Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 07-2017 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Family of True Zero Voltage Zero Current Switching (ZVZCS) Nonisolated Bidirectional DC–DC Converter With Wide Soft Switching Range
Abstract:
This paper proposes a true zero voltage zero current switching (ZVZCS) nonisolated bidirectional dc–dc converter with reduced component count. An auxiliary resonant network—which comprises of an inductor, capacitor, diode, and two switches—provides the zero voltage switching transitions of the main switches at turn on and turn off instants. In addition, a pair of auxiliary inductors, which act as inductive snubbers, aids the zero current switching transitions. The proposed configuration is able to provide soft commutation for the main switches for a wide range of input voltage, switching frequency, and load current variations—thus significantly improving the efficiency profile over a wide operating window. Besides, the auxiliary switches are also soft commutated, while the reverse recovery loss induced by the high side diode is eliminated. The ZVZCS soft switching operation is demonstrated by a 150 W prototype converter; it is proven consistent with the waveforms derived from the theoretical analysis. Its performance is evaluated against the standard hard-switched boost, buck, and several other leading soft switching converters published in the recent literature. The maximum full load efficiency at 100 kHz is recorded at 98.2% and 97.5% in the boost and buck modes, respectively.
Autors: Ratil H. Ashique;Zainal Salam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5416 - 5427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast Calibration Method for Magnetometer Array and the Application of Ferromagnetic Target Localization
Abstract:
The vector magnetometer array is commonly used in ferromagnetic target detection and localization. Due to technological limitations, the accuracy of measurements is restricted by magnetometer errors, misalignment errors between magnetometers and the interference of soft iron and hard iron. In order to correct the measurement errors, a calibration method with less computation time is proposed. A magnetometer array is designed for ferromagnetic target detection and localization, which is calibrated by the proposed method. The results of our empirical evaluations confirm that the proposed method outperforms conventional calibration method both in terms of computation cost and accuracy. Different test specimens are used to test the detection range and the localization accuracy of the system. The array system compensated by the proposed method has a larger detection range.
Autors: Chen Wang;Xiaodong Qu;Xiaojuan Zhang;Wanhua Zhu;Guangyou Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 1743 - 1750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fault-Injection Strategy for Traction Drive Control Systems
Abstract:
A traction drive control system (TDCS) plays an important role in safety running of high-speed trains. This paper presents a new fault-injection strategy for safety testing and fault diagnosis verification in the TDCS. First, the fault scenarios on the signal level of each faulty component are analyzed. Then, the fault-injection method based on signal conditioning is proposed, and the injected signal, reflecting the fault scenario at a fault point, is generated to simulate the fault scenarios. Subsequently, the injected signal benchmark is constructed for all faults in traction converters, traction motors, sensors, and traction control units. Finally, a fault-injection benchmark platform is developed to simulate various fault scenarios in the TDCS. The simulation and comparison results show that the presented strategy is effective and easy to implement.
Autors: Chunhua Yang;Chao Yang;Tao Peng;Xiaoyue Yang;Weihua Gui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5719 - 5727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Feature-Based Classification of Model Repair Approaches
Abstract:
Consistency management, the ability to detect, diagnose and handle inconsistencies, is crucial during the development process in Model-driven Engineering (MDE). As the popularity and application scenarios of MDE expanded, a variety of different techniques were proposed to address these tasks in specific contexts. Of the various stages of consistency management, this work focuses on inconsistency handling in MDE, particularly in model repair techniques. This paper proposes a feature-based classification system for model repair techniques, based on an systematic literature review of the area. We expect this work to assist developers and researchers from different disciplines in comparing their work under a unifying framework, and aid MDE practitioners in selecting suitable model repair approaches.
Autors: Nuno Macedo;Tiago Jorge;Alcino Cunha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 43, issue:7, pages: 615 - 640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Finite-Element-Based Fast Frequency Sweep Framework Including Excitation by Frequency-Dependent Waveguide Mode Patterns
Abstract:
This paper presents a frequency-sweep technique based on model-order reduction and finite elements, for the broadband analysis of structures fed by waveguides (WGs) possessing frequency-dependent modal field patterns. Standard order reduction requires the matrices and right-hand sides (RHSs) to exhibit affine frequency parameterization. This precondition is violated when the transverse fields of the WG modes vary with frequency. The proposed solution involves two steps. First, a reduced-order model (ROM) for the WG is constructed. It enables the accurate yet inexpensive computation of propagation characteristics. Second, order reduction is applied to the driven problem, wherein the reduced WG model is utilized to construct affine approximations to the matrices and RHSs. Since this process requires operations on reduced-order matrices only, it is computationally cheap and enables offline/online decomposition. Both impedance and scattering formulations are considered. For the latter, an alternative to the transfinite element method is proposed, which does not employ modal field patterns as shape functions. It avoids interior resonances and computes scattering parameters more efficiently when only a limited set of excitations is of interest. The resulting algebraic system is of somewhat larger dimension but easier to assemble. Its simple structure greatly facilitates the construction of the ROM.
Autors: Rolf Baltes;Alwin Schultschik;Ortwin Farle;Romanus Dyczij-Edlinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2249 - 2260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexure-Based Parallel Actuation Dual-Stage System for Large-Stroke Nanopositioning
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel parallel actuation dual-stage system that delivers nanometric positioning over a large displacement. Unlike those traditional dual-stage designs, the translator of fine actuator in the proposed design is mechanically connected to the coarse translator via the flexure mechanism, while the actuation coils of both the coarse and fine actuators lay underneath the translators in parallel. The merits of the proposed parallel actuation dual-stage design are mainly twofold. First, both the coarse and fine actuators utilize the moving-magnet configuration, hence the translators do not need to carry any cables for power supply. Second, the coarse motion can exhibit better dynamics and energy efficiency due to the minimized moving size and weight. In this work, an analytical current–force model is established for the coarse actuator considering higher order harmonic magnetic field, and based on the proposed model, the force ripple of coarse actuator is quantitatively analyzed both in theory and in practical. Furthermore, a disturbance observer is employed in the dual-feedback configuration to deal with the uncertainties with the proved asymptotic stability. The experimental results show that the proposed dual-stage positioning system is capable to achieve 20 nm step resolution with a root mean square error of 13.15 nm, and the 5 mm point-to-point positioning error can achieve less than 40 nm.
Autors: Haiyue Zhu;Chee Khiang Pang;Tat Joo Teo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5553 - 5563
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fluidic-Based High-Pressure Sensor Interrogated by Microwave Fabry–Perot Interferometry
Abstract:
A fluidic-based sensor is proposed and demonstrated for high-pressure measurement. The sensor consists of a reservoir and a capillary outlet. The reservoir deforms under pressure manifesting the liquid level change in the capillary. Utilizing the built-in waveguide on the capillary, the liquid level is measured by microwave Fabry–Perot interferometry in the spectral domain. The applied pressure variation is monitored by the spectrum shift of the microwave interferogram. The pressure response of the sensor is tested up to 2000 psi, with a resolution of 2.5 psi, and repeatability within ±20 psi. Benefiting from rigidity in material and flexibility in dimension of the sensor structure, the sensor has good robustness and adjustable sensitivity and range for applications in high-pressure environments.
Autors: Wenge Zhu;Baokai Cheng;Yurong Li;Runar Nygaard;Hai Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 17, issue:14, pages: 4388 - 4393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Evaluating the Results of the SZZ Approach for Identifying Bug-Introducing Changes
Abstract:
The approach proposed by Śliwerski, Zimmermann, and Zeller (SZZ) for identifying bug-introducing changes is at the foundation of several research areas within the software engineering discipline. Despite the foundational role of SZZ, little effort has been made to evaluate its results. Such an evaluation is a challenging task because the ground truth is not readily available. By acknowledging such challenges, we propose a framework to evaluate the results of alternative SZZ implementations. The framework evaluates the following criteria: (1) the earliest bug appearance, (2) the future impact of changes, and (3) the realism of bug introduction. We use the proposed framework to evaluate five SZZ implementations using data from ten open source projects. We find that previously proposed improvements to SZZ tend to inflate the number of incorrectly identified bug-introducing changes. We also find that a single bug-introducing change may be blamed for introducing hundreds of future bugs. Furthermore, we find that SZZ implementations report that at least 46 percent of the bugs are caused by bug-introducing changes that are years apart from one another. Such results suggest that current SZZ implementations still lack mechanisms to accurately identify bug-introducing changes. Our proposed framework provides a systematic mean for evaluating the data that is generated by a given SZZ implementation.
Autors: Daniel Alencar da Costa;Shane McIntosh;Weiyi Shang;Uirá Kulesza;Roberta Coelho;Ahmed E. Hassan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 43, issue:7, pages: 641 - 657
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency-Reconfigurable Dual-Band Low-Profile Monopolar Antenna
Abstract:
A concept of a low-profile monopolar antenna operating in two independently reconfigurable frequency bands is introduced in this paper. For the lower band, the design utilizes a center-fed patch with shorting rods at its edges, forcing the patch to radiate as an equivalent magnetic-current loop. For the upper band, another magnetic current loop is created by adding four symmetrical resonant slots on the patch, which radiates almost independently of the shorted patch. To allow coverage of a larger bandwidth, two sets of varactor diodes are used to independently control the resonance frequencies of the two bands. As a validation of the proposed concept, two antenna prototypes, with and without reconfigurabilities, have been optimized and fabricated. Measurement results show that the low-profile reconfigurable monopolar antenna achieves two independent tunable bands, with −10-dB-tuning ranges of 31% and 22% centered at about 0.9 and 1.7 GHz, respectively. The antenna height is only , where is the free-space wavelength at the minimum operating frequency. Importantly, stable omnidirectional patterns and vertical polarization are consistently achieved across both tuning ranges.
Autors: Nghia Nguyen-Trong;Andrew Piotrowski;Christophe Fumeaux;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3336 - 3343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated Broadband Sub-mmWave Chip-to-Chip Interconnect
Abstract:
A new type of broadband link enabling extremely high-speed chip-to-chip communication is presented. The link is composed of fully integrated sub-mmWave on-chip traveling wave power couplers and a low-cost planar dielectric waveguide. This structure is based on a differentially driven half-mode substrate integrated waveguide supporting the first higher order hybrid microstrip mode. The cross-sectional width of the coupler structure is tapered in the direction of wave propagation to increase the coupling efficiency and maintain a large coupling bandwidth while minimizing its on-die size. A rectangular dielectric waveguide, constructed from Rogers Corporation R3006 material, is codesigned with the on-chip coupler structure to minimize coupling loss. The coupling structure achieves an average insertion loss of 4.8 dB from 220 to 270 GHz, with end-to-end link measurements presented. This system provides a packaging-friendly, cost effective, and high performance planar integration solution for ultrabroadband chip-to-chip communication utilizing millimeter waves.
Autors: Jack W. Holloway;Luciano Boglione;Timothy M. Hancock;Ruonan Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2373 - 2386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated Multistage Cross-Coupled Voltage Multiplier With No Reversion Power Loss in a Standard CMOS Process
Abstract:
This brief presents a fully integrated cross-coupled voltage multiplier for boosting dc-to-dc converter applications. The proposed design applies a new structure of cross-coupled voltage doubler (CCVD) and a clock scheme that eliminates all of the reversion power loss and increases the power efficiency (PE). In addition, this design is scalable to multiple-stage voltage doubler (voltage multiplier) as the maximum gate-to-source/drain or drain-to-source voltage does not exceed the nominal power supply . As a result, such a design is compatible with the standard CMOS process without any overstress voltage. The proposed single-stage CCVD and three-stage cross-coupled voltage multiplier are implemented in 0.13- IBM CMOS process with maximum PE values of 88.16% and 80.2%, respectively. The maximum voltage conversion efficiency reaches 99.8% under the supply voltage of 1.2 V.
Autors: Xiaojian Yu;Kambiz Moez;I-Chyn Wey;Mohamad Sawan;Jie Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 737 - 741
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated Silicon-Carbide Sigma–Delta Modulator Operating up to 500 °C
Abstract:
This paper presents the first fully integrated sigma–delta modulator implemented in an in-house silicon carbide (SiC) bipolar technology for high-temperature applications. A second-order 1-b continuous-time architecture is adopted. Dual-loop compensation technique is employed to accommodate one clock period comparator delay. The circuits are designed to have enough margins without degrading the modulator’s performance, considering the variation of device parameters over a large temperature range. The measurement results show that from room temperature to 500 °C, the modulator’s peak SNDR is constant around 30 dB at a clock speed of 512 kHz. The chip area of the modulator is mm with one metal layer. It consumes around 1 W from a 15 V power supply. This paper demonstrates the feasibility to further develop highly integrated SiC bipolar junction transistor integrated circuits for extremely high-temperature sensing applications.
Autors: Ye Tian;Carl-Mikael Zetterling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 2782 - 2788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Game Theoretic Approach to Parked Vehicle Assisted Content Delivery in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Recently, parked vehicles have been shown to be useful to deliver content in vehicular ad hoc networks, where the parked vehicles can form social communities to share and exchange content with other moving vehicles and road side units (RSUs). However, as it takes resource such as bandwidth and power for parked vehicles and RSUs to deliver content, the incentive scheme with the optimal pricing strategy needs to be studied. Furthermore, because multiple places including RSUs and parked vehicles can deliver content to moving vehicles, the optimal algorithm to determine where to obtain the requested content should also be discussed. Therefore, in this paper, we first propose a framework of content delivery with parked vehicles, where moving vehicles can obtain content from both the RSU and parked vehicles according to the competition and cooperation among them. Then, based on a Stackelberg game, we develop a pricing model where each of the three players, including moving vehicles, RSU, and parked vehicles, can obtain their maximum utilities. Next, a gradient based iteration algorithm is presented to obtain the Stackelberg equilibrium. Finally, the simulation results prove that the proposal can outperform other conventional methods and that each player in the game can obtain its optimal strategy during the content delivery.
Autors: Zhou Su;Qichao Xu;Yilong Hui;Mi Wen;Song Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 6461 - 6474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Framework for Predictors Based on Bounding Techniques and Local Approximation
Abstract:
This paper introduces a general framework for prediction based on nonparametric local estimation and bounding techniques. A set of historic input-output measurements of the system is stored in a database. When a prediction for a given point is required, data from the neighborhood of this point is retrieved and a prediction is formed. These prediction methods return an interval that bounds the considered system output. The width of the obtained interval prediction reflects the amount of information about the system available at the point to be predicted. In addiction, the midpoint of the interval prediction can be used as central estimate. The contribution of the paper is threefold. First, a general framework that covers previous methods proposed in the literature is presented. Second, the general properties of the framework are analyzed. Third, new predictors based on this framework are proposed. Finally, a benchmark example and a comparative study are provided for illustration purposes.
Autors: J. M. Bravo;T. Alamo;M. Vasallo;M. E. Gegúndez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 62, issue:7, pages: 3430 - 3435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Structure of Linear-Phase FIR Filters With Derivative Constraints
Abstract:
In this paper, a general structure of linear-phase finite impulse response filters, whose frequency responses satisfy given derivative constraints imposed upon an arbitrary frequency, is proposed. It is comprised of a linear combination of parallelly connected subfilters, called the cardinal filters, with weighted coefficients being the successive derivatives of the desired frequency response at the constrained frequency. An advantage of such a cardinal filters design is that only the weighted coefficients are relevant to the desired frequency response but not the cardinal filters; hence, a dynamic adjustment of the filter system becomes feasible. The key to derive the coefficients of cardinal filters is the determination of the power series expansion of certain trigonometric-related functions. By showing the elaborately chosen trigonometric-related functions satisfy specific differential equations, recursive formulas for the coefficients of cardinal filters are subsequently established, which make efficient their computations. At last, a simple enhancement of the cardinal filters design by incorporating the mean square error minimization is presented through examples.
Autors: Bo-You Yu;Peng-Hua Wang;Po-Ning Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1839 - 1852
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A General Unified AC/DC Power Flow Algorithm With MTDC
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to derive a general AC/DC power flow model with Voltage Source Converter Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Systems (VSC MTDCs). The equations of AC, DC grids, and VSCs are formulated in augmented rectangular coordinates. The proposed model is composed of two nodal equations and two power constraints for each AC bus, as well as one nodal equation and one power constraint for each DC bus. In this model, the VSC equations are included in the AC and DC grid model—its power balance equation and one of the control equations are regarded as the power constraints of the AC bus connected to it, whereas the other control equation is regarded as the power constraint of the DC bus connected to it. Therefore, the number of equations of the proposed model is determined only by that of AC and DC buses, and the model is systematically well organized; the variety of VSC control strategies and AC/DC linking configurations does not influence the overall structure. The proposed approach enables to solve the load flow of the most general AC/MTDC, consisting of multiple AC and DC grids connected by VSCs, and is suitable for control strategies including the droop control and any new ones in the future. The model also leads to higher computational efficiency. By demonstrations on AC/DC power systems with several VSCs, this method is proved to be effective, flexible, and efficient.
Autors: Jingting Lei;Ting An;Zhengchun Du;Zheng Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 2837 - 2846
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Genetic Algorithm-Based Antenna Selection Approach for Large-but-Finite MIMO Networks
Abstract:
We study the performance of antenna selection-based multiple-input-multiple-output networks with large-but-finite number of transmit antennas and receivers. Considering the continuous and bursty communication scenarios with different users’ data request probabilities, we develop an efficient antenna selection scheme using genetic algorithms (GAs). As demonstrated, the proposed algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be used in the cases with different objective functions, precoding methods, levels of available channel state information, and channel models. Our results show that the proposed GA-based algorithm reaches (almost) the same throughput as the exhaustive search-based optimal approach, with substantially less implementation complexity.
Autors: Behrooz Makki;Anatole Ide;Tommy Svensson;Thomas Eriksson;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 6591 - 6595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Geographical Proximity Aware Multi-Path Routing Mechanism for Resilient Networking
Abstract:
Geographical correlated failures are threats that cause major interruptions and damage to networking systems. To mitigate this rarely addressed challenge, this letter presents a novel geographical location-aware route selection algorithm to support uninterrupted networking. The multi-path routing method developed calculates multiple paths that satisfy different constraints, while ensuring the prescribed geographical distance metric between selected paths. It is used with existing overlay routing mechanisms to maintain routes. In the evaluation against enhanced -shortest path algorithms, the new algorithm is shown to provide multi-paths with larger spatial separation and better potential to uninterrupted networking in geographical correlated failures.
Autors: Jinfu Wang;John Bigham;Chris Phillips;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 21, issue:7, pages: 1533 - 1536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Global Closed-Form Refinement for Consistent TLS Data Registration
Abstract:
Existing global registration methods are prominently iterative. They require iterations and can be sensitive to point densities and noise. In contrast, closed-form solutions provide a more robust estimation model and do not involve iterations. In this letter, we present a global closed-form refinement for the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data registration problem. Our proposed method segments the task in three key steps. First, the method exploits a plane-based approach to compute the transformation parameters, resulting in the pairwise registration between point clouds. Second, we place all rotation parameters into a common coordinate system exploring one operation of the quaternions’ properties. Third, we constrain the refined rotation parameters to globally refine the translation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with a TLS data set. Experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method can properly create a consistent 3-D map of outdoor environments with accuracy at the decimeter level.
Autors: Nadisson Luis Pavan;Daniel Rodrigues dos Santos;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 14, issue:7, pages: 1131 - 1135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Model for Human Activity Recognition
Abstract:
There are two key issues in human activity recognition: spatial dependencies and temporal dependencies. Most recent methods focus on only one of them, and thus do not have sufficient descriptive power to recognize complex activity. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical spatio-temporal model (HSTM) to solve the problem by modeling spatial and temporal constraints simultaneously. The new HSTM is a two-layer hidden conditional random field (HCRF), where the bottom-layer HCRF aims at describing spatial relations in each frame and learning more discriminative representations, and the top-layer HCRF utilizes these high-level features to characterize temporal relations in the whole video sequence. The new HSTM takes advantage of the bottom layer as the building blocks for the top layer and it aggregates evidence from local to global level. A novel learning algorithm is derived to train all model parameters efficiently and its effectiveness is validated theoretically. Experimental results show that the HSTM can successfully classify human activities with higher accuracies on single-person actions (UCF) than other existing methods. More importantly, the HSTM also achieves superior performance on more practical interactions, including human–human interactional activities (UT-Interaction, BIT-Interaction, and CASIA) and human–object interactional activities (Gupta video dataset).
Autors: Wanru Xu;Zhenjiang Miao;Xiao-Ping Zhang;Yi Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 19, issue:7, pages: 1494 - 1509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line Oscillator
Abstract:
A novel magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator (MILO) with high efficiency has been proposed, based on a kind of conventional MILO. The new MILO has two typical characteristics. First, the width of the anode vanes decreases gradually, and especially, the extraction vane decreases to be the minimal. Therefore, the proportion of the electrons, which have little or no contribution to the beam–wave interaction, is decreased. As a result, the efficiency is enhanced. In addition, there is an extra extraction cavity designed behind the extraction vane. So the beam–wave interaction process is lengthened, and the extraction efficiency is enhanced. The results of the particle-in-cell simulation show that the power efficiency of this MILO can be elevated to be 20.5%, while it is only 14.4% for the conventional MILO.
Autors: Daibing Chen;Jie Wen;Zhangjie Luo;Aiming Yu;Yong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 45, issue:7, pages: 1723 - 1725
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Quasi-Two-Stage LED Driver With Multichannel Outputs
Abstract:
In this paper, a new active current balancing method for a light-emitting diode (LED) driver with multichannel outputs is proposed. In the proposed structure, a low-power nonisolated dc–dc converter in series with each LED string is used to regulate the LED string current. Different from conventional active current balancing methods, in the proposed method, the nonisolated dc–dc converters only process a small portion of the total output power. Thus, the cost and size can be greatly reduced. An adaptive bus voltage control method is also proposed to minimize the output power of the nonisolated dc–dc converters. The proposed method features good modularity, expandability, and individual current control capability. Performance of the proposed method is validated by the experimental results from an 80-W prototype with four channel outputs.
Autors: Junming Zhang;Ting Jiang;Xinke Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5875 - 5882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Energy Multispark Capacitor Discharge Ignition System for a Two-Stroke Direct Injection Spark Ignition Heavy Fuel Engine
Abstract:
A high-energy multispark ignition system with a single discharge capacitor was designed and developed. The ignition system was verified to be capable of releasing high ignition energy. The cold start and partial-load test at 6 °C ambient temperature were conducted on a two-stroke spark ignition heavy fuel engine with air-assisted direct injection. The results showed that compared to the original magnetoignition system, applying the 5-times multispark ignition approach with the new ignition system is able to successfully solve the cold start problem of the heavy fuel engine. Under the partial-load condition, increasing the number of ignitions enhances combustion in the cylinder. Four-times ignition is better than 2-times ignition with the ignition timing angle between 10° and 20°CA BTDC, improving the power output, fuel economy, and HC/CO emissions performance. The effects of multispark ignition gradually become small with the ignition timing angle advanced to 30°CA BTDC.
Autors: Rui Liu;Minxiang Wei;Cheng Chang;Haocheng Ji;Taixue Bei;Shanzhen Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 45, issue:7, pages: 1812 - 1819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Precision Detection Approach for Catenary Geometry Parameters of Electrical Railway
Abstract:
This paper aims to develop a high-precision detection approach for catenary geometry parameters of electrical railway based on vision technology. The novel idea of the proposed detection method is that, the image coordinates of the spot formed on the contact line by a laser emitter are mapped to the world system to obtain the conductor height and stagger. In the proposed detection system, the key factors that affect the detection accuracy include two components, the localization of the spot and the correction of the detection value. To solve these problems, the genetic particle filter algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO-GAPF) is presented to track and locate the spot in the image. Compared with the standard particle filter, PSO-GAPF can improve the particle deprivation and increase the accuracy of state estimation. In addition, Kalman filter (KF) is used for correcting the detected value of catenary geometry parameters. In this paper, first of all, the model of spot target is established according to the feature distribution of gray color histogram, and the tracking and locating of the spot in the image are realized by PSO-GAPF. Second, the detection formulas of catenary geometry parameters are deduced by utilizing the space coordinate transformation to compute the conductor height and stagger. At last, the correcting of the catenary geometry parameters is achieved by KF. The real-life detection results show that the proposed method has high precision, and can meet the requirements of real-time catenary geometry parameters detection system.
Autors: Zhigang Liu;Wenqiang Liu;Zhiwei Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 1798 - 1808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Voltage Single-Emitter Reduced-Surface-Field Horizontal Current Bipolar Transistor for BiCMOS Integration
Abstract:
A novel high-voltage single-emitter horizontal current bipolar transistor (HCBT) is presented. Breakdown voltage improvement compared to high-speed transistor is obtainedwith full depletion of the intrinsic collectorby using implanted CMOS p-well region. Transistors with V and GHz are demonstrated. Higher operating currents can be easily obtained by stretching the emitter length resulting in a flexible physical design of circuits. The transistor is fabricated in 0.18- HCBT BiCMOS process flow without the additional process steps and the use of additional lithography masks.
Autors: Marko Koričić;Josip Žilak;Tomislav Suligoj;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 3019 - 3022
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Current-Limiting Circuit for DC Line Fault in Multiterminal VSC-HVDC System
Abstract:
The high fault current of dc line is a major threat to multiterminal voltage-source-converter-based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) system. However, dc circuit breaker (DCCB) with large capacity and fast breaking speed is still under development. Therefore, fault current limitation is vital for the multiterminal VSC-HV DC system. This paper proposes a simple and easily applied hybrid current-limiting circuit (HCLC) at dc side, which consists of a current-limiting inductor (CLI) and an energy dissipation circuit (EDC) in parallel with the CLI. The CLI is designed to reduce the requirement for the DCCB's capacity and breaking speed. The EDC, which consists of thyristor-controlled resistors, is proposed to reduce the stress on energy absorption element (metal oxide arrester) in DCCB and to accelerate the fault current interruption. The design and discussion about the HCLC parameters are performed in detail. By employing the proposed HCLC, dc line fault in the multiterminal system can be isolated effectively with existing DCCB technology, and fast system restoration without power interruption of healthy part can be achieved. Numerous simulations with real-time digital simulator and comparisons with traditional schemes have demonstrated the promising performance of the proposed HCLC. The effectiveness of the HCLC's topology has also been verified by a simplified and scaled test circuit.
Autors: Jian Liu;Nengling Tai;Chunju Fan;Shi Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5595 - 5607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Multi-Objective Scheme Applied to Redundant Robot Manipulators
Abstract:
In this paper, a hybrid multi-objective scheme is proposed to complete simultaneously four objectives, i.e., the specified primary task for the end-effector, obstacle avoidance, joint-physical limits avoidance, and repetitive motion of redundant robot manipulators. In addition, corresponding theoretical analysis is given, which guarantees the validity of the proposed scheme. Then, the proposed hybrid multi-objective scheme is reformulated as a dynamical quadratic program (DQP) problem. The optimal solution of the DQP problem is found by the PLPE (piecewise-linear projection equation) neural network, i.e., PLPENN, and also by the corresponding numerical algorithm implemented on the computer. Furthermore, simulation and comparison based on a six-link planar redundant robot manipulator substantiate the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed scheme. At last, a hardware experiment is conducted on a six-link physical robot manipulator system, which substantiates the physical realizability, operational stability, and safety of the proposed hybrid multi-objective scheme.
Autors: Dechao Chen;Yunong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 1337 - 1350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Multi-Path CMOS Magnetic Sensor With 76 ppm/°C Sensitivity Drift and Discrete-Time Ripple Reduction Loops
Abstract:
This paper presents a temperature-insensitive magnetic sensor system for contactless current measurements. To simultaneously achieve wide bandwidth and low noise, the proposed system employs a multi-path structure with a set of spinning current Hall sensors in its low-frequency path and a set of pick-up coils in its high-frequency path. The Hall sensors and pick-up coils are used in a differential sensing arrangement that naturally rejects common-mode magnetic field interference, e.g., due to the earth’s magnetic field. A common-mode ac reference field can then be used to continuously stabilize the sensitivity of the Hall sensors, which, unlike that of the pick-up coils, is quite temperature dependent. In this design, the ripple reduction loops in the Hall sensor readout are implemented in a discrete-time manner, and so occupy 20% less area than a previous continuous-time implementation. Over a −45 °C to 105 °C temperature range, the proposed system reduces the Hall sensor drift from 22% to 1%, which corresponds to a temperature coefficient of 76 ppm/°C.
Autors: Junfeng Jiang;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 52, issue:7, pages: 1876 - 1884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A lighter motor for tomorrow's electric car
Abstract:
During the first decade of the 1900s, 38 percent of all cars in the United States ran on electricity, a share that declined to practically zero as the internal combustion engine rose to dominance in the 1920s. Today's drive to save energy and reduce pollution has given the electric car new life, but its high cost and limited range of travel combine to keep sales figures low.
Autors: Martin Doppelbauer;Patrick Winzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 54, issue:7, pages: 26 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Loss Minimization Method on a Reactive Power Supply Process for Wind Farm
Abstract:
Owing to the large physical area of a wind farm, some uncertainty and inefficiency issues exist in the related power delivery process. To provide required ancillary services regarding reactive power for the utility grid, further optimization processes are needed to maintain the reliability and efficiency of the entire system. In this paper, we introduce a reactive power assignment strategy that is based on the linearized system components of a wind farm, which comprises a power conversion system. Additionally, we perform realistic assignment processes to verify the effectiveness of this strategy with electromagnetic transients using dc software tool. Reducing the total apparent power flow by utilizing the radial structure of the wind farm is explored by assigning reactive power to nearby wind turbines. The verification process focuses on comparing the loss in output profile of a normal assignment and the proposed method in a designated wind farm.
Autors: Seungmin Jung;Gilsoo Jang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 3060 - 3068
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Nonlinearity, Missing-Code Free Time-to-Digital Converter Based on 28-nm FPGAs With Embedded Bin-Width Calibrations
Abstract:
This paper presents a low nonlinearity, missing-code free, time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a 28-nm field programmable gate array (FPGA) device (Xilinx Virtex 7 XC7V690T) with novel direct bin-width calibrations. We combine the tuned tapped delay lines (TDLs) and a modified direct-histogram architecture to correct the nonuniformity originated from carry chains, and use a multiphase sampling structure to minimize the skews of clock routes. Results of code density tests show that the proposed TDC has much better linearity performances than previously published TDCs. Moreover, our TDC does not generate missing codes. For a single TDL, the differential nonlinearity (DNL) is within [-0.38, 0.87] LSB (the least significant bit: 10.5 ps) with σDNL = 0.20 LSB, and the integral nonlinearity (INL) is within [-1.23, 1.02] LSB with σINL = 0.50 LSB. Based on the modified direct-histogram architecture, a direct bin-width calibration method was implemented and verified in the FPGA. By implementing embedded bin-width calibrations, the histogram data of TDCs can be calibrated on the fly. After the calibration, the DNLpk-pk (peak-to-peak DNL) and INLpk-pk (peak-to-peak INL) can be reduced to 0.08 LSB with σDNL = 0.01 and 0.13 LSB with σINL = 0.02 LSB, respectively.
Autors: Haochang Chen;Yongliang Zhang;David Day-Uei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 1912 - 1921
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Loss Compact 60-GHz Phase Shifter in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a 60-GHz low-loss compact 4-b phase shifter in a 65-nm CMOS. It is based on a 1-b high-pass/low-pass structure and a 3-b switched-filter structure, and employs fully custom-designed capacitors with a high quality factor for low insertion loss. The phase shifter with custom-designed capacitors reduces an insertion loss by 2.6 dB at 60 GHz. The average insertion loss is 8.1 dB at 60 GHz, and the return loss is better than 10.6 dB over a range of 57–66 GHz. The measured 16-output state of the fabricated phase shifter has a phase resolution of 22.5° with an rms phase error less than 5.5° over the 57–66 GHz range. The fabricated phase shifter has a compact core size of 0.42 mm mm. To the best of our knowledge, this phase shifter achieves the lowest insertion loss and the smallest core area of all the published 60-GHz 360° -coverage passive CMOS phase shifters.
Autors: Chul Woo Byeon;Chul Soon Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 27, issue:7, pages: 663 - 665
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile, High-Gain, and Full-Band SubArray of Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna
Abstract:
A four-element array of cavity-backed slot antennas with high-gain and low cross-polarization is presented. The subarray is fed by a single microstrip line coupled to the low-profile cavity and provides the entire X-band bandwidth. This subarray is envisioned as the building block (tile) for the construction of scalable low-profile ultrawideband antenna arrays. The slot array is composed of a thin rectangular cavity of dimensions ( is the free space wavelength at the lowest frequency of operation) on which four slots are cut out for electromagnetic radiation. It is demonstrated that by inserting metallic septa with appropriate locations and sizes inside the cavity, multiple resonances with desired field distribution can be excited resulting in a wideband slot antenna with consistent radiation characteristics over 60% fractional bandwidth. Also, a compact end-launch microstrip to reduced-height waveguide transition is presented to feed the antenna. Silver 3-D printing is used to fabricate the cavity and the standard printed circuit board technology is used to fabricate the feed. The overall antenna bandwidth, when integrated with the microstrip feed section, is shown to be 40% over which a minimum gain of 11 dBi is demonstrated.
Autors: S. Mohammad Amjadi;Kamal Sarabandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3456 - 3464
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Median Regularized Level Set for Hierarchical Segmentation of SAR Images
Abstract:
An efficient strategy of image processing algorithms to deal with the speckle noise is to incorporate data knowledge and models into them. In this letter, we introduce a hierarchical level set algorithm, which is fast and precise for multiregion segmentation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Our algorithm performs curve regularization with a nonparametric median filter instead of using the curvature formulation, and hence it reduces the computation time. The proposed algorithm also replaces the front propagation derivatives by morphological operations, and finally, the arithmetic-geometric distance measures the contrast between regions and controls the hierarchical segmentation. We conducted experiments on synthetic and real SAR images modeled by the distribution. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm and two related methods comprises the computation time and measures based on segmentation accuracy and stochastic distance. Overall, our segmentation algorithm performed faster and more precise on both synthetic and real SAR images.
Autors: Alan M. Braga;Regis C. P. Marques;Francisco A. A. Rodrigues;Fátima N. S. Medeiros;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 14, issue:7, pages: 1171 - 1175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metamaterial-Inspired Wideband Microwave Interferometry Sensor for Dielectric Spectroscopy of Liquid Chemicals
Abstract:
A miniaturized wideband interferometry-based sensor for complex dielectric spectroscopy of liquid chemicals is presented in this paper. Two composite right-/left-hand (CRLH) transmission lines (TLs) are employed in a direct downconversion architecture. The material under test (MUT) is placed in direct contact with the printed interdigital capacitor of the artificial TL as the sensing component. Since the employed CRLH TL provides nonlinear dispersion characteristics, improved sensitivity with wideband (4.2–8 GHz) operation is achieved compared with resonator- or TL-based interferometers. The sensor circuit board is realized based on common printed circuit board technology, and the fluidic polydimethylsiloxane channels are fabricated and bonded to the circuit board using 3-D printing and soft lithography techniques. The measured results of pure liquid chemical characterization suggest the mean squared errors of ~1.1% and ~1.6% for and , respectively, compared with the MUT’s theoretical model. Moreover, binary mixture characterization is carried out based on measurements with an accuracy of 1%.
Autors: Ali Pourghorban Saghati;Jaskirat Singh Batra;Jun Kameoka;Kamran Entesari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2558 - 2571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Estimation of Functional Dependence of Injection Charge Formation on Electric Field Strength
Abstract:
The improvement of electrohydrodynamic devices is hindered by the absence of necessary information on the functional dependence of injection current density on the electric field strength. The investigation of the issue presents a great challenge because the quantity measured experimentally is the total current that is dependent on some almost inseparable factors. Moreover, the present theoretical dependences contradict each other and have not been verified by the experiment. In view of this, the determination of injection function is an actual problem, and the paper is an attempt to solve it. The approach proposed here is based on a comparison of the so-called dynamical current–voltage characteristics, resulting from the experiment and computer simulation where a test injection function is used as a boundary condition and changed iteratively. The correctness of the final injection function was confirmed by good agreement of the velocity distributions obtained from computer simulation and the particle image velocimetry experiment.
Autors: Albert Gazaryan;Andrei Sitnikov;Vladimir Chirkov;Yury Stishkov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 53, issue:4, pages: 3977 - 3981
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Method for Filtering Low Frequency Disturbance in PMU Data Before Coordinated Usage in SCADA
Abstract:
The PMU data is increasingly used in the grid monitoring system SCADA. As the DFT algorithm used in PMUs fails to distinguish the fundamental frequency signal with low-frequency interference, the low-frequency disturbance (LFD) included in fundamental frequency variable data, which are collected from PMUs, will affect the correctness of calculation and analysis of the power system's steady state. In order to extract the fundamental frequency variable from PMU data, taking low-frequency forced oscillation as an example, a method for filtering LFD in PMU data is proposed. First, the effect of low-frequency oscillation to the fundamental frequency variable is analyzed in this paper. Then, the component of LFD in PMU data is explained. By finding the maximum value and minimum value of voltage or current in PMU data to draw the envelopes and add them together, the mean value or fundamental frequency variable of voltage and current is obtained. The mechanism of error in calculating active power is analyzed when low-frequency oscillation occurs in the power grid. The results of analyzing actual PMU data under low-frequency oscillation verify the correctness of the method proposed in this paper. This method is of great significance to improve the accuracy of calculation in SCADA.
Autors: Qing Dong;Jinzhu Sun;Qiannan Wu;Yilu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 2810 - 2816
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Millimeter-Wave CMOS Dual-Bandpass T/R Switch With Dual-Band LC Network
Abstract:
Fully integrated 24/60-GHz concurrent dual-bandpass transmit/receive (T/R) switch in 0.18- SiGe BiCMOS process is presented. The developed T/R switch consists of dual-band LC networks and resonators with shunt nMOS transistors performing the switching function. In the receiving (RX) mode, the measured insertion losses (ILs) and isolations (ISOs) are 4.5 and 16 dB at 24 GHz, and 5 and 18.3 dB at 60 GHz, respectively. The ILs and ISOs for the transmitting (TX) mode are 6.7 and 18.2 dB at 24 GHz, and 8.5 and 20.8 dB at 60 GHz, respectively. The measured peak stopband rejections are 61.5 and 65.5 dB for the RX and TX modes, respectively. With single-tone 24 or 60 GHz input, the measured input 1-dB compression point ( is 23.3 or 18.4 dBm at 24 or 60 GHz, respectively. For concurrent dual-tone 24/60-GHz input, the measured inputs are 19 and 16.8 dBm at 24 and 60 GHz, respectively. The measured input third-order intercept points are 31.5 and 27.9 dBm at 24 and 60 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Youngman Um;Cam Nguyen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 27, issue:7, pages: 654 - 656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A MIMO Receiver With Two-Dimensional Ordering for Maximum Likelihood Detection in FBMC-QAM
Abstract:
We consider the multi-dimensional residual interference problem for a multiple-input multiple-output filter bank-based multicarrier system with quadrature amplitude modulation (MIMO-FBMC/QAM). For efficient interference cancellation, we propose a two-step MIMO maximum likelihood detection receiver with a 2-D ordering algorithm. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed receiver by comparing its bit error rate performance and computational complexity with that of other receivers.
Autors: Dongkyu Sim;Chungyong Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 21, issue:7, pages: 1465 - 1468
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Decomposed Vector Rotation-Based Behavioral Model With Efficient Hardware Implementation for Digital Predistortion of RF Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation strategy to achieve low-cost design for digital predistortion of radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) using a modified decomposed vector rotation-based behavioral model. To make the model hardware friendly, we first modify the model into a subdecomposed format, which significantly reduces the computational complexity in model extraction. We then reassemble the coefficients and propose a simple digital implementation structure for real-time signal processing in the transmit path. A new dual-direction coordinate rotation digital computer design is also proposed to simultaneously calculate both magnitude and values to facilitate the model implementation. To validate hardware implementation, a wideband signal is employed to evaluate the performance with a Doherty PA. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve comparable performance with much lower system complexity compared with that using the conventional approaches.
Autors: Wenhui Cao;Anding Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2443 - 2452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modified Equivalent Range Model and Wavenumber-Domain Imaging Approach for High-Resolution-High-Squint SAR With Curved Trajectory
Abstract:
In a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system, the radar platform may move with a curved trajectory due to the existence of vertical velocity and acceleration, which may result in the failure of the conventional imaging methods. In order to deal with this problem, this paper proposes an improved wavenumber-domain imaging algorithm for high-resolution-high-squint SAR with a curved trajectory. It mainly includes three aspects. First, a modified equivalent range model for a curved trajectory is derived. Second, an improved wavenumber domain imaging algorithm based on the proposed range model is analyzed in detail. Finally, the imaging distortion caused by vertical velocity and acceleration is corrected via geometry and inverse projection. Simulated results and Ku-band real SAR data processing are used to validate the proposed model and imaging algorithm.
Autors: Zhenyu Li;Mengdao Xing;Wenjie Xing;Yi Liang;Yuexin Gao;Baoquan Dai;Liangbing Hu;Zheng Bao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 55, issue:7, pages: 3721 - 3734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Agent System With a Proportional-Integral Protocol for Distributed Constrained Optimization
Abstract:
This technical note presents a continuous-time multi-agent system for distributed optimization with an additive objective function composed of individual objective functions subject to bound, equality, and inequality constraints. Each individual objective function is assumed to be convex in the region defined by its local bound constraints only without the need to be globally convex. All agents in the system communicate using a proportional-integral protocol with their output information instead of state information to reduce communication bandwidth. It is proved that all agents with any initial state can reach output consensus at an optimal solution to the given constrained optimization problem, provided that the graph describing the communication links among agents is undirected and connected. It is further proved that the system with only integral protocol is also convergent to the unique optimal solution if each individual objective function is strictly convex. Simulation results are presented to substantiate the theoretical results.
Autors: Shaofu Yang;Qingshan Liu;Jun Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 62, issue:7, pages: 3461 - 3467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiband Antenna Associating Wireless Monitoring and Nonleaky Wireless Power Transfer System for Biomedical Implants
Abstract:
This paper presents a multiband conformal antenna for implantable as well as ingestible devices. The proposed antenna has the following three bands: medical implanted communication service (MICS: 402–405 MHz), the midfield band (1.45–1.6 GHz), and the industrial, scientific, and medical band (ISM: 2.4–2.45 GHz) for telemetry or wireless monitoring, wireless power transfer (WPT), and power conservation, respectively. A T-shaped ground slot is used to tune the antenna, and this antenna is wrapped inside a printed 3-D capsule prototype to demonstrate its applicability in different biomedical devices. Initially, the performance of the proposed antenna was measured in an American Society for Testing and Materials phantom containing a porcine heart in the MICS band for an implantable case. Furthermore, to stretch the scope of the suggested antenna to ingestible devices, the antenna performance was simulated and measured using a minced pork muscle in the ISM band. A modified version of the midfield power transfer method was incorporated to replicate the idea of WPT within the implantable 3-D printed capsule. Moreover, a near-field plate (NFP) was employed to control the leakage of power from the WPT transmitter. From the simulation and measurements, we found that use of a ground slot in the implantable antenna can improve antenna performance and can also reduce the specific absorption rate. Furthermore, by including the NFP with the midfield WPT transmitter system, unidirectional wireless power can be obtained and WPT efficiency can be increased.
Autors: Rupam Das;Hyoungsuk Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2485 - 2495
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Network-Aware Encoding Rate Control Algorithm for Real-Time Up-Streaming Video Services
Abstract:
Real-time personal broadcasting and video social network services on which a user’s mobile device serves as the content provider have received a considerable amount of attention. This letter presents an up-streaming video service in which a mobile device records and encodes video streams on the spot and transmits them to a receiver through an uplink interface. Unlike existing streaming services, the receiver in this service receives and plays video streams in real time without buffering them. Considering the requirements of real-time characteristics and frequent network state changes, this letter proposes a new encoding rate control algorithm for an up-streaming video service based on the estimated network condition. The sender estimates the network status based on the average inter-arrival time of video frames periodically measured and transmitted by the receiver. The network-aware encoding rate control algorithm was implemented on a mobile device running the Android OS. The effectiveness of the algorithm was proved through experiments performed on a commercial LTE network and in an ordinary office WiFi environment.
Autors: Min Ho Park;JungYul Choi;Jun Kyun Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 21, issue:7, pages: 1653 - 1656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Approach for Modeling of Hysteresis in 2-D Time-Transient Analysis of Eddy Current Using FEM
Abstract:
Eddy current is the origin of resistive loss in magnetic cores. In conventional method of eddy loss calculation, flux density is assumed to be distributed uniformly. However, the eddy-current forces the magnetic flux to flow through the skin of magnetic core, the effect that is called flux skin effect. For wave forms other than the sinusoidal form or for non-linear relationship between H and B, there is not analytical solution for the field equations. In such cases, magnetic field and the eddy-current equations must be solved by numerical methods such as finite-element method. Moreover, numerical modeling is helpful in estimating the eddy-current patterns that are used in non-destructive tests to detect the presence of any possible cracks. In order to achieve the flux distribution in the presence of the eddy current, the diffusion equation should be solved. This paper presents a new approach for finite-element analysis of 2-D diffusion equation. The solution is in time-domain, and the hysteresis behavior of ferromagnetic material is included in it. Analysis results show that skin effect has considerable influence on the eddy and hysteresis losses. Presented method has the capability of eddy-current analysis for any shape of cores, including hysteresis behavior.
Autors: E. Fallah;V. Badeli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 53, issue:7, pages: 1 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Clustering Algorithm for Processing GPS-Based Road Anomaly Reports With a Mahalanobis Distance
Abstract:
This paper considers a new clustering algorithm for processing time-evolving road anomaly reports. Two cluster categories, main and outlier, are defined to deal with outliers as well as to capture the evolving nature of road anomalies. The Mahalanobis distance is exploited to quantify the similarity between a new report and the existing clusters. The clusters are maintained online and the Woodbury matrix inverse lemma is used for their recursive updates. The proposed clustering algorithm can localize isolated anomalies and compress information for densely distributed anomalies. A simulation is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Zhaojian Li;Dimitar P. Filev;Ilya Kolmanovsky;Ella Atkins;Jianbo Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 18, issue:7, pages: 1980 - 1988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Degree of Freedom For Energy Efficiency of Digital Communication Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, a simple energy-efficient physical layer modulation scheme termed as random number modulation (RNM) is proposed. It is a class of new systems that harness the randomness of pseudo random number generators (RNGs) for efficient communication, and adds a new degree of freedom to digital communication systems. It is also highly adaptable to high-rate, low-latency, and low-rate, high-energy efficiency scenarios. This paper includes a detailed system model, preliminary performance analysis, and extended discussions. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed in terms of symbol and block error probabilities, energy efficiency, and latency. It is shown that there is a fundamental tradeoff between the energy efficiency and the latency of the proposed system, and they can be easily software programmable allowing devices to adapt to different circumstances and environments rapidly. Based upon the basic system model herein, it is anticipated that more sophisticated RNM systems can be developed.
Autors: Dushyantha A. Basnayaka;Harald Haas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3023 - 3036
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Method for Series Resistance Extraction of Nanometer MOSFETs
Abstract:
This paper presents a new method for the series resistance extraction in ultimate MOSFETs using a single drain current versus gate voltage characteristic curve. The method is based on the Y-function curve, such that the series resistance is obtained through the curve of the total resistance as a function of the inverse of the Y-function. It includes both first- and second-order mobility degradation factors. To validate the proposed method, numerical simulations have been performed for devices of different characteristics. Besides, the method applicability has been demonstrated for experimental silicon nanowires and FinFETs. Apart from that, devices with different channel lengths can be used to estimate the mobility degradation factor influence.
Autors: Renan Trevisoli;Rodrigo Trevisoli Doria;Michelly de Souza;Sylvain Barraud;Maud Vinet;Mikaël Cassé;Gilles Reimbold;Olivier Faynot;Gérard Ghibaudo;Marcelo Antonio Pavanello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 2797 - 2803
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Technique to Design Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna by Fractal Defected Ground Structure
Abstract:
A new technique to design single-feed circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna is proposed. The CP radiation is obtained by adjusting the dimension of the etched fractal defected ground structure (FDGS) in the ground plane. Parameter studies of the FDGS are given to illustrate the way to achieve CP radiation. The CP microstrip antennas with the second and third iterative FDGS are fabricated and measured. The measured 10-dB return-loss bandwidth of the CP microstrip antenna is about 30 MHz (1.558 to 1.588 GHz), while its 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidth is 6 MHz (1.572 to 1.578 GHz). The gain across the CP band is between 1.7 and 2.2 dBic.
Autors: K. Wei;J. Y. Li;L. Wang;R. Xu;Z. J. Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3721 - 3725
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Adjustment Model for Mosaicking Low-Overlap Sweeping Images
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel adjustment model for mosaicking low-overlap sweeping images captured by medium-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a long focal length. Commonly used methods are not suitable for this type of data. Three innovations are proposed to make this possible: first, building a new error model denoted by an error homograph matrix, which includes the camera parameter error, perspective center error, image attitude error, and the error of projection plane; second, the error homograph matrix is considered an unknown variable and is optimized, instead of optimizing the exterior orientation element in commonly used photogrammetry method; and third, the proposed algorithm is a global optimization, avoiding the cumulative error that appeared in traditional homographic-based methods. The results reveal that the proposed adjustment model can effectively eliminate the misalignments in the seam lines, compared to the direct homograph transformation. The numerical experiment results also demonstrate that the algorithm has perfect convergence and stability. In addition, this method is also suitable for low-altitude UAV images when the covered area can be regarded as a plane.
Autors: Jianchen Liu;Jianya Gong;Bingxuan Guo;Weilong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 55, issue:7, pages: 4089 - 4097
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Automatic Method for the Fusion of ALS and TLS LiDAR Data for Robust Assessment of Tree Crown Structure
Abstract:
Tree crown structural parameters are key inputs to studies spanning forest fire propagation, invasive species dynamics, avian habitat provision, and so on, but these parameters consistently are difficult to measure. While airborne laser scanning (ALS) provides uniform data and a consistent nadir perspective necessary for crown segmentation, the data characteristics of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) make such crown segmentation efforts much more challenging. We present a data fusion approach to extract crown structure from TLS, by exploiting the complementary perspective of ALS. Multiple TLS point clouds are automatically registered to a single ALS point cloud by maximizing the normalized cross correlation between the global ALS canopy height model (CHM) and each of the local TLS CHMs through parameter optimization of a planar Euclidean transform. Per-tree canopy segmentation boundaries, which are reliably obtained from ALS, can then be adapted onto the more irregular TLS data. This is repeated for each TLS scan; the combined segmentation results from each registered TLS scan and the ALS data are fused into a single per-tree point cloud, from which canopy-level structural parameters readily can be extracted.
Autors: Claudia Paris;David Kelbe;Jan van Aardt;Lorenzo Bruzzone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 55, issue:7, pages: 3679 - 3693
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fiber Bragg Grating Displacement Sensor With a Sub-Micrometer Resolution
Abstract:
This letter has proposed a novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensor with a sub-micrometer resolution through the use of the transverse property of a suspended optical fiber with a pre-tension force. A wedge-shaped sliding block and a T-shaped cantilever beam formed a conversion mechanism to transfer the horizontal measured-displacement into the transverse movement of the optical fiber midpoint. Compared with existing FBG displacement sensors, this design does not only avoid the FBG-pasting process and its associated issues, such as the chirping failure and low repeatability, but also achieves a high resolution. The sensing principle has been presented, and the corresponding theoretical model has been derived and validated. Experiments show that this design has an excellent sensitivity of 2086.27 pm/mm and a high resolution of within a range of 1.0~2.0 mm. The displacement results from the proposed sensor closely agree with the values detected from the commercial laser displacement sensor, validating its effectiveness. Therefore, the proposed sensor can be directly utilized to measure the sub-micrometer displacement, and also support multi-point distributed detection.
Autors: Tianliang Li;Chaoyang Shi;Hongliang Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 29, issue:14, pages: 1199 - 1202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method for Continuous, Noninvasive, Cuff-Less Measurement of Blood Pressure: Evaluation in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Abstract:
Objective: One promising approach for a continuous, noninvasive, cuff-less ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitor is to measure the pulse wave velocity or the inversely proportional pulse transit time (PTT), based on electrical and optical physiological measurements in the chest area. A device termed IsenseU-BP+ has been developed for measuring continuous BP, as well as other physiological data. The objective of this paper is to present results from the first clinical evaluation with a wide range of patients. The study was set up to verify whether IsenseU-BP+ can be used to measure raw signals with sufficient quality to derive PTT.  Methods: The test protocol, run 23 times on 18 different patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, includes both supine measurement at rest as well as measurements during indoor cycling. Changes in PTT were compared with the BP changes measured using validated reference sensors.  Results: IsenseU-BP+ measured signals with good quality during rest on 17 of 18 patients despite the high diversity in age, body shape, and body mass index. Evaluation during cycling was difficult due to a lack of good reference measurements. Conclusion: IsenseU-BP+ measures PTT with high quality during supine rest and exercise and could therefore be suitable for deriving noninvasive continuous BP, although evaluation during exercise was limited due to inaccurate reference BP measurements. Significance: Continuous, noninvasive measurement of BP would be highly beneficial in a number of clinical settings. Systems currently considered as the gold standard for the investigation of hypertension carry considerable limitations, which could be overcome by the method proposed here.
Autors: Trine M. Seeberg;James G. Orr;Hanne Opsahl;H. O. Austad;Morten H. Røed;Steffen H. Dalgard;David Houghton;David E. J. Jones;Frode Strisland;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1469 - 1478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method of Polynomial Approximation for Parametric Problems in Power Systems
Abstract:
Many problems in power systems depend on parameters, which could be stochastic variables or deterministic system control variables practically, e.g., generation outputs, nodal voltages, etc. Due to the nonlinearity of power systems, the analytical relation between system states and parameters cannot be obtained directly. Using the sampling method to evaluate the influence of parameters on system states is very powerful but time-consuming. One feasible approach is to use polynomial approximations, where the system states are approximately expressed in the form of polynomials in terms of parameters. Galerkin method can be used to identify the approximate solution with high accuracy by solving high-dimensional equations. However, if a large number of parameters are involved, solving these high-dimensional equations becomes a serious challenge. This paper proposes an innovative method for resolving these high-dimensional equations in power systems, which constructs a sequence of decoupled equations to determine the polynomial expansion coefficients. This new approach can provide a local approximation in the form of Taylor expansion at a given operation point. Although the method is general, for simplicity and good readability, we introduce the detailed process in its application to load flow problems. Case studies from 6-, 118-, and 1648-bus system show that the proposed method provides approximation more efficiently than traditional Galerkin method does, and 3-order polynomials can give very accurate results.
Autors: Yongzhi Zhou;Hao Wu;Chenghong Gu;Yonghua Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 3298 - 3307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Nonparametric Maximum Likelihood Estimator for Probability Density Functions
Abstract:
Parametric maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of probability density functions (pdfs) are widely used today because they are efficient to compute and have several nice properties such as consistency, fast convergence rates, and asymptotic normality. However, data is often complex making parametrization of the pdf difficult, and nonparametric estimation is required. Popular nonparametric methods, such as kernel density estimation (KDE), produce consistent estimators but are not ML and have slower convergence rates than parametric ML estimators. Further, these nonparametric methods do not share the other desirable properties of parametric ML estimators. This paper introduces a nonparametric ML estimator that assumes that the square-root of the underlying pdf is band-limited (BL) and hence “smooth”. The BLML estimator is computed and shown to be consistent. Although convergence rates are not theoretically derived, the BLML estimator exhibits faster convergence rates than state-of-the-art nonparametric methods in simulations. Further, algorithms to compute the BLML estimator with lesser computational complexity than that of KDE methods are presented. The efficacy of the BLML estimator is shown by applying it to (i) density tail estimation and (ii) density estimation of complex neuronal receptive fields where it outperforms state-of-the-art methods used in neuroscience.
Autors: Rahul Agarwal;Zhe Chen;Sridevi V. Sarma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 39, issue:7, pages: 1294 - 1308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Principle for Molten Steel Level Measurement in Tundish by Using Temperature Gradient
Abstract:
Molten steel level is difficult to measure as a result of high-temperature medium and the covering flux. The characteristic of the steelmaking process is that a strong stratification of the temperature gradients is formed between different layers. Thus, temperature gradient is proposed as the principle for measuring the molten steel level. According to the new principle, a refractory material sensor is inserted into the tundish to sense the temperature distribution of the different layers. After adequate heat transfer, the sensor is lifted, and an area charge-coupled device camera is used to capture the temperature distribution of the sensor through radiation thermometry. Then temperature gradients for the different layers are extracted from the sensor and utilized to identify the molten steel level. However, there is a problem that lifting of the sensor destroys the original temperature distribution and gradients before lifting. For this issue, finite element method software ANSYS is adopted to theoretically analyze the temperature decline of the sensor during the lifting process. Due to radiation, the decay rate of the temperature on the sensor surface is the fastest, disabling the acquirement of the original temperature gradients for the different layers from the sensor. A temperature field restoration method is proposed by extracting the highest temperatures of all the thermal images during the lifting process. Based on the restored temperature gradients, sequential clustering is utilized to identify the molten steel level. Verifications with numerical data and thermal images from the actual on-site applications demonstrate the effectiveness of the new principle and measuring method.
Autors: Qing He;Zhiqi Su;Zhi Xie;Zhifeng Zhong;Qian Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 1809 - 1819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Reconfigurable Metal Rim Integrated Open Slot Antenna for Octa-Band Smartphone Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel reconfigurable open slot antenna has been proposed for LTE smartphone applications to cover a wide bandwidth of 698–960 and 1710–2690 MHz. The antenna is located at the bottom portion of the mobile phone and is integrated with metal rim, thereby occupying a small space and providing mechanical stability to the mobile phone. Varactor diode is used to cover the lower band frequencies, so as to achieve a good frequency coverage and antenna miniaturization. The operational principles of the antenna are studied and the final design is optimized, fabricated, and tested. It has achieved the desired impedance bandwidth and the total efficiency of minimum 50% in free space throughout the required bands. The antenna performance with mobile phone components and human hand is also been studied. Furthermore, the SAR in a human head is investigated and is found to be within allowable SAR limits. Finally a multiple-input multiple-output antenna configuration with high isolation is proposed; it has an identical reconfigurable open slot antenna integrated at the top edge of the mobile phone acting as the secondary antenna for 698–960 and 1710–2690 MHz. Thus the proposed antenna is an excellent candidate for LTE smartphones and mobile devices.
Autors: Manoj Stanley;Yi Huang;Hanyang Wang;Hai Zhou;Zhihao Tian;Qian Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3352 - 3363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Silicon Carbide Accumulation Channel Injection Enhanced Gate Transistor With Buried Barrier Under Shielding Region
Abstract:
A silicon carbide (SiC) injection enhanced gate transistor with accumulation channel (AC-IEGT) is proposed in this letter, which has a barrier layer with small windows under the p+ shielding region. The new structure can enhance electron injection through accumulation channel. Thus, an optimized carrier density can be obtained in the emitter side. Compared with conventional SiC insulated gate bipolar transistor and carrier stored trench bipolar transistor, static simulation results show that the static characteristics of the device are improved significantly. The figure of merit ( of AC-IEGT increases by 81.96 % and 17.78 %, respectively. The mix-mode circuit simulation results show that the proposed could be more suitable for ultra-high voltage application.
Autors: Zhengxin Wen;Feng Zhang;Zhanwei Shen;Lixin Tian;Guoguo Yan;Xingfang Liu;Lei Wang;Wanshun Zhao;Guosheng Sun;Yiping Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 38, issue:7, pages: 941 - 944
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Small-Signal Model for Bulk FinFETs Accommodating Self-Heating Behaviors
Abstract:
A novel small-signal model for bulk FinFETs is presented. A parallel combination of resistance-inductance networks originated from the self-heating is obtained. A new transfer gain model is developed. An analytical method to extract the model parameters is proposed. The model is validated using silicon Multi-Fin MOSFET manufactured in SMICs 14 nm bulk FinFET technology. Excellent agreements are achieved between measured and model simulated Y-parameters in the range over 100 to 50.2 GHz.
Autors: Jun Liu;Kun Ren;Lingling Sun;Zhiping Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 38, issue:7, pages: 839 - 842
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Trapezoid-Type Stick–Slip Piezoelectric Linear Actuator Using Right Circular Flexure Hinge Mechanism
Abstract:
A trapezoid-type stick–slip piezoelectric linear actuator using a right circular flexure hinge mechanism was proposed, designed, fabricated, and tested with the aim of accomplishing linear driving based on stick–slip motion. The angle adjustment of the trapezoid beam was used for generating lateral motion on the driving foot of the flexure hinge mechanism. A method of tuning the lateral motion of the flexure hinge mechanism was discussed. Based on the finite-element method, a proper angle of the trapezoid beam was obtained. The analysis results proved that asymmetrical flexure hinge mechanism can increase static friction force in slow extension stage and decrease kinetic friction force in quick contraction stage by lateral motion of the driving foot. A prototype was fabricated and its experimental system was established. The mechanical output experiments showed that the prototype achieved maximum output velocity and load of 5.96 mm/s and 3 N at a voltage of 100 V and a frequency of 500 Hz, respectively.
Autors: Tinghai Cheng;Meng He;Hengyu Li;Xiaohui Lu;Hongwei Zhao;Haibo Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5545 - 5552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Phase Confocal Method for Near-Field Microwave Imaging
Abstract:
A new fast imaging algorithm only using the phase information of electromagnetic fields for near-field microwave imaging is presented. This algorithm first compensates the phase shift as the wave back-propagates to the source, and then calculates the variance of phase of the shifted signals in terms of unit vector. This process is repeated at all focal points in the interested domain to form an image. The algorithm was validated by simulation and experiments; acceptable results were seen in both methods. To carry out the experimental test, we developed a fully automated microwave detection system containing a twin-antenna system whose movement can be controlled to form a synthetic aperture. Experiments were fully controlled by our self-developed software supporting remote operations. Although only 2-D imaging tests are discussed in this paper, the algorithm and the measurement system are able to fulfill 3-D rapid microwave scans.
Autors: Wenyi Shao;Arezou Edalati;Todd R. McCollough;William J. McCollough;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 2508 - 2515
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A PHEV Power Management Cyber-Physical System for On-Road Applications
Abstract:
Power management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) helps achieve high energy efficiency and low energy consumption cost. Existing power management methods are classified into online and offline ones. Online methods are usually designed with preset power-balancing strategies to adapt to runtime conditions but without utilizing route information or historical driving cycle information. In offline methods, power management strategies are derived from historical driving cycles and not optimal for actual driving routes. Facilitated by vehicular network technologies, on-road PHEVs can easily upload their driving data through on-board communication devices, e.g., smartphones, to remote servers. With information sharing, individual vehicle speed prediction can be realized and used in the on-board power management system. This paper proposes an on-road PHEV power management cyber-physical system with two-level hierarchical strategies to minimize the fuel consumption in a trip. The high-level management strategies allocate battery energy budgets to all remaining roads, which are generated online by solving stochastic optimization problems. The low-level powertrain policies are solved offline from historical driving cycles. While a PHEV is driving, optimal real-time power decisions are made based on battery budgets, low-level power policies, and the PHEV's driving states. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods significantly in terms of fuel savings.
Autors: Bingnan Jiang;Yunsi Fei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 5797 - 5807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Point Kinetics Model for Estimating Neutron Multiplication of Bare Uranium Metal in Tagged Neutron Measurements
Abstract:
An extension of the point kinetics model is developed to describe the neutron multiplicity response of a bare uranium object under interrogation by an associated particle imaging deuterium–tritium (D-T) measurement system. This extended model is used to estimate the total neutron multiplication of the uranium. Both MCNPX-PoliMi simulations and data from active interrogation measurements of highly enriched and depleted uranium geometries are used to evaluate the potential of this method and to identify the sources of systematic error. The detection efficiency correction for measured coincidence response is identified as a large source of systematic error. If the detection process is not considered, results suggest that the method can estimate total multiplication to within 13% of the simulated value. Values for multiplicity constants in the point kinetics equations are sensitive to enrichment due to (, xn) interactions by D-T neutrons and can introduce another significant source of systematic bias. This can theoretically be corrected if isotopic composition is known a priori. The spatial dependence of multiplication is also suspected of introducing further systematic bias for high multiplication uranium objects.
Autors: Matthew C. Tweardy;Seth McConchie;Jason P. Hayward;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1963 - 1969
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Precision Pseudo Resistor Bias Scheme for the Design of Very Large Time Constant Filters
Abstract:
In this brief, a novel pseudo resistor bias scheme capable of achieving improved performances against process parameter variations is presented. The use of a matched structure allows for achieving a simulated statistical variation one order of magnitude better than conventional bias schemes proposed in the literature. The entire circuit was designed to be able to emulate a tunable resistor whose resistance could be digitally set in the range of 400 –90 . The design of a very low frequency bandpass filter (BPF) for biopotential recording was also covered as a suitable application. The tunability offered by the bias scheme was employed, in this case, to realize a high-pass cutoff frequency variable in the range of 10 Hz–2 kHz. An integrated circuit including eight acquisition channels, each of which is composed of the designed BPF and a conventional 10-bit analog-to-digital converter, was finally realized in a CMOS 0.35- process. The chip was successfully tested showing a measured variation of the high-pass cutoff frequency equal to 0.13 when different channels on the same die are considered.
Autors: Roberto Puddu;Caterina Carboni;Lorenzo Bisoni;Gianluca Barabino;Danilo Pani;Luigi Raffo;Massimo Barbaro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 762 - 766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Predictive Energy Management System Using Pre-Emptive Load Shedding for Islanded Photovoltaic Microgrids
Abstract:
This paper presents an energy management system (EMS) for an islanded microgrid with photovoltaic generation and battery storage. The system uses a predictive approach to set operational schedules in order to minimize system-wide outages in the microgrid, specifically through pre-emptive load shedding. Four-times daily updated online weather forecasts are combined with the photovoltaic system model to predict energy production over a 48 h period. These predictions are used, along with load forecasts and a model of the energy storage system, to predict the state-of-charge and characterize potential upcoming outages. Outage mitigation actions using pre-emptive load shedding are then planned and executed to avoid outages or minimize the duration of unavoidable outages. The approach also features bounds on the battery state-of-charge to account for uncertainties in the estimate of the stored energy. The EMS has been implemented using an event-driven framework with TCP/IP communication, which is modular and extensible to more complex system configurations. The approach has been validated through simulations and experiments, which demonstrate its feasibility and potential, for the chosen test scenario, to reduce the outage duration by 87% to 100%.
Autors: Dennis Michaelson;Hisham Mahmood;Jin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5440 - 5448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Pressure Sensory System Inspired by the Fish Lateral Line: Hydrodynamic Force Estimation and Wall Detection
Abstract:
Studies have shown that many behavioral decisions of fish are facilitated by the lateral line system which provides hydrodynamic information about the surrounding fluid. Inspired by the functionality of the system, a distributed pressure sensory system is developed. The system is intended for use on autonomous underwater vehicles to aid station keeping and accurate maneuvering by allowing the vehicle to react to the changes in the fluid environment before they result in body perturbation. The system can also be used for mission level decision making such as obstacle detection. This paper presents a prototype sensory system using differential, as opposed to absolute or gauge, pressure sensors as the sensing elements, which allows for higher measurement precision. Experimental tests are designed to characterize the system's ability to estimate the hydrodynamic force and to detect the presence of a wall. The hydrodynamic force estimated by the system is validated with an independent force measuring apparatus. The impending wall could also be detected by analyzing the pressure distribution obtained from the sensory system. Particularly, it is found that the wall distance and angle may be inferred by comparing the amplitude and phase of the Fourier components in the pressure distribution against those without the obstacle.
Autors: Yiming Xu;Kamran Mohseni;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 42, issue:3, pages: 532 - 543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Privacy-Preserving Pay-by-Phone Parking System
Abstract:
Most cities around the world require drivers to pay for the time they occupy a parking spot. In this way, drivers are encouraged to shorten the parking time so that other drivers are given a reasonable chance of finding parking. The traditional way, based on moving to a pay station and placing the issued parking ticket on the dashboard of the car, presents several drawbacks, such as having to predict in advance the duration of parking or the need to move to the car in case the parking time has to be extended. Over the past few years, several applications permitting payment through mobile phones have appeared. Such applications manage detailed information about parking operations so that accurate profiles of parking habits of car owners can be created. In this paper, we propose a system to pay for parking by phone that preserves the privacy of drivers. The information managed by the system is proven not to provide any help to the creation of profiles of parking habits. An attacker with full access to all this information can not do better than he or she would do by patrolling the city for collecting information about parked cars.
Autors: Ricard Garra;Santi Martínez;Francesc Sebé;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 5697 - 5706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Quasi-Static Model of Silicon Substrate Effects in Graphene Field Effect Transistors
Abstract:
Investigations of the fundamental properties of graphene have leveraged the versatility of the CMOS fabrication platform early on by using oxidized semiconductor substrates with a highly doped back gate to behave as a metal gate down to cryogenic temperatures. For future applications at room temperature and co-integration with standard silicon circuits, standard substrates should be considered and modeled. Therefore, we investigate the impact of using standard lightly doped silicon as a back gate by building upon existing drift-diffusion models for the 3-terminal monolayer graphene field effect transistor. Typical measurements of the back-gate transfer characteristics exhibit a kink/plateau around 0 V. This effect is explained by the proposed model and corresponds to a loss of gate control occurring during the formation of the depletion layer in the substrate. The impact is increased at low temperature, for thin oxides or under transient conditions.
Autors: Pierre-Antoine Haddad;Denis Flandre;Jean-Pierre Raskin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 38, issue:7, pages: 987 - 990
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Raspberry Pi-Based Platform for Signal Processing Education [SP Education]
Abstract:
One of the most important application areas of signal processing (SP) is, without a doubt, the software-defined radio (SDR) field [1]-[3]. Although their introduction dates back to the 1980s, SDRs are now becoming the dominant technology in radio communications, thanks to the dramatic development of SP-optimized programmable hardware, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and digital signal processors (DSPs). Today, the computational throughput of these devices is such that sophisticated SP tasks can be efficiently handled, so that both the baseband and intermediate frequency (IF) sections of current communication systems are usually implemented, according to the SDR paradigm, by the FPGA's reconfigurable circuitry (e.g., [4]-[6]), or by the software running on DSPs.
Autors: Gianni Pasolini;Alessandro Bazzi;Flavio Zabini;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 34, issue:4, pages: 151 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Recursive Switched-Capacitor House-of-Cards Power Amplifier
Abstract:
A fully integrated CMOS power amplifier (PA) that efficiently generates high-voltage RF waveforms directly from a 4.8-V supply using only low-voltage thin-oxide transistors is introduced. High-voltage operation is achieved via implicit ~100% efficient dc–dc conversion enabled by stacking and flying individual class-D PA cells in a House-of-Cards (HoC) topology. By dynamically reconfiguring digitally controlled HoC slices to support different voltage conversion ratios and capacitively coupling their outputs, a Doherty-like high-efficiency backoff profile is achieved without using any magnetic impedance inverter. A test chip, implemented in 65-nm low-power CMOS, operates directly from 4.8 V using only 1.2-V transistors, and attains above 40% battery-to-RF efficiency at both 23-dBm peak power and at 6-dB backoff at 720 MHz. When applying a 10-MHz 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signal, the PA achieves an error vector magnitude of 3.6%-rms without using any predistortion techniques with an average output power and power-added efficiency of 15.7 dBm and 26.5%.
Autors: Loai G. Salem;James F. Buckwalter;Patrick P. Mercier;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 52, issue:7, pages: 1719 - 1738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reduced-Bias Approach With a Lightweight Hard-Multiple Generator to Design a Radix-8 Modulo $2^{n} + 1$ Multiplier
Abstract:
The modulo multiplier is the bottleneck of a wide range of applications from residue number system arithmetic to cryptography. Recently, with demand for low-power and energy-efficient designs, the radix-8 Booth recoding has been considered to derive modulo multipliers. This brief presents two novel methods to increase the performance and improve the efficiency of radix-8 modulo multipliers. The first technique is a method to significantly reduce the amount of bias terms that need to be handled. The second technique is a new hard multiple generator based on a parallel-prefix structure that computes only for odd positions; it results in a lightweight parallel-prefix adder for the computation of the triple of a number with significant area-saving and improved fan-out. The implementation results based on the TSMC 65-nm technology show improvements of at least 27% and up to 57% in the area–time2 product when compared with the recently proposed radix-8 multiplier.
Autors: Seyed Mostafa Mirhosseini;Amir Sabbagh Molahosseini;Mehdi Hosseinzadeh;Leonel Sousa;Paulo Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 817 - 821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reinforcement Learning-Based Data Storage Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been attracting interest for their potential roles in intelligent transport systems (ITS). In order to enable distributed ITS, there is a need to maintain some information in the vehicular networks without the support of any infrastructure such as road side units. In this paper, we propose a protocol that can store the data in VANETs by transferring data to a new carrier (vehicle) before the current data carrier is moving out of a specified region. For the next data carrier node selection, the protocol employs fuzzy logic to evaluate instant reward by taking into account multiple metrics, specifically throughput, vehicle velocity, and bandwidth efficiency. In addition, a reinforcement learning-based algorithm is used to consider the future reward of a decision. For the data collection, the protocol uses a cluster-based forwarding approach to improve the efficiency of wireless resource utilization. We use theoretical analysis and computer simulations to evaluate the proposed protocol.
Autors: Celimuge Wu;Tsutomu Yoshinaga;Yusheng Ji;Tutomu Murase;Yan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 6336 - 6348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Residue-to-Binary Converter for the Extended Four-Moduli Set $\{2^{n}-1, 2^{n}+1, 2^{2n}+1, 2^{2n+p}\} $
Abstract:
This brief presents a residue-to-binary converter for the moduli set , where is a positive integer and . The converter consists of three simplified -bit carry-save adders (CSAs) along with a modulo adder. The main contribution of this brief is reducing the requirements of the proposed CSA network, which has impacted the area, delay, power and energy. Compared with four-moduli and five-moduli sets that have the dynamic range , where , the proposed converter resulted in the average area, delay, power, and energy reductions of 22.7%, 9.2%, 17.8%, and 24.5%, respectively. Moreover, the throughput rate per unit area has been improved by an average of 48.7%.
Autors: Ahmad Hiasat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 25, issue:7, pages: 2188 - 2192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Resistance-Type Sensor Based on Chipless RFID
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel resistance-type sensor based on chipless radio-frequency identification. It consists of a scatterer and the resistor to be detected. The scatterer is designed to be V-shaped. The angle between two arms is used to encode the address data of sensor. The resistor to be detected is loaded in the middle of the two V-shaped arms. The sensor is excited by the plane wave. By measuring the scattered fields in two orthogonal polarization directions, the angle and the value of resistor can be identified. Compared with the normal resistance-type sensor, the novel sensor can transform the resistance value and its address into the wireless signal which can be received directly by the reader. Another advantage of angle-based sensor is that every element can encode multibit data. This is helpful to achieve higher capacity. Also, for different codes of one element, the proposed sensor uses the same spectrum. This is beneficial to improve the efficiency of the spectrum. The realized sensor has the identification errors less than 3° in the angle and less than in the resistance value.
Autors: Min Yang;Wenmei Zhang;Li Li;Liping Han;Xinwei Chen;Rongcao Yang;Qingsheng Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 65, issue:7, pages: 3319 - 3325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Resistive Sensor Readout Circuit With Intrinsic Insensitivity to Circuit Parameters and Its Evaluation
Abstract:
A novel readout circuit for interfacing single element resistive sensors is presented in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on a new relaxation oscillator (RO). The RO, along with a timer counter provides a digital output proportional to the resistance of the sensor. The output characteristic of most of the existing readout circuits for resistive sensors suffers from gain, offset, and nonlinearity errors. The sources of errors include various nonideal circuit parameters and their drift. The output of the proposed readout circuit has a special feature that it is not a function of the circuit parameters such as: 1) offset voltages of the opamps and comparators; 2) bias currents of the opamps and comparators; 3) gain of various units employed; 4) ON-resistance of the switches; 5) value or mismatch in the magnitudes of the reference voltages employed; 6) delay of the switches and comparator; 7) leakage current of the switch; and 8) slew rate of the opamp. Such a scheme will be useful for high accuracy measurements, even when the parameters 1)-8) may vary or drift, due to variation in the measurement environment. A prototype of the proposed readout scheme has been developed in the laboratory and the performance has been evaluated under various conditions. The output was found to be linear with a worst-case nonlinearity of 0.05%. Test results from a prototype developed show that the proposed scheme possesses all the features, described above, as expected.
Autors: Vijayakumar Sreenath;Koniyath Semeerali;Boby George;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 1719 - 1727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review of In-Body Biotelemetry Devices: Implantables, Ingestibles, and Injectables
Abstract:
Objective: We present a review of wireless medical devices that are placed inside the human body to realize many and different sensing and/or stimulating functionalities. Methods: A critical literature review analysis is conducted focusing on three types of in-body medical devices, i.e., 1) devices that are implanted inside the human body (implantables), 2) devices that are ingested like regular pills (ingestibles), and 3) devices that are injected into the human body via needles (injectables). Design considerations, current status, and future directions related to the aforementioned in-body devices are discussed. Results: A number of design challenges are associated with in-body devices, including selection of operation frequency, antenna design, powering, and biocompatibility. Nevertheless, in-body devices are opening up new opportunities for medical prevention, prognosis, and treatment that quickly outweigh any design challenges and/or concerns on their invasive nature. Conclusion: In-body devices are already in use for several medical applications, ranging from pacemakers and capsule endoscopes to injectable microstimulators. As technology continues to evolve, in-body devices are promising several new and hitherto unexplored opportunities in the healthcare. Significance: Unobtrusive in-body devices are envisioned to collect a multitude of physiological data from the early years of each individual. This big-data approach aims to enable a shift from symptom-based medicine to a proactive healthcare model.
Autors: Asimina Kiourti;Konstantina S. Nikita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1422 - 1430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review of LED Drivers and Related Technologies
Abstract:
Light-emitting diode (LEDs) have a promising prospect because of its outstanding advantages: 1) long lifetime, 2) environmentally friendly, 3) flexibility of color mixing, 4) high illumination efficiency, etc. Based on the electrical characteristics of LEDs, a constant current driver is needed to support the LED working performance. With the wide applications of LEDs, many new technologies are presented. In this paper, advantages and disadvantages of different LED drivers are discussed. A detailed technology review is presented which is good for researchers and engineers to make right choices in design and selection of LED drivers.
Autors: Yijie Wang;J. Marcos Alonso;Xinbo Ruan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5754 - 5765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A RISC-V Processor SoC With Integrated Power Management at Submicrosecond Timescales in 28 nm FD-SOI
Abstract:
This paper presents a RISC-V system-on-chip (SoC) with integrated voltage regulation, adaptive clocking, and power management implemented in a 28 nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator process. A fully integrated simultaneous-switching switched-capacitor DC–DC converter supplies an application core using a clock from a free-running adaptive clock generator, achieving high system conversion efficiency (82%–89%) and energy efficiency (41.8 double-precision GFLOPS/W) while delivering up to 231 mW of power. A second core serves as an integrated power-management unit that can measure system state and actuate changes to core voltage and frequency, allowing the implementation of a wide variety of power-management algorithms that can respond at submicrosecond timescales while adding just 2.0% area overhead. A voltage dithering program allows operation across a wide continuous voltage range (0.45 V–1 V), while an adaptive voltage-scaling algorithm reduces the energy consumption of a synthetic benchmark by 39.8% with negligible performance penalty, demonstrating practical microsecond-scale power management for mobile SoCs.
Autors: Ben Keller;Martin Cochet;Brian Zimmer;Jaehwa Kwak;Alberto Puggelli;Yunsup Lee;Milovan Blagojević;Stevo Bailey;Pi-Feng Chiu;Palmer Dabbelt;Colin Schmidt;Elad Alon;Krste Asanović;Borivoje Nikolić;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 52, issue:7, pages: 1863 - 1875
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Iterated Extended Kalman Filter for Power System Dynamic State Estimation
Abstract:
This paper develops a robust iterated extended Kalman filter (EKF) based on the generalized maximum likelihood approach (termed GM-IEKF) for estimating power system state dynamics when subjected to disturbances. The proposed GM-IEKF dynamic state estimator is able to track system transients in a faster and more reliable way than the conventional EKF and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) thanks to its batch-mode regression form and its robustness to innovation and observation outliers, even in position of leverage. Innovation outliers may be caused by impulsive noise in the dynamic state model while observation outliers may be due to large biases, cyber attacks, or temporary loss of communication links of PMUs. Good robustness and high statistical efficiency under Gaussian noise are achieved via the minimization of the Huber convex cost function of the standardized residuals. The latter is weighted via a function of robust distances of the two-time sequence of the predicted state and innovation vectors and calculated by means of the projection statistics. The state estimation error covariance matrix is derived using the total influence function, resulting in a robust state prediction in the next time step. Simulation results carried out on the IEEE 39-bus test system demonstrate the good performance of the GM-IEKF under Gaussian and non-Gaussian process and observation noise.
Autors: Junbo Zhao;Marcos Netto;Lamine Mili;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 3205 - 3216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Secure, Usable, and Transparent Middleware for Permission Managers on Android
Abstract:
Android’s permission system offers an all-or-nothing choice when installing an app. To make it more flexible and fine-grained, users may choose a popular app tool, called permission manager, to selectively grant or revoke an app’s permissions at runtime. A fundamental requirement for such permission manager is that the granted or revoked permissions should be enforced faithfully. However, we discover that none of existing permission managers meet this requirement due to permission leaks, in which an unprivileged app can exercise certain permissions which are revoked or not-granted through communicating with a privileged app.To address this problem, we propose a secure, usable, and transparent OS-level middleware for any permission manager to defend against the permission leaks. The middleware is provably secure in a sense that it can effectively block all possible permission leaks.The middleware is designed to have a minimal impact on the usability of running apps. In addition, the middleware is transparent to users and app developers and it requires minor modifications on permission managers and Android OS. Finally, our evaluation shows that the middleware incurs relatively low performance overhead and power consumption.
Autors: Daibin Wang;Haixia Yao;Yingjiu Li;Hai Jin;Deqing Zou;Robert H. Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 14, issue:4, pages: 350 - 362
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Seismic Resistant Design Algorithm for Laying and Shielding of Optical Fiber Cables
Abstract:
This paper considers a long-haul optical fiber cable, connecting two points on the Earth's surface that passes through earthquake-prone or other sensitive areas. Different segments of the cable are characterized by different protection levels, where a higher level through shielding represents a more costly and more resilient segment. This leads to a multi-objective optimization problem, where the two objectives are 1) the total cost of the cable and 2) the total number of potential repairs along the cable likely to be caused by earthquakes. As a measure of seismic risk, we use the concept of cable repair rate used in the civil engineering community. In our models, ground motion intensity data are used to estimate the cable repair rate, and a graph of a triangulated irregular network is used to represent the Earth's surface. We formulate this optimization problem as a multi-objective shortest path problem and solve it by a variant of the label setting algorithm. Two approximate algorithms, an interval-partition-based label-setting algorithm and an evolutionary algorithm, are also presented as methods of computational cost reduction for large-scale cases, and their results are compared. The solution leads to a Pareto front or an approximate Pareto front that enables us to choose the path and protection of the cable to either minimize cost for a given risk level or minimize risk for a given budget.
Autors: Zengfu Wang;Qing Wang;Moshe Zukerman;Bill Moran;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 35, issue:14, pages: 3060 - 3074
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Biased Current-Mode Amplifier With an Application to 10-bit Pipeline ADC
Abstract:
This paper presents a self-biased current-mode amplifier (CMAMP) suitable for a switched-capacitor circuit. The CMAMP uses a subthreshold-biased transimpedance stage as a current-sensing load, and minimizes static power dissipation by passing bias current only at the input stage. The first-order system behavior with single dominant pole gives stable phase margin without complicated frequency compensation. Self-biasing circuits automatically generate bias voltages to sustain performance over a wide range of supply voltage. The designed CMAMP is verified in a 10-bit pipeline analog-to-digital converter (ADC) fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process. The ADC achieves a figure of merit of 14.3 fJ/c-s with a supply voltage of 0.6 V at 2.5 MS/s.
Autors: Seungnam Choi;Yunjae Suh;Joohyun Lee;Jinkyu Kim;Byungsub Kim;Hong-June Park;Jae-Yoon Sim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1706 - 1717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Organizing Frequency Approach to 802.11p Channel Estimation
Abstract:
We consider in this paper the mobility challenges that emerge in the context of vehicular wireless communications. Specifically, we research the problem of estimating the mobile doubly selective channels for the IEEE 802.11p orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based communication. To mitigate some of the major challenges imposed by the time-varying vehicular environments and to solve this estimation problem a new standard-compliant channel estimator block is proposed. The estimator structure is an innovative construct stemming from the idea of subcarrier frequencies self-organization, which leverages intersubbands connections through decision directed feedback, spectral smoothing, and time tracking. Comparisons between the new method and existing alternatives already indicate that the proposed scheme outperforms the latter. Furthermore, the bit error rate (BER) and frame error rate (FER) performance of the new estimator is close to the one with perfect channel state information for low and medium SNRs.
Autors: Razvan-Andrei Stoica;Stefano Severi;Giuseppe Thadeu Freitas de Abreu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 18, issue:7, pages: 1930 - 1942
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sensor Liftoff Modification Method of Magnetic Flux Leakage Signal for Defect Profile Estimation
Abstract:
Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) testing is the most widely used for the in-service inspection of oil and gas pipelines. The variation of sensors liftoff caused by vibration results in the distortion of the defect signals, thereby decreasing the estimation performance of the defect profile. In this paper, we discuss the effects of the detector vibration on the MFL signal and propose a sensor liftoff modification method of an MFL signal based on the finite-element method simulation. The proposed method mainly introduces a mapping algorithm to modify original measured signal and obtain pure signal. This mapping algorithm is constructed by iterative defect models closed to the real defect. The algorithm effectiveness is tested by using simulation and experiment data. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the signal-to-noise ratio and estimate the profile more accurately.
Autors: Jian Feng;Senxiang Lu;Jinhai Liu;Fangming Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 53, issue:7, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Algorithm of Superpixel Segmentation With Boundary Constraint
Abstract:
As one of the most popular image oversegmentations, superpixel has been commonly used as supporting regions for primitives to reduce computations in various computer vision tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel superpixel segmentation approach based on a distance function that is designed to balance among boundary adherence, intensity homogeneity, and compactness (COM) characteristics of the resulting superpixels. Given an expected number of superpixels, our method begins with initializing the superpixel seed positions to obtain the initial labels of pixels. Then, we optimize the superpixels iteratively based on the defined distance measurement. We update the positions and intensities of superpixel seeds based on the three-sigma rule. The experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is more effective and accurate than previous superpixel methods and achieves a comparable tradeoff between superpixel COM and adherence to object boundaries.
Autors: Yongxia Zhang;Xuemei Li;Xifeng Gao;Caiming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 27, issue:7, pages: 1502 - 1514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Model of Negative Capacitance FET With Electrostatic Short Channel Effects
Abstract:
A simple model of negative capacitance (NC) MOSFETs is presented. The model treats 2-D electrostatic effects, and the ballistic to diffusive transport regimes. It shows quantitative agreement with numerical device simulations based on a self-consistent solution of the Poisson equation and quantum transport equation based on nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism, for an NC MOSFET structure without an internal floating gate. The model can accurately describe the reverse drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and negative output differential conductance (NDC) effects as the NC FETs scale down. With approximations valid at low power supply voltages, it is shown that the improvement of the subthreshold swing (SS) due to electrostatic short channel effects results in a linear increase of the reverse DIBL and NDC. For a modified NC MOSFET structure with an ultrathin quantum metallic layer contacted to the source, the SS, however, can be improved considerably with the reverse DIBL and NDC approximately unchanged.
Autors: Zhipeng Dong;Jing Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 2927 - 2934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Wireless Power Charging Antenna System: Evaluation of Ferrite Sheet
Abstract:
We report a simple wireless power charging (WPC) antenna system (50 mm mm mm) for use in simulating power transfer efficiency () with and without ferrite and a metallic object (battery case), thereby identifying suitable magnetic parameters and ferrite sheet thickness. The simulation results suggest that magnetic loss tangent (tan ) and permeability () need to be less than 0.05 and higher than 125 at 13.56 MHz, respectively, to achieve at least 75% of the transfer efficiency () of the WPC antenna without ferrite and the metallic object. Accordingly, we have fabricated NixZn0.85–xCu0.15Fe2O4 (x = 0.32 – 0.38) spinel ferrites using a one-step sintering process and obtained relatively high of 169 and low tan of 0.1 with a nickel (Ni) concentration of 0.38. This magnetic loss is still too high to achieve 75% of the value. In order to further reduce the magnetic loss, a two-step sintering process was used. The two-step sintered Ni0.38Zn0.47Cu0.15Fe2O4 sh- ws of 132 and a tan of 0.03 at 13.56 MHz, respectively. Therefore, this ferrite meets criteria identified by the transfer efficiency simulation and is a good candidate for 13.56-MHz wireless power transfer charging antenna system. In addition, our designed WPC system is capable of evaluating other magnetic materials that are suitable for WPC antenna applications.
Autors: Woncheol Lee;Yang-Ki Hong;Jihoon Park;Jaejin Lee;In-Seung Baek;Nam-Pal Hur;Won-Mo Seong;Seong-Ook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 53, issue:7, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Phase Transformerless Inverter With Charge Pump Circuit Concept for Grid-Tied PV Applications
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new single-phase transformerless photovoltaic (PV) inverter for grid-tied PV systems. The topology is derived from the concept of a charge pump circuit in order to eliminate the leakage current. It is composed of four power switches, two diodes, two capacitors, and an LCL output filter. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative polarity of the PV panel that creates a constant common mode voltage and zero leakage current. The charge pump circuit generates the negative output voltage of the proposed inverter during the negative cycle. A proportional resonant control strategy is used to control the injected current. The main benefits of the proposed inverter are: 1) the neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the PV panel, so the leakage current is eliminated; 2) its compact size; 3) low cost; 4) the used dc voltage of the proposed inverter is the same as the full-bridge inverter (unlike neutral point clamped (NPC), active NPC, and half-bridge inverters); 5) flexible grounding configuration; 6) capability of reactive power flow; and 7) high efficiency. A complete description of the operating principle and analysis of the proposed inverter are presented. Experimental results are presented to confirm both the theoretical analysis and the concept of the proposed inverter. The obtained results clearly validate the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application in grid-tied PV systems.
Autors: Jaber Fallah Ardashir;Mehran Sabahi;Seyed Hossein Hosseini;Frede Blaabjerg;Ebrahim Babaei;Gevork B. Gharehpetian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5403 - 5415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Stage LED Driver Based on SEPIC and LLC Circuits
Abstract:
A single-stage light-emitting diode (LED) driver has been developed integrating a single-ended primary-inductor converter with a half-bridge LLC resonant converter. The proposed topology reduces system's cost, enhancing reliability. Because the LLC resonant part maintains soft-switching characteristics, switching losses are relatively low. Due to careful parameters selection, the system bus voltage can be kept low as needed in high-power LED drive designs. Some experiments using a 100-W prototype were performed to validate theoretical analysis. The obtained power factor was as high as 0.99, and due to soft-switching operations efficiency was up to 92% at full load.
Autors: Yijie Wang;Na Qi;Yueshi Guan;Carlo Cecati;Dianguo Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5766 - 5776
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single-Stage PFM-APWM Hybrid Modulated Soft-Switched Converter With Low Bus Voltage for High-Power LED Lighting Applications
Abstract:
In order to design a high-efficiency cost-effective high-power LED driver, a single-stage integrated boost- LLC-type soft-switched ac–dc converter is usually employed. The minimized number of semiconductors and the reduced power loss are its main advantages. However, the high bus voltage is its well-known disadvantage, which is caused by the employment of a conventional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control strategy with the duty cycle of 0.5. The range of the input ac voltage is severely limited. In order to overcome this problem, a hybrid PFM-asymmetric pulse width modulation strategy is proposed in this paper. The proposed strategy can significantly reduce the bus voltage while maintaining the soft-switching operation for both primary MOSFETs and secondary diodes. Furthermore, the electrolytic capacitors are removed by increasing the bus voltage ripple. Hence, high efficiency, long lifetime, low cost, and universal operation are achieved on the proposed LED driver, which is well matched to the virtues of LED lighting source. The detailed operation principles and design consideration for the proposed modulation approach are analyzed and discussed. The feature of the proposed solution was demonstrated using a universal-input 100-W hardware prototype. The experimental results verified the full-range zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation for primary switches and the efficiency achieved 91.6% under the 130-V input voltage.
Autors: Hongbo Ma;Gang Chen;Jun Hong Yi;Qing Wei Meng;Lanhua Zhang;Jian Ping Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 5777 - 5788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sliding Mode Observer for Infinitely Unobservable Descriptor Systems
Abstract:
In existing work of sliding mode observers (SMOs) for descriptor systems, a necessary condition is that the system must be infinitely observable. This paper presents a scheme that circumvents that condition, by reformulating the system as a reduced-order system where certain structures in the system matrix are manipulated and certain states are treated as unknown inputs. Following that, an SMO is implemented on the reduced-order system where state and fault estimation can be achieved. Necessary and sufficient conditions of this scheme are also presented. Finally, a simulation example shows the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Jeremy Hor Teong Ooi;Chee Pin Tan;Surya Girinatha Nurzaman;Kok Yew Ng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 62, issue:7, pages: 3580 - 3587
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sparse and Low-Rank Near-Isometric Linear Embedding Method for Feature Extraction in Hyperspectral Imagery Classification
Abstract:
A sparse and low-rank near-isometric linear embedding (SLRNILE) method has been proposed to make dimensionality reduction and extract proper features for hyperspectral imagery (HSI) classification. The SLRNILE stands on the theory of the John-Lindenstrauss lemma, and tries to estimate a sparse and low-rank projection matrix that satisfies the restricted isometric property (RIP) condition on all secants of the HSI data. The RIP condition guarantees that the desired linear mapping near-isometrically preserves nearest neighbor points of all HSI pixels. Seeking the desired mapping is then modeled into minimizing a Lagrange multipliers formulation. The alternating direction method of multipliers framework is utilized to solve the above convex program, and column generation techniques are adopted to alleviate the computation memory burden during the optimization procedure. Five experiments on three widely used HSI data sets are designed to completely test the performance of SLRNILE, and experimental results are compared against those of six state-of-the-art feature extraction methods, including principal component analysis, Laplacian eigenmaps, locality preserving projections, neighborhood preserving embedding, sparse nonnegative matrix underapproximation, and random projections. The results show that SLRNILE performs best among all the seven methods, and its computational time is longest of all but still bearable for regular users. Therefore, the SLRNILE can be a good choice for feature extraction in HSI classification.
Autors: Weiwei Sun;Gang Yang;Bo Du;Lefei Zhang;Liangpei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 55, issue:7, pages: 4032 - 4046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spectrally Efficient Signal Space Diversity-Based Two-Way Relaying System
Abstract:
This work proposes a new transmission scheme for multirelay two-way relaying systems, where two end- sources communicate with each other via a set of relays. In the proposed scheme, we consider signal space diversity and time division broadcast protocol jointly to increase spectral efficiency without sacrificing the system reliability. The idea behind this consideration is that original data symbols are rotated before transmission, and then the in-phase and quadrature components of these rotated symbols are transmitted through the cooperation of the end-sources and the relays. By doing so, the end-sources exchange four symbols over three time slots instead of two, i.e., doubling the number of transmitted symbols. In addition, relay selection is incorporated into this scheme to achieve a further increase in spectral efficiency. For relay selection, two different strategies are discussed: reactive and proactive relay selections. These strategies differ depending on whether relay selection is performed after or before the start of transmission. Specifically, for each relay-selection strategy, we first obtain a closed-form expression for the end-to-end (E2E) error probability with an arbitrary constellation, which accounts for all the resulting nonuniform constellation cases due to constellation rotation. Subsequently, with the derived expressions, we then formulate an optimization problem that considers the joint optimization of the rotation angle and the transmit powers at the end-sources and the relays. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the E2E error probability of one of the end-sources, while satisfying a set of total and individual transmit power constraints and a predefined threshold for the E2E error probability of the other end-source. Numerical results verify the theoretical analysis, and show that the scheme proposed herein provides not only higher spectral efficiency, but also more reliable transmission.
Autors: Hamza Umit Sokun;Mehmet Cagri Ilter;Salama Ikki;Halim Yanikomeroglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 6215 - 6230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stochastic Geometric Analysis of Device-to-Device Communications Operating Over Generalized Fading Channels
Abstract:
Device-to-device (D2D) communications are now considered an integral part of future 5G networks, which will enable direct communication between user equipments and achieve higher throughputs than conventional cellular networks, but with the increased potential for co-channel interference. The physical channels, which constitute D2D communications, can be expected to be complex in nature, experiencing both line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS conditions across closely located D2D pairs. In addition to this, given the diverse range of operating environments, they may also be subject to clustering of the scattered multipath contribution, i.e., propagation characteristics which are quite dissimilar to conventional Rayleigh fading environments. To address these challenges, we consider two recently proposed generalized fading models, namely - and -, to characterize the fading behavior in D2D communications. Together, these models encompass many of the most widely utilized fading models in the literature such as Rayleigh, Rice (Nakagami-), Nakagami-, Hoyt (Nakagami-), and One-sided Gaussian. Using stochastic geometry, we evaluate the spectral efficiency and outage probability of D2D networks under generalized fading conditions and present new insights into the tradeoffs between the reliability, rate, and mode selection. Through numerical evaluations, we also investigate the performance gains of D2D networks and demonstrate- their superiority over traditional cellular networks.
Autors: Young Jin Chun;Simon L. Cotton;Harpreet S. Dhillon;Ali Ghrayeb;Mazen O. Hasna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 4151 - 4165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study on Application-Aware Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Abstract:
The past decade witnessed the dramatic evolution from Quality of Service (QoS) to Quality of Experience (QoE) in the design of wireless networks, especially on the aspect of link scheduling. In many applications, end users are concerned more about transmission quality of an individual task rather than the quality of a link, where a task may refer to a piece of music, video, etc. and may include many packets. This paper proposes a new network model aiming at improving user experience by pushing the scheduling problem to the task layer. A novel QoE requirement is designed to generalize the QoS requirements of a task, which is the ratio requirement. Following this design, a corresponding scheduling policy is proposed to capture it for each task and then reach an application-aware transmission allocation. We theoretically analyze the performance of the scheduling policy, and discuss the design of an optimal solution and the impact of the QoE requirements. Finally, the simulation results indicate that our scheduling policy can significantly improve QoE.
Autors: Xu Zheng;Zhipeng Cai;Jianzhong Li;Hong Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 1787 - 1801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey on Approaches of Motion Mode Recognition Using Sensors
Abstract:
Recognition of the mode of motion or mode of transit of the user or platform carrying a device is needed in portable navigation, as well as other technological domains. An extensive survey on motion mode recognition approaches is provided in this survey paper. The survey compares and describes motion mode recognition approaches from different viewpoints: usability and convenience, types of devices in terms of setup mounting and data acquisition, various types of sensors used, signal processing methods employed, features extracted, and classification techniques. This paper ends with a quantitative comparison of the performance of motion mode recognition modules developed by researchers in different domains.
Autors: Mostafa Elhoushi;Jacques Georgy;Aboelmagd Noureldin;Michael J. Korenberg;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 18, issue:7, pages: 1662 - 1686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Synthesized Diagnosis Approach for Lithium-ion Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Abstract:
A synthesized diagnosis approach for the lithium-ion battery is proposed with fully understanding of the internal failure mechanism, which is suitable for dynamic conditions such as hybrid electric vehicles. In order to detect and distinguish different fault modes and bridge external electrical parameters with internal chemical mechanisms, a serial of abusive experiments, including overcharge, over-discharge, and low-temperature operation, which commonly occur during battery applications, are arranged. Fault symptoms in the form of electrical parameter variation are extracted with reference performance tests, which consist of hybrid pulse power characteristic test, federal urban driving schedule test, and incremental capacity analysis. The proposed diagnosis approach not only indicates the occurrence of fault but provides a detailed description of symptoms and physical meaning for internal mechanisms as well.
Autors: Chao Wu;Chunbo Zhu;Jinlei Sun;Yunwang Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 66, issue:7, pages: 5595 - 5603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Taylor Series Approximation of Self-Interference Channel in Full-Duplex Radios
Abstract:
The fundamental problem in the design of a full-duplex radio is the cancellation of the self-interference (SI) signal generated by the transmitter. Current techniques for suppressing SI rely on generating a copy of the SI signal and subtracting it partly in the radio frequency (RF) and digital domains. A critical step in replicating the self-interference is the estimation of the multipath channel through which the transmitted signal propagates to the antenna. Since there is no prior model on the number of multipath reflections, current techniques assume a tap delay line filter (in the RF and digital domain) with a large number of taps, and estimate the taps in the analog and the digital domain. In this paper, using a linearization technique, we show that the self-interference channel in an indoor environment can be effectively modeled as in the frequency domain. Thus, the effective self-interference channel can be represented by two parameters and , irrespective of the multipath environment. We also provide experimental evidence to verify the above channel model and propose novel low-complexity designs for self-interference cancellation.
Autors: Arjun Nadh;Joseph Samuel;Ankit Sharma;Sankaran Aniruddhan;Radha Krishna Ganti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 16, issue:7, pages: 4304 - 4316
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Temperature Estimation Method Using the Ratio of Emitter-to-Base Voltages
Abstract:
A temperature estimation method is proposed which utilizes the ratio of two emitter-to-base voltages of bipolar transistors. This removes the need for a precision reference voltage from the digitization step by implicitly implementing the reference in the digital backend. Using measurement data for p-n-p transistors in a 65-nm CMOS technology, we show that the proposed scheme is tolerant to tens of millivolt of offset and up to ±50% gain errors without the need for any calibration. The designed sensor core, incorporating the new estimation scheme, reports room-temperature trim accuracy of ±1 °C (, and an area and power of 0.009 mm2 and , respectively.
Autors: Sami Ur Rehman;Ayman Shabra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 25, issue:7, pages: 2174 - 2182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Theoretical Analysis of Electrogastrography (EGG) Signatures Associated With Gastric Dysrhythmias
Abstract:
Routine screening and accurate diagnosis of chronic gastrointestinal motility disorders represent a significant problem in current clinical practice. The electrogastrography (EGG) provides a noninvasive option for assessing gastric slow waves, as a means of diagnosing gastric dysrhythmias, but its uptake in motility practice has been limited partly due to an incomplete sensitivity and specificity. This paper presents the development of a human whole-organ gastric model to enable virtual (in silico) testing of gastric electrophysiological dispersion in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of EGG. The model was developed to simulate normal gastric slow wave conduction as well as three types of dysrhythmias identified in recent high-resolution gastric mapping studies: conduction block, re-entry, and ectopic pacemaking. The stomach simulations were then applied in a torso model to identify predicted EGG signatures of normal and dysrhythmic slow wave profiles. The resulting EGG data were compared using percentage differences and correlation coefficients. Virtual EGG channels that demonstrated a percentage difference over 100% and a correlation coefficient less than 0.2 (threshold relaxed to 0.5 for the ectopic pacemaker case) were further investigated for their specific distinguishing features. In particular, anatomical locations from the epigastric region and specific channel configurations were identified that could be used to clinically diagnose the three classes of human gastric dysrhythmia. These locations and channels predicted by simulations present a promising methodology for improving the clinical reliability and applications of EGG.
Autors: Stefan Calder;Greg O’Grady;Leo K. Cheng;Peng Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jul 2017, volume: 64, issue:7, pages: 1592 - 1601
Publisher: IEEE
 

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