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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 08-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» α-stable multiple access interference modelling for amplify-and-forward multihop ad hoc networks
Abstract:
A multihop amplify-and-forward relaying network that considers multiple access interference is investigated. Owing to the ad hoc configuration, the interference distribution is not Gaussian. A symmetric α-stable model is proposed that adapts to the impulsive behaviour owing to its heavy tailed distribution. Based on the stability property, analytical work is developed for multihop interference modelling and the theoretical expressions of the error probability that depend on two parameters are then derived.
Autors: Chen, J.;Clavier, L.;Rolland, N.;Rolland, P.-A.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:16, pages: 1160 - 1162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Effective NIEL” in Silicon: Calculation Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation Results
Abstract:
The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL), often used to scale the damage coefficients of irradiated electronic components, sometimes fails to make good degradation predictions. The classical non-ionizing energy loss calculation, performed under binary cascade approximation, lacks accuracy at low incident energy for some light particles such as electrons. The amount of displacement damage predicted by molecular dynamics simulations where many-body interactions are naturally included can be significantly different from the classical binary collision calculation. The creation of damage predicted by molecular dynamics technique, within the low energy deposition regime, can be quite different from what can be classically simulated. For instance, earlier studies demonstrated that, under suitable conditions, low energy transfer below the atomic displacement threshold can increase damage production. In the case of silicon material, molecular dynamics simulation results have been incorporated within the definition of a new energy partition function. In comparison with the classical Kinchin Pease approach, our improved model more accurately estimates the number of displacements generated by a primary knock-on atom. This new energy partition function is used to calculate corrected non- ionizing energy loss.
Autors: Inguimbert, C.;Arnolda, P.;Nuns, T.;Rolland, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 1915 - 1923
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.9 V to 5 V Bidirectional Mixed-Voltage I/O Buffer With an ESD Protection Output Stage
Abstract:
A 0.9 V to 5 V (0.9/1.2/1.8/2.5/3.3/5 V) mixed-voltage I/O buffer with NMOS clamping technique is proposed. By using a dynamic gate bias generator to provide appropriate gate drive voltages for the output stage, the I/O buffer can transmit a sub-3 VDD voltage-level signal without gate-oxide overstress hazard. Besides, the leakage current is eliminated by adopting a floating N-well circuit. The maximum data rate is measured at 66 MHz for 5/3.3/2.5/1.8/1.2/0.9 V with an equivalent probe capacitive load of 10 pF.
Autors: Wang, C.-C.;Kuo, R.-C.;Liu, J.-W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 612 - 616
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.8V-3GHz CMOS limiting amplifier with efficient frequency compensation
Abstract:
A compact robust CMOS limiting amplifier (LA) for high data traffic optical links is presented in this work. The core considers two different blocks. First, four common-source inverter amplifiers are included, which optimize the gain-bandwidth product of the structure. And second, two additional compensation stages are placed strategically between the gain stages alleviating the pernicious load effect. These stages develop two different compensation techniques simultaneously thus increasing the bandwidth. The proposed design consumes 113mW with a single 1.8V supply. It achieves a cut-off frequency up to 3GHz and provides a gain of 21dB. The circuit is packaged in a QFN24...
Autors: J.M., Garcia del Pozo , S., Celma , A., Otín , I., Lope , J., Urdangarín
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 110+ GHz Transimpedance Amplifier in InP-HBT Technology for 100 Gbit Ethernet
Abstract:
A 50 transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a bandwidth greater than 110 GHz has been demonstrated using InP HBT technology. The wide-band amplifier with a was designed and fabricated in HRL Laboratories' G4 0.25 InP HBT IC technology. The amplifier operates at with a current draw of 76 mA for a power consumption of 304 mW. The basic Cherry-Hooper gain cell is used with a single-ended input and a differential output buffer stage.
Autors: Fields, C. H.;Tsen, T.;McGuire, C.;Yoon, Y.;Zehnder, D.;Thomas, S.;Montes, M.;Valles, I.;Duvall, J.;Hussain, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:8, pages: 465 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Scattering Integral Field Equation Solution Through an IMLS Meshless-Based Approach
Abstract:
In this work, we apply a meshless-based method to a set of integral equations arising in electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering. The objective is not only to solve these equations through a meshless-based method, but also to find a way to build shape functions that could work for any cross-sectional geometry. We have found that the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation is not able to provide useful shape functions in every situation. This technique relies on matrix inversions and, according to the geometry, singular matrices can occur. In order to avoid this problem, we have taken the Improved Moving Least Squares (IMLS) approximation, that does not depend upon matrix inversions and then applied it to a number of cross-sectional geometries.
Autors: Nicomedes, W. L.;Mesquita, R. C.;da Silva Moreira, F. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 2783 - 2786
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3ߝ10 GHz ultra-wideband low-noise amplifier with new matching technique
Abstract:
A low-power and low-noise amplifier with a new input- matching technique using 0.18 mm CMOS technology for ultra-wideband applications is presented. A proposed broadband input match can be acquired easily by selecting an appropriate width of the transistor, which will effectively avoid the usage of the low-Q on-chip inductors in the input network. Moreover, demonstrated is the feasibility of the inter-stage resonator to accomplish bandwidth enhancement without additional power consumption. The IC prototype achieves good performances such as a power gain of 16.2 dB, a better than 10 dB input return loss, and 2.3 dB minimum noise figure while consuming a DC core power of only 6.8 mW.
Autors: Liang, C.-P.;Huang, C.-W.;Lin, Y.-K.;Chung, S.-J.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:16, pages: 1102 - 1103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D in the home [tools & toys]
Abstract:
Autors: Anderson, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 47, issue:8, pages: 18 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D in vitro estimation of temperature using the change in backscattered ultrasonic energy
Abstract:
Temperature imaging with a non-invasive modality to monitor the heating of tumors during hyperthermia treatment is an attractive alternative to sparse invasive measurement. Previously, we predicted monotonic changes in backscattered energy (CBE) of ultrasound with temperature for certain sub-wavelength scatterers. We also measured CBE values similar to our predictions in bovine liver, turkey breast muscle, and pork rib muscle in 2-D in vitro studies and in nude mice during 2-D in vivo studies. To extend these studies to three dimensions, we compensated for motion and measured CBE in turkey breast muscle. 3-D data sets were assembled from images formed by a phased-array imager with a 7.5-MHz linear probe moved in 0.6-mm steps in elevation during uniform heating from 37 to 45°C in 0.5°C increments. We used cross-correlation as a similarity measure in RF signals to automatically track feature displacement as a function of temperature. Feature displacement was non-rigid. Envelopes of image regions, compensated for non-rigid motion, were found with the Hilbert transform then smoothed with a 3 x 3 running average filter before forming the backscattered energy at each pixel. CBE in 3-D motion-compensated images was nearly linear with an average sensitivity of 0.30 dB/°C. 3-D estimation of temperature in separate tissue regions had errors with a maximum standard deviation of about 0.5°C over 1-cm3 volumes. Success of CBE temperature estimation based on 3-D non-rigid tracking and compensation for real and apparent motion of image features could serve as the foundation for the eventual generation of 3-D temperature maps in soft tissue in a non-invasive, convenient, and low-cost way in clinical hyperthermia.
Autors: Arthur, R.M.;Basu, D.;Guo, Y.;Trobaugh, J.W.;Moros, E.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1724 - 1733
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Modeling of High- Superconductor for Magnetic Levitation/Suspension Application—Part I: Introduction to the Method
Abstract:
A magnetic levitation technique with high- superconductor (HTS) has received significant interest for a wide range of applications after its discovery due to its unique inherent stability, which gives a fundamental significance to evaluate the HTS magnetic levitation in both experiment and calculation. To numerically investigate the HTS magnetic levitation, a 3-D model describing the electromagnetic property of the HTS, including its anisotropic behavior, was established by incorporating the current vector potential and Helmholtz's theorem. In addition to the commonly considered nonlinear characteristic in the reported calculation, we introduce an elliptical model to formulate the angular dependence of the critical current density resulting from the anisotropic behavior of the HTS. To numerically resolve the governing equations of the 3-D model, Galerkin's finite-element method and the Crank–Nicolson- method were employed to discretize the governing equations in space and time domains, respectively. The obtained algebraic equations were firstly linearized by the Newton–Raphson method, and then an extended format of the incomplete Cholesky-conjugate gradient method was applied to solve the linear algebraic equations. The 3-D model was implemented by a self-written numerical program based on a VC++ platform to calculate the magnetic force of a bulk HTS exposed to applied field generated by a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) assembled by the Nd–Fe–B magnets. In this paper, we present the numerical results of the levitation force of a moving bulk HTS above the PMG with differ- - ent mesh densities and number of time steps. This presents a preliminary validation of the 3-D model proposed in this paper.
Autors: Ma, G.-T.;Wang, J.-S.;Wang, S.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 2219 - 2227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Modeling of High- Superconductor for Magnetic Levitation/Suspension Application—Part I: Introduction to the Method
Abstract:
A magnetic levitation technique with high- superconductor (HTS) has received significant interest for a wide range of applications after its discovery due to its unique inherent stability, which gives a fundamental significance to evaluate the HTS magnetic levitation in both experiment and calculation. To numerically investigate the HTS magnetic levitation, a 3-D model describing the electromagnetic property of the HTS, including its anisotropic behavior, was established by incorporating the current vector potential and Helmholtz's theorem. In addition to the commonly considered nonlinear characteristic in the reported calculation, we introduce an elliptical model to formulate the angular dependence of the critical current density resulting from the anisotropic behavior of the HTS. To numerically resolve the governing equations of the 3-D model, Galerkin's finite-element method and the Crank–Nicolson- method were employed to discretize the governing equations in space and time domains, respectively. The obtained algebraic equations were firstly linearized by the Newton–Raphson method, and then an extended format of the incomplete Cholesky-conjugate gradient method was applied to solve the linear algebraic equations. The 3-D model was implemented by a self-written numerical program based on a VC++ platform to calculate the magnetic force of a bulk HTS exposed to applied field generated by a permanent magnet guideway (PMG) assembled by the Nd–Fe–B magnets. In this paper, we present the numerical results of the levitation force of a moving bulk HTS above the PMG with differ- - ent mesh densities and number of time steps. This presents a preliminary validation of the 3-D model proposed in this paper.
Autors: Ma, G.-T.;Wang, J.-S.;Wang, S.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 2219 - 2227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Numerical Modeling of the Thermo-Inductive Technique Using Shell Elements
Abstract:
Thermo-inductive testing is a new technique used for health investigations on different components of automotive and aeronautic industries. In this technique, eddy current deviation around the default creates local heating which can be detected by an infrared camera. The purpose of this work is to develop a 3-D finite-element model as a support tool to study the reliability of the technique. To reduce the number of unknowns, shell elements are introduced to model defects or thin conductive regions. Inspected materials are classified into metallic and composites. Investigations on various parameters of the technique and crack dimensions are performed in order to optimize the method. Experimental and simulation results show that the method is well suited.
Autors: Ramdane, B.;Trichet, D.;Belkadi, M.;Fouladgar, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3037 - 3040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30-nm InAs PHEMTs With and
Abstract:
We present 30-nm InAs pseudomorphic HEMTs (PHEMTs) on an InP substrate with record characteristics and well-balanced and values. This result was obtained by improving short-channel effects through widening of the side-recess spacing to 150 nm, as well as reducing parasitic source and drain resistances. To compensate for an increase in and due to widening, we optimized the ohmic contact process so as to decrease the specific ohmic contact resistance to the InGaAs cap to 0.01 . A 30-nm InAs PHEMT with exhibits excellent of 1.9 S/mm, of 644 GHz, and of 681 GHz at simultaneously. To the knowledge of the authors, the obtained in this work is the highest ever reported in any FET on any material system. This is also the first demonstration of simultaneous $f_{T}$ and higher than 640 GHz in any transistor technology.
Autors: Kim, D.-H.;del Alamo, J. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 806 - 808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 340-W Peak Power From a GaSb 2- m Optically Pumped Semiconductor Laser (OPSL) Grown Mismatched on GaAs
Abstract:
A GaSb-based vertical external cavity laser at 2 m was pumped by 100- to 160-ns pulses from a Nd : YAG laser at 1.064 m operating at 1 kHz. It was shown that the output power scales with the pump spot diameter to the extent of our experiments. A peak output of over 340 W was obtained.
Autors: Lai, Y.-Y.;Yarborough, J. M.;Kaneda, Y.;Hader, J.;Moloney, J. V.;Rotter, T. J.;Balakrishnan, G.;Hains, C.;Koch, S. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 22, issue:16, pages: 1253 - 1255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Geometry-Based Quantification of Colocalizations in Multichannel 3D Microscopy Images of Human Soft Tissue Tumors
Abstract:
We introduce a new model-based approach for auto matic quantification of colocalizations in multichannel 3D microscopy images. The approach uses different 3D parametric intensity models in conjunction with a model fitting scheme to localize and quantify subcellular structures with high accuracy. The central idea is to determine colocalizations between different channels based on the estimated geometry of the subcellular structures as well as to differentiate between different types of colocalizations. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance of the determined colocalizations. This approach was used to successfully analyze about 500 three-channel 3D microscopy images of human soft tissue tumors and controls.
Autors: Worz, S.;Sander, P.;Pfannmoller, M.;Rieker, R. J.;Joos, S.;Mechtersheimer, G.;Boukamp, P.;Lichter, P.;Rohr, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 29, issue:8, pages: 1474 - 1484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D NAND flash memory with laterally-recessed channel (LRC) and connection gate architecture
Abstract:
A three-dimensional (3D) stacked bit-line NAND flash memory is investigated. The fabrication process flow for the formation of a laterally-recessed bit-line stack is described. Program operation is simulated using a stacked bit-line structure. Inter-layer interference (ILI) is addressed and the minimum isolation oxide thickness between stacked bit-lines is extracted. Simple device and array with the laterally-recessed bit-line stack are fabricated and electrical characteristics are measured. A new array architecture having a connection gate is designed for the 3D stacked bit-line NAND flash memory application.
Autors: Jang-Gn, Yun , Jong Duk, Lee , Byung-Gook, Park
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D Structuring of polymer parts using thermoforming processes
Abstract:
A new technique for the realization of complex three dimensional (3D) structures in polymer materials is presented. The described process can be applied for the fabrication of 3D structured foils as well as for 3D structured polymer parts using a replica molding process. In the first step, the foil is structured by Hot Embossing. This structured foil is then blown into a structured mold by pressure at high temperature, using a thermoforming process. The thermoforming process is realized in an especially designed tool, where different mold inserts can be applied. In the thermoforming process this tool, containing the mold insert...
Autors: T., Senn , Ch., Waberski , J., Wolf , J.P., Esquivel , N., Sabaté , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D surface profile equipment for the characterization of the pavement texture - TexScan
Abstract:
Loads from vehicles alter the functional and structural characteristics of road pavements that directly affect the loss of resistance of the pavement and the users' comfort and safety. Those alterations require constant observation and analysis of an extensive area of road surface with high precision. For such it was developed a new scanning prototype machine capable of acquiring the 3D road surface data and characterize the road texture through two algorithms that allows calculate the Estimated Texture Depth (ETD) and Texture Profile Level (L) indicators. The experimental results obtained from nine road samples validate the developed algorithms for the texture...
Autors: João L., Vilaça , Jaime C., Fonseca , A.C.M., Pinho , Elisabete, Freitas
Appeared in: Mechatronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 900MHz CDMA/1.8 GHz PCS/450MHz CDMA RF receiver ICs with a new mixer linearization method and optimization of integrated inductor for single balance mixer LO buffer
Abstract:
900MHz CDMA, 1.8GHz PCS, and 450MHz CDMA RF receivers are implemented and measured. In order to reduce NRE cost and meet the demand of fast time-to-market, a metal-mask configurable method is applied for those receivers using only upper metals, contact and via layers. Also to reduce power consumption, a new mixer linearization method is proposed, along with an optimization methodology of an integrated inductor for a single balance mixer LO buffer, with respect to power consumption and silicon area. In order to apply the proposed inductor optimization methodology into metal-mask configurable circuits, inductor design considerations for metal-mask variant circuits are...
Autors: Tae, Wook Kim
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» -Matrix-Based Operator Preconditioning for Full Maxwell at Low Frequencies
Abstract:
A robust formulation for the computation of combined resistive, capacitive and inductive effects in time-harmonic low frequency applications has been introduced in . The Galerkin discretization with conforming finite elements leads to a sparse system matrix. Large jumps in the material coefficients may cause severe ill-conditioning of the matrix. In this paper, we investigate how operator preconditioning can be used to construct an efficient real-valued symmetric positive definite preconditioner for the iterative solution. This enables the use of a large number of unknowns for the simulation of intricate industrial devices. The approach can be treated with almost linear complexity by making use of hierarchical matrices.
Autors: Ostrowski, J. M.;Bebendorf, M.;Hiptmair, R.;Kramer, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3193 - 3196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Core–Shell Nanowire Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
We report the fabrication and experimental investigation of core–shell nanowire (NW) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs), consisting of p-i-n device structures realized by low-energy ion implantation. We investigate the NW TFET device characteristics as a function of drain doping, channel length, and temperature. Our devices show on-state currents of up to , with an ambipolar behavior that can be suppressed by varying the drain doping concentration. The subthreshold swing of NW TFETs shows little temperature dependence down to 77 K, consistent with band-to-band tunneling as being the dominant carrier injection mechanism.
Autors: Nah, J.;Liu, E.-S.;Varahramyan, K. M.;Tutuc, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1883 - 1888
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Dot Probe for Fast-Front High-Voltage Measurement
Abstract:
This paper presents the operating principle, design, and testing of a coaxial -dot (the time derivative of electric flux density) probe to measure fast-front high voltages, e.g., the residual voltages of surge arresters (SAs). This probe consists of three identical copper toroids placed around a high-voltage electrode, where all are coaxially assembled in a large earthed cylinder. The probe was first simulated by a finite-element package to optimize the assembly and reduce the electric field inside it. This was confirmed by an alternating current test to ensure a corona-free design. Simultaneous impulse voltage measurements were done using the designed -dot probe—two commercial mixed resistive–capacitive probes and a damped capacitive voltage divider. The linearity of the -dot probe was checked under unloaded and loaded conditions. Results reveal that the larger the toroid separation and/or the lower the attenuator capacitance is, the higher the measured voltage from the middle “signal” toroid will be. The residual voltage waveforms for an 11-kV SA, measured by two commercial mixed probes and the damped capacitive voltage divider, showed an initial inductive overshoot superimposed on the waveform and a significant decay, even before the current peak instant. On the contrary, the voltage measured by the designed -dot probe gave a voltage waveform that looked like that of the current and slightly led the latter. For the damped capacitive voltage divider and the two commercial mixed $RC$ probes, neither the peak voltage nor the voltage at peak current gave the correct current–voltage characteristics. This confirms the contradiction of some published SA models in the high-conduction regime because most models were based on measurements done by different and large-impulse capacitive or resistive voltage dividers with improper compensation.
Autors: Metwally, I. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 59, issue:8, pages: 2211 - 2219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 GS/s 6 Bit 6.7 mW Successive Approximation ADC Using Asynchronous Processing
Abstract:
An asynchronous 6 bit 1 GS/s ADC is achieved by time interleaving two ADCs based on the binary successive approximation (SA) algorithm using a series capacitive ladder. The semi-closed loop asynchronous technique eliminates the high internal clocks and significantly speeds up the SA algorithm. A key feature to reduce the power in this design involves relaxing the comparator requirements using an error correction technique, which can be viewed as an extension of the SA algorithm to remove degradation due to metastability. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS with an active area of , it achieves a peak SNDR of 31.5 dB at 1 GS/s sampling rate and has a total power consumption of 6.7 mW.
Autors: Yang, J.;Naing, T. L.;Brodersen, R. W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1469 - 1478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 120 dB Dynamic Range 400 mW Class-D Speaker Driver With Fourth-Order PWM Modulator
Abstract:
High efficiency Class-D speaker drivers have become ubiquitous in battery driven mobile audio applications. Analog switching errors and timing jitter are known limitations to the dynamic range in these types of switching audio drivers. To overcome these limitations the Class-D architecture chosen in this paper provides a low 667 kHz pulse rate. This architecture is based on a 4th-order digital modulator with pulse-width modulation (PWM) feedback. The modulator loop processes the PWM signals at a high 24 MHz clock rate, and provides pulse edge timing resolution within a single clock period of the high-rate clock. Timing distortion errors due to uniform sampling of the low-rate PWM signals are reduced with the high forward loop gain of the digital modulator feedback loop. The driver receives a 22-bit digital audio input and combines the functionality of a high-fidelity digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with a speaker driver. It achieves 120 dB dynamic range over a 20 kHz bandwidth, provides 88% power efficiency while driving an 8 speaker load, and consumes a total quiescent current of 2.4 mA.
Autors: Wang, M.;Jiang, X.;Song, J.;Brooks, T. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1427 - 1435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1300-V 0.34- Partial SOI LDMOSFET With Novel Dual Charge Accumulation Layers
Abstract:
In this paper, for the first time, a novel power partial silicon-on-insulator (PSOI) lateral double-diffused metal–oxide–semiconductor (LDMOS) field-effect transistor is proposed with dual and charge accumulation (CA) layers near the source and the drain (DCAL-PSOI). Two new high electric field peaks are introduced by the two and CA layers in the proposed structure. Hence, a more uniform electric field is obtained due to modulation of the electric field in the drift region by the charges located in the and CA layers and buried oxide surface. Therefore, the vertical breakdown voltage (BV) is significantly improved by reducing the high bulk electric field around the source and drain regions. The influences of the proposed structure parameters on device characteristics are analyzed. For the DCAL-PSOI LDMOS with a 120- drift region length, the maximum BV of 1317 V is obtained by the simulation, while at the same drift region length, the maximum BVs of the conventional PSOI (C-PSOI) and conventional silicon-on-insulator (C-SOI) devices are 628 and 330 V, respectively. Moreover, the device exhibits a superior specific on-resistance of 0.34 , which shows that the on-resistance of the optimized DCAL-PSOI are decreased- - by 91%–95% in comparison to the C-PSOI. The superior BV and yield to a power figure of merit of 5.1 . Also, the Si window alleviates the self-heating effect, and the maximum temperature of the proposed structure reduces as compared with the C-PSOI and C-SOI devices.
Autors: Elahipanah, H.;Orouji, A. A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1959 - 1965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-D Micromachined SOI MEMS Mirror With Sidewall Electrodes for Biomedical Imaging
Abstract:
This paper presents a 2 DOF silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror with sidewall (SW) electrodes for biomedical imaging. The MEMS mirror is actuated by electrostatic actuators, and the mirror plate is 1000  1000 m with a thickness of 35 m. The paper analyzes the effects of the single-crystal serpentine torsion bar width and bottom electrodes and SW electrodes on the performance of the micromirror. A new fabrication process based on SOI wafer, hybrid bulk/surface micromachined technology, and a high aspect-ratio shadow mask is presented. In comparison to the previous fabrication process and the Optical iMEMS process, the process is novel, easily understood, and simple to realize. Static and dynamic experiments indicate that a MEMS mirror with SW can provide a large scanning angle under low-drive voltage. The MEMS mirror is developed for a confocal MACROscope system for biomedical imaging. This mirror is also well suited for applications where large linear angular scan at low-driving voltage is required.
Autors: Bai , Y.;Yeow, J. T. W.;Constantinou, P.;Damaskinos, S.;Wilson, B. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 501 - 510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-D Robust FE-FV Mixed Method to Handle Strong Nonlinearities in Superconductors
Abstract:
A robust numerical method based on 2-D mixed finite-elements-finite volumes (FE-FV) allows the solution of diffusion problems in superconducting (SC) materials. The proposed approach handles the strong nonlinearity of the E(J) constitutive power law of high-temperature superconductors (HTS). The method is tested for a SC cylinder submitted to a sinusoidal transport current or to a transverse sinusoidal external field. The current density distributions as well as the AC losses are computed. Comparisons to a FE analyses that use the magnetic field as state variable show the validity of the proposed approach. It can be seen that the proposed method is very stable even for large n-values for which the FE method does not converge.
Autors: Kameni, A.;Mezani, S.;Sirois, F.;Netter, D.;Leveque, J.;Douine, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3445 - 3448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2-D Thermal Flow Sensor with sub-mW Power Consumption
Abstract:
Autonomous navigation of a flying object requires the measurement of velocity and position in absolute or relative means. A possible approach is to measure the air flow velocity on the object. Measurement on a flying object requires low-power and low-weight sensors. Since several decades, flow velocity of fluids in two dimensions can be measured by microsystems, which are inherently low-weight sensors.Here, we report the design of a low-power 2D flow sensor and present the characteristics of a variety of sensor designs to investigate the effects of several design considerations. We further discuss the error sources in angle measurement with a...
Autors: Ali Sukru, Cubukcu , Eugen, Zernickel , Uwe, Buerklin , Gerald Anton, Urban
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 2.4-GHz Low-Power All-Digital Phase-Locked Loop
Abstract:
This paper presents an all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL) for the 2.4-GHz ISM band frequency synthesis. The ADPLL is built around a digitally controlled LC oscillator. In the feedback path, a high-speed topology is employed for the variable phase accumulator to count full cycles of the RF output. A simple technique based on a short delay line in the reference signal path allows the time-to-digital converter core to operate at a low duty cycle with about 95% reduction of its average power consumption. To allow direct frequency modulation, the ADPLL incorporates a two-point modulation scheme with an adaptive gain calibration. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS, the ADPLL has an active area of . Measured phase noise at 1-MHz offset is with a power consumption of 12 mW, and with power consumption lowered to 8 mW. The integrated phase noise of the ADPLL is measured to be 1.7 rms.
Autors: Xu, L.;Lindfors, S.;Stadius, K.;Ryynanen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1513 - 1521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20-MS/s to 40-MS/s Reconfigurable Pipeline ADC Implemented With Parallel OTA Scaling
Abstract:
A reconfigurable 12-b pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) implemented by enabling or disabling MDAC OTAs in parallel is presented. Power scaling is achieved without varying the dc bias conditions of critical analog nodes, reducing design complexity, and allowing an existing design to be rapidly reconfigured for new specifications. The ADC can be designed for optimal power consumption over the entire sampling rate range due to the linear power scaling provided by the parallel OTA approach. The proposed ADC operates over a sampling rate range of 20 MS/s to 40 MS/s with 62 dB SNDR. The analog power varies linearly from 36 mW at 20 MS/s to 72 mW at 40 MS/s. The ADC was fabricated in 0.18- CMOS process and occupies a die area of 1.9 .
Autors: Chandrashekar, K.;Corsi, M.;Fattaruso, J.;Bakkaloglu, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 602 - 606
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D framework for arterial growth and remodeling in response to altered hemodynamics
Abstract:
We present a three-dimensional mathematical framework for modeling the evolving geometry, structure, and mechanical properties of a representative straight cylindrical artery subjected to changes in mean blood pressure and flow. We show that numerical predictions recover prior findings from a validated two-dimensional framework, but extend those findings by allowing effects of transmural gradients in wall constituents and vasoactive molecules to be simulated directly. Of particular note, we show that the predicted evolution of the residual stress related opening angle in response to an abrupt, sustained increase in blood pressure is qualitatively similar to measured changes when one accounts for a...
Autors: I., Kar?aj , J., Sori? , J.D., Humphrey
Appeared in: International Journal of Engineering Science
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 3.1 mW Continuous-Time ΔΣ Modulator With 5-Bit Successive Approximation Quantizer for WCDMA
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a multibit continuous-time delta-sigma modulator based on a 5-bit successive approximation quantizer. The use of successive approximation, instead of flash, is driven by the desire to reduce the quantizer power and area. The quantizer delay is effectively compensated to ensure system stability. The modulator is implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and achieves 62 dB of dynamic range over 1.92 MHz while consuming 3.1 mW from a 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Ranjbar, M.;Mehrabi, A.;Oliaei, O.;Carrez, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1479 - 1491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 305–330+ GHz 2:1 Dynamic Frequency Divider Using InP HBTs
Abstract:
This letter presents an inductor-loaded 2:1 regenerative frequency divider operating up to 331.2 GHz in an InP HBT process, which, to the best of authors' knowledge, is the fastest frequency divider reported thus far. On-wafer measurement shows that the divider is operating from 304.8 GHz to 331.2 GHz, with output power from 27 dBm to 12.3 dBm (no probe loss correction), while dissipating 85.5 mW from 4.1 V and 3.3 V supplies.
Autors: Seo, M.;Urteaga, M.;Young, A.;Rodwell, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:8, pages: 468 - 470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3 3.8 Gb/s Four-Wire High Speed I/O Link Based on CDMA-Like Crosstalk Cancellation
Abstract:
Code division multiple access (CDMA) principles have been shown to suppress the signal crosstalk caused by inevitable circuit and transmission-line mismatches in a four-wire chip-to-chip electrical signaling system. This paper describes the CDMA-like crosstalk cancellation technique, and discusses equalization and clocking issues in the four-wire simultaneous differential- and common-mode signaling system based on the technique. The implementation and measurement of a 3 3.8 Gb/s, 10 , prototype IC built in a standard 90 nm CMOS technology are also described as a proof of concept.
Autors: Hsueh, T.-C.;Su, P.-E.;Pamarti, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1522 - 1532
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3D PEEC Method for the Prediction of Radiated Fields From Automotive Cables
Abstract:
The partial element equivalent circuit method (PEEC) is well suited to extract the conducted electromagnetic disturbances parameters from wiring systems. It provides an efficient tool for the EMC study relevant to automotive cables. However the complete EMC analysis of embedded systems requires also reliable models for the radiated emissions especially at high frequencies. In this paper a new approach based on the PEEC method and involving 3D field calculation is developed to evaluate emissions from radiating cables.
Autors: Yahyaoui, W.;Pichon, L.;Duval, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3053 - 3056
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4 GHz Non-Resonant Clock Driver With Inductor-Assisted Energy Return to Power Grid
Abstract:
Power consumption of a multi-GHz local clock driver is reduced by returning energy stored in the clock-tree load capacitance back to the on-chip power-distribution grid. We call this type of return energy recycling. To achieve a nearly square clock waveform, the energy is transferred in a non-resonant way using an on-chip inductor in a configuration resembling a full-bridge DC-DC converter. A zero-voltage switching technique is implemented in the clock driver to reduce dynamic power loss associated with the high switching frequencies. A prototype implemented in 90 nm CMOS shows a power savings of 35% at 4 GHz. The area needed for the inductor in this new clock driver is about 6% of a local clock region.
Autors: Alimadadi, M.;Sheikhaei, S.;Lemieux, G.;Mirabbasi, S.;Dunford, W.;Palmer, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 2099 - 2108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gbps 0.13 m CMOS Pilot-Based Clock and Data Recovery Scheme for High-Speed Links
Abstract:
This paper presents a pilot-based clock and data recovery (CDR) technique for high-speed serial link applications where a low-amplitude clock signal, i.e., a pilot, is added to the transmit signal. The clock tone is extracted at the receiver using an injection-locked oscillator and is used to drive the receiver front-end samplers. The performance of the CDR technique is demonstrated using a 5 Gbps differential receiver fabricated in a 0.13 IBM CMOS technology. The clock and data recovery circuit implementation has an area of 0.171 and consumes 11.75 mA from a 1.5 V supply voltage at 5 Gbps. The recovered clock peak-to-peak and rms jitter at 5 Gbps are less than 10 ps (5%UI) and 1.6 ps (0.8%UI), respectively with an effective CDR loop bandwidth of approximately 28 MHz at a bit-error rate (BER) of . The proposed technique simplifies the CDR design and provides data and inter-symbol interference (ISI) independent performance with a small 5% pilot voltage overhead to the transmitted data signal.
Autors: Ahmadi, M. R.;Amirkhany, A.;Harjani, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 45, issue:8, pages: 1533 - 1541
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5000h RF life test on 330 W RF-LDMOS transistors for radars applications
Abstract:
A reliability test bench dedicated to RF power devices is used to improve 330 W LDMOS in a radar conditions. The monitoring of RF power, drain, gate voltages and currents under various pulses and temperatures conditions are investigated. Numerous duty cycles are applied in order to stress LDMOS. It shows with tracking all this parameters that only few hot carrier injection phenomenon appear with no incidence on RF figures of merit (Pout or PAE). Robustness and ruggedness are shown for LDMOS with this bench for radar applications in L-band.
Autors: O., Latry , P., Dherbécourt , K., Mourgues , H., Maanane , J.P., Sipma , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 7.27 GHz -Enhanced Low Noise Amplifier RFIC With 70 dB Image Rejection Ratio
Abstract:
This letter presents a low noise amplifier (LNA) RFIC with notch filter implemented in a 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS technology. The LNA/filter combination utilizes -enhanced techniques to achieve a high gain and high image rejection ratio (IRR) simultaneously. The amplifier operates at 7.27 GHz and achieves 22.5 dB gain with an IIR of 70 dB. The measured noise figure and IIP3 of the LNA are better than 5.1 dB and , respectively. The LNA dissipates 21 mW power with a 1.7 V supply.
Autors: Ma, D.;Dai, F. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 20, issue:8, pages: 456 - 458
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 90 nm Bulk CMOS Radiation Hardened by Design Cache Memory
Abstract:
A RHBD high performance cache fabricated on 90 nm bulk CMOS is presented. Test silicon cache data arrays can read and write at 1.02 GHz. Irradiation to 2 Mrad(Si) negligibly impacts standby current. The cache is write-through, and relies on error checking to allow cache invalidation when single event upsets or potential single event transients are detected. The write-through cache architectural state will then naturally be reloaded by the ensuing microprocessor operations. Single cycle invalidation is supported. Single event error ion beam test results are presented, as is a description of measured single event effects in array and peripheral circuits and their mitigation by the design.
Autors: Yao, X.;Clark, L. T.;Patterson, D. W.;Holbert, K. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2089 - 2097
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Adaptive Scheme for Scalar Fields, Using High-Order, Singular Finite Elements
Abstract:
For problems with sharp edges, where the electric or magnetic field is singular, -adaptive finite-element analysis loses some of its effectiveness. This can be remedied by including singular elements which are better able to model the potentials near such edges. The singular elements are hierarchal and the -adaption takes place over the combined set of singular and regular elements. An energy-based error indicator guides the adaption. Three test cases are considered: an electrostatic problem for finding the capacitance of a stripline gap; a steady current flow problem for finding busbar resistance; and a magnetostatic problem for finding the torque on a prism of permeable material. Results show that, although the use of singular elements does not increase the dimension of the global matrix, more conjugate gradient iterations are needed to solve the matrix equation. Nevertheless, the use of singular elements leads to a greatly improved adaptive convergence, with final accuracies about one order of magnitude higher, for a similar computational cost.
Autors: Webb, J. P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3532 - 3538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Calderón Multiplicative Preconditioner for Coupled Surface-Volume Electric Field Integral Equations
Abstract:
A well-conditioned coupled set of surface (S) and volume (V) electric field integral equations (S-EFIE and V-EFIE) for analyzing wave interactions with densely discretized composite structures is presented. Whereas the V-EFIE operator is well-posed even when applied to densely discretized volumes, a classically formulated S-EFIE operator is ill-posed when applied to densely discretized surfaces. This renders the discretized coupled S-EFIE and V-EFIE system ill-conditioned, and its iterative solution inefficient or even impossible. The proposed scheme regularizes the coupled set of S-EFIE and V-EFIE using a Calderón multiplicative preconditioner (CMP)-based technique. The resulting scheme enables the efficient analysis of electromagnetic interactions with composite structures containing fine/subwavelength geometric features. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Bagci, H.;Andriulli, F. P.;Cools, K.;Olyslager, F.;Michielssen, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 2680 - 2690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Capacitive Sensor System for the Analysis of Two-Phase Flows of Oil and Conductive Water
Abstract:
A sensor system for the study of oil-water flow in pipes is proposed. The purpose is to estimate the area fraction occupied by each fluid in a given section of the pipe, taking advantage of the difference in dielectric permittivity between the fluids. The estimation is done by capacitance measurements between electrodes flush-mounted on the external surface of a nonconductive section of the pipe. A key contribution of the present work is to propose a solution to the problem of capacitive sensing in presence of conductive water which introduces parasitic coupling to stray elements outside the measurement section of the...
Autors: Marco, Demori , Vittorio, Ferrari , Domenico, Strazza , Pietro, Poesio
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Case Study on Lightning Protection, Current Injection Measurements, and Model
Abstract:
A newly built pharmaceutical plant has been investigated by measurements. Currents of 0.3 kA were injected in the lightning protection grid on the roof. Inside the building, test cables of 100 m length followed a path typical for cables belonging to the installation. We measured induced cable currents and voltages. A reduced model of the building incorporated most of the designed current paths. Measurements and model showed that the roof steel skeleton carried about 80% of the current and the intended lightning conductors 20%. The calculated current through a cable support was larger than measured. This is explained by also considering a nearby nonintended conductor. For three types of cables, we determined the transfer impedances. The measurements and model have been combined and extrapolated to actual lightning.
Autors: Bargboer, G.;Deursen, A. P. J. v.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 684 - 690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cell Lens Model for Transverse Modes in Optofluidic Intracavity Spectroscopy
Abstract:
Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of individual cells from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and canine lymphoma cancer cell lines exhibit relatively uniformly spaced multiple transverse modes repeated in each free spectral range of a microfluidic Fabry–Pérot cavity, while similar spectra of healthy canine monocytes and lymphocytes have minimal or no transverse-mode peaks. Modeling of the cells as thin lenses allows paraxial Gaussian beam resonator analysis that produces spectral features that quantitatively match the frequencies of transverse modes and qualitatively agree with the trends in maximum transmission of the modes when aperture losses are included. Cell focal lengths of 600 and 300 m, respectively, are extracted for canine HSA and lymphoma cells from the ratio of transverse to longitudinal frequency spacing, while the spectra of canine monocytes indicate that they have a focal length 580 m. Under an assumption of constant refractive index, the focal lengths imply a radius of curvature for the top surface of the cells that is much greater than their lateral radius.
Autors: Wang, W.;Lear, K. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 946 - 953
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Century of Development in Applied Electrostatics [History]
Abstract:
This paper discussed the development and detailing history of applied electrostatics which give advantages and disadvantages. Most electrical engineers, the term electrostatics brings to mind some hazy visions of early electrical experimentation involving an ancient Greek, a dead cat, and a piece of amber. Many of us recreated this quaint demonstration of triboelectric charging and its subsequent attraction in high school physics class. Perhaps some, in more enlightened schools, substituted modern materials such as plastics and synthetic fibers. In university electrical engineering programs, electrostatics is usually ignored or relegated to mathematical simplifications involving quasi-electrostatic approximations of important applications in electromagnetics. Meanwhile, a serious work involves the state-of-the-art study of topics such as electrodynamics and digital electronics. These fields have dominated so many important advances in the 20th century.
Autors: Castle, G.S.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Charge-Based Compact Model for Thin-Film Monocrystalline Silicon on Glass PMOSFETs Operated in Accumulation
Abstract:
A thin-film monocrystalline CMOS display technology has been realized by implementing a conventional NMOS inversion device and a PMOS accumulation device or PACC. In this paper, a charge-based model is introduced which provides the dc current-voltage characteristics of PACC devices. Derived directly from the Pao–Sah equation by applying the 1D Gauss' law, the model provides a expression for drain current valid from cutoff through accumulation. The model correctly predicts the influence of fixed charge at the silicon–glass interface on the I–V characteristics and shows excellent agreement for both transfer and output characteristics with results from 2D device simulation. The core model coupled with previously developed equations describing channel length modulation, subthreshold slope degradation, drain induced barrier lowering, and mobility degradation form a complete PACC model which is compared to measured results.
Autors: Nassar, C. J.;Revelli, J. F.;Williams, C. A. K.;Bowman, R. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 6, issue:8, pages: 306 - 311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Wideband RF Front-End With Mismatch Calibrated Harmonic Rejection Mixer for Terrestrial Digital TV Tuner Applications
Abstract:
A wideband direct-conversion RF front-end for Advanced Television Systems Committee terrestrial digital TV (DTV) tuner applications is realized in a 0.18- m CMOS technology. In order to effectively solve the critical local oscillator (LO) harmonic mixing problem in an ultra-wideband frequency environment of 48–860 MHz, the combination of a mismatch calibrated harmonic rejection mixer (HRM) and a simple preceding integrated third-order passive RF tracking filter with an external inductor is utilized to obtain 60–80 dB of harmonic rejection for all odd-order harmonic mixing within the DTV spectrum. In addition, an efficient novel calibration algorithm for the HRM is proposed in order to simplify the compensation process. The RF front-end also includes a broadband noise-canceling low-noise amplifier, an attenuator to cover the wide dynamic range, an LO multiphase generator, and peripheral circuits such as an serial interface for digital control. The implemented CMOS RF front-end achieves a total gain of 40 dB, output third-order intercept point of 30 dBm, and noise figure of 5.5 dB while consuming a low power of 140 mW from a 1.8-V supply voltage.
Autors: Cha, H.-K.;Kwon, K.;Choi, J.;Kim, H.-T.;Lee, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 58, issue:8, pages: 2143 - 2151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Commercial 65 nm CMOS Technology for Space Applications: Heavy Ion, Proton and Gamma Test Results and Modeling
Abstract:
This paper presents new experimental and modeling evidences that advanced commercial CMOS technologies get intrinsically harder against space radiations with technology downscaling. A 65 nm commercial bulk CMOS process can deliver improved radiation-tolerance without sacrificing electrical performance.
Autors: Roche, P.;Gasiot, G.;Uznanski, S.;Daveau, J.-M.;Torras-Flaquer, J.;Clerc, S.;Harboe-Sorensen, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2079 - 2088
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Analytical Threshold-Voltage Model for Surrounding-Gate MOSFETs With Interface Trapped Charges
Abstract:
With the effects of equivalent oxide charges on flatband voltage, a compact analytical threshold-voltage model for surrounding-gate MOSFETs with interface trapped charges is developed based on the parabolic potential approach. The model shows how interface charge density, damaged zone, oxide thickness, and diameter of silicon body affect the threshold voltage. The model is verified by a 3-D device simulator and can be used to explore the hot-carrier-induced threshold-voltage behavior of surrounding-gate MOSFETs for its memory device application.
Autors: Te-Kuang, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 31, issue:8, pages: 788 - 790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Laparoscopic Probe for Optical Stimulation of the Prostate Nerves
Abstract:
The cavernous nerves (CN) course along the prostate surface and are responsible for sexual function. Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) has recently been tested as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation for identifying and preserving these delicate nerves during prostate cancer surgery. However, the optimal range of laser parameters for safe and consistent laser nerve stimulation is relatively narrow; low-level irradiation may not stimulate the nerve, while high-level irradiation may result in thermal damage to the nerve and loss of erectile function. The objective of this study is to design, build, and provide preliminary data on testing of a laparoscopic probe capable of delivering a collimated, flat-top spatial beam profile to the nerve surface for uniform, safe, and reproducible irradiation of the nerve. Chemical etching of the distal fiber optic tip in combination with an aspheric lens resulted in a 3.4-mm-OD laparoscopic probe capable of delivering a collimated 1-mm-diameter, flat-top laser beam over a working distance of about 20 mm. Successful ONS using this probe was observed in a rat prostate model, in vivo. Upon further testing, this probe may be useful for identifying and preserving the CN during laparoscopic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.
Autors: Tozburun, S.;Mayeh, M.;Lagoda, G. A.;Farahi, F. A.;Burnett, A. L.;Fried, N. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 16, issue:4, pages: 941 - 945
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Space and Efficient Drain Current Design for Multipillar Vertical MOSFETs
Abstract:
In the vertical MOSFET, due to its device structure, the bottom of its silicon pillar has a certain resistance because there is a diffused silicon wiring area in the bottom. Thereby, this resistance becomes large in the case of the multipillar transistors and also shows asymmetric characteristics between the top and bottom nodes of the pillar. This paper is devoted to examining this resistance for the multipillar vertical MOSFETs and proposing a compact design, which can suppress the resistance influences, attain a large drain current, and achieve a higher circuit performance.
Autors: Sakui, K.;Endoh, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 57, issue:8, pages: 1768 - 1773
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Regularization Techniques for Magnetoencephalography Source Reconstruction
Abstract:
In this paper, the abilities of the generalized cross validation (GCV) method and the L-curve method for the determination of the optimal regularization parameter are studied and compared for magnetoencephalography (MEG) source reconstruction. The results verify that the GCV method is a better choice when the measurement noise is relatively high, and the L-curve method seems to be more effective when the source is mainly dominated by errors such as brain perturbation.
Autors: Luan, F.;Lee, C.;Choi, J.-H.;Jung, H.-K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3209 - 3212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Three Image Fidelity Metrics of Different Computational Principles for JPEG2000 Compressed Abdomen CT Images
Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate three image fidelity metrics of different computational principles—peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), high-dynamic range visual difference predictor (HDR-VDP), and multiscale structural similarity (MS-SSIM)—in measuring the fidelity of JPEG2000 compressed abdomen computed tomography images from a viewpoint of visually lossless compression. Three hundred images with 0.67– or 5-mm section thickness were compressed to one of five compression ratios ranging from reversible compression to 15:1. The fidelity of each compressed image was measured by five radiologists' visual analyses (distinguishable or indistinguishable from the original) and the three metrics. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients of the PSNR, HDR-VDP, and MS-SSIM values with the number of readers responding as indistinguishable were 0.86, 0.94, and 0.86, respectively. Using the pooled readers' responses as the reference standard, the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for the HDR-VDP (0.99) was significantly greater than that for the PSNR (0.95) and for the MS-SSIM (0.96) , and there was no significant difference between the PSNR and MS-SSIM . In measuring the image fidelity, the HDR-VDP outperforms the PSNR and MS-SSIM, and the MS-SSIM and PSNR are comparable.
Autors: Kim, K. J.;Kim, B.;Mantiuk, R.;Richter, T.;Lee, H.;Kang, H.-S.;Seo, J.;Lee, K. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 29, issue:8, pages: 1496 - 1503
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A complete methodology for assessing GaN behaviour for military applications
Abstract:
For military applications, due to a very long life cycle, great power requirements and numerous (>1000) HPA (High Power Amplifier) per system, GaN power devices are considered as critical components. So, an independent assessment made in a government laboratory was required by program officers in order to check all the key parameters of this new technology. The objective of this paper is to present the global methodology and analyse data obtained on GaN technologies, simultaneously taking into account process issues, reliability concerns and microwave measurements. The originality of this work is to gather all these aspects, thanks to a new...
Autors: C., Moreau , M., Le Pipec , S., Tence , J., Hemery , J., Rigo , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A conductor/insulator/semiconductor polymer solar cell by an ultra-thin polymer insulator
Abstract:
In the letter, a conductor/insulator/semiconductor (CIS) polymer solar cell was demonstrated with higher performance and stability than standard polymer solar cell. The random copolymer, poly(styrene-co-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-r-PMMA), was used as the insulator. By control the annealing temperature, a 2nm-thick insulator could provide dark current suppress function and ensure carrier tunneling simultaneously. The efficiency of the CIS solar cell was improved from 2.09 to 2.37%, around 11% improvement. Meanwhile, the half-efficiency lifetime increase from 58 to 97h by the applying of PS-r-PMMA protection layer.
Autors: Hsing-Wang, Tsai , Zing-Way, Pei , Ting-Hsiang, Huang , Pei-Wen, Li , Yi-Jen, Chan
Appeared in: Organic Electronics
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Constrained and Guided Approach for Managing Software Engineering Course Projects
Abstract:
This paper documents several years of experimentation with a new approach to organizing and managing projects in a software engineering course. The initial failure and subsequent refinements that the new approach has been through since 2004 are described herein. The “constrained and guided” approach, as it is called, has helped to reduce project failure rates, increase specification fulfillment rates, and improve the design quality of student projects. It has also enabled the instructor to evaluate student projects more objectively. The questionnaire survey conducted in this study also shows that students greatly appreciated the new approach because it enabled them to manage projects more effectively.
Autors: Cheng, Y.-P.;Lin, J. M.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 430 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Constructive Heuristic Algorithm for Distribution System Planning
Abstract:
A constructive heuristic algorithm (CHA) to solve distribution system planning (DSP) problem is presented. The DSP is a very complex mixed binary nonlinear programming problem. A CHA is aimed at obtaining an excellent quality solution for the DSP problem. However, a local improvement phase and a branching technique were implemented in the CHA to improve its solution. In each step of the CHA, a sensitivity index is used to add a circuit or a substation to the distribution system. This sensitivity index is obtained by solving the DSP problem considering the numbers of circuits and substations to be added as continuous variables (relaxed problem). The relaxed problem is a large and complex nonlinear programming and was solved through an efficient nonlinear optimization solver. Results of two tests systems and one real distribution system are presented in this paper in order to show the ability of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Lavorato, M.;Rider, M. J.;Garcia, A. V.;Romero, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1734 - 1742
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control Scheme With Energy Saving and DC-Link Overvoltage Rejection for Induction Motor Drives of Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper presents a control scheme for an induction motor that integrates, within a coherent solution, some of the features that are commonly required from an electric vehicle drive. The main features of the proposed control scheme are the capability to exploit the maximum torque in the whole speed range, a weak dependence on the motor parameters, a good robustness against the variations of the dc-link voltage, and, whenever possible, the maximum efficiency. The performance of the control scheme is verified by experimental tests.
Autors: Casadei, D.;Mengoni, M.;Serra, G.;Tani, A.;Zarri, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 1436 - 1446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control Strategy for Upper Limb Robotic Rehabilitation With a Dual Robot System
Abstract:
This paper describes the development and use of the cooperative control scheme used by the intelligent pneumatic arm movement (iPAM) system to deliver safe, therapeutic treatment of the upper limb during voluntary reaching exercises. A set of clinical and engineering requirements for the control scheme are identified and detailed, which entail controlled, coordinated movement of a dual robot system with respect to the human upper limb. This is achieved by using a 6-DOF model of the upper limb that forms the controller's coordinate system. An admittance control scheme is developed by using this coordinate system such that robotic assistance can be varied as appropriate. Key controller components are derived, including kinematic and force transformations between the upper limb model and the dual robot task space. The controller is tested using a computational simulation and with a stroke subject in the iPAM system. The results demonstrate that the control scheme can reliably coordinate the dual robots to assist upper limb movements. A discussion considers the ramifications of using the system in practice, including the effects of measurement errors and controller limitations. In conclusion, the iPAM system has been shown to be effective at delivering variable levels of assistance to the upper limb joints during therapeutic movements in a clinically appropriate manner.
Autors: Culmer, P. R.;Jackson, A. E.;Makower, S.;Richardson, R.;Cozens, J. A.;Levesley, M. C.;Bhakta, B. B.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 575 - 585
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A convex optimization design of robust iterative learning control for linear systems with iteration-varying parametric uncertainties
Abstract:
In this paper, a new robust iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm has been proposed for linear systems in the presence of iteration-varying parametric uncertainties. The robust ILC design is formulated as a min-max problem using a quadratic performance criterion subject to constraints of the control input update. An upper bound of the maximization problem is derived, then, the solution of the min-max problem is achieved by solving a minimization problem. Applying Lagrangian duality to this minimization problem results in a dual problem which can be reformulated as a convex optimization problem over linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Next, we present an LMI-based algorithm for the robust ILC design and prove the convergence of the control input and the error. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to a distillation column to demonstrate its effectiveness.Copyright © 2010 John Wiley and Sons Asia Pte Ltd and Chinese Automatic Control Society
Autors: Dinh Hoa Nguyen, David Banjerdpongchai
Appeared in: Asian Journal of Control
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Cosimulation Framework for Multirate Time Integration of Field/Circuit Coupled Problems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a framework of waveform relaxation methods to simulate electromagnetic fields coupled to electric networks. Within this framework, a guarantee for convergence and stability of Gauß–Seidel-type methods is found by partial differential algebraic equation (PDAE) analysis. It is shown that different time step sizes in different parts of the model can be automatically chosen according to the problem's dynamics. A finite-element model of a transformer coupled to a circuit illustrates the efficiency of multirate methods.
Autors: Schops, S.;De Gersem, H.;Bartel, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 46, issue:8, pages: 3233 - 3236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A crenellated-target-based calibration method for laser triangulation sensors integration in articulated measurement arms
Abstract:
This work presents a method for integrating laser triangulation sensors (LTS) in articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMM). First, the kinematic parameters of the AACMM are identified using a passive self-centering probe and a multipose optimization algorithm based in point and length constrains. Then, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic - laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry - and extrinsic parameters related to AACMM main frame has been developed, allowing the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the previous sensor...
Autors: Jorge, Santolaria , Juan-José, Aguilar , David, Guillomía , Carlos, Cajal
Appeared in: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Publication date: Aug 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A dark-horse green laser shines
Abstract:
Autors: Stevenson, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Aug 2010, volume: 47, issue:8, pages: 14 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 

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