Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 06-2015 sorted by title, page: 0

» "Doing History" in the Olden Days, 1970s-1990s
Abstract:
Academically trained as a historian and then hired as an IBM salesperson in the 1970s, James Cortada spent many years working to define the scope of the emerging history of computing field. As an IBM employee, Cortada began his writing career with almost exclusive access to the IBM Archives. This article describes his experiences with the IBM Archives, the archives of other major industry leaders (such as Burroughs and NCR), and the still active pioneers in the computer industry during this period.
Autors: Cortada, James W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 84 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1 × N Fiber Optic Coupler Based on a Polyhedral Gradient-Index Lens
Abstract:
A fiber coupler based on a single-polyhedral gradient-index lens (p-GRIN) is proposed. The entrance end of the p-GRIN has polyhedral convex cone shape with N surfaces and the exit end has a flat surface. When light from a single-core optical fiber illuminates the input end of the p-GRIN, N spatially separated light beams will be focalized at the output end and coupled, respectively, into N different fibers cores. With ray-tracing analysis, the coupling parameters design model was established. Calculation and simulation with ZEMAX showed that the output beam positions can be optimized by adjusting the input cone angle and the distance between the input fiber end and the cone tip. The light beam power distribution is simulated and mode field evolution is investigated. The results indicate that high coupling efficiency could be achieved with optimized parameters design. This method may be adapted for different types of optical fibers and provide a practical solution for light coupling between single- and multicore fibers.
Autors: Yang, Y.;Li, H.;Song, K.;Jin, W.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 33, issue:12, pages: 2685 - 2689
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1/ Noise in Mid-Wavelength Infrared Detectors With InAs/GaSb Superlattice Absorber
Abstract:
The role of generation-recombination (g-r) and diffusion currents in the generation of 1/f noise was investigated in mid-wavelength infrared detectors with InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) absorber. Modeling of the dark current reveals the region where g-r and/or diffusion currents dominate over the leakage current (shuntand/or trap-assisted tunneling). Measurements of 1/f noise at constant reverse bias versus temperature show that noise intensity follows squared leakage current. There is no contribution to 1/f noise from g-r or diffusion currents or it is too small to be observed. This property should be attributed to InAs/GaSb SL material rather than to device specific features, since the batch of examined devices contained specimens with various architecture, passivation method, and substrate. Results for SL-based devices were compared with the state-of-the-art HgCdTe detectors. In these detectors, dedicated for high operating temperature, correlation between g-r/diffusion currents and 1/f noise is significant.
Autors: Ciura, L.;Kolek, A.;Wrobel, J.;Gawron, W.;Rogalski, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 2022 - 2026
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1/ Noise in Mid-Wavelength Infrared Detectors With InAs/GaSb Superlattice Absorber
Abstract:
The role of generation–recombination (g–r) and diffusion currents in the generation of 1/ noise was investigated in mid-wavelength infrared detectors with InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) absorber. Modeling of the dark current reveals the region where g–r and/or diffusion currents dominate over the leakage current (shunt- and/or trap-assisted tunneling). Measurements of 1/ noise at constant reverse bias versus temperature show that noise intensity follows squared leakage current. There is no contribution to 1/ noise from g–r or diffusion currents or it is too small to be observed. This property should be attributed to InAs/GaSb SL material rather than to device specific features, since the batch of examined devices contained specimens with various architecture, passivation method, and substrate. Results for SL-based devices were compared with the state-of-the-art HgCdTe detectors. In these detectors, dedicated for high operating temperature, correlation between g–r/diffusion currents and 1/ noise is significant.
Autors: Ciura, L.;Kolek, A.;Wrobel, J.;Gawron, W.;Rogalski, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 2022 - 2026
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 Gb/s Multicarrier THz Wireless Transmission System With High Frequency Stability Based on A Gain-Switched Laser Comb Source
Abstract:
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic multichannel terahertz (THz) wireless system with up to four optical subcarriers and total capacity as high as 100 Gb/s by employing an externally injected gain-switched laser comb source. Highly coherent multiple optical carriers with different spacing are produced using the gain switching technique. Single- and multichannel Terahertz (THz) wireless signals are generated using heterodyne mixing of modulated single or multiple carriers with one unmodulated optical tone spaced by about 200 GHz. The frequency stability and the phase noise of the gain switched comb laser are evaluated against free-running lasers. Wireless transmission is demonstrated for single and three optical subcarriers modulated with 8 or 10 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) (48 or 60 Gb/s, respectively) or for four optical subcarriers modulated with 12.5 GBd QPSK (100 Gb/s). The system performance was evaluated for single- and multicarrier wireless THz transmissions at around 200 GHz, with and without 40 km fiber transmission. The system is also modeled to study the effect of the cross talk between neighboring subcarriers for correlated and decorrelated data. This system reduces digital signal processing requirements due to the high-frequency stability of the gain-switched comb source, increases the overall transmission rate, and relaxes the optoelectronic bandwidth requirements.
Autors: Shams, H.;Shao, T.;Fice, M.J.;Anandarajah, P.M.;Renaud, C.C.;Van Dijk, F.;Barry, L.P.;Seeds, A.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100,000 people, 250 biomarkers, and the quest for good health
Abstract:
When a friend a sked Ed Lazowska to join a study in which researchers would obsessively monitor his body and then give him tips on improving his health, he was wary. "My wife and I really enjoy drinking wine,'??? confesses Lazowska, a computer scientist at the University of Washington. What if the data told him he had to cut back?
Autors: Bleicher, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 52, issue:6, pages: 56 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 11.25-ms-Group-Delay and Low-Complexity Algorithm Design of 18-Band Quasi-ANSI S1.11 1/3 Octave Digital Filterbank for Hearing Aids
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel algorithm and architecture design for 18-band quasi-class-2 ANSI S1.11 1/3 octave filterbank. The proposed design has several advantages such as lower group delay, lower computational complexity, and lower matching error. The technique we developed in this paper can be summarized as follows: 1) a simple low-pass filter (LPF) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) modulation are utilized to generate a uniform 9-band filterbank first, and then all elements of are replaced by all-pass filters to obtain a non-uniform filterbank; 2) a fast recursive structure and variable-length algorithm is further developed to efficiently accomplish DCT modulation. Thus, the spectrum of LPF can be easily spanned and flexibly extended to the location of the desired central frequency; 3) after employing the multi-rate algorithm, an 18-band non-uniform filterbank is generated from two 9-band sub filterbanks by following the proposed design steps and parameter determinations. Compared with the latest Liu 's quasi-class-2 ANSI S1.11 design, the proposed method-I (Proposed-I) totally has 72.8% reduction for multiplications per sample, 11.25-ms group delay, and 59 additions decreased per sample. Moreover, the maximum matching error of the proposed method-II (Proposed-II) is averagely equal to 1.79 dB much smaller than that of the latest Wei 's design. For the proposed variable-length DCT modulation, only 2 adders, 2 multipliers, 2 multiplexers, and 5 registers are required for hardware implementation after applying VLSI retiming scheme. Overall, the proposed filterbank design would be a new solution for future applications in the area of hearing aids.
Autors: Lai, S.-C.;Liu, C.-H.;Wang, L.-Y.;Chen, S.-H.;Chen, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1572 - 1581
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D arterial wall motion imaging using ultrafast ultrasound and transverse oscillations
Abstract:
Ultrafast ultrasound is a promising imaging modality that enabled, inter alia, the development of pulse wave imaging and the local velocity estimation of the so-called pulse wave for a quantitative evaluation of arterial stiffness. However, this technique only focuses on the propagation of the axial displacement of the artery wall, and most techniques are not specific to the intima???media complex and do not take into account the longitudinal motion of this complex. Within this perspective, this paper presents a study of two-dimensional tissue motion estimation in ultrafast imaging combining transverse oscillations, which can improve motion estimation in the transverse direction, i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis, and a phase-based motion estimation. First, the method was validated in simulation. Two-dimensional motion, inspired from a real data set acquired on a human carotid artery, was applied to a numerical phantom to produce a simulation data set. The estimated motion showed axial and lateral mean errors of 4.2 ?? 3.4 μm and 9.9 ?? 7.9 μm, respectively. Afterward, experimental results were obtained on three artery phantoms with different wall stiffnesses. In this study, the vessel phantoms did not contain a pure longitudinal displacement. The longitudinal displacements were induced by the axial force produced by the wall???s axial dilatation. This paper shows that the approach presented is able to perform 2-D tissue motion estimation very accurately even if the displacement values are very small and even in the lateral direction, making it possible to estimate the pulse wave velocity in both the axial and longitudinal directions. This demonstrates the method???s potential to estimate the velocity of purely longitudinal waves propagating in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the stiffnesses of the three vessel phantom walls investigated were estimated with an average relative error of 2.2%.
Autors: Salles, S.;Chee, A.J.Y.;Garcia, D.;Yu, A.C.H.;Vray, D.;Liebgott, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1047 - 1058
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2014 IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference [Conference News]
Abstract:
Reports on activities and events at the 2014 IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference.
Autors: McFarland, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 85 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2014 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots [Society News]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2014 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots.
Autors: Monje, C.;Balaguer, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 102 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2014 Student Congress at Tunisia [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Reports on activities and events at the 2014 Student Congress in Tunisia.
Autors: Magyar, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 91 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2015 Fellows Elevation and Recognition
Abstract:
Lists MTTS society members who were elevated to the status of IEEE Fellow.
Autors: Riddle, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 91 - 101
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2015 IEEE RAS Summer School on Agricultural Robotics [Education]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2015 IEEE RAS Summer School on Agricultural Robotics.
Autors: Fitch, R.;Sukkarieh, S.;Bergerman, M.;van Henten, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 96 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 250 V Thin-Layer SOI Technology With Field pLDMOS for High-Voltage Switching IC
Abstract:
A 250 V thin-layer SOI technology based on a 1.5- -thick SOI layer is developed for high-voltage (HV) switching IC. HV thin-layer silicon on insulator (SOI) field p-channel LDMOS (pLDMOS) with thick gate oxide layer, SOI RESURF n-channel LDMOS (nLDMOS) with thin gate oxide layer, and low-voltage CMOS are monolithically integrated. Compared with the conventional SOI technology integrating field pLDMOS, the thickness of SOI layer is reduced from above 5 to only 1.5 . The field implant (FI) technology is adopted to eliminate channel discontinuity underneath the bird’s beak and achieve shallow junction depth to avoid back gate (BG) punchthrough breakdown for the field pLDMOS. A BG punchthrough model is presented with simulation results. The field pLDMOS with breakdown voltage (BV) of −329 V and RESURF nLDMOS with BV of 338 V are experimentally realized. A 250 V switching IC using the field pLDMOS and RESURF nLDMOS as the level-shift and the output stage is also presented based on the developed thin-layer SOI technology.
Autors: Qiao, M.;Zhang, K.;Zhou, X.;Zou, J.;Zhang, B.;Li, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1970 - 1976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Adaptive Sparsity Based Image Compression With Applications to Optical Coherence Tomography
Abstract:
We present a novel general-purpose compression method for tomographic images, termed 3D adaptive sparse representation based compression (3D-ASRC). In this paper, we focus on applications of 3D-ASRC for the compression of ophthalmic 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. The 3D-ASRC algorithm exploits correlations among adjacent OCT images to improve compression performance, yet is sensitive to preserving their differences. Due to the inherent denoising mechanism of the sparsity based 3D-ASRC, the quality of the compressed images are often better than the raw images they are based on. Experiments on clinical-grade retinal OCT images demonstrate the superiority of the proposed 3D-ASRC over other well-known compression methods.
Autors: Fang, L.;Li, S.;Kang, X.;Izatt, J.A.;Farsiu, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 1306 - 1320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Electromagnetic Scattering Computation in Free-Space With the FETI-FDP2 Method
Abstract:
The electromagnetic dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting (FETI-DPEM) method is a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method developed for the finite element analysis of large-scale electromagnetic problems, where the corner edges are globally numbered. This paper presents an extension of the FETI-DPEM2 method, named FETI-full dual primal (FETI-FDP2), where more flexible Robin-type boundary conditions are imposed, on the inner interfaces between subdomains as well as on the corner edges, leading to a new interface problem. Its capacities are tested in the framework of a three-dimensional (3-D) free-space scattering problem, with a scattered field formulation and a computational domain truncated by perfectly mathed layers (PML). First, we compare its accuracy with respect to other FETI-DPEM2 methods and to a complete resolution of the FEM problem, thanks to a direct sparse solver. We show that the convergence of iterative solvers is affected by the presence of the PML and can be accelerated by means of a more accurate approximation, between adjacent subdomains, of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) operator. The effectiveness of the iterative solvers are also considered for different test cases. The advantages of the proposed FETI-FDP2 method combined with the associated DtN approximation is numerically demonstrated, regardless the chosen working frequency or the iterative solvers.
Autors: Voznyuk, I.;Tortel, H.;Litman, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 2604 - 2613
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 30 pJ/b, 67 Mbps, Centimeter-to-Meter Range Data Telemetry With an IR-UWB Wireless Link
Abstract:
This paper reports an energy-efficient, impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) wireless link operating in 3–5 GHz for data telemetry over centimeter-to-meter range distances at rates extended to tens of Mbps. The link comprises an all-digital, integrated transmitter (TX) fabricated in 90 nm 1P/9M CMOS that incorporates a waveform-synthesis pulse generator and a timing generator for on-off-keying (OOK) pulse modulation and phase scrambling. The link also incorporates an energy-detection receiver (RX) realized with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components that performs radio-frequency (RF) filtering, amplification, logarithmic power detection for data demodulation and automatic level control for robust operation in the presence of distance variations. Employing a miniaturized, UWB, chip antenna for the TX and RX, wireless transmission of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at rates up to 50 Mbps over 10 cm–1 m is shown. Further, employing a high-gain horn antenna for the RX, wireless transmission of PRBS data at rates up to 67 Mbps over 50 cm–4 m is shown with a TX energy consumption of 30 pJ/b (i.e., power consumption of 2 mW) from 1.2 V. The measured bit error rate (BER) in both cases is . Results from wireless recording of the background current of a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) in one fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) scan using the IR-UWB link are also included, exhibiting excellent match with those obtained from a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link at MHz.
Autors: Ebrazeh, A.;Mohseni, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 362 - 369
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32-Channel System to Measure the Electrophysiological Properties of Bioengineered Cardiac Muscle
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to develop, assess, and validate a custom 32-channel system to analyze the electrical properties of 3-D artificial heart muscle (3D-AHM). In this study, neonatal rat cardiac cells were cultured in a fibrin gel to drive the formation of 3D-AHM. Once the tissues were fully formed, the customized electrocardiogram (EKG) sensing system was used to obtain the different electrophysiological characteristics of the muscle constructs. Additionally, this system was used to evaluate the electrical properties of native rat hearts, for comparison to the fabricated tissues and native values found in the literature. Histological evaluation showed extensive cellularization and cardiac tissue formation. EKG data analysis yielded time delays between the signals ranging from 0 to 7 ms. Optical maps exhibited slight trends in impulse propagation throughout the fabricated tissue. Conduction velocities were calculated longitudinally at 277.81 cm/s, transversely at 300.79 cm/s, and diagonally at 285.68 cm/s for 3D-AHM. The QRS complex exhibited an R-wave amplitude of 438.42 ± 36.96 μV and an average duration of 317.5 ± 16.5 ms for the tissue constructs. The data collected in this study provide a clearer picture about the intrinsic properties of the 3D-AHM while proving our system's efficacy for EKG data procurement. To achieve a viable and permanent solution, the bioengineered heart muscle must physiologically resemble native heart tissue as well as mimic its electrical properties for proper contractile function. This study allows us to monitor such properties and assess the necessary changes that will improve construct development and function.
Autors: Salazar, B.H.;Reddy, A.K.;Tao, Z.;Madala, S.;Birla, R.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1614 - 1622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D electrostatic charge distribution on finitely thick busbars in micro-acoustic devices: combined regularization in the near- and far-field
Abstract:
The original work for 3-D charge distributions in micro-acoustic devices has been manifestly extended to account for finitely thick busbars. The work has been initiated to create a platform for simulating the electric charge localization and field enhancement at the electrode/busbar gaps depending on the thickness of the metalization in submicrometer geometries. A recipe for the construction of relevant Green's functions has been provided. A universal function (UF) for setting up system matrices in the method-of-moments' implementations has been constructed. Universal functions (moments of Green's functions) are by construction highly smooth and easy to compute. This work also presents a comprehensive completion of earlier work. For the first time, the calculation of the UF for a 3-D problem has been presented in great detail, highlighting the underlying regularization techniques. It is shown that the singular Fourier-type integrals involved can be regularized simultaneously in the near- and far-field. The pinnacle of the work is the detailed demonstration of the property that Hadamard's finite part regularization naturally arises in the construction of UFs. Three lemmata facilitate the understanding of the underlying concepts.
Autors: Baghai-Wadji, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1132 - 1144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Spatial Fading Correlation for Uniform Angle of Arrival Distribution
Abstract:
We derive a closed-form expression for the spatial fading correlation (SFC) between two arbitrary points in 3D-space for the uniform limited azimuth-elevation angle of arrival probability density function (pdf). This expression simplifies the computation of the SFC, can be used in any 3D antenna array geometry, and avoids the need to generate separate expressions for specific antenna array geometries. We corroborate the accuracy of the closed-form expression through application to 2D and 3D antenna array geometries. We expect the results presented in this letter to be of significant importance for performance evaluation and sensitivity analysis in multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems.
Autors: Alem, Y.F.;Khalid, Z.;Kennedy, R.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 19, issue:6, pages: 1073 - 1076
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4–5 Tb/in Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording by Short-Pulse Laser Heating
Abstract:
Due to poor thermal performance of media, it is difficult for heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) to achieve densities greater than 3 Tb/in for continuous-wave laser heating. Short-pulse laser heating is an attractive approach to improve the thermal response of media. In this paper, the recording performances of HAMR using short-pulse laser heating are studied by dynamic micromagnetic simulations solving the Landau–Lifshitz–Bloch equation. The results show that the magnetic damping constant of the media, , and applied magnetic field, , exhibit significant effects on recording quality at a pulse-width of 100 ps. From analyses of the relationships among readout signal and noise ratio, recorded track width, , and , the required parameter setting for various recording densities are obtained. It is indicated that with a transducer tip size of 15 nm and heating laser pulse-width of 100 ps, a recording density greater than 4 Tb/in is achievable for FePt recording media.
Autors: Xu, B.;Wang, H.;Cen, Z.;Liu, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 51, issue:6, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-D ultrafast shear-wave imaging
Abstract:
Over the last ten years, shear wave elastography (SWE) has seen considerable development and is now routinely used in clinics to provide mechanical characterization of tissues to improve diagnosis. The most advanced technique relies on the use of an ultrafast scanner to generate and image shear waves in real time in a 2-D plane at several thousands of frames per second. We have recently introduced 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging to acquire with matrix probes the 3-D propagation of shear waves generated by a dedicated radiation pressure transducer in a single acquisition. In this study, we demonstrate 3-D SWE based on ultrafast volumetric imaging in a clinically applicable configuration. A 32 ?? 32 matrix phased array driven by a customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 4-D shear-wave imaging. A matrix phased array was used to generate and control in 3-D the shear waves inside the medium using the acoustic radiation force. The same matrix array was used with 3-D coherent plane wave compounding to perform high-quality ultrafast imaging of the shear wave propagation. Volumetric ultrafast acquisitions were then beamformed in 3-D using a delay-and-sum algorithm. 3-D volumetric maps of the shear modulus were reconstructed using a time-of-flight algorithm based on local multiscale cross-correlation of shear wave profiles in the three main directions using directional filters. Results are first presented in an isotropic homogeneous and elastic breast phantom. Then, a full 3-D stiffness reconstruction of the breast was performed in vivo on healthy volunteers. This new full 3-D ultrafast ultrasound system paves the way toward real-time 3-D SWE.
Autors: Gennisson, J.-L.;Provost, J.;Deffieux, T.;Papadacci, C.;Imbault, M.;Pernot, M.;Tanter, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1059 - 1065
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 500 °C Bipolar SiC Linear Voltage Regulator
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate a fully integrated linear voltage regulator in silicon carbide NPN bipolar transistor technology, operational from 25 °C up to 500 °C. For 15-mA load current, this regulator provides a stable output voltage with <2% variation in the temperature range 25 °C–500 °C. For both line and load regulations, degradation of 50% from 25 °C to 300 °C and improvement of 50% from 300 °C to 500 °C are observed. The transient response measurements of the regulator show robust behavior in the temperature range 25 °C–500 °C.
Autors: Kargarrazi, S.;Lanni, L.;Saggini, S.;Rusu, A.;Zetterling, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1953 - 1957
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G cellular: key enabling technologies and research challenges
Abstract:
The evolving fifth generation (5G) cellular wireless networks are envisioned to provide higher data rates, enhance end-user quality-of-experience (QoE), reduce end-to-end latency, and lower energy consumption. This article presents several emerging technologies which could enable and define future 5G mobile communication standards and cellular networks. We highlight the key ideas for each technology and the major open research challenges related to measurement, testing and validating the performance of 5G system components. Then, we highlight the fundamental research challenges for resource management in 5G systems.
Autors: Hossain, E.;Hasan, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 11 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Multi-RAT LTE-WiFi Ultra-Dense Small Cells: Performance Dynamics, Architecture, and Trends
Abstract:
The ongoing densification of small cells yields an unprecedented paradigm shift in user experience and network design. The most notable change comes from cellular rates being comparable to next-generation WiFi systems. Cellular-to-WiFi offloading, the standard modus operandi of recent years, is therefore shifting towards a true integration of both technology families. Users in future 5G systems will thus likely be able to use 3GPP, IEEE, and other technologies simultaneously, so as to maximize their quality of experience. To advance this high-level vision, we perform a novel performance analysis specifically taking the system-level dynamics into account and thus giving a true account on the uplink performance gains of an integrated multi radio access technology (RAT) solution versus legacy approaches. Further, we advocate for an enabling architecture that embodies the tight interaction between the different RATs, as we lay out a standardization roadmap able to materialize the envisaged design. 3GPP-compliant simulations have also been carried out to corroborate the rigorous mathematical analysis and the superiority of the proposed approach.
Autors: Galinina, O.;Pyattaev, A.;Andreev, S.;Dohler, M.;Koucheryavy, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 33, issue:6, pages: 1224 - 1240
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Tests and Demonstrations [Mobile Radio]
Abstract:
Fifth Generation NTT DOCOMO announced that its joint fifth-generation (5G) outdoor trial with Ericsson achieved a maximum data transmission speed of over 4.5 Gb/s using the high-frequency 15-GHz spectrum band. This is the first phase of trials designed to pave the way for DOCOMO's deployment of a commercial 5G network by the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games in July 2020. In a separate indoor 5G trial with Nokia Networks to verify beamforming, a technique for a more stable high-speed data transmission using exceptionally higher frequencies in the 70-GHz band, DOCOMO achieved data transmissions of over 2 Gb/s. DOCOMO also announced that it has agreed with Huawei and Mitsubishi Electric to conduct technical verifications of emerging 5G mobile communication technologies using various frequency bands, including lower than 6 GHz and extremely high frequencies called millimeter waves.
Autors: Gozalvez, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 16 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 77-GHz Dual-Layer Transmit-Array for Automotive Radar Applications
Abstract:
A 77-GHz transmit-array on dual-layer printed circuit board (PCB) is proposed for automotive radar applications. Coplanar patch unit-cells are etched on opposite sides of the PCB and connected by through-via. The unit-cells are arranged in concentric rings to form the transmit-array for 1-bit in-phase transmission. When combined with four-substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) slot antennas as the primary feeds, the transmit-array is able to generate four beams with a specific coverage of . The simulated and measured results of the antenna prototype at 76.5 GHz agree well, with gain greater than 18.5 dBi. The coplanar structure significantly simplifies the transmit-array design and eases the fabrication, in particular, at millimeter-wave frequencies.
Autors: Yeap, S.B.;Qing, X.;Chen, Z.N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 2833 - 2837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 85-to-127 GHz CMOS Signal Generation Using a Quadrature VCO With Passive Coupling and Broadband Harmonic Combining for Rotational Spectroscopy
Abstract:
A quadrature LC-VCO incorporating passive coupling and broadband harmonic combining for frequency multiplication by 4, and NMOS switched variable inductors is fabricated in 65 nm bulk CMOS to generate signals at 85 to 127 GHz. The passive quadrature coupling bypasses the need for a broadband on-chip bias-T, while reducing power consumption, phase noise, and the theoretical conversion loss for the 4th order harmonic generation by 3 dB over the linear superposition. The 39% frequency tuning range is at least 4x higher than the other CMOS implementations with center frequency over 90 GHz. At power consumption of 30–45 mW from a 1.5 V power supply, the measured output power varies from 15 to 23 dBm and phase noise at 10 MHz offset varies from 108 to 102 dBc/Hz over the output frequency range. These are sufficient for use in millimeter wave rotational spectroscopy.
Autors: Zhang, J.;Sharma, N.;Choi, W.;Shim, D.;Zhong, Q.;O, K.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1361 - 1371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : Lazy Forwarding in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
In order to simultaneously achieve good energy efficiency and high packet delivery performance, a multihop forwarding scheme should generally involve three design elements: media access mechanism, link estimation scheme, and routing strategy. Disregarding the low-duty-cycle nature of media access often leads to overestimation of link quality. Neglecting the bursty loss characteristic of wireless links inevitably consumes much more energy than necessary and underutilizes wireless channels. The routing strategy, if not well tailored to the above two factors, results in poor packet delivery performance. In this paper, we propose , a practical design of data forwarding in low-duty-cycle wireless sensor networks. addresses link burstiness by employing multivariate Bernoulli link model. Further incorporated with synchronized rendezvous, enables sensor nodes to work in a lazy mode, keep their radios off most of the time, and realize highly reliable forwarding by scheduling very limited packet transmissions. We implement on a real sensor network testbed. The results demonstrate that outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in terms of energy efficiency and network yield.
Autors: Cao, Z.;He, Y.;Ma, Q.;Liu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 922 - 930
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Sparse Inverse Covariance Estimation
Abstract:
Recently, there has been focus on penalized log-likelihood covariance estimation for sparse inverse covariance (precision) matrices. The penalty is responsible for inducing sparsity, and a very common choice is the convex norm. However, the best estimator performance is not always achieved with this penalty. The most natural sparsity promoting “norm” is the nonconvex penalty but its lack of convexity has deterred its use in sparse maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper, we consider nonconvex penalized log-likelihood inverse covariance estimation and present a novel cyclic descent algorithm for its optimization. Convergence to a local minimizer is proved, which is highly nontrivial, and we demonstrate via simulations the reduced bias and superior quality of the penalty as compared to the penalty.
Autors: Marjanovic, G.;Hero, A.O.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:12, pages: 3218 - 3231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : Lazy Forwarding in Low-Duty-Cycle Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
In order to simultaneously achieve good energy efficiency and high packet delivery performance, a multihop forwarding scheme should generally involve three design elements: media access mechanism, link estimation scheme, and routing strategy. Disregarding the low-duty-cycle nature of media access often leads to overestimation of link quality. Neglecting the bursty loss characteristic of wireless links inevitably consumes much more energy than necessary and underutilizes wireless channels. The routing strategy, if not well tailored to the above two factors, results in poor packet delivery performance. In this paper, we propose L2, a practical design of data forwarding in low-duty-cycle wireless sensor networks. L2 addresses link burstiness by employing multivariate Bernoulli link model. Further incorporated with synchronized rendezvous, L2 enables sensor nodes to work in a lazy mode, keep their radios off most of the time, and realize highly reliable forwarding by scheduling very limited packet transmissions. We implement L2 on a real sensor network testbed. The results demonstrate that L2 outperforms state-of-the-art approaches in terms of energy efficiency and network yield.
Autors: Zhichao Cao;Yuan He;Qiang Ma;Yunhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 922 - 930
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Band Spatially Combined Power Amplifier Arrays in 45-nm CMOS SOI
Abstract:
This paper reports 45-GHz power amplifier (PA) arrays implemented in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator, coupled to antenna arrays to enable free-space power combining. A single CMOS chip (2.5 4.5 ) containing eight-unit PAs was developed and its output was fed to a 2 2 array of differentially fed patch antennas on a printed circuit board. This array provided an equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 40 dBm at 45 GHz with 28 dBm of total RF power generated by the chip. A larger array, composed of four CMOS chips and feeding a 2 8 array of antennas, was shown to deliver an EIRP of 50 dBm at 45 GHz, while generating a total RF power of 33 dBm together with an antenna array gain of 17 dB. The dc power consumptions for the and the 2 8 arrays were 4.9 and 18 W, respectively, with estimated peak power-added efficiencies of 13.5% and 10.7%.
Autors: Hanafi, B.;Gurbuz, O.;Dabag, H.;Buckwalter, J.F.;Rebeiz, G.;Asbeck, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 1937 - 1950
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Band Dual-Polarization Phased-Array Transceiver Front-End in SiGe BiCMOS
Abstract:
This paper discusses the design and implementation of a 94-GHz phased-array transceiver front-end in SiGe BiCMOS that is capable of receiving concurrently in both vertical (V) and horizontal (H) polarizations and time-duplexed transmission in either polarization. The compact front-end is implemented in of silicon area to ensure compatibility with a scalable phased-array tile approach with spacing between elements. Each transceiver front-end includes variable transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) gain and 360 variable phase shift in TX and RX. Co-integration of the transmit-receive (T/R) switch with the power amplifier (PA) and low-noise amplifier (LNA) matching network minimizes switch impact on RX noise figure (NF). A varactor-based passive reflection-type phase shifter (RTPS) is shared between the TX and RX to reduce area. Analysis of loss mechanisms in on-chip RTPS leads to a novel RTPS load that minimizes RTPS loss while ensuring that the amplitude variation across phase shift is . In RX mode, the front-end achieves 30-dB RX gain, bandwidth of 15 GHz (84–99 GHz) with 10-dB NF in the high-gain mode. In TX mode, the front-end achieves 2-dBm saturated output power and 0-dBm output-referred 1-dB compression point (OP1dB) in V and H polarizations (time-duplexed), 30-dB gain, and 8-GHz bandwidth (89–97 GHz). The 94-GHz phase shifters achieve full 360 $^{circ}$ variable phase shift with 5-bit phase resolution (11.25 resolution) and error and 1-dB rms gain error at 94 GHz. The front-end consumes 160 mW in RX mode for dual-polarization concurrent reception/phase-shifting and 116 mW in TX mode for time-duplexed V and H output in the -band.
Autors: Natarajan, A.;Valdes-Garcia, A.;Sadhu, B.;Reynolds, S.K.;Parker, B.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 1989 - 2002
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -ary Balanced Codes With Parallel Decoding
Abstract:
An -ary block code, , of length is called balanced if, and only if, every codeword is balanced; that is, the real sum of the codeword components, or weight, is equal to . This paper presents efficient encoding schemes to -ary balanced codes with parallel (hence, fast) decoding. In fact, the decoding time complexity is digit operations. These schemes are a generalization to the -ary alphabet of Knuth’s complementation method with parallel decoding. Let indicate the number of -ary words of length and weight . For any , , a simple implementation of the method is given which uses check digits to balance $kleq {binom{{r}}{ { left lfloor{ (m-1)r/2 }right rfloor }}_{vphantom {R_{R_{}}}m}-{mbmod {2}+[(m-1)k]bmod 2}}/(m-1)$ information digits with an encoding time complexity of digit operations. A refined implementation of the parallel decoding method is also given with check digits and information digits, where the encoding time complexity is . Thus, the proposed codes are less redundant than the -ary balanced codes with parallel decoding found in the literature and yet maintain the same complexity.
Autors: Pelusi, D.;Elmougy, S.;Tallini, L.G.;Bose, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3251 - 3264
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parallel Prefix Modulo- Adder via Double Representation of Residues in [0, 2]
Abstract:
The most popular modulus in residue number systems (RNS), next to power-of-two modulus, are those of the form . However, in RNS applications that require a larger dynamic range, without increasing the parameter, modulus of the form are gaining popularity. Nevertheless, latency-balanced computational channels in RNS arithmetic systems are desirable. Ripple-carry modulo- adders are realized simply as one's complement adders, where serves as a second representation for 0. However, the same single -bit adder realization is not possible for modulo . Given that the efficient parallel prefix realization of modulo- adders exists, whose latency is compatible with similar modulo- adders, we are motivated to design latency-compatible parallel prefix modulo- adders. In this brief, we propose the fastest of such adders, where residues in {0, 1, 2} can be represented also as excess- encoding (i.e., , respectively) . The delay and area overhead of the proposed adder with respect to the base modulo- $(2^n-1) $ adder is only one extra gate in the critical delay path and, at most, 20% more area. In very rare cases that both operands are excess- , augmenting the proposed adder with few extra gates leads to correct sum. The analytical results are confirmed by synthesis via Synopsys Design Compiler.
Autors: Jaberipur, G.;Langroudi, S.H.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 583 - 587
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Synthesis-Based Adaptive Robust Control of Linear Motor Driven Stages With High-Frequency Dynamics: A Case Study
Abstract:
Existing control approaches for the precision motion control of linear motor driven systems are mostly based on rigid-body dynamics of the system. Since all drive systems are subjected to the effect of structural flexible modes of their mechanical parts, the neglected high-frequency dynamics resulting from these structural modes have become the main limiting factor when pushing for better tracking performance and higher closed-loop control bandwidth. In this paper, physical modeling and dynamic analysis that take into account the flexibility of the ball bearings between the stage and the linear guideways are presented with experimental verification. With the gained knowledge of these high-frequency dynamics, a novel μ-synthesis-based adaptive robust control strategy is subsequently developed. The proposed control algorithm uses adaptive model compensation having accurate online parameter estimation to effectively deal with various nonlinearity effects and to transform the difficult trajectory tracking control problem into a robust stabilization problem. The well-developed μ-synthesis-based linear robust control technique is then employed in the fast feedback control loop design to explicitly deal with the robust control issue associated with the high-frequency dynamics to achieve higher closed-loop bandwidth for better disturbance rejection. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results show the better tracking performance of the proposed algorithm over existing ones.
Autors: Zheng Chen;Bin Yao;Qingfeng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 1482 - 1490
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuzzy Control for a Class of Nonlinear Coupled ODE-PDE Systems With Input Constraint
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of fuzzy control design with an input constraint for a class of coupled systems, which consist of an -dimensional nonlinear subsystem of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and a scalar linear parabolic subsystem of partial differential equation (PDE) connected in feedback. Initially, the nonlinear coupled system is represented by a Takagi–Sugeno (T–S) fuzzy-coupled ODE-PDE model. Then, based on the fuzzy model and parallel distributed compensation scheme, a fuzzy state feedback control design is developed via Lyapunov's direct method, such that the resulting closed-loop fuzzy-coupled system is exponentially stable, and a prescribed performance of disturbance attenuation is satisfied. The existing condition of the proposed fuzzy controllers is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Moreover, in order to make the attenuation level as small as possible while the input constraint is respected to avoid the high magnitude, a suboptimal -constrained fuzzy control problem is also addressed, which is formulated as an LMI optimization problem. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the control of a hypersonic rocket car to illustrate its effectiveness.
Autors: Wu, H.;Zhu, H.;Wang, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 593 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -ary Balanced Codes With Parallel Decoding
Abstract:
An m-ary block code, m = 2, 3, 4,..., of length n ϵ IN is called balanced if, and only if, every codeword is balanced; that is, the real sum of the codeword components, or weight, is equal to ⌊(m - 1)n/2⌋. This paper presents efficient encoding schemes to m-ary balanced codes with parallel (hence, fast) decoding. In fact, the decoding time complexity is O(1) digit operations. These schemes are a generalization to the m-ary alphabet of Knuth's complementation method with parallel decoding. Let (nw)m indicate the number of m-ary words w of length n and weight w ϵ(0,1, ... , (m - 1)n}. For any m ϵ IN, m ≥ 2, a simple implementation of the method is given which uses r ϵ IN check digits to balance k ≤ {(⌊(m-1)r/2⌋)m - (m mod 2 + [(m - 1)k] mod 2}}/(m - 1) information digits with an encoding time complexity of O(mk logm k) digit operations. A refined implementation of the parallel decoding method is also given with r check digits and k ≤ (mr -1)/(m -1) information digits, where the encoding time complexity is O(k√logm k). Thus, the proposed codes are less redundant than the m-ary balanced codes with parallel decoding found in the literature and yet maintain the same complexity.
Autors: Pelusi, D.;Elmougy, S.;Tallini, L.G.;Bose, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3251 - 3264
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Synthesis-Based Adaptive Robust Control of Linear Motor Driven Stages With High-Frequency Dynamics: A Case Study
Abstract:
Existing control approaches for the precision motion control of linear motor driven systems are mostly based on rigid-body dynamics of the system. Since all drive systems are subjected to the effect of structural flexible modes of their mechanical parts, the neglected high-frequency dynamics resulting from these structural modes have become the main limiting factor when pushing for better tracking performance and higher closed-loop control bandwidth. In this paper, physical modeling and dynamic analysis that take into account the flexibility of the ball bearings between the stage and the linear guideways are presented with experimental verification. With the gained knowledge of these high-frequency dynamics, a novel -synthesis-based adaptive robust control strategy is subsequently developed. The proposed control algorithm uses adaptive model compensation having accurate online parameter estimation to effectively deal with various nonlinearity effects and to transform the difficult trajectory tracking control problem into a robust stabilization problem. The well-developed -synthesis-based linear robust control technique is then employed in the fast feedback control loop design to explicitly deal with the robust control issue associated with the high-frequency dynamics to achieve higher closed-loop bandwidth for better disturbance rejection. Comparative experiments have been performed and the results show the better tracking performance of the proposed algorithm over existing ones.
Autors: Chen, Z.;Yao, B.;Wang, Q.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 1482 - 1490
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ab Initio Study of Temperature, Humidity, and Covalent Functionalization-Induced Bandgap Change of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
The effects of temperature, humidity, and covalent functionalization on the bandgap of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are systematically investigated by ab initio calculations. The bandgap of SWCNTs has been found to decrease with the increase of temperature. Analysis of humidity effect indicates that water adsorption on the outer wall of SWCNTs widens the bandgap, but when the water molecules are adsorbed on the inner wall, SWCNTs with different radii and chiralities show different bandgap changes. We also show that covalent functionalization of SWCNTs leads to drastic deformation of the tube. Upon increasing the functional groups, the deformation is more obvious. It is worth noting that the tube deformation also greatly contributes to the change of the bandgap.
Autors: Chen, X.;Yang, N.;Jiang, J.;Liang, Q.;Yang, D.;Zhang, G.;Ren, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 36, issue:6, pages: 606 - 608
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vitro and In Situ Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Analysis of Two Dental Resin Cements
Abstract:
This study evaluated the shrinkage polymerization of two dual-curing resin cements during in vitro and in situ tests, using fiber Bragg grating with different curing time periods. The cements used were: Relyx ARC (dual conventional) and Relyx U200 (dual self-adhesive). For the in vitro experiment, the resin cements and the sensors were placed between two glass coverslips and afterwards were photoactivated for 40 s (N = 20). For the in situ experiments, 20 human teeth were prepared to receive root posts cemented with the same two resin cements. Two sensors were glued to the posts’ surfaces at the coronal and apical thirds. Next, the cementation of the posts was photoactivated for 40 s. The sensors measured the strain for 60 min in both experiments. Data from in vitro and in situ experiments were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Games–Howell multiple comparison procedures. Data from the coronal and apical thirds were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and T-test. The results showed that the polymerization shrinkage values are similar for the in vitro and in situ experiments, that contraction is greater after 5 minutes curing time compared to the contraction at 60 min, that both resin cements performed similarly and that the shrinkage measurement at the cervical third showed higher values than those at the apical third.
Autors: Karam, L.Z.;de O.Franco, A.P.G.;Pulido, C.A.;Maria Mongruel Gomes, O.;Kalinowski, H.J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 33, issue:12, pages: 2543 - 2548
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Why so many people? Explaining Nonhabitual Transport Overcrowding With Internet Data
Abstract:
Public transport smartcard data can be used for detection of large crowds. By comparing statistics on habitual behavior (e.g., average by time of day), one can specifically identify nonhabitual crowds, which are often very problematic for transport systems. While habitual overcrowding (e.g., peak hour) is well understood both by traffic managers and travelers, nonhabitual overcrowding hotspots can become even more disruptive and unpleasant because they are generally unexpected. By quickly understanding such cases, a transport manager can react and mitigate transport system disruptions. We propose a probabilistic data analysis model that breaks each nonhabitual overcrowding hotspot into a set of explanatory components. The potential explanatory components are initially retrieved from social networks and special events websites and then processed through text-analysis techniques. Finally, for each such component, the probabilistic model estimates a specific share in the total overcrowding counts. We first validate with synthetic data and then test our model with real data from the public transport system (EZLink) of Singapore, focused on three case study areas. We demonstrate that it is able to generate explanations that are intuitively plausible and consistent both locally (correlation coefficient, i.e., CC, from 85% to 99% for the three areas) and globally (CC from 41.2% to 83.9%). This model is directly applicable to any other domain sensitive to crowd formation due to large social events (e.g., communications, water, energy, waste).
Autors: Pereira, F.C.;Rodrigues, F.;Polisciuc, E.;Ben-Akiva, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1370 - 1379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Laser, Passively Q-Switched With a :ZnSe Saturable Absorber
Abstract:
We demonstrate efficient passively Q-switched laser operation, based on and :ZnSe, as active medium and saturable absorber, respectively. The polarized emission was centered at 1876 nm, with pulse parameters of 13 ns (duration), 467 (energy), and 37 kW (peak power) at a repetition rate of 350 Hz.
Autors: Oreshkov, B.;Veronesi, S.;Tonelli, M.;di Lieto, A.;Petrov, V.;Griebner, U.;Mateos, X.;Buchvarov, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.003 mm 10 b 240 MS/s 0.7 mW SAR ADC in 28 nm CMOS With Digital Error Correction and Correlated-Reversed Switching
Abstract:
This paper describes a single-channel, calibration-free Successive-Approximation-Register (SAR) ADC with a resolution of 10 bits at 240 MS/s. A DAC switching technique and an addition-only digital error correction technique based on the non-binary search are proposed to tackle the static and dynamic non-idealities attributed to capacitor mismatch and insufficient DAC settling. The conversion speed is enhanced, and the power and area of the DAC are also reduced by 40% as a result. In addition, a switching scheme lifting the input common mode of the comparator is proposed to further enhance the speed. Moreover, the comparator employs multiple feedback paths for an enhanced regeneration strength to alleviate the metastable problem. Occupying an active area of 0.003 mm and dissipating 0.68 mW from 1 V supply at 240 MS/s in 28 nm CMOS, the proposed design achieves an SNDR of 57 dB with low-frequency inputs and 53 dB at the Nyquist input. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of 4.8 fJ/c.-s. and 7.8 fJ/c.-s. respectively. The DAC switching technique improves the INL and DNL from +1.15/-1.01 LSB and +0.92/-0.28 LSB to within +0.55/-0.45 LSB and +0.45/-0.23 LSB, respectively. This ADC is at least 80% smaller and 32% more power efficient than reported state-of-the-art ADCs of similar resolutions and Nyquist bandwidths larger than 75 MHz.
Autors: Tsai, J.-H.;Wang, H.-H.;Yen, Y.-C.;Lai, C.-M.;Chen, Y.-J.;Huang, P.-C.;Hsieh, P.-H.;Chen, H.;Lee, C.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1382 - 1398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.003 mm 10 b 240 MS/s 0.7 mW SAR ADC in 28 nm CMOS With Digital Error Correction and Correlated-Reversed Switching
Abstract:
This paper describes a single-channel, calibration-free Successive-Approximation-Register (SAR) ADC with a resolution of 10 bits at 240 MS/s. A DAC switching technique and an addition-only digital error correction technique based on the non-binary search are proposed to tackle the static and dynamic non-idealities attributed to capacitor mismatch and insufficient DAC settling. The conversion speed is enhanced, and the power and area of the DAC are also reduced by 40% as a result. In addition, a switching scheme lifting the input common mode of the comparator is proposed to further enhance the speed. Moreover, the comparator employs multiple feedback paths for an enhanced regeneration strength to alleviate the metastable problem. Occupying an active area of 0.003 mm 2 and dissipating 0.68 mW from 1 V supply at 240 MS/s in 28 nm CMOS, the proposed design achieves an SNDR of 57 dB with low-frequency inputs and 53 dB at the Nyquist input. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of 4.8 fJ/c.-s. and 7.8 fJ/c.-s. respectively. The DAC switching technique improves the INL and DNL from +1.15/-1.01 LSB and +0.92/-0.28 LSB to within +0.55/-0.45 LSB and +0.45/-0.23 LSB, respectively. This ADC is at least 80% smaller and 32% more power efficient than reported state-of-the-art ADCs of similar resolutions and Nyquist bandwidths larger than 75 MHz.
Autors: Jen-Huan Tsai;Hui-Huan Wang;Yang-Chi Yen;Chang-Ming Lai;Yen-Ju Chen;Po-Chuin Huang;Ping-Hsuan Hsieh;Hsin Chen;Chao-Cheng Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1382 - 1398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.85 THz Low Noise Amplifier Using InP HEMT Transistors
Abstract:
In this letter, the first packaged THz solid-state amplifier operating at 0.85 THz is reported. The InP HEMT amplifier achieves a noise figure as low as 11.1 dB with an associated gain of 13.6 dB at 0.85 THz using high InP HEMT transistors in a 10-stage coplanar waveguide integrated circuit. Output power up to 0.93 mW is measured.
Autors: Leong, K.M.K.H.;Mei, X.;Yoshida, W.;Liu, P.-H.;Zhou, Z.;Lange, M.;Lee, L.-S.;Padilla, J.G.;Zamora, A.;Gorospe, B.S.;Nguyen, K.;Deal, W.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 397 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.3 mW Low-IF, Current-Reuse, and Current-Bleeding RF Front-End for the MICS Band With Sensitivity of 97 dBm
Abstract:
A low-power, low-intermediate frequency (IF) radio frequency (RF) front-end, including low-noise amplifier (LNA) and mixer for the medical implant communications service (MICS) RF band, is presented. The frequencies of LNA and mixer range from 402 MHz to 405 MHz, while the IF of the mixer is 450 KHz. Current-reuse, back-gate coupling, current-bleeding, and feedback circuit design techniques are utilized in the LNA design to achieve 10 dB of gain and the required noise figure (NF) under the low power consumption of 0.94 mW. By contrast, the Gilbert-type mixer generates 20 dB of conversion gain by using current-reuse, back-gate coupling, and current-bleeding techniques. The front-end is operated using a 1.8 V power supply and is capable of achieving a 97 dBm sensitivity using quadrature phase shift keying modulation while consuming 1.3 mW. The proposed front-end is implemented in TSMC 0.18 CMOS process with a total area of 1.4 mm 1.2 mm. The gain enhancement technique has been substantially optimized compared with previous works and measurement results indicate that the front-end obtains the highest figure of merit compared with previous works.
Autors: Cruz, H.;Huang, H.-Y.;Lee, S.-Y.;Luo, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1627 - 1636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-A High-Precision DC Current Source With Stability Better Than 0.1 ppm/h
Abstract:
The principle, design, and measurement of a 10-A highly stable dc current source is described. Based on a modified low-frequency equivalent model of the MOSFET, we obtain the strict current equation of the MOSFET-based voltage-controlled current source. Factors determining the current stability are investigated and reasonable selection criteria for the key components are discussed. Reasons for oscillation due to the high parasitic capacitance of the paralleled MOSFETs with low set of drain–source voltage are explained and a combined noise gain and lead compensation method is proposed. The best measurement results show that the relative standard deviation and relative drift of the current in 1 h are, respectively, and . The current source has been used in our high-current meter stability evaluation experiments and can be used for other cases with appropriate improvement, such as the Joule Balance Project to redefine the kilogram at National Institute of Metrology.
Autors: Wang, N.;Li, Z.;Zhang, Z.;He, Q.;Han, B.;Lu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1324 - 1330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-Step Sensorless Drive for Brushless DC Motors Based on Back-EMF Differences
Abstract:
This paper presents a new 12-step sensorless drive for brushless dc motor based on back-electromotive force (back-EMF) differences, which are estimated from the disturbance observer (DOB) structure. Availability of rotor position information with a resolution of 30° and commutation without phase shift are the advantages of using the back-EMF differences. Unlike the conventional methods that obtain part of the back-EMF signal from the manipulation of three phase voltages, the proposed DOB structure can access the entire back-EMF profile. By designing a proper low-pass filter in the DOB structure, the back-EMF difference can be well detected with lower sensor noise. Compensation of delay commutation introduced by the filter is also discussed. Experiment results showed that the proposed sensorless drive is capable of running the motor in lower speed, and performs better under different speed and load torque as compared with the conventional method.
Autors: Wang, S.;Lee, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 646 - 654
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 128-Channel, 710 M Samples/Second, and Less Than 10 ps RMS Resolution Time-to-Digital Converter Implemented in a Kintex-7 FPGA
Abstract:
Recent investigations of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converters (TDCs) have predominantly focused on improving the time resolution of the device. However, the monolithic integration of multi-channel TDCs and the achievement of high measurement throughput remain challenging issues for certain applications. In this paper, the potential of the resources provided by the Kintex-7 Xilinx FPGA is fully explored, and a new design is proposed for the implementation of a high performance multi-channel TDC system on this FPGA. Using the tapped-delay-line wave union TDC architecture, in which a negative pulse is triggered by the hit signal propagating along the carry chain, two time measurements are performed in a single carry chain within one clock cycle. The differential non-linearity and time resolution can be significantly improved by realigning the bins. The on-line calibration and on-line updating of the calibration table reduce the influence of variations of environmental conditions. The logic resources of the 6-input look-up tables in the FPGA are employed for hit signal edge detection and bubble-proof encoding, thereby allowing the TDC system to operate at the maximum allowable clock rate of the FPGA and to achieve the maximum possible measurement throughput. This resource-efficient design, in combination with a modular implementation, makes the integration of multiple channels in one FPGA practicable. Using our design, a 128-channel TDC with a dead time of 1.47 ns, a dynamic range of 360 ns, and a root-mean-square resolution of less than 10 ps was implemented in a single Kintex-7 device.
Autors: Liu, C.;Wang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 773 - 783
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 24 GHz Highly Linear Up-Conversion Mixer in CMOS 0.13 Technology
Abstract:
This letter reports a 24 GHz linear up-conversion mixer for high-power IF signal. In the proposed mixer, the double-balanced Gilbert-cell topology is employed with a low-distortion transconductance stage which combines voltage feedback and adaptive biasing schemes. The proposed adaptive biasing circuit improves the linearity of the transconductance stage by providing an additional bias current when IF input signals exceed the current-limited linear input range. Implemented in a 0.13 CMOS technology, the mixer showed a conversion gain of 1.9 dB and output 1 dB compression point of 0.3 dBm for the IF, LO, and RF frequency ranges of 10.0–314.7 MHz, 18.9–29.0 GHz, and 23.4–29.2 GHz, respectively, while dissipating 22.8 and 16.5 mW for the mixer and the LO buffer, respectively, from a 1.5 V supply.
Autors: Won, Y.-S.;Kim, C.-H.;Lee, S.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 400 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 290 mV Sub- ASIC for Real-Time Atrial Fibrillation Detection
Abstract:
A real-time detector for episodes of atrial fibrillation is fabricated as an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The basis for detection is a set of three parameters for characterizing the RR interval series, i.e., turning point ratio, root mean square of successive differences, and Shannon entropy. The developed hardware architecture targets ultra-low voltage operation, suitable for implantable loop recorders with ultra-low energy requirements. Algorithmic and architectural optimizations are performed to minimize area and energy dissipation, with a total area footprint reduction of 44%. The design is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS low-leakage high-threshold technology. Measurements with aggressively scaled supply voltage ( ) in the subthreshold (sub- ) region show energy savings of up to 41 X when operating at 1 kHz with a of 300 mV compared to a nominal of 1.2 V.
Autors: Andersson, O.;Chon, K.H.;Sornmo, L.;Rodrigues, J.N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 377 - 386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 290 mV Sub- ASIC for Real-Time Atrial Fibrillation Detection
Abstract:
A real-time detector for episodes of atrial fibrillation is fabricated as an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The basis for detection is a set of three parameters for characterizing the RR interval series, i.e., turning point ratio, root mean square of successive differences, and Shannon entropy. The developed hardware architecture targets ultra-low voltage operation, suitable for implantable loop recorders with ultra-low energy requirements. Algorithmic and architectural optimizations are performed to minimize area and energy dissipation, with a total area footprint reduction of 44%. The design is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS low-leakage high-threshold technology. Measurements with aggressively scaled supply voltage (VDD) in the subthreshold (sub-VT) region show energy savings of up to 41 X when operating at 1 kHz with a VDD of 300 mV compared to a nominal VDD of 1.2 V.
Autors: Andersson, O.;Chon, K.H.;Sornmo, L.;Rodrigues, J.N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 377 - 386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3 Dimensional Built-In Self-Repair Scheme for Yield Improvement of 3 Dimensional Memories
Abstract:
A 3-dimensional Built-In Self-Repair (3D BISR) scheme is proposed for 3-dimensional (3D) memories. The proposed 3D BISR scheme consists of two phases: a parallel test-repair phase, and a serial test-repair phase. After all memory dice are simultaneously tested, only the faulty memory dice are serially tested and repaired using one Built-In Redundancy Analysis (BIRA) module. Thus, it is a faster test-repair with low area overhead. The proposed BIRA algorithm with a post-share redundancy scheme performs exhaustive searches for all combinations of spare rows and columns. Experimental results show that the proposed 3D BISR is up to two times faster than the 3D serial test-serial repair BISR when seven 2048 2048 bit memory dice are stacked. The proposed 3D BISR requires 44.55% of the area in comparison to a 3D parallel test-parallel repair BISR for four stacked memory dice (one 128 K RAM, two 256 K RAMs, and 512 K RAM). The yield of 3D memories is the highest due to the exhaustive search BIRA algorithm with the post-share redundancy scheme as shown in various experimental results.
Autors: Kang, W.;Lee, C.;Lim, H.;Kang, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 586 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3 Blind ADC-Based CDR for a 20 dB Loss Channel
Abstract:
This paper proposes using a 3-bit ADC to blindly sample the received data from a channel with 20 dB loss at Nyquist at 3 the baud rate. By moving from 2 to 3 sampling, we reduce the required ADC resolution from 5-bit to 3-bit, thereby reducing the overall power consumption by a factor of 2. Measurements from our test chip fabricated in Fujitsu's 65 nm CMOS show a high frequency jitter tolerance of 0.25 UIpp for a 5 Gb/s PRBS31 with a 60 FR4 channel.
Autors: Jalali, M.S.;Ting, C.;Liang, J.;Sheikholeslami, A.;Kibune, M.;Tamura, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1658 - 1667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3x blind ADC-based CDR for a 20 dB loss channel
Abstract:
This paper proposes using a 3-bit ADC to blindly sample the received data from a channel with 20 dB loss at Nyquist at 3x the baud rate. By moving from 2x to 3x sampling, we reduce the required ADC resolution from 5-bit to 3-bit, thereby reducing the overall power consumption by a factor of 2. Measurements from our test chip fabricated in Fujitsu's 65 nm CMOS show a high frequency jitter tolerance of 0.25 UIpp for a 5 Gb/s PRBS31 with a 60" FR4 channel.
Autors: Jalali, M.S.;Ting, C.;Liang, J.;Sheikholeslami, A.;Kibune, M.;Tamura, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1658 - 1667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4.2 mW 50 MS/s 13 bit CMOS SAR ADC With SNR and SFDR Enhancement Techniques
Abstract:
This paper presents a SAR ADC with 71 dB SNDR and 85 dB SFDR at 50 MS/s while keeping low power consumption of 4.2 mW. To achieve high resolution without large increase of power, several SNR and SFDR enhancement techniques are proposed. Firstly, the ADC repeats comparison of LSB by using redundant DAC to average comparator noise and improve SNR. The technique also corrects settling error adaptively, which extends operation speed to 50 MHz even though extra comparison period is added for averaging. Secondly, simple filtering method for reducing DAC noise is introduced to achieve further improvement of SNR. Finally, new dithering method is proposed to enhance SFDR. Injecting noise-shaped, multi-valued and uniform-distributed dither to input of the ADC, spurs caused by capacitance mismatches of DAC can be suppressed more effectively compared with conventional dithering. These techniques can be realized by simple circuits in addition to a basic SAR ADC configuration and do not need high power consumption. The chip is fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process and occupies 0.1 mm 2 including all correction logic. The ADC achieved a peak figure of merit (FoM) of 168.7 dB.
Autors: Miki, T.;Morie, T.;Matsukawa, K.;Bando, Y.;Okumoto, T.;Obata, K.;Sakiyama, S.;Dosho, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1372 - 1381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45 W Injection-Locked FSK Wake-Up Receiver With Frequency-to-Envelope Conversion for Crystal-Less Wireless Body Area Network
Abstract:
A dedicated ultra-low power fully integrated FSK wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wireless body area network (WBAN) is implemented in 0.18 m CMOS technology with 0.7 V supply voltage. For low power consumption, a body channel communication (BCC) physical layer (PHY) is adopted with an 80 MHz carrier frequency. Moreover, an injection-locking digitally-controlled oscillator (IL-DCO) is used to provide an extraordinary gain and frequency-to-envelope conversion in the simple and power-efficient envelope detection receiver architecture. The IL-DCO plays an important role in amplifying and demodulating the received FSK signal under a tight power budget. Finally, for low system cost without any external components and calibration overhead, a successive approximation register (SAR) auto-calibration algorithm is proposed to promptly calibrate the frequency drift of the IL-DCO. As a result, the fabricated 1 mm single-chip WuRX consumes 45 W with a data rate of 312 kb/s, providing an 80 MHz reference frequency with 0.25% stability within 102 s calibration time. The proposed WuRX delivers a stable reference clock to the main transceiver for crystal-less WBAN applications.
Autors: Bae, J.;Yoo, H.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1351 - 1360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 45 W Injection-Locked FSK Wake-Up Receiver With Frequency-to-Envelope Conversion for Crystal-Less Wireless Body Area Network
Abstract:
A dedicated ultra-low power fully integrated FSK wake-up receiver (WuRx) for wireless body area network (WBAN) is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology with 0.7 V supply voltage. For low power consumption, a body channel communication (BCC) physical layer (PHY) is adopted with an 80 MHz carrier frequency. Moreover, an injection-locking digitally-controlled oscillator (IL-DCO) is used to provide an extraordinary gain and frequency-to-envelope conversion in the simple and power-efficient envelope detection receiver architecture. The IL-DCO plays an important role in amplifying and demodulating the received FSK signal under a tight power budget. Finally, for low system cost without any external components and calibration overhead, a successive approximation register (SAR) auto-calibration algorithm is proposed to promptly calibrate the frequency drift of the IL-DCO. As a result, the fabricated 1 mm 2 single-chip WuRX consumes 45 μW with a data rate of 312 kb/s, providing an 80 MHz reference frequency with 0.25% stability within 102 μs calibration time. The proposed WuRX delivers a stable reference clock to the main transceiver for crystal-less WBAN applications.
Autors: Joonsung Bae;Hoi-Jun Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 50, issue:6, pages: 1351 - 1360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 50- to 300-MHz CMOS Tracking Filter Based on Parallel Operation of Saturation and Triode Transconductors for Digital TV Tuner ICs
Abstract:
In this brief, a 50- to 300-MHz CMOS tracking low-pass filter has been presented to resolve a LO harmonic-mixing problem for Advanced Television Systems Committee terrestrial and cable digital TV tuner integrated circuits. A filter based on parallel operation of a transconductor biased in the saturation region with source degeneration and a transconductor biased in the triode region is chosen to achieve high linearity performance at the very high frequency/ultrahigh frequency bands. The cutoff frequency of the proposed filter is tunable from 50 to 300 MHz. The filter is implemented in a 0.18-µm CMOS technology and achieves a minimum input-referred noise density of 3 nV/ Hz and maximum in-band output-referred third-order intercept point of 20.7 dBm. It operates at a nominal supply voltage of 1.8 V with bias currents of 114 mA. The active die area is 1.1 mm2.
Autors: Kwon, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 522 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 58 nW ECG ASIC With Motion-Tolerant Heartbeat Timing Extraction for Wearable Cardiovascular Monitoring
Abstract:
An ASIC for wearable cardiovascular monitoring is implemented using a topology that takes advantage of the electrocardiogram's (ECG) waveform to replace the traditional ECG instrumentation amplifier, ADC, and signal processor with a single chip solution. The ASIC can extract heartbeat timings in the presence of baseline drift, muscle artifact, and signal clipping. The circuit can operate with ECGs ranging from the chest location to remote locations where the ECG magnitude is as low as 30 V. Besides heartbeat detection, a midpoint estimation method can accurately extract the ECG R-wave timing, enabling the calculations of heart rate variability. With 58 nW of power consumption at 0.8 V supply voltage and 0.76 mm of active die area in standard 0.18 m CMOS technology, the ECG ASIC is sufficiently low power and compact to be suitable for long term and wearable cardiovascular monitoring applications under stringent battery and size constraints.
Autors: He, D.D.;Sodini, C.G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 370 - 376
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 600 V AC Voltage Amplifier for Power Measurements
Abstract:
A voltage amplifier composed of three cascaded −10:1 gain sections has been developed to extend the voltage range of primary electric power calibrations from 120 to 600 V over the 50–400-Hz frequency range. The gain and phase errors of each amplifier section are continuously measured and corrected in situ using a permuting impedance measurement technique. The amplifier design approach, measurement principles, and initial performance results are presented.
Autors: Waltrip, B.C.;Laug, O.B.;Nelson, T.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1373 - 1377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Framework for Combining Protein and Network Topology Information for Predicting Protein-Protein Interactions
Abstract:
Computational methods for predicting protein-protein interactions are important tools that can complement high-throughput technologies and guide biologists in designing new laboratory experiments. The proteins and the interactions between them can be described by a network which is characterized by several topological properties. Information about proteins and interactions between them, in combination with knowledge about topological properties of the network, can be used for developing computational methods that can accurately predict unknown protein-protein interactions. This paper presents a supervised learning framework based on Bayesian inference for combining two types of information: i) network topology information, and ii) information related to proteins and the interactions between them. The motivation of our model is that by combining these two types of information one can achieve a better accuracy in predicting protein-protein interactions, than by using models constructed from these two types of information independently.
Autors: Birlutiu, A.;d'Alche-Buc, F.;Heskes, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 12, issue:3, pages: 538 - 550
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off
Abstract:
This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is order, consumes power and occupies chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size.
Autors: Wang, S.;Koickal, T.J.;Hamilton, A.;Cheung, R.;Smith, L.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 297 - 311
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Low-Loss 60 GHz Die to Rectangular Waveguide Transition
Abstract:
This letter describes a broadband CPW to standard WR-15 rectangular waveguide transition designed for low-cost PCB technology. This low-loss transition can be be directly integrated to a flip-chipped millimetre-wave integrated circuit. The measured fractional bandwidth of this module is 25%, covering from 52 to 67 GHz. The average measured insertion loss of the transition including a quasi-coax section is 0.5 dB over the 60 GHz band, and the return loss is higher than 15 dB.
Autors: Fakharzadeh, M.;Jafarlou, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 370 - 372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Characterized Method for the Real-Time Compensation of Power System Measurement Transducers
Abstract:
This paper presents a real-time compensation method for the improvement of the frequency behavior of measurement transducers already operating or to be installed in transmission and distribution grids. The developed technique relies on the identification of an infinite impulse response digital filter with complex frequency response equal to the inverse of the transducer, whose parameters are evaluated through a hybrid scheme based on the combination of a stochastic and a deterministic procedure. Attention is focused on the algorithm identification capability, on the sensitivity to the weighting array introduced in the optimization cost function, and on the propagation uncertainty associated with the algorithm input quantities. Such investigation has been carried out on a circuit model of a resistive divider thought for medium-voltage (MV) measurements. To estimate the uncertainty associated with the identified filter frequency behavior, the Monte Carlo method has been implemented. The overall improvement varies with the frequency; at 10 kHz, the improvement for both the ratio as well as phase error is of two orders of magnitude. The uncertainty, estimated with 10 500 draws, associated with the filter is lower or equal to the input ones all over the 10 Hz–50 kHz frequency range. The algorithm is finally applied to a laboratory resistive capacitive divider, which is the low-voltage stage of an MV divider. The obtained improvement is of two orders of magnitude for the ratio and phase errors over all the considered frequency range.
Autors: Crotti, G.;Gallo, D.;Giordano, D.;Landi, C.;Luiso, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 64, issue:6, pages: 1398 - 1404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circular Polarization Selective Surface for Space Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, an LHCPSS based on the Pierrot cell has been theoretically studied and demonstrated experimentally. Design guidelines are given and an accurate fabrication process has been developed. Measurements of a fabricated prototype exhibit performance compliant with the requirements for space applications over a limited bandwidth. Axial ratio and insertion loss smaller than 1 and 0.5 dB, respectively, over a 7% bandwidth have been achieved at 9.8 GHz. Wider bandwidths with low axial ratio are possible by relaxing the requirements in terms of insertion loss.
Autors: Sanz-Fernandez, J.;Saenz, E.;de Maagt, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 2460 - 2470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Circular-Ring Miniaturized-Element Metasurface With Many Good Features for Frequency Selective Shielding Applications
Abstract:
A novel circular-ring miniaturized-element (CRME) metasurface is proposed for frequency selective electromagnetic shielding applications in this paper. The proposed structure exhibits good performance in many aspects. The CRME size can be easily reduced to , where is the wavelength at resonance. Such small size can be useful in applications with limited space. The newly proposed metasurface not only shows the stability to incidence angles and polarizations, but also demonstrate negligible polarization crossing. The metasurface also presents low coupling between elements, which leads to the insensitivity of periodicity fluctuation in fabrication process. Moreover, the frequency responses can be varied through the modification of the element pattern of the metasurface. It provides flexible frequency responses to use in frequency selective shielding applications. Also, this element is suitable for constructing a metasurface aligned in either square or even hexagonal lattice, which owns the best adaptability to a doubly curved surface or a spherical one. Without revising the CRME, both the square- and hexagonal-lattice metasurfaces constructed can perform competently at the same time. Finally, the metasurface prototype is fabricated and tested in a fully anechoic chamber to verify the design. The measured results well agree with the simulated ones.
Autors: Huang, F.;Chiu, C.;Wu, T.;Chiou, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 365 - 374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class of Explicitly Solvable Vehicle Motion Problems
Abstract:
A small but interesting result of Brockett is extended to the Euclidean group and is illustrated by several examples. The result concerns the explicit solution of an optimal control problem on Lie groups, where the control belongs to a Lie triple system in the Lie algebra. The extension allows for an objective function based on an indefinite quadratic form. Applying the result requires explicit knowledge of the Lie triple systems of the Lie algebra . Hence, a complete classification of the Lie triple systems of this Lie algebra is derived. Examples are considered for optimal trajectories in three cases. The first case concerns cars moving in the plane. The second looks at motions that rigidly follow the Bishop frame to a space curve. The final example does not have a particular name as it does not seem to have been studied before. The appendix gives a brief introduction to Screw theory. This is essentially the study of the Lie algebra .
Autors: Selig, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 766 - 777
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Clock and Data Recovery Circuit With Programmable Multi-Level Phase Detector Characteristics and a Built-in Jitter Monitor
Abstract:
We demonstrate a clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit having a new type of a multi-level bang-bang phase detector (ML-BBPD). The gain characteristics of our ML-BBPD can be programmed by scanning the dead-zone width of a variable dead-zone BBPD in the time domain. Its linear-like gain characteristics result in less sensitive CDR performance against input jitter and process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations. In addition, a built-in on-chip jitter monitor can be easily implemented using our ML-BBPD. A prototype 1.25-Gb/s CDR based on our ML-BBPD with a built-in jitter monitor is realized with 0.18- CMOS technology and its performance is successfully verified with measurement.
Autors: Kwon, D.-H.;Park, Y.-S.;Choi, W.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1472 - 1480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Low-Power Cross-Coupled Immittance-Converter Transimpedance Amplifier
Abstract:
This letter presents a low-power transimpedance amplifier (TIA) that employs an immittance converter, which provides both a negative input resistance to increase the input pole frequency and a negative inductance to improve the circuit stability. These allow for a significant bandwidth enhancement with low power consumption. Two TIAs, TIA1 with 6 GHz and TIA2 with 8.8 GHz 3 dB bandwidths, were fabricated in a standard 0.13- CMOS technology and were designed to operate with a 250 fF photodiode capacitance at 10 Gb/s. The transimpedance gains of the single-stage TIAs, followed by near-unity-gain output-matching buffers, are , the group-delay variations and average input-referred noise currents are and (TIA1) and and (TIA2) over their 3 dB bandwidths. The TIAs occupy an active area of 250 160 , and without the output-matching buffer each consumes 2 mW.
Autors: Taghavi, M.H.;Belostotski, L.;Haslett, J.W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 403 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS PWM Transceiver Using Self-Referenced Edge Detection
Abstract:
A CMOS pulsewidth modulation (PWM) transceiver circuit that exploits the self-referenced edge detection technique is presented. By comparing the rising edge that is self-delayed by about 0.5 T and the modulated falling edge in one carrier clock cycle, area-efficient and high-robustness (against timing fluctuations) edge detection enabling PWM communication is achieved without requiring elaborate phase-locked loops. Since the proposed self-referenced edge detection circuit has the capability of timing error measurement while changing the length of self-delay element, adaptive data-rate optimization and delay-line calibration are realized. The measured results with a 65-nm CMOS prototype demonstrate a 2-bit PWM communication, high data rate (3.2 Gb/s), and high reliability (BER > ) with small area occupation (540 m ). For reliability improvement, error check and correction associated with intercycle edge detection is introduced and its effectiveness is verified by 1-bit PWM measurement.
Autors: Niitsu, K.;Osawa, Y.;Harigai, N.;Hirabayashi, D.;Kobayashi, O.;Yamaguchi, T.J.;Kobayashi, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 23, issue:6, pages: 1145 - 1149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS W-Band Quasi-Subharmonic Mixer
Abstract:
This letter reports a W-band quasi-subharmonic down-conversion mixer in a 65 nm CMOS technology. Developed from subharmonic mixers, this mixer saves trouble in designing phase-shifters and works well within W-band. Down-conversion is achieved by capturing the phase difference between two sine waves at every half cycle of the local oscillator. The power gain is above 3.5 dB over the entire W-band. The minimum noise figure is 12.5 dB, and the 1 dB compression point is 1.2 dBm.
Autors: Huang, T.N.;Yi, X.;Boon, C.C.;He, X.;Feng, G.;Lim, W.M.;Zhu, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 25, issue:6, pages: 385 - 387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cMUT probe for ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound targeted therapy
Abstract:
Ultrasound-mediated targeted therapy represents a promising strategy in the arsenal of modern therapy. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) technology could overcome some difficulties encountered by traditional piezoelectric transducers. In this study, we report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound (USgFUS) cMUT probe dedicated to preclinical evaluation of targeted therapy (hyperthermia, thermosensitive liposomes activation, and sonoporation) at low frequency (1 MHz) with simultaneous ultrasonic imaging and guidance (15 to 20 MHz). The probe embeds two types of cMUT arrays to perform the modalities of targeted therapy and imaging respectively. The wafer-bonding process flow employed for the manufacturing of the cMUTs is reported. One of its main features is the possibility of implementing two different gap heights on the same wafer. All the design and characterization steps of the devices are described and discussed, starting from the array design up to the first in vitro measurements: optical (microscopy) and electrical (impedance) measurements, arrays??? electroacoustic responses, focused pressure field mapping (maximum peak-to-peak pressure = 2.5 MPa), and the first B-scan image of a wire-target phantom.
Autors: Gross, D.;Coutier, C.;Legros, M.;Bouakaz, A.;Certon, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1145 - 1160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact and Low-Profile Loop Antenna With Multiband Operation for Ultra-Thin Smartphones
Abstract:
A folded loop antenna having a very compact size of with multiband operation for ultra-thin smartphone applications is proposed. The antenna generates four resonant modes, the traditional , , and resonant modes and an extra higher-order resonant mode, to cover the GSM850, GSM900, DCS1800, PCS1900, UMTS, TD-SCDMA, LTE2300, and WLAN systems. The extra resonant mode is generated using a certain distance between the feed point and the shorting point on the ground plane. The antenna is studied using simulation and measurement. To study the antenna in a more realistic situation, a standard metallic USB connector is placed inside the loop radiator. Results show that the USB connector has little effects on the antenna performance.
Autors: Wu, D.;Cheung, S.W.;Yuk, T.I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 2745 - 2750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact EBG Structure With Wideband Power/Ground Noise Suppression Using Meander-Perforated Plane
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a miniaturized and wideband electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure with a meander-perforated plane (MPP) for power/ground noise suppression in multilayer printed circuit boards. The proposed MPP enhances the characteristic impedance of the EBG unit cell and improves the slow-wave effect, thus achieving the significant size reduction and the stopband enhancement. To explain the prominent results, a dispersion analysis for the proposed MPP-EBG structure is developed. Compared to a mushroom-type EBG structure, it is experimentally demonstrated that the MPP-EBG structure presents a 57% reduction in the start frequency of the bandgap, which leads to a 74% reduction in a unit cell size. In addition, the MPP-EBG structure considerably improves the noise suppression bandwidth (−40 dB) from 0.8 to 4.9 GHz compared to the mushroom-type EBG structure.
Autors: Kim, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 595 - 598
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact, Broadband Spiral Antenna With Unidirectional Circularly Polarized Radiation Patterns
Abstract:
A low-profile, compact spiral antenna with a broadband circularly polarized (CP) response is presented. The antenna is backed by a ground plane and has unidirectional radiation patterns over its entire frequency band of operation. This antenna is a multilayer structure composed of a center-fed modified Archimedean spiral that exploits a novel loading structure, a ring-shaped absorber, and a feed network, which includes a 180° power splitter. The loading structure possesses both inductive and capacitive characteristics, which increase the equivalent electrical length of the antenna while maintaining its maximum dimensions. The Archimedean spiral is integrated into the multilayer dielectric structure along with its differential feed network. An optimized ring-shaped absorber is used on the periphery of the antenna to reduce the ground effects on the antenna performance. The proposed antenna occupies a volume that is 89% smaller than that occupied by a conventional ground-plane-backed Archimedean spiral antenna. At its lowest frequency of operation, the antenna has electrical dimensions of , where is the free-space wavelength at the lowest frequency of operation (0.5 GHz). Over the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.4 GHz (2.8:1), the antenna has a VSWR of 2.4:1, and it has a CP radiation pattern with an axial ratio better than 1.2 dB. Within this frequency range, the antenna has minimum and maximum realized gain values of dBiC and 3.1 dBiC, respectively.
Autors: Shih, T.;Behdad, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 63, issue:6, pages: 2776 - 2781
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study on Electrical and Mechanical Behavior of Indium Tin Oxide and Poly (3, 4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Thin Films Under Tensile Loads
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the performance of conductive polymer and conducting transparent conductive oxide coated on flexible substrate under tensile loads. Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films with two different resistances (i.e., 150 and 225 Ω/sq) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with another two different resistances (i.e., 60 and 200 Ω/sq) were used in the experiment. All films were coated on polyethylene terephthalate. A mechanical stretching device was used to stretch all sheets up to 12% of the original length. The considered stretching speeds in terms of strain rate were 0.01, 0.1, and 1 min-1. Two types of cracks were noticed after stretching of the ITO sheet. The first type was noticed at 6% strain level initiated and propagated perpendicularly to the direction of the load toward the edges of the sample, whereas the second type was noticed at 9% strain level initiated from different points on the first type of cracks and propagated perpendicularly with them. No clear cracks or deformation was seen on the surface of PEDOT after stretching. The percentage change in electrical resistance (PCER) with strain was investigated under three different strain rates, and it was noticeable that PCER increases with strain for both PEDOT and ITO sheets. However, the increase was huge in the case of ITO. Strain and initial sheet resistance were significant factors in terms of affecting the PCER for ITO films under stretching, and all of strain, strain rate, and initial sheet resistance were significant factors in terms of affecting PCER for PEDOT films under stretching according to the analysis of variance study. As a final conclusion from this paper, the electrical performance of PEDOT films is greatly better than that of ITO films under stretching.
Autors: Alkhazali, A.;Hamasha, M.M.;Lu, S.;Westgate, C.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Jun 2015, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 174 - 180
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z