts) is optimized with respect to the radar waveform under the previously mentioned constraints. The resulting optimization problem is a non-convex Quadratically Constrained Quadratic Program (QCQP) with an infinite number of constraints, which is NP-hard in general and typically difficult to solve. Hence, we propose an algorithm with a polynomial computational complexity to generate a good sub-optimal solution for the aforementioned QCQP. The analysis, conducted in comparison with some known radar waveforms, shows that the sub-optimal solutions by the algorithm lead to high-quality radar signals.
Autors: De Maio, A.;Huang, Y.;Piezzo, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 58, issue:9, pages: 4943 - 4947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Binary Logarithm Algorithm [DSP Tips & Tricks]
Abstract:
This article presents a computationally fast algorithm for computing logarithms. The algorithm is particularly well suited for implementation using fixed-point processors.
Autors: Turner, C.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 124 - 140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Four-Point Sense Methodology for Extraction of Circuit-Relevant Degradation Parameters
Abstract:
A fast measurement methodology to extract, in a single stress sequence, four different circuit-relevant degradation parameters is introduced. The methodology is used to compare the degradation of the linear and saturation drain currents, as well as the linear and saturation threshold voltages, during positive bias temperature instability (BTI) (PBTI) in metal-gate/high- (MG/HK) nFETs and during negative BTI (NBTI) in conventional poly-Si/SiON pFET devices. No degradation is observed for PBTI in MG/HK nFET devices, whereas degradation is evident for NBTI in conventional poly-Si/SiON pFETs. Furthermore, the impact of measurement delay on parameter correlation is investigated, leading to important conclusions regarding the physical origin of degradation during BTI stress.
Autors: Kerber, A.;Cartier, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 31, issue:9, pages: 912 - 914
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast-Converging Equalizer for Upstream DOCSIS Channels
Abstract:
This paper proposes a method of increasing the efficiency of the CATV plant in the upstream direction. The general approach is to reduce the convergence time of the equalizer to allow a shorter training sequence. Specifically, the upstream channel is modeled as a postdetection filter. A short unique word is inserted near the beginning of the preamble to estimate the coefficients of the postdetection filter. The postdetection filter is then crudely inverted to estimate a few key tap weights of the equalizer. The equalizer is initialized with these estimated tap weights before adaptive updating is turned on. The method is evaluated for the echo-laden DOCSIS CATV upstream channel with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB. Plots of the probability of the modulation error ratio exceeding 19- and 22-dB values versus the length of the training sequence show that the performance is comparable to an unseeded equalizer with a training sequence that is about 50 symbols longer.
Autors: Andalibi, Z.;Berscheid, B.;Salt, J. E.;Nguyen, H. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 56, issue:3, pages: 311 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A fast-developing and low-cost characterization and test environment for a double axis resonating micromirror
Abstract:
Testing and characterization of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) can be very challenging due to the multi-domain nature of these devices. Nowadays high volume, high-cost, and accurate measuring systems are necessary to characterize and test MEMS and MOEMS especially to examine their motions, deflections, and resonance frequencies. This paper presents a fast-developing and low-cost environment for MEMS and MOEMS testing and characterization. The environment is based on a flexible mixed-signal platform named Intelligent Sensor InterFace (ISIF). As a case study we consider the characterization of a double axis scanning micromirror. The testing environment has been validated by comparing...
Autors: Francesco, Battini , Emilio, Volpi , Eleonora, Marchetti , Tommaso, Cecchini , Francesco, Sechi , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Field Platform for Continuous Measurement of Canopy Fluorescence
Abstract:
This paper presents a field platform for continuous measurement of fluorescence at the canopy level. It consists of a 21-m-high crane equipped for fluorescence measurements. The crane is installed in the middle of the fields dedicated to agricultural research. Thanks to a jib of 24 m and a railway of 100 m distance, fluorescence measurements can be performed at nadir viewing over various field crops. The platform is dedicated to the development and test of future passive or active airborne and space-borne vegetation sensors. A new fully automatic instrument, called TriFLEX, has been installed at the end of the jib. TriFLEX is designed for passive measurement of fluorescence in the oxygen A and B absorption bands. It is based on three spectrometers and allows for continuous measurements with a repetition rate of about 1 Hz. The data products are the radiances of the target, the fluorescence flux at 687 and 760 nm, and several vegetation indexes, including the photochemical reflectance index and the normalized difference vegetation index. A new algorithm for fluorescence retrieval from spectral bands measurement is described. It improves upon the well-known Fraunhofer line discriminator method applied to passive fluorescence measurement by taking into account the spectral shape of fluorescence and the reflectance of vegetation. A measurement campaign of 38 days has been carried out in summer 2008 over a sorghum field. The evolution of the signals showed that the crop was suffering from stress due to lack of water. After several rainy days, a reversion of the water stress was observed.
Autors: Daumard, F.;Champagne, S.;Fournier, A.;Goulas, Y.;Ounis, A.;Hanocq, J.-F.;Moya, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 48, issue:9, pages: 3358 - 3368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A first-order kinetics ageing model for the hot-carrier stress of high-voltage MOSFETs
Abstract:
We derive a general purpose ageing model for the device parameter drift class that may be related to the activation of a large number of statistically independent microscopic defects, with distributed activation energy and first-order reaction kinetics. We present, as a practical application, a model for predicting the ON state resistance drift of a high-voltage n-channel MOSFET under hot-carrier stress.
Autors: F., Alagi
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Sep 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Floating-Gate-Based Field-Programmable Analog Array
Abstract:
A field-programmable analog array (FPAA) with 32 computational analog blocks (CABs) and occupying 3 3 mm in 0.35- m CMOS is presented. Each CAB has a wide variety of subcircuits ranging in granularity from multipliers and programmable offset wide-linear-range Gm blocks to nMOS and pMOS transistors. The programmable interconnects and circuit elements in the CAB are implemented using floating-gate (FG) transistors, the total number of which exceeds fifty thousand. Using FG devices eliminates the need for SRAM to store configuration bits since the switch stores its own configuration. This system exhibits significant performance enhancements over its predecessor in terms of achievable dynamic range ( 9 b of FG voltage) and speed ( 20 gates/s) of accurate FG current programming and isolation between on and off switches. An improved routing fabric has been designed that includes nearest neighbor connections to minimize the penalty on bandwidth due to routing parasitic. A maximum bandwidth of 57 MHz through the switch matrix and around 5 MHz for a first-order low-pass filter is achievable on this chip, the limitation being a “program” mode switch that will be rectified in the next chip. Programming performance improved drastically by implementing the entire algorithm on-chip with an SPI digital interface. Measured results of the individual subcircuits and two system examples including an AM receiver and a speech processor are presented.
Autors: Basu, A.;Brink, S.;Schlottmann, C.;Ramakrishnan, S.;Petre, C.;Koziol, S.;Baskaya, F.;Twigg, C. M.;Hasler, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 45, issue:9, pages: 1781 - 1794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Formal-Semantics-Based Calculus of Trust
Abstract:
Building trust models based on a well-defined semantics of trust is important so that we can avoid misinterpretation, misuse, or inconsistent use of trust in Internet-based distributed computing. The authors present an approach to a formal-semantics-based calculus of trust, from conceptualization to logical formalization, from logic model to quantification of uncertainties, and from quantified trust to trust decision-making. They also explore how to apply a formal trust model to a PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) system to develop decentralized public-key certification and verification.
Autors: Huang, Jingwei;Nicol, David;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Sep 2010, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 38 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 

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