Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 08-2015 sorted by title, page: 0

» Ω-Shaped Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machine for Direct-Drive Applications With Constrained Shaft Height
Abstract:
This paper investigates an original solution that can be used in the design of axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) machines whenever a constrained shaft height requirement penalizes a standard design. A machine is tailored for electrical traction, but the ideas that are set forth are valid for any application with a constrained shaft height. Two design solutions that comply with a constrained shaft height are investigated, i.e., a standard Torus AFPM machine and an asymmetrically wound Torus machine, which is named “Ω AFPM” due to the shape of the stator winding. It is shown that the Ω AFPM machine has lower losses and higher efficiency. Finite-element simulations and experimental tests on a full-scale prototype confirm the validity of the proposed solution.
Autors: De Donato, G.;Capponi, F.G.;Borocci, G.;Caricchi, F.;Beneduce, L.;Fratelli, L.;Tarantino, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3050 - 3058
Publisher: IEEE
 
» θ-D Approximation Technique for Nonlinear Optimal Speed Control Design of Surface-Mounted PMSM Drives
Abstract:
This paper proposes nonlinear optimal controller and observer schemes based on a θ-D approximation approach for surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). By applying the θ- D method in both the controller and observer designs, the unsolvable Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations are switched to an algebraic Riccati equation and state-dependent Lyapunov equations (SDLEs). Then, through selecting the suitable coefficient matrices, the SDLEs become algebraic, so the complex matrix operation technique, i.e., the Kronecker product applied in the previous papers to solve the SDLEs is eliminated. Moreover, the proposed technique not only solves the problem of controlling the large initial states, but also avoids the excessive online computations. By utilizing a more accurate approximation method, the proposed control system achieves superior control performance (e.g., faster transient response, more robustness under the parameter uncertainties and load torque variations) compared to the state-dependent Riccati equation-based control method and conventional PI control method. The proposed observer-based control methodology is tested with an experimental setup of a PMSM servo drive using a Texas Instruments TMS320F28335 DSP. Finally, the experimental results are shown for proving the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.
Autors: Do, T.D.;Choi, H.H.;Jung, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 1822 - 1831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-Perfect Codes Over Dual-Cubes vis-à-vis Hamming Codes Over Hypercubes
Abstract:
A 1-perfect code of a graph is a set such that the 1-balls centered at the vertices in constitute a partition of . In this paper, we consider the dual-cube that is a connected -regular spanning subgraph of the hypercube , and show that it admits a 1-perfect code if and only if , . The result closely parallels the existence of Hamming codes over the hypercube. The algorithm for that purpose employs a scheme by Jha and Slutzki for a vertex partition of into Hamming codes using a Latin square, and carefully allocates those codes among various -cubes in . The result leads to tight bounds on domination numbers of the dual-cube and the exchanged hypercube.
Autors: Jha, P.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 61, issue:8, pages: 4259 - 4268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 Gbps mobile visible light communication system employing angle diversity, imaging receivers, and relay nodes
Abstract:
Over the past decade, visible light communication (VLC) systems have typically operated between 50 Mbps and 3.4 Gbps. In this paper, we propose and evaluate mobile VLC systems that operate at 10 Gbps. The enhancements in channel bandwidth and data rate are achieved by the introduction of laser diodes (LDs), angle diversity receivers (ADR), imaging receivers, relay nodes, and delay adaptation techniques. We propose three mobile VLC systems: an ADR relay assisted LD-VLC, an imaging relay assisted LD-VLC (IMGR-LD), and select-the-best imaging relay assisted LD-VLC. The ADR and imaging receiver are proposed for the VLC system to mitigate the intersymbol interference, maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reduce the impact of multipath dispersion due to mobility. The combination of IMGR-LD with a delay adaptation technique adds a degree of freedom to the link design, which results in a VLC system that has the ability to provide high data rates under mobility. The proposed IMGR-LD system achieves significant improvements in the SNR over other systems in the worst case scenario in the considered real indoor environment.
Autors: Hussein, A.T.;Elmirghani, J.M.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 7, issue:8, pages: 718 - 735
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gb/s 0.13- CMOS Inductorless Modified-RGC Transimpedance Amplifier
Abstract:
This paper presents an inductorless 0.13- CMOS TIA structure that is a modified version of a regulated cascode (RGC) TIA. An immittance converter is incorporated to reduce power consumption while increasing transimpedance gain. Measured 3-dB bandwidth is 7 GHz, sufficient for 10-Gb/s operation, in the presence of 250 fF capacitance at the TIA input, representative of typical CMOS photodiode capacitance. The transimpedance gain of the single-stage TIA is 50 , and the group-delay variation is less than 19 ps over the 3-dB bandwidth. The circuit occupies an active area of and consumes 7 mW from a 1.5-V supply. The measured average input-referred current noise of the TIA is 31 . Simulations and analysis show that the proposed single-stage TIA architecture is capable of achieving improvement in the transimpedance limit over a single-stage RGC TIA designed for the same data rate and the same input photodiode capacitance. A comparison of measurement results to published TIAs also demonstrates the competitive performance of the proposed TIA in terms of the TIA transimpendance gain, bandwidth, area, and power consumption.
Autors: Taghavi, M.H.;Belostotski, L.;Haslett, J.W.;Ahmadi, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 1971 - 1980
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade
Abstract:
We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.
Autors: Durante, P.;Neufeld, N.;Schwemmer, R.;Marconi, U.;Balbi, G.;Lax, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1752 - 1757
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 101-GHz InAlN/GaN HEMTs on Silicon With High Johnson’s Figure-of-Merit
Abstract:
In this brief, the InAlN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on silicon substrate with high Johnson’s figure-of-merit (J-FOM) are presented. A trilayer photoresist of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/copolymer/PMMA associated with a T-shaped gate is used to reduce the parasitic resistance while maintaining high current gain cutoff frequency. The small dc-to-RF transconductance dispersion of only 1.1% suggests a good quality SiNx passivation layer, and the of 101 GHz and of 60 GHz can be simultaneously obtained with a 0.11- foot length and 1.5- source-drain distance. In addition, the three-terminal OFF-state breakdown measurements reveal a source-drain breakdown voltage (BV of 21 V ( V). The results lead to a high J-FOM of 1.3 THz , which has not been reported for the InAlN/GaN HEMTs on silicon substrate.
Autors: Tsou, C.;Lin, C.;Lian, Y.;Hsu, S.S.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 2675 - 2678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D RMHD Modeling Assessment of Current Flow, Plasma Conditions, and Doppler Effects in Recent Z Argon Experiments
Abstract:
By varying current-loss circuit parameters, the Mach2-tabular collisional radiative equilibrium 2-D radiation magnetohydrodynamic model was tuned to reproduce the radiative and electrical properties of three recent argon gas-puff experiments (same initial conditions) performed on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. The model indicates that there were current losses occurring near or within the diode region of the Z machine during the stagnation phase of the implosion. The “good” simulation reproduces the experimental K-shell powers, K-shell yields, total powers, percentage of emission radiated in lines, size of the K-shell emission region, and the average electron temperature near the time-of-peak K-shell power. The calculated atomic populations, ion temperatures, and radial velocities are used as input to a detailed multifrequency ray-trace radiation transport model that includes the Doppler effect. This model is employed to construct time-, space-, and energy-resolved synthetic spectra. The role the Doppler effect likely plays in the experiments is demonstrated by comparing synthetic spectra generated with and without this effect.
Autors: Thornhill, J.W.;Giuliani, J.L.;Jones, B.;Apruzese, J.P.;Dasgupta, A.;Chong, Y.K.;Harvey-Thompson, A.J.;Ampleford, D.J.;Hansen, S.B.;Coverdale, C.A.;Jennings, C.A.;Rochau, G.A.;Cuneo, M.E.;Lamppa, D.C.;Johnson, D.;Jones, M.C.;Moore, N.W.;Waisman, E.M.
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 43, issue:8, pages: 2480 - 2491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 25-Gb/s 1310-nm Optical Receiver Based on a Sub-5-V Waveguide-Coupled Germanium Avalanche Photodiode
Abstract:
We demonstrate low-voltage waveguide-coupled germanium avalanche photodetectors (APDs) with a (wafer-scale mean) gain bandwidth product of 140 GHz at 5 V by utilizing a 185-nm-thick Ge layer. An optical receiver based on such an APD operating up to 25 Gb/s is demonstrated.
Autors: Chen, H.T.;Verbist, J.;Verheyen, P.;De Heyn, P.;Lepage, G.;De Coster, J.;Absil, P.;Moeneclaey, B.;Yin, X.;Bauwelinck, J.;Van Campenhout, J.;Roelkens, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D ultrafast doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in Vivo
Abstract:
Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 ?? 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer.
Autors: Provost, J.;Papadacci, C.;Demene, C.;Gennisson, J.-L.;Tanter, M.;Pernot, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 1467 - 1472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30 μm-pitch oxide TFT-based gate driver design for small-size, high-resolution, and narrow-bezel displays
Abstract:
We report the design and fabrication of a high-yield, a high-speed, and an ultranarrow gate driver with amorphous-indium - gallium - zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). A single stage of the gate driver consists of nine TFTs and one capacitor. For supply voltage (VDD) of 20 V, the gate driver operates with a pulsewidth of 2 μs, which is compatible with a 4k2k display operated at 240 Hz. In addition, the proposed gate driver is ultrasmall in physical size, which is only 30 μm in width (pitch) and 720 μm in length, and thus suitable for small-size, high-resolution, and narrow bezel display.
Autors: Geng, D.;Chen, Y.F.;Mativenga, M.;Jang, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 36, issue:8, pages: 805 - 807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 350 mV, 5 GHz Class-D Enhanced Swing Differential and Quadrature VCOs in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A new enhanced swing class-D VCO which operates from a supply voltage as low as 300 mV is presented. The architectural advantages are described along with an analysis for the oscillation frequency. Prototype differential and quadrature variants of the proposed VCO have been implemented in a 65 nm RF CMOS process with a 5 GHz VCO oscillation frequency. At a 350 mV supply, the measured phase noise performance for the quadrature VCO with a 5% tuning range is 137.1 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset with a power dissipation of 2.1 mW from a 0.35 V supply. The highest resulting figure-of-merit (FoM) is 198.3 dBc/Hz.
Autors: Guha Roy, A.;Dey, S.;Goins, J.B.;Fiez, T.S.;Mayaram, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1833 - 1847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Palmprint Identification Using Block-Wise Features and Collaborative Representation
Abstract:
Developing 3D palmprint recognition systems has recently begun to draw attention of researchers. Compared with its 2D counterpart, 3D palmprint has several unique merits. However, most of the existing 3D palmprint matching methods are designed for one-to-one verification and they are not efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we fill this gap by proposing a collaborative representation (CR) based framework with l1-norm or l2-norm regularizations for 3D palmprint identification. The effects of different regularization terms have been evaluated in experiments. To use the CR-based classification framework, one key issue is how to extract feature vectors. To this end, we propose a block-wise statistics based feature extraction scheme. We divide a 3D palmprint ROI into uniform blocks and extract a histogram of surface types from each block; histograms from all blocks are then concatenated to form a feature vector. Such feature vectors are highly discriminative and are robust to mere misalignment. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed CR-based framework with an l2-norm regularization term can achieve much better recognition accuracy than the other methods. More importantly, its computational complexity is extremely low, making it quite suitable for the large-scale identification application. Source codes are available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/cr3dpalm/cr3dpalm.htm.
Autors: Lin Zhang;Ying Shen;Hongyu Li;Jianwei Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 37, issue:8, pages: 1730 - 1736
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Thermal and Mechanical Analysis of a Single Event Burnout
Abstract:
This paper presents a study related to thermal and mechanical behavior of power DMOS transistors during a Single Event Burnout (SEB) process. We use a cylindrical heat generation region for emulating the thermal and mechanical phenomena related to the SEB. In this way, it is avoided the complexity of the mathematical treatment of the ion-device interaction. This work considers locating the heat generation region in positions that are more realistic than the ones used in previous work. For performing the study, we formulate and validate a new 3D model for the transistor that maintains the computational cost at reasonable level. The resulting mathematical models are solved by means of the Finite Element Method. The simulations results show that the failure dynamics is dominated by the mechanical stress in the metal layer. Additionally, the time to failure depends on the heat source position, for a given power and dimension of the generation region. The results suggest that 3D modeling should be considered for a detailed study of thermal and mechanical effects induced by SEBs.
Autors: Peretti, G.;Demarco, G.;Romero, E.;Tais, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1879 - 1887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50th Anniversary of Fuzzy Logic [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Yao, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G and "IMT for 2020 and beyond" [Spectrum Policy and Regulatory Issues]
Abstract:
A few issues ago we wrote about issues of possible millimeter- wave use in 5G mobile communications systems [1]. In this issue we are revisiting the general area because of more recent developments. The three basic developments include two major national regulatory agencies asking for and receiving comments on the approaches to be used for millimeter-wave mobile communications and Working Party 5D of the International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) updating its plans and schedules for 5G development and finalizing its view of a timeline toward what is now called "IMT-2020" or "IMT for 2020 and beyond."
Autors: Marcus, M.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Wireless Communications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 22, issue:4, pages: 2 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G wireless network: MyNET and SONAC
Abstract:
Future 5G wireless networks will face new challenges, including increasing demand on network capacity to support a large number of devices running applications requiring high data rates and always-on connectivity; immensely diverse service requirements and characteristics; and supporting the emerging business models in the wireless network market requiring networks to be more open. New challenges drive new solutions and require different strategies in the network deployment, management, and operation of future 5G wireless networks compared to those of current wireless networks. One of the key objectives of future 5G wireless networks is to flexibly provide service-customized networks to a wide variety of services using the integrated cloud resource and wireless/wired network resources, which may be offered by multiple infrastructure providers and/or operators. In this article, we describe a novel wireless network architecture, MyNET, and one of the key enabling techniques called SONAC. In MyNET, basic logical functions are identified for both the control plane and the data plane. These basic functions include existing network functions, with some extensions/enhancements, as well as new network functions. SONAC selects and deploys a subset of these functions to provide customized network services.
Autors: Zhang, H.;Vrzic, S.;Senarath, G.;D??o, N.-D.;Farmanbar, H.;Rao, J.;Peng, C.;Zhuang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 29, issue:4, pages: 14 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurement of Charging Process in Electret-Based Comb-Drive Actuator and High-Voltage Charging
Abstract:
We report in situ measurements of the charging process for an electret-based comb-drive actuator and an experiment on high-voltage charging. The ac current flowing between the comb-drive electrodes, which is proportional to the displacement, is monitored during the application of a dc bias voltage at an elevated temperature. As the charge voltage increases, it opposes the applied voltage, causing the current to decrease and become a minimum, which indicates the completion of the charging process. The proposed electret-based method allows voltage-controlled charging in silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) devices, which offers advantages for commercial MEMS device fabrication. This paper also discusses the importance of high-voltage charging for improving the efficiency of the actuator as an electrostatic vibration-energy harvesting device. A charging mechanism is proposed to explain the experimental results, and the stability of the movable comb-drive electrode against the pull-in effect is discussed. Using the proposed method, a large force factor is obtained, and charging to a voltage of up to 380 V is demonstrated.
Autors: Shibata, Y.;Sugiyama, T.;Mimura, H.;Hashiguchi, G.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1052 - 1060
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuzzy Control Synthesis for a Large-Scale System With a Reduced Number of LMIs
Abstract:
This paper introduces an fuzzy control synthesis method for a nonlinear large-scale system with a reduced number of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). It is well known that a nonlinear large-scale system can be transformed to a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy system by using “sector nonlinearity” or “local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces” methods. Next, in order to achieve the fuzzy control design for this T–S fuzzy system, we solve the stabilization conditions that are represented by the LMIs. However, if the number of LMIs is large, the control design process may become very complicated. In this study, based on the Lyapunov method and S-procedure, several theorems are proposed for the synthesis of parallel distributed compensation (PDC)-type fuzzy control such that the nonlinear large-scale system achieves control performance, and the number of LMIs to be solved is reduced explicitly. As a result, the control design process will become much easier. Furthermore, if the modeling error between the nonlinear system and T–S fuzzy system exists, the robust control performance and the number reduction of LMIs are also achieved by the proposed theorem. Several examples are presented in this paper to show the number reduction effect of LMIs and the effectiveness of the proposed controller synthesis.
Autors: Chang, W.;Wang, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:4, pages: 1197 - 1210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurement of Charging Process in Electret-Based Comb-Drive Actuator and High-Voltage Charging
Abstract:
We report in situ measurements of the charging process for an electret-based comb-drive actuator and an experiment on high-voltage charging. The ac current flowing between the comb-drive electrodes, which is proportional to the displacement, is monitored during the application of a dc bias voltage at an elevated temperature. As the charge voltage increases, it opposes the applied voltage, causing the current to decrease and become a minimum, which indicates the completion of the charging process. The proposed electret-based method allows voltage-controlled charging in silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) devices, which offers advantages for commercial MEMS device fabrication. This paper also discusses the importance of high-voltage charging for improving the efficiency of the actuator as an electrostatic vibration-energy harvesting device. A charging mechanism is proposed to explain the experimental results, and the stability of the movable comb-drive electrode against the pull-in effect is discussed. Using the proposed method, a large force factor is obtained, and charging to a voltage of up to 380 V is demonstrated. [2014-0178]
Autors: Shibata, Y.;Sugiyama, T.;Mimura, H.;Hashiguchi, G.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1052 - 1060
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuzzy Control Synthesis for a Large-Scale System With a Reduced Number of LMIs
Abstract:
This paper introduces an fuzzy control synthesis method for a nonlinear large-scale system with a reduced number of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). It is well known that a nonlinear large-scale system can be transformed to a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy system by using “sector nonlinearity” or “local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces” methods. Next, in order to achieve the fuzzy control design for this T–S fuzzy system, we solve the stabilization conditions that are represented by the LMIs. However, if the number of LMIs is large, the control design process may become very complicated. In this study, based on the Lyapunov method and S-procedure, several theorems are proposed for the synthesis of parallel distributed compensation (PDC)-type fuzzy control such that the nonlinear large-scale system achieves control performance, and the number of LMIs to be solved is reduced explicitly. As a result, the control design process will become much easier. Furthermore, if the modeling error between the nonlinear system and T–S fuzzy system exists, the robust control performance and the number reduction of LMIs are also achieved by the proposed theorem. Several examples are presented in this paper to show the number reduction effect of LMIs and the effectiveness of the proposed controller synthesis.
Autors: Chang, W.;Wang, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:4, pages: 1197 - 1210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CDC: Compressive Data Collection for Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Data collection is a crucial operation in wireless sensor networks. The design of data collection schemes is challengingdue to the limited energy supply and the hot spot problem. Leveraging empirical observations that sensory data possess strongspatiotemporal compressibility, this paper proposes a novel compressive data collection scheme for wireless sensor networks. We adopt a power-law decaying data model verified by real data sets and then propose a random projection-based estimation algorithm for this data model. Our scheme requires fewer compressed measurements, thus greatly reduces the energy consumption. It allowssimple routing strategy without much computation and control overheads, which leads to strong robustness in practical applications. Analytically, we prove that it achieves the optimal estimation error bound. Evaluations on real data sets (from the GreenOrbs, IntelLab and NBDC-CTD projects) show that compared with existing approaches, this new scheme prolongs the network lifetime by to for estimation error 5-20 percent.
Autors: Liu, X.;Zhu, Y.;Kong, L.;Liu, C.;Gu, Y.;Vasilakos, A.V.;Wu, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 26, issue:8, pages: 2188 - 2197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Quantification of Electronic Short Circuits in PEM Fuel Cell Stacks
Abstract:
There is a need for increasing the durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. Membrane failure is usually generated by a chemical attack led by peroxide radical species. The chemical attack promotes pinhole formation that ultimately induces the shutdown of the fuel cell. An electronic short circuit between the anode and the cathode through the membrane has also been identified as a failure mode. However, the current resulting from H2 crossover is estimated to be an order of magnitude larger than the electronic current. As a consequence, the electronic short circuit is often disregarded. In the present work, we revealed numerous local hotspots in pristine membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are sensitive to short circuits. Catalyst layer heterogeneities were found responsible for these hotspots. In use, these flaws do not directly impact the global performance but may induce premature degradation. With the use of an electrical passive technique, one can identify the electronic short-circuit resistance of membranes simply by charging and discharging the double-layer capacitor of the MEA. The integration of this technique into fuel cell systems was possible, and measurements were performed at different ageing times. They revealed a gradual increase in the number of cells with short circuit annunciating the failure of the entire stack.
Autors: De Moor, G.;Charvin, N.;Bas, C.;Caque, N.;Rossinot, E.;Flandin, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 5275 - 5282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A μ-based approach to small-signal stability analysis of an interconnected distributed energy resource unit and load
Abstract:
The small-signal stability of an interconnected source and load can be analyzed using the frequency-response methods of stability analysis. Existing frequency-response methods of stability analysis introduce artificial conservativeness and do not explicitly address stability robustness against load perturbations, that is, by how much the load can change such that the system will remain stable in the small-signal sense. This paper presents a frequency-response method of stability analysis which provides a less conservative stability condition compared to existing methods, in the sense of having less restriction on the control system; further, the proposed method establishes a robust stability margin in terms of perturbations in load parameters. The proposed method is based on μ analysis, and models the source-load dynamic interaction via a closed-loop system of impedances and admittances. The proposed method is used to examine small-signal stability of an islanded subnetwork extracted from a university campus microgrid, composed of a distributed energy resource (DER) unit feeding a load, providing a study with realistic parameter values. Two case studies are presented to show the features of the proposed method, namely, reduced conservativeness and the establishment of a robust stability margin. Another example is provided to show the application of the proposed stability analysis method in a multi-DER-unit network. The findings of the frequency-domain analysis are illustrated through time-domain simulations around the operating point on the system under study.
Autors: Haddadi, A.;Boulet, B.;Yazdani, A.;Joos, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 1715 - 1726
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.12- 2.4-GHz CMOS Inductorless High Isolation Subharmonic Mixer With Effective Current-Reuse Transconductance
Abstract:
In this work, the design of an inductorless, high-isolation, and high conversion gain fully differential subharmonic down-conversion mixer for 2.4-GHz wireless application is presented. A complementary current-reuse technique is adopted between the transconductance and the local oscillator (LO) switching stage to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption in the concept of reusing the dc current of the LO switching stage. The LO switching transistors are driven by a 25% duty cycle input to further enhance the conversion gain and improve the noise-figure performance. An active balun is integrated in the design for single-balanced to differential conversion or vice-versa, along with an RC poly phase filter to generate quadrature LO signals from a differential input signal. The subharmonic mixer is fabricated in a 0.13- μm standard CMOS technology with a core chip dimension of 313 μm× 372 μm and a power consumption of 5.82 mW from a supply voltage of 1.2 V. Experimental results show a conversion gain of 13.61 dB, an input-referred third-order intercept point of -4.46 dBm, a noise figure of 20 dB, and an isolation greater than 50 dB between the LO, RF, and IF ports. The proposed inductorless subharmonic mixer has a competitive performance in size with high isolation performance and highest conversion gain in comparison to other published works.
Autors: Wei Keat Chong;Ramiah, H.;Vitee, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 2427 - 2437
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.12- 2.4-GHz CMOS Inductorless High Isolation Subharmonic Mixer With Effective Current-Reuse Transconductance
Abstract:
In this work, the design of an inductorless, high-isolation, and high conversion gain fully differential subharmonic down-conversion mixer for 2.4-GHz wireless application is presented. A complementary current-reuse technique is adopted between the transconductance and the local oscillator (LO) switching stage to boost the conversion gain without additional power consumption in the concept of reusing the dc current of the LO switching stage. The LO switching transistors are driven by a 25% duty cycle input to further enhance the conversion gain and improve the noise-figure performance. An active balun is integrated in the design for single-balanced to differential conversion or vice-versa, along with an RC poly phase filter to generate quadrature LO signals from a differential input signal. The subharmonic mixer is fabricated in a 0.13- standard CMOS technology with a core chip dimension of 313 372 and a power consumption of 5.82 mW from a supply voltage of 1.2 V. Experimental results show a conversion gain of 13.61 dB, an input-referred third-order intercept point of , a noise figure of 20 dB, and an isolation greater than 50 dB between the LO, RF, and IF ports. The proposed inductorless subharmonic mixer has a competitive performance in size with high isolation performance and highest conversion gain in comparison to other published works.
Autors: Chong, W.K.;Ramiah, H.;Vitee, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 2427 - 2437
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.35–0.5-V 18–152 MHz Digitally Controlled Relaxation Oscillator With Adaptive Threshold Calibration in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This brief describes a pseudodigital oscillator design for low-voltage applications. To overcome the start-up problem of the digitally controlled ring oscillator with an ultralow supply voltage, a digitally controlled relaxation oscillator (DCRXO) that utilizes an inverter-based comparator is proposed. The pseudocomparator (PC), which is a variable threshold inverter, followed by an inverter, is introduced and a digital calibration circuit is used to automatically set the threshold of the PC for process-insensitive operation in the initial state. The DCRXO implemented in 65-nm CMOS consumes 17.8 from a 0.35-V supply at 26-MHz output and achieves a tuning range of 18.2–29.2 MHz with a sufficient overlap between tuning curves. The phase noise of −104 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset is measured at 26-MHz output frequency. When the supply voltage of 0.5 V is used, the DCRXO consumes 59 at 100-MHz output with the tuning range of 43.5–152 MHz. The core area of the DCRXO is 0.0362 mm2.
Autors: Zhang, Y.;Rhee, W.;Kim, T.;Park, H.;Wang, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 736 - 740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5–16.3 Gb/s Fully Adaptive Flexible-Reach Transceiver for FPGA in 20 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper describes a 0.5–16.3 Gb/s fully adaptive wireline transceiver embedded in 20 nm CMOS FPGA. The receiver utilizes bandwidth adjustable CTLE and adjustable output capacitance at the AGC to support wide range of channel loss profiles. A modified 11-tap, 1 bit speculative DFE topology provides reliable operation across all data rates. Low-latency digital CDR ensures high tracking bandwidth while still providing flexibility to support multiple protocols. The transceiver uses ring-oscillator with programmable main and cross-coupled inverter drive-strengths to wide range of operating frequency for low data-rate operation. A wide range low jitter LC-PLL utilizes feedback divider with synchronized CMOS down-counter without a prescaler to achieve a continuous divide ratio of 16-257. The clock distribution uses quadrature-error correction circuit to improve phase interpolator linearity. The transceiver achieves BER 10 over a 28 dB loss backplane at 16.3 Gb/s and over legacy channels with 10 G-KR characteristics at 10.3125 Gb/s. The transceiver meets jitter tolerance specifications for both PCIe Gen3 at 8 Gb/s and PCIe Gen4 at 16 Gb/s in both common-clock and spread-spectrum modes.
Autors: Frans, Y.;Carey, D.;Erett, M.;Amir-Aslanzadeh, H.;Fang, W.Y.;Turker, D.;Jose, A.P.;Bekele, A.;Im, J.;Upadhyaya, P.;Wu, Z.D.;Hsieh, K.C.H.;Savoj, J.;Chang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1932 - 1944
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.76-pJ/Pulse 0.1–1 Gpps Microwatt IR-UWB CMOS Pulse Generator With Adaptive PSD Control Using a Limited Monocycle Precharge Technique
Abstract:
This brief presents an ultra-wideband pulse generator topology featuring adaptive control of power spectral density for a broad range of applications with different data rate requirements. The adaptivity is accomplished by employing a limited monocycle precharge approach to control the energy used for pulse generation at different desired data rates. By doing so, the need for tuning circuits is eliminated and the radiated power is maintained at the highest level allowed by the Federal Communications Commission. A prototype pulse generator has been implemented using the UMC 180-nm CMOS process for validation. The measured results show that the pulse generator can be used for a wide pulse repetition rate range from 100 Mpps to 1 Gpps. In addition, the pulse generator consumes 0.76 pJ/pulse at 1 Gpps, equivalent to 760 μW and has a compact size of 0.09 mm2.
Autors: Shen, M.;Yin, Y.;Jiang, H.;Tian, T.;Jensen, O.K.;Mikkelsen, J.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 806 - 810
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.1 V 2y-nm 4.35 Gb/s/pin 8 Gb LPDDR4 Mobile Device With Bandwidth Improvement Techniques
Abstract:
The demands on higher bandwidth with reduced power consumption in mobile market are driving mobile DRAM with advanced design techniques. Proposed LPDDR4 in this paper achieves over 39% improvement in power efficiency and over 4.3 Gbps data rate with 1.1 V supply voltage. These are challenging targets compared with those of LPDDR3. This work describes design schemes employed in LPDDR4 to satisfy these requirements, such as multi-channel-per-die architecture, multiple training modes, low-swing interface, DQS and clock frequency dividing, and internal reference for data and command-address signals. This chip was fabricated in a 3-metal 2y-nm DRAM CMOS process.
Autors: Song, K.;Lee, S.;Kim, D.;Shim, Y.;Park, S.;Ko, B.;Hong, D.;Joo, Y.;Lee, W.;Cho, Y.;Shin, W.;Yun, J.;Lee, H.;Lee, J.;Lee, E.;Jang, N.;Yang, J.;Jung, H.;Cho, J.;Kim, H.;Kim, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1945 - 1959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2 V 2.64 GS/s 8 bit 39 mW Skew-Tolerant Time-interleaved SAR ADC in 40 nm Digital LP CMOS for 60 GHz WLAN
Abstract:
A clock-skew tolerant 8-bit 16x time-interleaved (TI) semi-synchronous SAR ADC with switching-energy efficient hybrid resistive-capacitive DAC is presented that meets standard requirements with only background offset and gain calibrations. Skew tolerance is achieved by using a “correct-by-construction,” timing-calibration-free global bottom-plate sampling scheme. The ADC achieves a sampling rate of 2.64 GS/s while maintaining an ENOB of over 6 bits in the entire Nyquist band. The 40 nm LP CMOS design dissipates 39 mW from 1.2 V. The TI-SAR ADC characterized with an integrated receiver front-end achieves 21.44 dB EVM at sensitivity with a QAM16 signal.
Autors: Kundu, S.;Alpman, E.;Lu, J.H.-L.;Lakdawala, H.;Paramesh, J.;Jung, B.;Zur, S.;Gordon, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 1929 - 1939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2-V 450-μW - Bluetooth Channel Filter Using a Novel Gain-Boosted Tunable Transconductor
Abstract:
A third-order Gm-C Chebyshev low-pass filter based on a novel gain-boosted tunable transconductor is presented. The transconductor employs local negative feedback for linearization controlling the drain voltage of the input transistors biased in the triode region. The gain boosted feedback amplifier is based on quasi-floating gate MOS transistors and its adjustable biasing current allows tuning the cutoff frequency of the filter. The filter is intended to be used in the baseband section of a zero-IF bluetooth low energy receiver and it has been fabricated in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS technology with a nominal cutoff frequency of 500 kHz. The power consumption of the overall filter is 450 μW with a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The measurement results show a third-order intermodulation distortion of -46.4 dB for two input tones located at the passband of the filter. The filter occupies a silicon area of 0.08 mm2.
Autors: Sanchez-Rodriguez, T.;Gomez-Galan, J.A.;Gonzalez Carvajal, R.;Sanchez-Raya, M.;Munoz, F.;Ramirez-Angulo, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:8, pages: 1572 - 1576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2-V 450-μW - Bluetooth Channel Filter Using a Novel Gain-Boosted Tunable Transconductor
Abstract:
A third-order Gm-C Chebyshev low-pass filter based on a novel gain-boosted tunable transconductor is presented. The transconductor employs local negative feedback for linearization controlling the drain voltage of the input transistors biased in the triode region. The gain boosted feedback amplifier is based on quasi-floating gate MOS transistors and its adjustable biasing current allows tuning the cutoff frequency of the filter. The filter is intended to be used in the baseband section of a zero-IF bluetooth low energy receiver and it has been fabricated in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS technology with a nominal cutoff frequency of 500 kHz. The power consumption of the overall filter is 450 μW with a supply voltage of 1.2 V. The measurement results show a third-order intermodulation distortion of -46.4 dB for two input tones located at the passband of the filter. The filter occupies a silicon area of 0.08 mm2.
Autors: Sanchez-Rodriguez, T.;Gomez-Galan, J.A.;Carvajal, R.G.;Sanchez-Raya, M.;Munoz, F.;Ramirez-Angulo, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:8, pages: 1572 - 1576
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.4 pJ/bit, Power-Scalable 16×12 Gb/s Source-Synchronous I/O With DFE Receiver in 32 nm SOI CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A power-scalable 2 Byte I/O operating at 12 Gb/s per lane is reported. The source-synchronous I/O includes controllable TX driver amplitude, flexible RX equalization, and multiple deskew modes. This allows power reduction when operating over low-loss, low-skew interconnects, while at the same time supporting higher-loss channels without loss of bandwidth. Transceiver circuit innovations are described including a low-skew transmission-line clock distribution, a 4:1 serializer with quadrature quarter-rate clocks, and a phase rotator based on current-integrating phase interpolators. Measurements of a test chip fabricated in 32 nm SOI CMOS technology demonstrate 1.4 pJ/b efficiency over 0.75” Megtron-6 PCB traces, and 1.9 pJ/b efficiency over 20” Megtron-6 PCB traces.
Autors: Dickson, T.O.;Liu, Y.;Rylov, S.V.;Agrawal, A.;Kim, S.;Hsieh, P.-H.;Bulzacchelli, J.F.;Ferriss, M.;Ainspan, H.A.;Rylyakov, A.;Parker, B.D.;Beakes, M.P.;Baks, C.;Shan, L.;Kwark, Y.;Tierno, J.A.;Friedman, D.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1917 - 1931
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 mV-Input Boost Converter With Inductor Peak Current Control and Zero Detection for Thermoelectric and Solar Energy Harvesting With 220 mV Cold-Start and 14.5 dBm, 915 MHz RF Kick-Start
Abstract:
A boost converter for thermoelectric energy harvesting in 130 nm CMOS achieves energy harvesting from a 10 mV input, which allows wearable body sensors to continue operation with low thermal gradients. The design uses a peak inductor current control scheme and duty cycled, offset compensated comparators to maintain high efficiency across a broad range of input and output voltages. The measured efficiency ranges from 53% at to a peak efficiency of 83% at . A cold-start circuit starts the operation of the boost converter from 220 mV, and an RF kick-start circuits starts it from 14.5 dBm at 915 MHz RF power.
Autors: Shrivastava, A.;Roberts, N.E.;Khan, O.U.;Wentzloff, D.D.;Calhoun, B.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1820 - 1832
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10–100-GHz Double-Ridged Horn Antenna and Coax Launcher
Abstract:
The design, fabrication, and measurement of a coax to double-ridged waveguide launcher and horn antenna is presented. The novel launcher design employs two symmetric field probes across the ridge gap to minimize spreading inductance in the transition, and achieves better than 15 dB return loss over a 10:1 bandwidth. The aperture-matched horn uses a half-cosine transition into a linear taper for the outer waveguide dimensions and ridge width, and a power-law scaled gap to realize monotonically varying cutoff frequencies, thus avoiding the appearance of trapped mode resonances. It achieves a nearly constant beamwidth in both E- and H-planes for an overall directivity of about 16.5 dB from 10–100 GHz.
Autors: Morgan, M.A.;Boyd, T.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 3417 - 3422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100 kW high voltage power supply for dual energy computer tomography applications
Abstract:
Dual energy X-ray computer tomography (CT) offers enhanced imaging and reduced radiation dose. A conventional technique is using two tubes, each energized by its high voltage power supply (HVPS) at different voltage levels. This approach is straightforward but costly. An alternative is using a single tube fed by an HVPS capable of generating these same voltages with fast transitions from one state to another. A conventional HVPS with exceptionally fast dynamics is less costly than a modulator employing a set of HV switches. Such an HVPS is described in this paper. Key technology includes an all-solid-state modular IGBT-based HV converter with energy-dosing inverters operating at up to 70 kHz. The inverters??? output voltages are phase-shifted, which yields low ripple and fast risetime combined with low stored energy. Controls provide standard operating features and means of communicating with the outside world. Digital processing enables predictive control for generating clean transitions from one state to another in a wide range of load/line conditions. The HVPS incorporates also two filament power supplies and a high-speed starter. Results of extensive testing with both resistive loads and X-ray tubes are presented. The developed techniques can also be used in other applications requiring low-cost generation of high-power HV pulses submillisecond- to many seconds-long.
Autors: Pokryvailo, A.;Carp, C.;Scapellati, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 22, issue:4, pages: 1945 - 1953
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15-Gb/s 8-PSK Demodulator With Comparator-Based Carrier Synchronization
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel 8-phase-shift-keying (8-PSK) carrier recovery and demodulation method using a comparator and frequency divider is proposed. A proof-of-concept 8-PSK demodulator for high-data-rate millimeter-wave communication systems is designed and tested, which can support 8-PSK transmission up to 15 Gb/s with a bit error rate less than .
Autors: He, Z.;Nopchinda, D.;Swahsn, T.;Zirath, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 2630 - 2637
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-DOF MEMS Electrostatic Piston-Tube Actuator
Abstract:
A three-degrees-of-freedom microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) electrostatic actuator was developed, fabricated, and tested. The actuator utilizes a piston-tube configuration that enables the use of electrodes with a wide area. Therefore, a large output force can be generated. The actuator also utilizes a flexure mechanism in which the in-plane ( - stiffness is high compared with the out-of-plane ( -axis) stiffness. This flexure mechanism enables a large translation stroke along the -axis before experiencing lateral pull-in instability. A prototype of the actuator was able to achieve a pure translation (piston-style motion) of m at 80 V and an angle of rotation of 0.78° at 70 V. A mass of 1 mg was translated m at 80 V, indicating the ability of the actuator to provide high output force. The actuator was fabricated using the Micralyne MicraGEM-Si MEMS fabrication process, in which the pistons and tubes are fabricated in the device layers of two bonded Silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers. The misalignment between the pistons and the tubes using this process was of the gap between adjacent pistons and tubes. This amount of misalignment leads to a negligible lateral instability effect. [2014-0277]
Autors: Ba-Tis, F.;Ben-Mrad, R.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1173 - 1184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 32 Terabit/s Data Acquisition from Mostly COTS Components
Abstract:
The Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) data acquisition after 2019 will need to perform event-building at an aggregated band-width of 32 Tbit/s. Apart from the technological challenges described in various papers also at this conference, the key challenge is to come up with an architecture which minimises the cost, while providing a system which can be maintained by a small team for a long time and which scales well. In this paper we present the analyses we have been doing to minimise the cost, the R&D topics we derived from that and how we combined all this into a coherent proposal which allows us to come up with a system which not only today fits the budgetary constraints of LHCb, but also will allow profiting from any main-stream technological development. We achieve this by aligning our system needs as much as possible to data-centre mass-market commercial of the shelf (COTS) products; by minimising the number of optical interconnects and by optimising the physical layout of the system. This system requires only one piece of custom-made hardware, and even this could, for a smaller setup be replaced by a commercially available item. We believe that the reasoning behind this design can be beneficial to any large, high-rate data acquisition system.
Autors: Schwemmer, R.;Neufeld, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1747 - 1751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40 nm CMOS Derivative-Free IF Active-RC BPF With Programmable Bandwidth and Center Frequency Achieving Over 30 dBm IIP3
Abstract:
An 8th-order Cheybshev-II ladder active-RC BPF was fabricated in a 40 nm CMOS low-leakage digital process. A new technique to design for zero capacitance spread (ZCS) is reported to enable the application of integrator frequency compensation (IFC). Combined with wideband op-amps employing a current-reusing, split-path feed-forward compensation (FFC) technique, significant power savings is achieved in a standard 40 nm CMOS process. The BPF measures a center frequency (CF) of 85–225 MHz and four programmable bandwidth-to-center frequency (BW/CF) ratios of 5%–40%. Both the CF and BW/CF ratio are digitally programmable. It also measures a maximum in-band IIP3 of 31 dBm at 0 dB gain and a maximum in-band frequency-response deviation of 0.2 dB while consuming 33 mA from a 1.5 V supply.
Autors: Wu, B.;Chiu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1772 - 1784
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5.8 nW CMOS Wake-Up Timer for Ultra-Low-Power Wireless Applications
Abstract:
This work presents an ultra-low-power oscillator designed for wake-up timers in compact wireless sensors. In a conventional relaxation oscillator, a capacitor periodically resets to a fixed voltage using a continuous comparator, thereby generating an output clock. The reset is triggered by a continuous comparator and thus the clock period is dependent on the delay of the continuous comparator which therefore needs to be fast compared to the period, making this approach power hungry. To avoid the power penalty of a fast continuous comparator, a constant charge subtraction scheme is proposed in this paper. As a constant amount of charge is subtracted for each cycle, rather than discharging/charging the capacitor to a fixed voltage, the clock period becomes independent of comparator delay. Therefore, the high power continuous comparator can be replaced with a coarse clocked comparator, facilitating low-power time tracking. For precise wake-up signal generation, an accurate continuous comparator is only enabled for one clock period at the end of the specified wakeup time. A wake-up timer using the proposed scheme is fabricated in a 0.18 µm CMOS process. The timer consumes 5.8 nW at room temperature with temperature stability of 45 ppm/°C (-10 °C to 90 °C) and line sensitivity of 1%/V (1.2 V to 2.2 V) .
Autors: Jeong, S.;Lee, I.;Blaauw, D.;Sylvester, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1754 - 1763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 50–64 Gb/s Serializing Transmitter With a 4-Tap, LC-Ladder-Filter-Based FFE in 65 nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a complete 50–64 Gb/s serializing transmitter including a 4-tap equalizer. An LC-based FFE structure is proposed. The FFE improves the bandwidth of the delay line and the output combiner by applying the design methodology of LC-ladder filters. Proper arrangement of the output combiner reduces the required number of inductors and hence reduces the area. In addition, a novel 4:1 multiplexer (MUX) is used as the final stage of the serializer to reduce power. Designed and fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology, the transmitter achieves a maximum data rate of 64.5 Gb/s with an energy efficiency of 3.1 pJ/bit.
Autors: Chen, M.-S.;Yang, C.-K.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 50, issue:8, pages: 1903 - 1916
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz Band Compact-Range Gigabit Wireless Access System Using Large Array Antennas
Abstract:
A novel compact-range wireless access system is proposed for multi-Gb/s data transfer in the 60-GHz band. Large-array antennas in the access point generate a quasi-plane wave and form a stable communication zone proportional to the antenna size. The link budget based upon the Friis transmission equation is not applicable as ever in this compact-range communication system. The signal coverage up to 10 m still falls within the Fresnel region of the large-array antenna. Mobile users everywhere within the coverage receive almost constant field strength free of multipath interference. To demonstrate the viability, circularly polarized waveguide slot arrays of various sizes are designed and fabricated. After the evaluation of conventional antenna radio frequency (RF) performance, bit-error rate (BER) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements are conducted to evaluate the prototype of a compact-range Gigabit wireless access system.
Autors: Zhang, M.;Toyosaki, K.;Hirokawa, J.;Ando, M.;Taniguchi, T.;Noda, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 3432 - 3440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 76.2–89.1 GHz Phase-Locked Loop With 15.6% Tuning Range in 90 nm CMOS for W-Band Applications
Abstract:
In this letter, a wide tuning range W-band phase-locked loop (PLL) in 90 nm CMOS is presented. A novel frequency tripling topology with a single cross-coupled pair and a dual tank is proposed for the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) to achieve wide tuning characteristics under low power consumption. The locking range of the PLL at the fundamental tone is 25.4–29.7 GHz, and an excellent tuning range at the third harmonic frequency up to 12.9 GHz (from 76.2 to 89.1 GHz, 15.6%) is obtained. Under a 1.2 V supply voltage , the measured closed-loop phase noise of the PLL is 83.5 dBc/Hz at 78.34 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, the achieved turning range is the highest currently reported for the PLLs operating in a similar frequency range in CMOS technology.
Autors: Tan, K.-W.;Chu, T.-S.;Hsu, S.S.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 25, issue:8, pages: 538 - 540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9–11-Bit Phase-Interpolating Digital Pulsewidth Modulator With 1000x Frequency Range
Abstract:
A design of a new hybrid-type digital pulsewidth modulator (DPWM) with a wide frequency range of 1000 : 1, from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, is presented. The proposed DPWM has the maximum duty-cycle resolution of 11 bits and consumes the power of 17.5 at 10 kHz and 2.36 mW at 10 MHz, respectively. The proposed DPWM realizes the upper 5-bit resolution using a programmable digital counter and the lower 6-bit resolution using a current-integrating-type phase interpolator, employing an M2M-ladder current-steering digital-to-analog converter for low power consumption. The operating clock is generated in on-chip using a relaxation oscillator. The prototype integrated circuit fabricated in a 0.25- high-voltage complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor demonstrates that the proposed DPWM maintains a good linearity across the entire operating range.
Autors: Lee, Y.;Kang, T.;Kim, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3376 - 3384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Vertex Trigger for Belle II
Abstract:
The Belle II experiment will go into operation at the upgraded SuperKEKB collider in 2016. SuperKEKB is designed to deliver an instantaneous luminosity . The experiment will therefore have to cope with a much larger machine background than its predecessor Belle, in particular from events outside of the interaction region. We present the concept of a track trigger, based on a neural network approach, that is able to suppress a large fraction of this background by reconstructing the (longitudinal) position of the event vertex within the latency of the first level trigger. The trigger uses the hit information from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of Belle II within narrow cones in polar and azimuthal angle as well as in transverse momentum (“sectors”), and estimates the -vertex without explicit track reconstruction. The preprocessing for the track trigger is based on the track information provided by the standard CDC trigger. It takes input from the 2D track finder, adds information from the stereo wires of the CDC, and finds the appropriate sectors in the CDC for each track. Within the sector, the -vertex is estimated by a specialized neural network, with the drift times from the CDC as input and a continuous output corresponding to the scaled -vertex. The neural algorithm will be implemented in programmable hardware. To this end a Virtex 7 FPGA board will be used, which provides at present the most promising solution for a fully parallelized implementation of neural networks or alternative multivariate methods. A high speed interface for external m- mory will be integrated into the platform, to be able to store the parameters required. The contribution presents the results of our feasibility studies and discusses the details of the envisaged hardware solution.
Autors: Skambraks, S.;Abudinen, F.;Chen, Y.;Feindt, M.;Fruhwirth, R.;Heck, M.;Kiesling, C.;Knoll, A.;Neuhaus, S.;Paul, S.;Schieck, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1732 - 1740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Vertex Trigger for Belle II
Abstract:
The Belle II experiment will go into operation at the upgraded SuperKEKB collider in 2016. SuperKEKB is designed to deliver an instantaneous luminosity . The experiment will therefore have to cope with a much larger machine background than its predecessor Belle, in particular from events outside of the interaction region. We present the concept of a track trigger, based on a neural network approach, that is able to suppress a large fraction of this background by reconstructing the (longitudinal) position of the event vertex within the latency of the first level trigger. The trigger uses the hit information from the Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of Belle II within narrow cones in polar and azimuthal angle as well as in transverse momentum (“sectors”), and estimates the -vertex without explicit track reconstruction. The preprocessing for the track trigger is based on the track information provided by the standard CDC trigger. It takes input from the 2D track finder, adds information from the stereo wires of the CDC, and finds the appropriate sectors in the CDC for each track. Within the sector, the -vertex is estimated by a specialized neural network, with the drift times from the CDC as input and a continuous output corresponding to the scaled -vertex. The neural algorithm will be implemented in programmable hardware. To this end a Virtex 7 FPGA board will be used, which provides at present the most promising solution for a fully parallelized implementation of neural networks or alternative multivariate methods. A high speed interface for external m- mory will be integrated into the platform, to be able to store the parameters required. The contribution presents the results of our feasibility studies and discusses the details of the envisaged hardware solution.
Autors: Skambraks, S.;Abudinen, F.;Chen, Y.;Feindt, M.;Fruhwirth, R.;Heck, M.;Kiesling, C.;Knoll, A.;Neuhaus, S.;Paul, S.;Schieck, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1732 - 1740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Balanced-to-Unbalanced Microstrip Power Divider With Filtering Function
Abstract:
In this paper, a balanced-to-unbalanced microstrip power divider based on branch lines with several stubs and one resistor is proposed. The functions of power dividing, frequency selectivity, isolation between output ports, and common-mode suppression can be realized at the same time. The even–odd-mode equivalent circuits combining with the standard S-parameters and the mixed-mode S-parameters are adopted to derive the analytical equations at the center frequency. One or two transmission zeros can be achieved to enhance the out-of-band suppression. The center frequency, bandwidth, isolation, common-mode suppression, and the frequencies of transmission zeros can be controlled by the design procedure. To verify the theoretical prediction, two fabricated prototypes are designed and compared. One gets 7.7% 1-dB bandwidth with 0.6-dB insertion loss and one transmission zero. The other gets 1-dB bandwidth of 5% with 0.7-dB insertion loss and two transmission zeros. The isolation and common-mode suppression for both prototypes are better than 15 and 20 dB within the whole passband, respectively.
Autors: Xu, K.;Shi, J.;Lin, L.;Chen, J.-X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 2561 - 2569
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bidirectional Hybrid Lightwave Transport System Based on Fiber-IVLLC and Fiber-VLLC Convergences
Abstract:
This paper proposes and validates a bidirectional hybrid lightwave transport system based on fiber-invisible laser light communication (IVLLC) and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) convergences with light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques. This paper is also the first to employ light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a bidirectional lightwave transport system based on fiber-IVLLC and fiber-VLLC integration. Light is successfully modulated directly with cable television (CATV), 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and 16-QAM-orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Good carrier-to-noise ratio, composite second order, composite triple beat, and bit error rate (BER) are obtained for CATV, 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signal transmissions over a combined 40-km single-mode fiber, a 1.43-km photonic crystal fiber, and 6-m free-space transmission. The proposed bidirectional hybrid lightwave transport system exhibits significant potential in providing broadband integrated services, such as CATV, Internet, and telecommunication, via optical fiber and free-space indoor networks.
Autors: Ying, C.;Lu, H.;Li, C.;Chu, C.;Lu, T.;Peng, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Blind Dereverberation Method for Narrowband Source Localization
Abstract:
Narrowband source localization gets extremely challenging in strong reverberation. When the room is perfectly known, some dictionary-based methods have recently been proposed, allowing source localization with few measurements. In this paper, we first show that, for these methods, the choice of frequencies is important as they fail to localize sources that emit at a frequency near the modal frequencies of the room. A more difficult case, but also important in practice, is when the room geometry and boundary conditions are unknown. In this setup, we introduce a new model for the acoustic soundfield, based on the Vekua theory, that allows a separation of the field into its reverberant and direct source contributions, at the cost of more measurements. This can be used for the design of a dereverberation pre-processing step, suitable for a large variety of standard source localization techniques. We discuss the spatial sampling strategies for the sound field, in order to successfully recover acoustic sources, and the influence of parameters such as number of measurements and model order. This is validated in numerical and experimental tests, that show that this method significantly improves localization in strong reverberant conditions.
Autors: Chardon, G.;Nowakowski, T.;de Rosny, J.;Daudet, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 815 - 824
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bridgeless BHB ZVS-PWM AC–AC Converter for High-Frequency Induction Heating Applications
Abstract:
A new prototype of a zero voltage soft-switching (ZVS) utility frequency ac to high-frequency ac resonant power converter for induction heating (IH) applications is presented in this paper. The series resonant ac–ac converter proposed herein can process the frequency conversion without any diode bridge rectifier, thereby reducing the relevant conduction power losses. In addition, power factor correction (PFC) can be naturally achieved by the inductor-based boost half-bridge circuit with the nonsmoothed dc-link. The operation principle together with an IH load power regulation scheme is described, and the converter performances including ZVS operations and PFC are demonstrated in an experiment with a 3.0-kW–30-kHz prototype by comparing it with the previously developed converter. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed ac–ac converter is evaluated from a practical point of view.
Autors: Mishima, T.;Nakagawa, Y.;Nakaoka, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3304 - 3315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A broadband multilayered nonpolarization resonant reflector
Abstract:
A nonpolarization reflector constructed by a multilayered 1-D grating structure with a multisubpart profile is proposed and fabricated. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis for multilayered grating structure is adopted to theoretically investigate the properties of the structure. In addition, experimental verification of theoretical investigation is accomplished. It is shown that in both TE and TM polarized waves, the reflector experimentally demonstrates a wideband reflection spectrum from 1.65 to 1.72 , very high reflectivity , and good angular insensitivity of about 24.6 . Moreover, a reasonably good tolerance of fabrication error is also presented by numerical analysis of device performance degeneration resulting from parameter deviations.
Autors: Huang, L.;Liang, D.;Zeng, J.;Xiao, Y.;Wu, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Carrier-Based PWM Technique for Capacitor Voltage Balancing of Single-Phase Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Converters
Abstract:
In this paper, a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) technique with neutral point capacitor voltage balancing in single-phase neutral-point-clamped converters is presented. The technique is based on the injection of a common-mode voltage signal into the sinusoidal modulating signals of the conventional carrier-based PWM. Although several strategies have been reported for such a problem by using the voltage signal injection, the proposed method is very simple with easy implementation. A set of equations is presented to demonstrate how the injected voltage signal introduces a dc component on the neutral-point current, which can be controlled in order to allow the capacitor voltages balancing.
Autors: de Freitas, I.S.;Bandeira, M.M.;Barros, L.d.M.;Jacobina, C.B.;dos Santos, E.C.;Salvadori, F.;da Silva, S.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3227 - 3235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Case of Lightweight PUF Constructions: Cryptanalysis and Machine Learning Attacks
Abstract:
Due to their unique physical properties, physically unclonable functions (PUF) have been proposed widely as versatile cryptographic primitives. It is desirable that silicon PUF circuits should be lightweight, i.e., have low-hardware resource requirements. However, it is also of primary importance that such demands of low hardware overhead should not compromise the security aspects of PUF circuits. In this paper, we develop two different mathematical attacks on previously proposed lightweight PUF circuits, namely composite PUF and the multibit output lightweight secure PUF (LSPUF). We show that independence of various components of composite PUF can be used to develop divide and conquer attacks which can be used to determine the responses to unknown challenges. We reduce the complexity of the attack using a machine learning-based modeling analysis. In addition, we elucidate a special property of the output network of LSPUF to show how such feature can be leveraged by an adversary to perform an intelligent model building attack. The theoretical inferences are validated through experimental results. More specifically, proposed attacks on composite PUF are validated using the challenge-response pairs (CRPs) from its field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation, and attack on LSPUF is validated using the CRPs of both simulated and FPGA implemented LSPUF.
Autors: Sahoo, D.P.;Nguyen, P.H.;Mukhopadhyay, D.;Chakraborty, R.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 34, issue:8, pages: 1334 - 1343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Certainty-Based Model for Uncertain Databases
Abstract:
This paper considers relational databases containing uncertain attribute values when some knowledge is available about the more or less certain value (or disjunction of values) that a given attribute in a tuple may take. We propose a possibility-theory-based model suited to this context and extend the operators of relational algebra to handle such relations in a “compact,” thus efficient, way. It is shown that the model is a representation system for the whole relational algebra. An important result is that the data complexity associated with the extended operators in this context is the same as in the classical database case, which makes the approach highly scalable.
Autors: Pivert, O.;Prade, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:4, pages: 1181 - 1196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Charging Strategy for PV-Based Battery Switch Stations Considering Service Availability and Self-Consumption of PV Energy
Abstract:
The photovoltaic (PV)-based battery switch station (BSS) is one of typical integration systems to implement a solar-to-vehicle system. The charging strategy is important for the operation of the PV-based BSS. Generally, instant charging strategy for swapped electric vehicle (EV) batteries can keep the availability of battery-swapping service at a high level. However, it is always accompanied with the possibility of bringing a negative effect on the utilization of PV energy. The contribution of this paper is mainly on a novel charging strategy for the PV-based BSS considering the service availability and self-consumption of the PV energy. First, considering the features of the PV-based BSS, evaluation indexes for the operation performance are defined, including the availability of battery-swapping service, self-consumption of the PV energy, and operation profit. Second, the charging strategy is proposed, including a battery-swapping service model and a power distribution model. In order to guarantee the service availability, the battery-swapping service model is used to decide the lower limit of charging power based on short-term forecasting results of EV requirements. The power distribution model is obliged to dispatch the charging power supplied by the PV system and power grid. Finally, in the case study, the operation of the BSS is simulated with the instant charging strategy and the proposed strategy under different scenarios. From the analysis of results, the proposed strategy can effectively improve the self-consumption of PV energy with the premise of guaranteeing the availability of the battery-swapping service.
Autors: Nian Liu;Qifang Chen;Xinyi Lu;Jie Liu;Jianhua Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 4878 - 4889
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cleaner Energy System: Renewable Energy and Electricity Market Design [In My View]
Abstract:
The rapid growth rates for renewable energy are part of a larger policy agenda to promote a cleaner energy system. The health and environmental impacts of emissions from traditional fossil fuel technologies provide a substantial reason for changing the energy system. For the greatest part, these emission impacts are externalities that provide a justification for policy to supplement natural market forces. The idealized example of a tax on harmful emissions provides a benchmark for comparing the efficacy of various policies. The author questions the policy approach that has been chosen around the globe to reduce emission impacts and externalities by forcing renewable technologies through mandates or subsidies. The author warns that solar levelized costs for 2019 entry would be 90% more expensive in the United States than an advanced gas combined cycle plant, even with emission taxes. The author favors, instead, a better market design, through an emission tax, that would work through the market to affect production, consumption, and investment. He claims such a tax would better stimulate technological innovation in economic renewable supply and in demand-side alternatives.
Autors: Hogan, W.W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 13, issue:4, pages: 112 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cloud radio access network with power over fiber toward 5G networks: QoE-guaranteed design and operation
Abstract:
While the concept of Cloud Radio Access Networks (C-RANs) presents a promising solution to provide required quality of service (QoS) for the future network environment, i.e., more than 10 Gbps capacity, less than 1 ms latency, and connectivity for numerous devices, it is still susceptible to quality of experience (QoE) problems. Until now, only a few researchers considered the design and operation of C-RANs based on QoE. In this article we describe our envisioned C-RAN based on passive optical networks (PONs) exploiting power over fiber (PoF), which can be installed with low installation cost and is capable of providing communication services without external power supply for remote radio head (RRH), and describe QoE requirement on the envisioned network. For all users in the envisioned network to satisfy their QoE, effective network design and operation approaches are then presented. Our proposed design and operation approaches demonstrate how to construct the envisioned network, i.e. the numbers of RRHs and optical line terminals (OLTs), and sleep scheduling of RRHs for an energy-efficient optical power transmission.
Autors: Miyanabe, K.;Suto, K.;Fadlullah, Z.M.;Nishiyama, H.;Kato, N.;Ujikawa, H.;Suzuki, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Wireless Communications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 22, issue:4, pages: 58 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cloud-Friendly RFID Trajectory Clustering Algorithm in Uncertain Environments
Abstract:
In the emerging environment of the Internet of Things (IoT), through the connection of billions of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and sensors to the Internet, applications will generate an unprecedented number of transactions and amount of data that require novel approaches in mining useful information from RFID trajectories. RFID data usually contain a considerable degree of uncertainty caused by various factors such as hardware flaws, transmission faults and environment instability. In this paper, we propose an efficient clustering algorithm that is much less sensitive to noise and outliers than the existing methods. To better facilitate the emerging cloud computing resources, our algorithm is designed cloud-friendly so that it can be easily adopted in a cloud environment. The scalability and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through an extensive set of experimental studies.
Autors: Wu, Y.;Shen, H.;Sheng, Q.Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 26, issue:8, pages: 2075 - 2088
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Readout With High-Precision and Low-Temperature-Coefficient Background Current Skimming for Infrared Focal Plane Array
Abstract:
A high-performance CMOS readout structure employing a new background current skimming technique for infrared focal plane array (IFPA) applications is proposed, analyzed, and verified. Both the background current skimming circuit and bias circuit have good immunity to threshold voltage variations. In addition, the background current skimming circuit is also independent of temperature variations. An experimental readout chip has been fabricated using SMIC 0.18- 1P6M process technology with a unit-cell size of and a power consumption less than 0.06 mW. With 4 V power supply, the readout integrated circuit provides a dynamic output range over 3 V and an output linearity of >99%. The background suppression current whose level is tunable between 470 nA and 5 has a variation of 2.2%, corresponding to a temperature coefficient of 275 ppm/°C. The simulation and experimental results confirmed the good performance of the proposed background current skimming circuit for IFPA applications.
Autors: Zhou, T.;Dong, T.;Su, Y.;He, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 25, issue:8, pages: 1447 - 1455
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cognitive Control Approach to Communication-Based Train Control Systems
Abstract:
Communication-based train control (CBTC) is an automated train control system using bidirectional train–ground wireless communications to ensure the safe operation of rail vehicles. Due to unreliable wireless communications and train mobility, the train control performance can be significantly affected by wireless networks. Although some works have been done to study CBTC systems from both train–ground communication and train control perspectives, these two important areas have traditionally been separately addressed. In this paper, with recent advances in cognitive dynamic systems, we take a cognitive control approach to CBTC systems considering both train–ground communication and train control. In our approach, the notion of information gap is adopted to quantitatively describe the effects of train–ground communication on train control. Moreover, unlike the existing works that use network capacity as the design measure, in this paper the linear quadratic cost for the train control performance in CBTC systems is considered in the performance measure. Reinforcement learning is applied to obtain the optimal policy based on the performance measure, which includes linear quadratic cost and information gap. In addition, the wireless channel is modeled as finite-state Markov chains with multiple state transition probability matrices, which can demonstrate the characteristics of both large-scale and small-scale fading. The channel state transition probability matrices are derived from real field measurement results. Simulation results show that the proposed cognitive control approach can significantly improve the train control performance in CBTC systems.
Autors: Wang, H.;Yu, F.R.;Zhu, L.;Tang, T.;Ning, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 1676 - 1689
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Evolutionary Interval-Valued Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification System for the Modeling and Prediction of Real-World Financial Applications With Imbalanced Data
Abstract:
The current financial crisis has stressed the need to obtain more accurate prediction models in order to decrease risk when investing money on economic opportunities. In addition, the transparency of the process followed to make the decisions in financial applications is becoming an important issue. Furthermore, there is a need to handle real-world imbalanced financial datasets without using sampling techniques that might introduce noise in the used data. In this paper, we present a compact evolutionary interval-valued fuzzy rule-based classification system, which is based on interval-valued fuzzy rule-based classification system with tuning and rule selection (IVTURS ) for the modeling and prediction of real-world financial applications. This proposed system allows obtaining good prediction accuracies using a small set of short fuzzy rules implying a high degree of interpretability of the generated linguistic model. Furthermore, the proposed system deals with the financial imbalanced datasets with no need for any preprocessing or sampling method and, thus, avoiding the accidental introduction of noise in the data used in the learning process. The system is also provided with a mechanism to handle examples that are not covered by any fuzzy rule in the generated rule base. To test the quality of our proposal, we will present an experimental study including 11 real-world financial datasets. We will show that the proposed system outperforms the original C4.5 decision tree, type-1, and interval-valued fuzzy counterparts that use the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to preprocess data and the original FURIA, which is a fuzzy approximative classifier. Furthermore, the proposed method enhances the results achieved by the cost-sensitive C4.5, and it gives competitive results when compared with FURIA using SMOTE, while our proposal avoids preprocessing techniques, and it provides- interpretable models that allow obtaining more accurate results.
Autors: Sanz, J.A.;Bernardo, D.;Herrera, F.;Bustince, H.;Hagras, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:4, pages: 973 - 990
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Optofluidic Cytometer for Detection and Enumeration of Tumor Cells
Abstract:
Biophotonics has emerged as a powerful technology, which can reveal very important physiological information for healthcare applications. Nowadays, with the development of advanced micro/nano fabrication technology, the interdisciplinary optofluidic technology by integrating the polymer-based microfluidic chip with the optical fiber provides a convenient and powerful platform for point of care diagnosis. In this paper, we demonstrate a low cost and compact optofluidic cytometer, which is able to characterize the biological cells by analyzing multiple phenoltypical and biochemical parameters. This device includes the microfluidic focusing and optical detection components on a glass substrate made with Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Multiple optical parameters such as fluorescence, side scatter, and forward scatter are obtained to provide 3-D plots for determination of cell types and subpopulations. As a specific biomedical application, the proposed compact optofluidic cytometer is able to provide a rapid and low-cost platform for detection of tumor cells.
Autors: Guo, J.;Liu, X.;Kang, K.;Ai, Y.;Wang, Z.;Kang, Y.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 33, issue:16, pages: 3433 - 3438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Silicon Coherent Receiver Without Waveguide Crossing
Abstract:
A monolithically integrated silicon coherent receiver based on a novel scheme with a crossing-free 90 hybrid optical coupler and two balanced germanium photodetectors is reported. The integrated receiver is compact (footprint is ), and it is demonstrated by working with single-polarization 56-Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) and 80-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signals. In particular, QPSK transmission that is back-to-back at 28 Gbaud shows a bit-error rate (BER) below for an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) lower than 17 dB, whereas 16-QAM at 20 Gbaud shows a BER not better than because of the nonideal behavior of the device. Reasons for the performance limitations are discussed.
Autors: Faralli, S.;Meloni, G.;Gambini, F.;Klamkin, J.;Poti, L.;Contestabile, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Test Structure for Characterizing Transistor Variability Beyond
Abstract:
An addressable array test structure is proposed for characterization of transistor variability beyond 3σ away from the mean. The design of the array is based on very compact basic cells which enable a highly efficient layout which has over three times higher normalized device density than similar arrays. Implementations of a 32k array are demonstrated for placement in a standard wafer scribe lane module. Characterization results based on an advanced high-k/metal gate process show that transistor threshold voltages follow a Gaussian distribution at current levels typically used in digital circuits. Analysis of random and systematic components of variability confirms that there are no systematic spatial gradients across the array and that random variations account for 99% of total variability.
Autors: Chen, C.S.;Liping Li;Lim, Q.;Hong HaiTeh;Binti Omar, N.F.;Chun-Lee Ler;Watt, J.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 329 - 336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Evaluation of SiC Power Devices for High-Performance Domestic Induction Heating
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of silicon carbide power devices for the domestic induction heating (IH) application, which currently has a major industrial, economic and social impact. The compared technologies include MOSFETs, normally on and normally off JFETs, as well as BJTs. These devices have been compared according to different figure-of-merit evaluating conduction and switching performance, efficiency, impact of temperature, as well as other driving and protection issues. To perform the proposed evaluation, a versatile test platform has been developed. As a result of this study, several differential features are identified and discussed, taking into account the pursued induction heating application.
Autors: Sarnago, H.;Lucia, O.;Burdio, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 4795 - 4804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Complete Statistical Investigation of RTN in HfO2-Based RRAM in High Resistive State
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the random telegraph noise (RTN) in hafnium-oxide resistive random access memories in high resistive state (HRS). The current fluctuations are analyzed by decomposing the multilevel RTN signal into two-level RTN traces using a factorial hidden Markov model approach, which allows extracting the properties of the traps originating the RTN. The current fluctuations, statistically analyzed on devices with a different stack reset at different voltages, are attributed to the activation and deactivation of defects in the oxidized tip of the conductive filament, assisting the trap-assisted tunneling transport in HRS. The physical mechanisms responsible for the defect activation are discussed. We find that RTN current fluctuations can be due to either the coulomb interaction between oxygen vacancies (normally assisting the charge transport) and the electron charge trapped at interstitial oxygen defects, or the metastable defect configuration of oxygen vacancies assisting the electron transport in HRS. A consistent microscopic description of the phenomenon is proposed, linking the material properties to the device performance.
Autors: Puglisi, F.M.;Larcher, L.;Padovani, A.;Pavan, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 2606 - 2613
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Complex Image Reduction Technique Using Genetic Algorithm for the MoM Solution of Half-Space MPIE
Abstract:
The discrete complex image method (DCIM) has been widely used to analytically approximate the Sommerfeld integrals (SIs) of Green’s functions in layered media. This method has been greatly improved in accuracy and generality in the past years, but has resulted in a large amount of complex images. It is found that using so many complex images for SI approximation in method of moment (MoM) applications is redundant and inefficient. To reduce the number of complex images, a technique by means of genetic algorithm is proposed and applied to the MoM solution of the half-space mixed-potential integral equation (MPIE).
Autors: Wu, B.;Sheng, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 3727 - 3731
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Evaluation of Common Python Implementations
Abstract:
Python is a widely used general-purpose dynamic language. Owing to its popularity, many implementations exist for the two distinct Python 2 and Python 3 language versions. Researchers evaluated seven implementations of both language versions to facilitate the selection of one of them. For this purpose, they carefully selected 523 programs to execute in each implementation. They evaluated run-time performance and memory consumption and investigated each implementation's important qualitative characteristics.
Autors: Redondo, J.M.;Ortin, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 76 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control-Oriented Model of a PEM Fuel Cell Stack Based on NARX and NOE Neural Networks
Abstract:
Hydrogen-related technologies have been proposed as an alternative to store the energy surplus from renewable sources. Among these technologies, the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and electrolyzer are the preferred choice for practical applications since they have reached a certain level of maturity and are commercially available at present. In order to achieve a cost-effective operation, a PEMFC stack must operate at maximum efficiency most of the time. Since PEMFC stacks present a time-varying behavior, an adaptive model-based controller should be employed to accomplish this goal. A fixed-parameter electrochemical model may not offer a reliable prediction over a midterm time horizon for such a controller. For this reason, system identification techniques appear as more appropriate choices to obtain an effective model for this class of control systems. In this paper, a system identification modeling methodology employing nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) and nonlinear output error (NOE) neural networks is presented to obtain a black-box model of a PEMFC stack oriented for a predictive control system. The experimental data for the model development are obtained with a commercial 3-kW PEMFC stack. The model built according to the proposed methodology provides accurate predictions of the voltage for the whole operating range of the stack for a long time and, hence, the ability to represent the time-varying behavior of a PEMFC stack for a predictive control application.
Autors: da Costa Lopes, F.;Watanabe, E.H.;Rolim, L.G.B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 5155 - 5163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control-Theoretic Approach to Adaptive Video Streaming in Dense Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Recently, the way people consume video content has been undergoing a dramatic change. Plain TV sets, that have been the center of home entertainment for a long time, are losing ground to hybrid TVs, PCs, game consoles, and, more recently, mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones. The new predominant paradigm is: watch what I want, when I want, and where I want. The challenges of this shift are manifold. On the one hand, broadcast technologies such as DVB-T/C/S need to be extended or replaced by mechanisms supporting asynchronous viewing, such as IPTV and video streaming over best-effort networks, while remaining scalable to millions of users. On the other hand, the dramatic increase of wireless data traffic begins to stretch the capabilities of the existing wireless infrastructure to its limits. Finally, there is a challenge to video streaming technologies to cope with a high heterogeneity of end-user devices and dynamically changing network conditions, in particular in wireless and mobile networks. In the present work, our goal is to design an efficient system that supports a high number of unicast streaming sessions in a dense wireless access network. We address this goal by jointly considering the two problems of wireless transmission scheduling and video quality adaptation, using techniques inspired by the robustness and simplicity of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. We show that the control-theoretic approach allows to efficiently utilize available wireless resources, providing high quality of experience (QoE) to a large number of users.
Autors: Miller, K.;Bethanabhotla, D.;Caire, G.;Wolisz, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 17, issue:8, pages: 1309 - 1322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coordination Control Strategy of Voltage-Source-Converter-Based MTDC for Offshore Wind Farms
Abstract:
Similar to other major electrical apparatuses, the reliability and stability of the dc network is becoming the most important issue when using the voltage-source-converter-based multiterminal dc (VSC-MTDC) system for offshore wind power integration. A coordinated control strategy of VSC-MTDC named master–auxiliary is proposed by combining the advantages of the voltage margin and voltage droop control. This strategy has three advantages. First, the master converter station with the constant dc voltage control can provide reference to the system dc voltage and is helpful for the stabilization of dc voltage. Second, the integrated control of the dc voltage in both master and auxiliary converter stations are helpful for providing adequate active power control (APC) and restraining large power variation. Third, the APC converter station can serve as a backup for the dc voltage control in abnormal conditions. In order to guarantee the reliability and stability of the system under various operating conditions, this paper introduces the priority of dc voltage control to the coordination control strategy. Moreover, a parameter optimizing method of controllers for this strategy is also proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the master–auxiliary control is verified by simulations under normal and abnormal conditions.
Autors: Wang, Z.;Li, K.;Ren, J.;Sun, L.;Zhao, J.;Liang, Y.;Lee, W.;Ding, Z.;Sun, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 2743 - 2752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay-Line-Based Voltage-to-Duty-Cycle Controller for High-Frequency PWM Switching Converters
Abstract:
As the switching frequency of a pulsewidth modulation dc–dc converter increases, the circuit delays become comparable to a switching cycle and raises challenges for the controller design. In this paper, a delay-line-based voltage-to-duty-cycle (V2D) controller is proposed to replace the conventional ramp–comparator-based V2D controller, which significantly simplifies the circuitry and logical complexity of the controller design and relieves the delay-related hassles and limitations for high-frequency converters switching at tens or hundreds of megahertz. The design includes a linearity-compensated voltage-to-current (V2I) cell, a current-starved current-to-duty-cycle (I2D) cell, and a bias current calibration loop, while no ramps or comparators are required. The controller is fabricated in a UMC 0.13- process and measured at 100 MHz, with comparison to a ramp–comparator-based V2D controller. In addition to the benefits of simplified design complexity, the proposed V2D shows an extended controllable duty-cycle range of 0.93 and reduced power consumption by at least half.
Autors: Huang, C.;Mok, P.K.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:8, pages: 751 - 755
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Depth-First ML Decoding Algorithm for Tail-Biting Trellises
Abstract:
Tail-biting codes are efficient for short data packets by eliminating the rate loss in conventional known-tail codes. The existing maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding algorithms, such as the Viterbi heuristic ML decoder (VH ML decoder) and the trap detection-based ML decoder (TD-ML decoder), have to visit each state of the tail-biting trellis at least once. The decoding efficiency of these decoding algorithms can be improved further. In this paper, we propose an ML decoder for tail-biting trellises with bounded searches (BSs). We first perform a unidirectional bounded searching algorithm to estimate the lower bound of path metric of tail-biting paths on each sub-tail-biting trellis and exclude impossible candidates of starting states. In the second phase, a bidirectional searching algorithm is applied to find the ML tail-biting (MLTB) path on the survivor sub-tail-biting trellises. The proposed algorithm exhibits lower decoding complexity floor than other existing algorithms on tail-biting trellis. Simulation results for the (24, 12, 8) Golay codes and show that, for the proposed ML decoder, the average number of visited states per decoded bit is less than 2, whereas the average number of visited states per decoded bit is more than 12 for the VH ML decoder.
Autors: Qian, H.;Wang, X.;Kang, K.;Xiang, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 64, issue:8, pages: 3339 - 3346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differentiated Quality Adaptation Approach for Scalable Streaming Services
Abstract:
Providing scalable video streaming services for heterogeneous users in dynamic networked environments requires efficient and adaptive quality management mechanisms which deliver quality-customized services according to the client’s preferences and adapt the services to cope with various network conditions. In this paper, we address the issue of quality adaptation for providing personalized scalable media streaming services in dynamic network environments. We propose a differentiated adaptive quality optimization algorithm, called Scalable Video Coding Quality Adaptation algorithm (SVC-QA), which adapts streaming quality based on both system-level and client-level optimization to optimize streaming quality according to network bandwidth conditions, content characteristics, a user’s quality preferences, and buffering capacities of different client devices (e.g., mobile phones, PCs, HDTVs, etc.). Comparative studies are conducted to compare our proposed algorithms with other adaptive methods. We show that two-level SVC quality adaptation method can achieve better SVC streaming quality with both high peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and low quality variance under dynamic resource constraints. Moreover, the proposed distributed method reduces the computational complexities at the server side substantially, making it practical and flexible for providing scalable streaming services.
Autors: Li, X.;Veeravalli, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 26, issue:8, pages: 2089 - 2099
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dimmable LED Driver With Resistive DAC Feedback Control for Adaptive Voltage Regulation
Abstract:
This paper proposes a dimmable energy-efficient light-emitting diode (LED) driver for applications in interior lighting. High efficiency is achieved by an adaptive voltage regulation, which minimizes power losses in the linear current regulator. A digital control mechanism employing a resistive digital-to-analog converter for feeding the analog feedback input of a dc–dc converter is introduced. It is shown that the digital control methodology gives maximum design flexibility and enhances control over regulation speed and stability. In an experimental setup, the proposed concept is verified and evaluated. Operating at an input voltage of 24 V, the LED driver provides a relatively wide output voltage range of 3.5–38 V. Output current is regulated to 700 mA with a steady-state precision of more than 98.8%, whereas pulsewidth modulation dimming with a frequency of 1 kHz and shortest on-time of 4 is employed. A peak efficiency of the complete system of 93.9% is achieved.
Autors: Lohaus, L.;Rossius, A.;Dietrich, S.;Wunderlich, R.;Heinen, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3254 - 3262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discharge-Based Pulse Technique for Probing the Energy Distribution of Positive Charges in Gate Dielectric
Abstract:
Characterizing positive charges and its energy distribution in gate dielectric is useful for process qualification. A discharge-based technique is introduced to extract their energy distribution both within and beyond substrate band-gap. This paper investigates the difficulties in its implementation on typical industrial parameter analyzer and provides solutions. For the first time, we demonstrate the technique’s applicability to the advanced 22-nm fabrication process and its capability in evaluating the impact of different strains on the energy distribution. The test time is within several hours. This, together with its implementation on industrial parameter analyzer, makes it a useful tool in the semiconductor manufacturing foundries for process monitoring and optimization.
Autors: Gao, R.;Ji, Z.;Zhang, J.F.;Zhang, W.D.;Wan Muhamad Hatta, S.F.;Niblock, J.;Bachmayr, P.;Stauffer, L.;Wright, K.;Greer, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 221 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete-Time Direct Torque Control for Direct-Drive PMSG-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel flux-space-vector-based direct torque control (DTC) scheme for permanent-magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) used in variable-speed direct-drive wind energy conversion systems (WECSs). The discrete-time control law, which is derived from the perspective of flux space vectors and load angle, predicts the desired stator flux vector for the next time-step with the torque and stator flux information only. The space vector modulation (SVM) is then employed to generate the reference voltage vector, leading to a fixed switching frequency, as well as lower flux and torque ripples, when compared to the conventional DTC. Compared with other SVM-based DTC methods in the literature, the proposed DTC scheme eliminates the use of proportional–integral regulators and is less dependent on machine parameters, e.g., stator inductances and permanent-magnet flux linkage, while the main advantages of the DTC, e.g., fast dynamic response and no need of coordinate transform, are preserved. The proposed DTC scheme is applicable for both nonsalient-pole and salient-pole PMSGs. The overall control scheme is simple to implement and is robust to parameter uncertainties and variations of the PMSGs. The effectiveness of the proposed discrete-time DTC scheme is verified by simulation and experimental results on a 180-W salient-pole PMSG and a 2.4-kW nonsalient-pole PMSG used in variable-speed direct-drive WECSs.
Autors: Zhang, Z.;Zhao, Y.;Qiao, W.;Qu, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 3504 - 3514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Double-Auction-Based Mechanism to Stimulate Secondary Users for Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
For the purpose of enhancing the accuracy of primary user (PU) transmission detection, using multiple secondary users (SUs) to sense cooperatively, instead of sensing individually, has recently been suggested. However, there are some issues: The first is whether the SUs are willing to sense the PU. It is better to give SUs incentives, or they may not behave cooperatively. The second is the system energy cost. It will be unnecessary and would be a waste of energy to let all the SUs sense together if some of them can work just as well. The third is the fusion time. If there are too many sensing SUs, it will take too long to collect the results and fuse them. To solve these issues, we propose the Secondary User stiMulating (SUM) mechanism. SUM has two parts: sensing auctions and report fusion. In sensing auctions, we introduce double auction into cooperative sensing, which is a pioneer work. We design a truthful winner determination and pricing mechanism. In report fusion, we propose a greedy algorithm to first satisfy the PU throughput demand and then maximize the SU throughput; this algorithm further stimulates the SU to use cooperative sensing. We prove that our auction mechanism is truthful and that the fusion problem is NP-hard. The simulation results show that SUM is effective in terms of saving the system energy cost, reducing the report fusion time, and maintaining the system throughput.
Autors: Zhu, Y.;Wu, W.;Li, D.;Ding, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 64, issue:8, pages: 3770 - 3782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fault-Tolerant Technique Using Quadded Logic and Quadded Transistors
Abstract:
Advances in CMOS technology have made digital circuits and systems very sensitive to manufacturing variations, aging, and/or soft errors. Fault-tolerant techniques using hardware redundancy have been extensively investigated for improving reliability. Quadded logic (QL) is an interwoven redundant logic technique that corrects errors by switching them from critical to subcritical status; however, QL cannot correct errors in the last one or two layers of a circuit. In contrast to QL, quadded transistor (QT) corrects errors while performing the function of a circuit. In this brief, a technique that combines QL with QT is proposed to take advantage of both techniques. The proposed quadded logic with quadded transistor (QLQT) technique is evaluated and compared with other fault-tolerant techniques, such as triple modular redundancy and triple interwoven redundancy, using stochastic computational models. Simulation results show that QLQT has a better reliability than the other fault-tolerant techniques (except in the very restrictive case of small circuits with low gate error rates and very short paths from primary inputs to primary outputs). These results provide a new insight for implementing efficient fault-tolerant techniques in the design of reliable circuits and systems.
Autors: Han, J.;Leung, E.;Liu, L.;Lombardi, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:8, pages: 1562 - 1566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Filtered Back-Projection Algorithm for 4π Compton Camera Data
Abstract:
Compton imaging is a gamma-ray imaging technique useful for photons with energies in the range of a hundred keV to several MeV. Measuring gamma rays with a Compton camera results in cone data that needs to be mathematically inverted to determine the incident flux distribution. In the past, filtered back-projection solutions for Compton telescope data required sums of spherical harmonics or stereographically mapping the back-projection, which can result in imaging artifacts. We present a solution to this inversion problem that removes these complexities by embedding the 2-D directional image on the surface of a sphere into where it is easily solvable. In this manner we relate 2-D Compton imaging to the 3-D Radon transform, which has known solutions. To accomplish this, the cone data is converted to planar data. Additionally we show how the planar geometry can be used to produce a computationally efficient implementation. This reconstruction is demonstrated with a two-plane, double-sided strip, HPGe Compton camera.
Autors: Haefner, A.;Gunter, D.;Barnowski, R.;Vetter, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1911 - 1917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Filtered Back-Projection Algorithm for Compton Camera Data
Abstract:
Compton imaging is a gamma-ray imaging technique useful for photons with energies in the range of a hundred keV to several MeV. Measuring gamma rays with a Compton camera results in cone data that needs to be mathematically inverted to determine the incident flux distribution. In the past, filtered back-projection solutions for Compton telescope data required sums of spherical harmonics or stereographically mapping the back-projection, which can result in imaging artifacts. We present a solution to this inversion problem that removes these complexities by embedding the 2-D directional image on the surface of a sphere into where it is easily solvable. In this manner we relate 2-D Compton imaging to the 3-D Radon transform, which has known solutions. To accomplish this, the cone data is converted to planar data. Additionally we show how the planar geometry can be used to produce a computationally efficient implementation. This reconstruction is demonstrated with a two-plane, double-sided strip, HPGe Compton camera.
Autors: Haefner, A.;Gunter, D.;Barnowski, R.;Vetter, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1911 - 1917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flipped First-Year Digital Circuits Course for Engineering and Technology Students
Abstract:
This paper describes a flipped and improved first-year digital circuits (DC) course that incorporates several active learning strategies. With the primary objective of increasing student interest and learning, an integrated instructional design framework is proposed to provide first-year engineering and technology students with practical knowledge of DC. The research presented here compares the effectiveness of the flipped course to the previous traditional course through a controlled experimental study. The improved effectiveness of the flipped course is confirmed through the significant increase in course content and significant improvements in students' performance and their perceptions of their learning experience. Preliminary results suggest that students' academic success, and their engagement and interest in engineering, can be enhanced by refinement of an integrated instructional design framework. The authors believe that this positive outcome is a result of alignment of online preview of lectures, face-to-face student/instructor and peer interactions, discussions, hands-on activities, combined with several active learning strategies infused into the class.
Autors: Yelamarthi, K.;Drake, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 179 - 186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Automated Spine and Vertebrae Interpolation-Based Detection and Model-Based Segmentation
Abstract:
Automated and semi-automated detection and segmentation of spinal and vertebral structures from computed tomography (CT) images is a challenging task due to a relatively high degree of anatomical complexity, presence of unclear boundaries and articulation of vertebrae with each other, as well as due to insufficient image spatial resolution, partial volume effects, presence of image artifacts, intensity variations and low signal-to-noise ratio. In this paper, we describe a novel framework for automated spine and vertebrae detection and segmentation from 3-D CT images. A novel optimization technique based on interpolation theory is applied to detect the location of the whole spine in the 3-D image and, using the obtained location of the whole spine, to further detect the location of individual vertebrae within the spinal column. The obtained vertebra detection results represent a robust and accurate initialization for the subsequent segmentation of individual vertebrae, which is performed by an improved shape-constrained deformable model approach. The framework was evaluated on two publicly available CT spine image databases of 50 lumbar and 170 thoracolumbar vertebrae. Quantitative comparison against corresponding reference vertebra segmentations yielded an overall mean centroid-to-centroid distance of 1.1 mm and Dice coefficient of 83.6% for vertebra detection, and an overall mean symmetric surface distance of 0.3 mm and Dice coefficient of 94.6% for vertebra segmentation. The results indicate that by applying the proposed automated detection and segmentation framework, vertebrae can be successfully detected and accurately segmented in 3-D from CT spine images.
Autors: Korez, R.;Ibragimov, B.;Likar, B.;Pernus, F.;Vrtovec, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 34, issue:8, pages: 1649 - 1662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Consumer-Centric SLA Management of Cloud-Hosted Databases
Abstract:
Service Level Agreements (SLA) represent the contract which captures the agreed upon guarantees between a service provider and its customers. The specifications of existing service level agreements (SLA) for cloud services are not designed to flexibly handle even relatively straightforward performance and technical requirements of consumer applications. In this article, we present a novel approach for SLA-based management of cloud-hosted databases from the consumer perspective. We present an end-to-end framework for consumer-centric SLA management of cloud-hosted databases. The framework facilitates adaptive and dynamic provisioning of the database tier of the software applications based on application-defined policies for satisfying their own SLA performance requirements, avoiding the cost of any SLA violation and controlling the monetary cost of the allocated computing resources. In this framework, the SLA of the consumer applications are declaratively defined in terms of goals which are subjected to a number of constraints that are specific to the application requirements. The framework continuously monitors the application-defined SLA and automatically triggers the execution of necessary corrective actions (scaling out/in the database tier) when required. The framework is database platform-agnostic, uses virtualization-based database replication mechanisms, and requires zero source code changes of the cloud-hosted software applications. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our SLA-based framework in providing the consumer applications with the required flexibility for achieving their SLA requirements.
Autors: Zhao, L.;Sakr, S.;Liu, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 8, issue:4, pages: 534 - 549
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Digital ASK Demodulator With Digital Calibration for Bioimplantable Devices
Abstract:
A new fully digital high-efficiency ASK demodulator for detecting data via inductive link is proposed. The proposed demodulator does not use any passive component and is compatible with standard CMOS digital technology. The modulation index, modulation rate, and power consumption of the proposed structure are <4%, 100%, and 118.2 W, respectively, at the carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz. Design issues of the demodulator are discussed in detail. A calibration technique is also proposed for the demodulator which compensates the impact of PVT variations as well as coil displacements in case it is used in an inductive link data and power transfer system. The designed circuit is implemented in the 0.18- m CMOS technology.
Autors: Kafi Kangi, M.;Maymandi-Nejad, M.;Nasserian, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 23, issue:8, pages: 1557 - 1561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Embedded Two-Stage Coder for Hyperspectral Near-Lossless Compression
Abstract:
This letter proposes a near-lossless coder for hyperspectral images. The coding technique is fully embedded and minimizes the distortion in the l2-norm initially and in the $l_infty$-norm subsequently. Based on a two-stage near-lossless compression scheme, it includes a lossy and a near-lossless layer. The novelties are the observation of the convergence of the entropy of the residuals in the original domain and in the spectral-spatial transformed domain and an embedded near-lossless layer. These contributions enable a progressive transmission while optimizing both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and peak absolute error (PAE) performance. The embeddedness is accomplished by bit-plane encoding plus arithmetic encoding. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method yields a highly competitive coding performance for hyperspectral images, outperforming multicomponent JPEG2000 for the l-norm and pairing its performance for the l2-norm, and also outperforming M-CALIC in the near-lossless case, i.e., for PAE ≥ 5.
Autors: Beerten, J.;Blanes, I.;Serra-Sagrista, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 12, issue:8, pages: 1775 - 1779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully-Parallel Turbo Decoding Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel alternative to the Logarithmic Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (Log-BCJR) algorithm for turbo decoding, yielding significantly improved processing throughput and latency. While the Log-BCJR processes turbo-encoded bits in a serial forwards-backwards manner, the proposed algorithm operates in a fully-parallel manner, processing all bits in both components of the turbo code at the same time. The proposed algorithm is compatible with all turbo codes, including those of the LTE and WiMAX standards. These standardized codes employ odd-even interleavers, facilitating a novel technique for reducing the complexity of the proposed algorithm by 50%. More specifically, odd-even interleavers allow the proposed algorithm to alternate between processing the odd-indexed bits of the first component code at the same time as the even-indexed bits of the second component, and vice-versa. Furthermore, the proposed fully-parallel algorithm is shown to converge to the same error correction performance as the state-of-the-art turbo decoding algorithm. Owing to its significantly increased parallelism, the proposed algorithm facilitates throughputs and latencies that are up to 6.86 times superior to those of the state-of-the art algorithm, when employed for the LTE and WiMAX turbo codes. However, this is achieved at the cost of a moderately increased computational complexity and resource requirement.
Autors: Maunder, R.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Aug 2015, volume: 63, issue:8, pages: 2762 - 2775
Publisher: IEEE
 

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