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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 06-2013 sorted by title, page: 0
» "All the better to see you with, my dear": Facial recognition and privacy in online social networks
Abstract:
Focusing primarily on popular online social networks like Facebook, this article provides an overview of the main social and legal challenges attending the use of facial-recognition technologies on these platforms and explores ways of governing the associated privacy implications, specifically from a European data protection perspective. The authors discuss potential legal, technological, and business model responses to these developments.
Autors: Andrade, N.N.G.d.;Martin, A.;Monteleone, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 21 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "All the Better to See You with, My Dear": Facial Recognition and Privacy in Online Social Networks
Abstract:
Focusing primarily on popular online social networks like Facebook, this article provides an overview of the main social and legal challenges attending the use of facial-recognition technologies on these platforms and explores ways of governing the associated privacy implications, specifically from a European data protection perspective. The authors discuss potential legal, technological, and business model responses to these developments.
Autors: Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes de;Martin, Aaron;Monteleone, Shara;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 11, issue:3, pages: 21 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Statistics 102” for Multisource-Multitarget Detection and Tracking
Abstract:
This tutorial paper summarizes the motivations, concepts and techniques of finite-set statistics (FISST), a system-level, “top-down,” direct generalization of ordinary single-sensor, single-target engineering statistics to the realm of multisensor, multitarget detection and tracking. Finite-set statistics provides powerful new conceptual and computational methods for dealing with multisensor-multitarget detection and tracking problems. The paper describes how “multitarget integro-differential calculus” is used to extend conventional single-sensor, single-target formal Bayesian motion and measurement modeling to general tracking problems. Given such models, the paper describes the Bayes-optimal approach to multisensor-multitarget detection and tracking: the multisensor-multitarget recursive Bayes filter. Finally, it describes how multitarget calculus is used to derive principled statistical approximations of this optimal filter, such as PHD filters, CPHD filters, and multi-Bernoulli filters.
Autors: Mahler, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 376 - 389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.2- AlGaN/GaN High Electron-Mobility Transistors With Atomic Layer Deposition Passivation
Abstract:
We report a successful application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) aluminum oxide as a passivation layer to gallium nitride high electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). This new passivation process results in 8%–10% higher dc maximum drain current and maximum extrinsic transconductance, about one order of magnitude lower drain current in the sub-threshold region, 10%–20% higher pulsed- drain current, and 27%–30% higher RF power with simultaneously 5–8 percentage point higher power-added efficiency. The achieved improvement in device performance is attributed to the outstanding quality of the interface between III-N and the ALD aluminum oxide resulting from the uniqueness of the adopted ALD process, featuring a wet-chemical-based wafer preparation as well as a pregrowth self-cleaning procedure in the growth chamber. This technology can be readily integrated into the HEMT-based integrated circuit fabrication process, making the ALD aluminum oxide-passivated GaN HEMTs excellent candidates for multiple microwave and millimeter-wave power applications.
Autors: Xu, D.;Chu, K.;Diaz, J.;Zhu, W.;Roy, R.;Pleasant, L.M.;Nichols, K.;Chao, P.-C.;Xu, M.;Ye, P.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 744 - 746
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1% solar cells derived from ultrathin carbon nanotube photoabsorbing films
Abstract:
Using a carbon nanotube photoabsorbing film <5 nm in thickness, we demonstrate a 1% solar cell. Specifically, polymer wrapped, highly monochiral (7, 5) nanotubes are implemented in a bilayered heterojunction with acceptor C60. The nanotubes drive 63% of the conversion, several times stronger than previously demonstrated. Peak external quantum efficiency (QE) of 43% at the nanotube bandgap (1055 nm) and power conversion efficiency of 0.95% and 1.02% at 1.0 and 1.5 suns, respectively, are achieved. The high internal QE from the ultrathin layers suggests that nanostructured or multijunction cells exploiting multiple nanotube layers will be many times more efficient.
Autors: Shea, Matthew J.;Arnold, Michael S.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 102, issue:24, pages: 243101 - 243101-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.2-V Supply, 100-nW, 1.09-V Bandgap and 0.7-V Supply, 52.5-nW, 0.55-V Subbandgap Reference Circuits for Nanowatt CMOS LSIs
Abstract:
This paper presents bandgap reference (BGR) and sub-BGR circuits for nanowatt LSIs. The circuits consist of a nano-ampere current reference circuit, a bipolar transistor, and proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) voltage generators. The proposed circuits avoid the use of resistors and contain only MOSFETs and one bipolar transistor. Because the sub-BGR circuit divides the output voltage of the bipolar transistor without resistors, it can operate at a sub-1-V supply. The experimental results obtained in the 0.18- m CMOS process demonstrated that the BGR circuit could generate a reference voltage of 1.09 V and the sub-BGR circuit could generate one of 0.548 V. The power dissipations of the BGR and sub-BGR circuits corresponded to 100 and 52.5 nW.
Autors: Osaki, Y.;Hirose, T.;Kuroki, N.;Numa, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1530 - 1538
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 10 Guarded Hamon Network for the Modified Wheatstone Bridge for High Value Resistors Calibration
Abstract:
At the National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM), a Hamon guarded 10×100 MΩ network was developed to improve the traceability levels of dc resistance at 1 GΩ level. Utilizing and revisiting this project, a Hamon 10×10 GΩ network is developed to extend the capabilities of the Hamon scaling technique up to 100 GΩ. The novelty of the 10 × 10 GΩ network is its improved guard system, and the improvement for INRIM is the extension of the range of the Hamon scaling method up to 100 GΩ A description of this technique at INRIM, accurate construction details of the network and of its particular suitability for the modified Wheatstone bridge for high resistors calibration measurement method are given. The 1:100 transfer reliability test of the network gave satisfactory results. An uncertainty budget from 10 kΩ to 100 GΩ is worked out. Some measurement results on the network, both in parallel and in series configuration, are shown.
Autors: Galliana, F.;Capra, P.P.;Gasparotto, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1729 - 1735
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 12.5-Gb/s Full-Rate CDR With Wideband Quadrature Phase Shifting in Data Path
Abstract:
A 12.5-Gb/s full-rate clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit that utilizes an open-loop quadrature clock generator for wideband 90 phase shifting in the data path is presented. The differential clock from a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is split into quadrature phases and subsequently mixed with data to provide in-phase and quadrature components of the data over a broad range of frequencies in the vicinity of the nominal data rate. The quadrature data phases are employed for the detection of clock phase misalignment in a mixer-based phase detector. A proof-of-concept prototype chip that integrates the critical building blocks of the proposed CDR is fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS technology. The CDR achieves a bit error rate of in response to pseudorandom-binary-sequence data, while the chip (which excludes VCO) consumes 84 mW from a 1.2-V supply.
Autors: Zargaran-Yazd, A.;Mirabbasi, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 297 - 301
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 13.8-kV Selective High-Resistance Grounding System for a Geothermal Generating Plant—A Case Study
Abstract:
The 13.8-kV selective high-resistance grounding (HRG) systems for bus-connected generators are nonexistent due to two reasons: One is that the stray capacitance current of the system can be high ( A), and the other is that the sensitivity and selectivity of the ground-fault devices to detect low levels of ground-fault currents are required. This paper describes the relay types, sensors, settings on protective relays, and flow of currents for various fault locations in a 13.8-kV system and demonstrates how a selective HRG has been implemented. To the authors' knowledge, there is no HRG selective system at 13.8 kV.
Autors: Das, J.C.;Perich, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 1234 - 1243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 140–220-GHz DHBT Detectors
Abstract:
This paper discusses -band (140–220 GHz) detectors based on a 250-nm InP–InGaAs–InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor process available from the Teledyne Scientific Company. Two types of detectors are presented—a passive detector where the transistor's base-emitter junction nonlinearity is used, and an active detector, where the transistor transconductance nonlinearity is used for detection. Measurements of transistor noise-power spectrum density at low frequencies is used to model and predict the noise equivalent power (NEP) of the detectors. Analysis of responsivity and noise is presented and compared with measurements. Both configurations are analyzed and compared in terms of noise-voltage, responsivity and NEP. The conclusion that the passive detector offers lower NEP is analyzed and explained.
Autors: Vassilev, V.;Zirath, H.;Kozhuharov, R.;Lai, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2353 - 2360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 16-QAM Golay Complementary Sequence Sets with Arbitrary Lengths
Abstract:
In an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system, the reduction of peak-to-mean envelope power ratio (PMEPR) is one of crucial issues. It is all known that in an OFDM system, Golay complementary sequence (CS) pairs result in lowest upper bound 2 of PMEPR. Hence, this letter focuses on constructions of 16-QAM Golay CS sets. The proposed two constructions can produce the required sequences with arbitrary lengths, including lots of unknown ones in the existing references, if there exist the quaternary Golay CS sets of such lengths, and the PMEPRs of the Golay CS pairs from both are at most 2. As a consequence, the resultant sequences by this letter can be used as the inputs of using non-radix-2 inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) in the time domain OFDM signals.
Autors: Zeng, Fanxin;Zeng, Xiaoping;Zhang, Zhenyu;Xuan, Guixin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1216 - 1219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2 μm laterally coupled distributed-feedback GaSb-based metamorphic laser grown on a GaAs substrate
Abstract:
We report a type-I GaSb-based laterally coupled distributed-feedback (DFB) laser grown on a GaAs substrate operating continuous wave at room temperature. The laser structure was designed to operate near a wavelength of 2 μm and was grown metamorphically with solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The device was fabricated using a 6th-order deep etch grating structure as part of the sidewalls of the narrow ridge waveguide. The DFB laser emits total output power of up to 40 mW in a single longitudinal mode operation at a heat-sink temperature of 20 °C.
Autors: Apiratikul, P.;He, L.;Richardson, C.J.K.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 102, issue:23, pages: 231101 - 231101-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D Differential Folded Vertical Hall Device Fabricated on a P-Type Substrate Using CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This paper investigates a two-dimensional (2-D) differential folded vertical Hall device (VHD) fabricated using standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. To minimize the cross-coupling noise, the proposed VHD is laterally folded to shorten the effective conduction length, and a p+ guard ring shortens the effective conduction length to narrow the conducting channel. The proposed VHD is sensitive to in-plane magnetic induction based on the combinational magnetic effects between a bulk magnetotransistor (BMT), a vertical magnetoresistor (VMR), and a vertical magnetotransistor (VMT); and that the BMT is implemented with a p-substrate to enhance the magnetosensitivity. The measurement results show that the BMT is the dominant mechanism in view of a vertical magnetoresistor (VMR) and vertical magnetotransistor (VMT). Additionally, the VMT scales down the measurement range considerably whereas the VMR enhances the measurement range of the proposed VHD. The VMR is the key factor to increase the nonlinearity error. Integrating VMR with BMT or VMT enables high nonlinearity in a measured Hall voltage with respect to applied magnetic induction (B), but both the Hall voltage and the cross-coupling voltage are linear in B by integrating BMT with VMT. Additionally, the proposed VHD operates with small magnetic hysteresis, and its sensitivity is highest when bias current and bias voltage are low.
Autors: Guo-Ming Sung;Chih-Ping Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 13, issue:6, pages: 2253 - 2262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2011 IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits Best Paper Award Given to Bolatkale, Breems, Rutten, and Makinwa for "A 4-GHz Continuous-Time Δ-ΣADC with 70-dB DR and -74 dBFS THD in 125-MHz BW"[People]
Abstract:
The article "A 4-GHz Continuous-Time Δ-ΣADC with 70-dB DR and -74 dBFS THD in 125-MHz BW" by Muhammed Bolatkale, Lucien J. Breems, Robert Rutten, and Kofi A.A. Makinwa, published in IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits (JSSC), vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2857??2868, Dec. 2011, was declared best of all in JSSC 2011. The authors?? novel approach modifies loop filter architecture to deal with the parasitics and excess delay of the large comparator array in the 4-GHz multibit quantizer. Their five-times improvement in bandwidth compared to state-of-theart CMOS delta-sigma modulators enlarges the application domain of these ADCs, enabling them to compete with high speed architectures like pipeline ADCs. A detailed review of the article is provided.
Autors: Olstein, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 5, issue:2, pages: 44 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Localization of Human Based on an Inertial Capture System
Abstract:
This paper introduces a method to track the spatial location and movement of a human using wearable inertia sensors without additional external global positioning devices. Starting from the lower limb kinematics of a human, the method uses multiple wearable inertia sensors to determine the orientation of the body segments and lower limb joint motions. At the same time, based on human kinematics and locomotion phase detection, the spatial position and the trajectory of a reference point on the body can be determined. An experimental study has shown that the position error can be controlled within 1–2% of the total distance in both indoor and outdoor environments. The system is capable of localization on irregular terrains (like uphill/downhill). From the localization results, the ground shape and the height information that can be recovered after localization experiments are conducted. A benchmark study on the accuracy of this method was carried out using the camera-based motion analysis system to study the validity of the system. The localization data that are obtained from the proposed method match well with those from the commercial system. Since the sensors can be worn on the human at any time and any place, this method has no restriction to indoor and outdoor applications.
Autors: Yuan, Q.;Chen, I.-M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 806 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Locomotive and Drilling Microrobot Using Novel Stationary EMA System
Abstract:
For 3-D locomotion and drilling of a microrobot, we proposed an electromagnetic actuation (EMA) system consisting of three pairs of stationary Helmholtz coils, a pair of stationary Maxwell coils, and a pair of rotating Maxwell coils in the previous research . However, this system could have limited medical applications because of the pair of rotational Maxwell coils. In this paper, we propose a new EMA system with three pairs of stationary Helmholtz coils, a pair of stationary Maxwell coils, and a new locomotive mechanism for the same 3-D locomotion and drilling of the microrobot as achieved by the previously proposed EMA system. For the performance evaluation of the proposed EMA system, we perform a 3-D locomotion and drilling test in a blood vessel phantom. In addition, the two EMA systems are compared to show that the newly proposed EMA system has 440% wider working space and 49% less power consumption than the previous EMA system.
Autors: HyunChul Choi;Kyoungrae Cha;Semi Jeong;Jong-Oh Park;Sukho Park;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 1221 - 1225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 &#x0026; 16 Years Ago
Abstract:
A summary of articles published in Computer 32 and 16 years ago.
Autors: Holmes, Neville;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 12 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Voltage Pattern Measurement of a 2.45 GHz Rectenna
Abstract:
In this communication, a fully automatic measurement setup for the voltage distribution of a rectenna in space is reported. This 3D voltage pattern defines the variation of the DC voltage obtained by a rectenna as a function of the direction away from the transmitting antenna. It allows optimizing the placement of the rectenna in the zone of interest. A comparison is performed between the 3D voltage pattern of a 2.45 GHz rectenna and the radiation pattern of the receiving antenna. The results demonstrate that the influence of the rectifier on the radiating part cannot be ignored and validate the need of a 3D voltage distribution measurement to accurately characterize a rectenna system.
Autors: Hoang, T.Q.V.;Seguenot, E.;Ferrero, F.;Dubard, J.-L.;Brachat, P.;Desvilles, J.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3354 - 3356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40 Years of Radiation Single Event Effects at the European Space Agency, ESTEC
Abstract:
This summary paper is based on an invited talk given at the Single Event Effects (SEE) Symposium at La Jolla, California, USA on 12 April 2011, titled '40 Years of SEE at ESA/ESTEC' (European Space Agency/European Space Research and Technology Centre). As an historical summary paper covering radiation activities within the ESTEC Components Laboratory, this paper primarily focus on my own SEE experiences and involvement from 1970 to 2010.
Autors: Harboe-Sorensen, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 1816 - 1823
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5.8-GHz Integrated Differential Rectenna Unit Using Both-Sided MIC Technology With Design Flexibility
Abstract:
A 5.8-GHz integrated differential rectifying antenna (rectenna) unit with design flexibility is proposed, and its performance is confirmed experimentally. It positively uses both-sided microwave integrated circuit (MIC) technology, and its antenna feed circuit includes filters which suppress 2nd harmonic. This proposed rectenna unit is a very simple, compact and novel configuration. It operates in a differential mode, and effectively integrates an antenna array with a rectifying circuit. Its configuration provides the pragmatically advantages such as antenna array design flexibility and rectenna unit extensibility. Herein, the behavior of the rectenna unit was successfully confirmed under low radio frequency (RF) power density. Maximum RF-DC conversion efficiency at 5.8 GHz of Industry-Science-Medical (ISM) band was approximately 27% with the load resistance of 390 when the received power density (PD) was 0.031 W/m .
Autors: Ushijima, Y.;Sakamoto, T.;Nishiyama, E.;Aikawa, M.;Toyoda, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3357 - 3360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50 years in the development of polymer suspension-type insulators
Abstract:
The article reviews 50 years in the development of polymer suspension-type insulators for overhead lines and outlines the remaining issues that limit their greater use.
Autors: Cherney, E.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 18 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 540-meV Hole Activation Energy for GaSb/GaAs Quantum Dot Memory Structure Using AlGaAs Barrier
Abstract:
We report on a memory structure that only makes use of holes as the storage charges based on type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) using an AlGaAs barrier. The measurements confirm existence of quantum states in the GaSb dots and reveal the applied bias voltage range for the write/erase process by charging/discharging the QDs. A large hole activation energy value of 540 meV is obtained for the device measured by deep level transient spectroscopy. Our results indicate that type-II GaSb/GaAs QD system is a promising candidate for future memory devices.
Autors: Cui, K.;Ma, W.;Zhang, Y.;Huang, J.;Wei, Y.;Cao, Y.;Guo, X.;Li, Q.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 759 - 761
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 65-nm CMOS Dual-Gate Device for -Band Broadband Low-Noise Amplifier and High-Accuracy Quadrature Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
Abstract:
Design and analysis of a two-stage low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a bottom-series coupled quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) using a 65-nm CMOS dual-gate device are present in this paper. By using the proposed dual-gate device, the parasitic capacitance and the effective substrate resistance can be reduced. Moreover, the 3-dB cutoff frequency can be extended due to the reduction of the Miller effect. The bandwidth of the dual-gate LNA is investigated to compare with the conventional cascode configuration. Besides, the operation principle of the quadrature signal generation using the dual-gate device is also presented for the QVCO design. The two-stage dual-gate LNA demonstrates a flat 3-dB bandwidth of 7.3 GHz from 19.4 to 26.7 GHz and a maximum gain of 18.9 dB. At 24 GHz, the measured minimum noise figure is 4.7 dB, and the measured output third-order intercept point is 11 dBm. The dual-gate QVCO exhibits an oscillation frequency of up to 25.3 GHz, a phase noise of 109 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency, an amplitude error of 0.16 dB, and a phase error of 0.8 . The proposed dual-gate CMOS device is very suitable for the linear and nonlinear circuit designs above 20 GHz, especially for millimeter-wave applications due to its high speed and compact area.
Autors: Chang, H.-Y.;Lin, C.-H.;Liu, Y.-C.;Yeh, Y.-L.;Chen, K.;Wu, S.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2402 - 2413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 8-channel acquisition system for time-correlated single-photon counting
Abstract:
Nowadays, an increasing number of applications require high-performance analytical instruments capable to detect the temporal trend of weak and fast light signals with picosecond time resolution. The Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique is currently one of the preferable solutions when such critical optical signals have to be analyzed and it is fully exploited in biomedical and chemical research fields, as well as in security and space applications. Recent progress in the field of single-photon detector arrays is pushing research towards the development of high performance multichannel TCSPC systems, opening the way to modern time-resolved multi-dimensional optical analysis. In this paper we describe a new 8-channel high-performance TCSPC acquisition system, designed to be compact and versatile, to be used in modern TCSPC measurement setups. We designed a novel integrated circuit including a multichannel Time-to-Amplitude Converter with variable full-scale range, a D/A converter, and a parallel adder stage. The latter is used to adapt each converter output to the input dynamic range of a commercial 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter, while the integrated DAC implements the dithering technique with as small as possible area occupation. The use of this monolithic circuit made the design of a scalable system of very small dimensions (95 × 40 mm) and low power consumption (6 W) possible. Data acquired from the TCSPC measurement are digitally processed and stored inside an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array), while a USB transceiver allows real-time transmission of up to eight TCSPC histograms to a remote PC. Eventually, the experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system performs TCSPC measurements with high conversion rate (up to 5 MHz/channel), extremely low differential nonlinearity (<0.04 peak-to-peak of the time bin width), high time resolution (down to 20 ps Full-Width Half-Maximum), and very low crosstalk between ch- nnels.
Autors: Antonioli, S.;Miari, L.;Cuccato, A.;Crotti, M.;Rech, I.;Ghioni, M.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 84, issue:6, pages: 064705 - 064705-10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control for Discrete-Time Markov Jump Systems With Uncertain Transition Probabilities
Abstract:
In this technical note, the control problem for a class of discrete-time Markov jump systems (MJSs) with uncertain transition probabilities (TPs) is investigated. The uncertain information of transition probabilities is quantized by Gaussian transition probability density function (pdf). In light of the proposed descriptions, the MJSs with Gaussian PDF of TPs cover the systems with precisely known and partially known TPs as two special cases. Sufficient conditions for the existence of controller of the underlying systems are derived in term of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the developed theoretical results.
Autors: Luan, X.;Zhao, S.;Liu, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 58, issue:6, pages: 1566 - 1572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Elimination of Overflow Oscillations in 2-D Digital Filters Described by Roesser Model With External Interference
Abstract:
Two-dimensional (2-D) digital filters can be corrupted by external interferences, but no stability criteria have yet been established. This brief proposes a new stability criterion for the absence of limit cycles in 2-D digital filters that are described by Roesser model with external interference. Our new criterion ensures the attenuation of the effect of external interference on 2-D digital filters to a prescribed level. This criterion also guarantees the asymptotic stability result without external interference. The proposed criterion is represented in terms of linear matrix inequality, which can be verified by using existing numerical packages. We use an illustrative example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed criterion.
Autors: Ahn, C.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 361 - 365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model for Frequency Dependence of Split Measurements on Bare SOI Wafers
Abstract:
The feasibility of split measurements for direct evaluation of carrier mobility in as-fabricated silicon-on-insulator wafers has been demonstrated. Here, we complete this letter by modeling the frequency dependence of capacitance curves. The peculiarity of the pseudo-MOSFET ( -MOSFET) configuration with respect to standard MOSFET comes from the possible distribution of mobile carriers beyond the source and drain contacts. This implies a variation in charge spreading and capacitance with frequency that we address with an low-pass filter model. Experimental measurements with one and two probes were used for validation of the proposed model.
Autors: Diab, A.;Ionica, I.;Ghibaudo, G.;Cristoloveanu, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 792 - 794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Constraint and Fuzzy Logic-Based Optimization of Hazardous Material Transportation via Lane Reservation
Abstract:
With economic development, a great amount of hazardous material is shipped in the transport network every day. Hazardous material transportation is well known for its high potential risk. An accident can cause very serious economic damage and will have a negative impact on public health and the environment over the long term. Transporting hazardous materials on special lanes can reduce the risk. However, a lane reservation strategy may worsen traffic conditions for other vehicles. This paper investigates a hazardous material transportation problem with lane reservation. The problem lies in how to choose lanes to be reserved in the network and select the path for each hazardous material shipment from the reserved lanes. The goal is to obtain the best compromise between the impact on normal traffic and the transportation risk. A multiobjective integer programming model is presented for the new problem. Then, an algorithm is developed based on the -constraint method and a fuzzy-logic-based approach. Pareto optimal solutions are obtained by the former, and a preferred solution is selected by the fuzzy-logic-based approach. Computational results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm using an instance based on a real network topology and randomly generated instances.
Autors: Zhou, Z.;Chu, F.;Che, A.;Zhou, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 847 - 857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanowire Photodetector Prepared on Template
Abstract:
The authors report the growth of β-Ga2O3 nanowires using a vapor phase transport method on SiO2/Si template. It is found that average diameter, average length, and density of the nanowires all increased as we increase the growth temperature. β-Ga2O3 nanowire solar-blind photodetectors with a sharp cutoff at 255 nm are also fabricated. With an incident light wavelength of 255 nm and an applied bias of 5 V, it is found that measured responsivity of the photodetector prepared at 950°C is 3.43×102O3 A/W.
Autors: Wu, Y.L.;Shoou-Jinn Chang;Weng, W.Y.;Liu, C.H.;Tsai, T.Y.;Hsu, C.L.;Chen, K.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 13, issue:6, pages: 2368 - 2373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1 Mb Nonvolatile Embedded Memory Using 4T2MTJ Cell With 32 b Fine-Grained Power Gating Scheme
Abstract:
Pub DtlA 1 Mb nonvolatile embedded memory using a four transistor and two spin-transfer-torque (STT) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) cell is designed and fabricated to demonstrate its zero standby power and high performance. The power supply voltages of 32 cells along a word line (WL) are controlled simultaneously by a power line (PL) driver to eliminate the standby power without impact on the access time. This fine-grained power gating scheme also optimizes the trade-off between macro size and operation power. The butterfly curve for the cell is measured to be asymmetric as predicted, enhancing the cell's static noise margin (SNM) for data retention. The scaling of 1 Mb macro size is compared with that of the 6T SRAM counterpart, indicating that the former will become smaller than the latter at 45 nm technology node and beyond by moderately thinning its tunnel dielectrics (MgO) in accordance with the shrink of the MTJ's cross sectional area. The operation current of the macro is also shown to be almost unchanged over generations, while that of the 6T SRAM increases exponentially due to the degradation of MOSFET off-current as the device scales.
Autors: Ohsawa, T.;Koike, H.;Miura, S.;Honjo, H.;Kinoshita, K;S;T;H;T;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1511 - 1520
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-mW Solar-Energy-Harvesting Circuit Using an Adaptive MPPT With a SAR and a Counter
Abstract:
This brief presents an energy-harvesting system that uses an adaptive maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for 1-mW solar-powered wireless sensor networks. The proposed MPPT circuit exploits a successive approximation register and a counter to solve the tradeoff problem between a fast transient response and a small steady-state oscillation with low-power consumption. The proposed energy-harvesting circuit is fabricated using a 0.35- CMOS process. The MPPT circuit reduces the transient response time by 76.6%, dissipates only 110 , and shows MPPT efficiency of 99.6%.
Autors: Kim, H.;Min, Y.-J.;Jeong, C.-H.;Kim, K.-Y.;Kim, C.;Kim, S.-W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 331 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2-V 165- W 0.29-mm Multibit Sigma-Delta ADC for Hearing Aids Using Nonlinear DACs and With Over 91 dB Dynamic-Range
Abstract:
This paper describes the design and experimental evaluation of a multibit Sigma-Delta modulator with enhanced dynamic range (DR) through the use of nonlinear digital-to-analog converters (DACs) in the feedback paths. This nonlinearity imposes a trade-off between DR and distortion, which is well suited to the intended hearing aid application. The modulator proposed here uses a fully-differential self-biased amplifier and a 4-bit quantizer based on fully dynamic comparators employing MOS parametric pre-amplification to improve both energy and area efficiencies. A test chip was fabricated in a 130 nm digital CMOS technology, which includes the proposed modulator with nonlinear DACs and a modulator with conventional linear DACs, for comparison purposes. The measured results show that the using nonlinear DACs achieves an enhancement of the DR around 8.4 dB (to 91.4 dB). Power dissipation and silicon area are about the same for the two cases. The performance achieved is comparable to that of the best reported multibit ADCs, with the advantage of occupying less silicon area (7.5 times lower area when compared with the most energy efficient ).
Autors: Custodio, J.R.;Goes, J.;Paulino, N.;Oliveira, J.P.;Bruun, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 376 - 385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b 1-GHz 33-mW CMOS ADC
Abstract:
This paper describes a pipelined analog-to-digital converter that resolves 4 b in its first stage and amplifies the residue by a factor of 2, thereby relaxing the opamp linearity, voltage swing, and gain requirements. Calibration in the digital domain removes the effect of capacitor mismatches and corrects for the gain error. Using a one-stage opamp with a gain of 10 and realized in 65-nm CMOS technology, the ADC digitizes a 490-MHz input with a signal-to-(noise+distortion) ratio of 52.4 dB, achieving a figure of merit of 97 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Sahoo, B.D.;Razavi, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1442 - 1452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-b Two-Stage DAC with an Area-Efficient Multiple-Output Voltage Selector and a Linearity-Enhanced DAC-Embedded Op-Amp for LCD Column Driver ICs
Abstract:
This work proposes a 10-b two-stage DAC with an area-efficient multiple-output voltage selector and a linearity-enhanced DAC-embedded op-amp for LCD column driver ICs. The proposed voltage selector is divided into two stages, MSB and LSB decoders; this design requires fewer switches compared with tree-type voltage selectors, enabling a smaller die area. The proposed 6-b two-voltage selector occupies only 61% of the area needed for a 6-b tree-type two-voltage selector. This study also develops a generalized architecture for an area-efficient voltage selector for multiple outputs. To improve the linearity of the DAC-embedded op-amp, the differential pairs operate at the edge of the saturation region. The 10-b DAC prototypes were produced with 0.35- /0.5- CMOS technology with the worst DNL/INL being 0.44/0.58 LSB.
Autors: Lu, C.-W.;Hsiao, C.-M.;Yin, P.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1475 - 1486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-Gb/s Multichannel I/O Using MIMO Crosstalk Cancellation and Signal Reutilization in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A crosstalk cancellation and signal reutilization (XTCR) analog front-end implemented with infinite impulse response (IIR) networks dramatically improves signal integrity across multiple closely-spaced single-ended PCB traces. The XTCR technique has been designed to address multiple high-speed I/Os from the ground up. To verify this technique a 4 channel prototype was implemented in 65 nm CMOS. This 4 channel prototype design handles crosstalk cancellation for single-ended I/Os operating at 12 Gb/s. At this speed, the prototype XTCR design improves the measured average horizontal and vertical-eye openings by 37.5% and 26.4% at BER, while consuming only 0.96 pJ/b/lane.
Autors: Oh, T.;Harjani, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1383 - 1397
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 210-GHz Amplifier in 40-nm Digital CMOS Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a 210-GHz amplifier design in 40-nm digital bulk CMOS technology. The theoretical maximum voltage gain that an amplifier can achieve and the loss of a matching network are derived for the optimization of a few hundred gigahertz amplifiers. Accordingly, the bias and size of transistors, circuit topology, and inter-stage coupling method can be determined methodically to maximize the amplifier gain. The measured results show that the amplifier exhibits a peak power gain of 10.5 dB at 213.5 GHz and an estimated 3-dB bandwidth of 13 GHz. The power consumption is only 42.3 mW under a 0.8-V supply. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this work demonstrates the CMOS amplifier with highest operation frequency reported thus far.
Autors: Ko, C.-L.;Li, C.-H.;Kuo, C.-N.;Kuo, M.-C.;Chang, D.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2438 - 2446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 256-Mcell Phase-Change Memory Chip Operating at Bit/Cell
Abstract:
A fully integrated 256-Mcell multi-level cell (MLC) phase-change memory (PCM) chip in 90-nm CMOS technology is presented. The on-chip circuitry supports fast MLC operation at 4 bit/cell. A programmable digital controller is used to optimize closed-loop gain and timing of the iterative MLC programming scheme and two power-efficient 8-bit DACs support current-controlled as well as voltage-controlled write pulses. The read-out consists of a low-power auto-range frontend followed by a 6-bit cyclic ADC that converts the nonlinear PCM resistance in a range between 10 k and 10 M . A verilog-A model derived from a full 3-D simulation of the PCM cell was developed to simulate the complete chip. The chip was used to demonstrate operation at 2 bit/cell and programming below 10 s with Ge Sb Te (GST) based PCM cells at a raw bit error rate of . Two main roadblocks for MLC PCM are drift and endurance. The accuracy of the analog frontend in combination with the programmable controller enables drift mitigation at the system level and the exploration of new materials for MLC operation at bit/cell.
Autors: Close, G.F.;Frey, U.;Morrish, J.;Jordan, R.;Lewis, S.;Maffitt, T.;BrightSky, M.;Hagleitner, C.;Lam, C.;Eleftheriou, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 1521 - 1533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3DTV Broadcasting Scheme for High-Quality Stereoscopic Content Over a Hybrid Network
Abstract:
Various methods are used to provide three-dimensional television (3DTV) services over a terrestrial broadcasting network. However, these services cannot provide high-quality 3D content to consumers. It is because current terrestrial broadcast networks are allocated with limited bandwidths to transmit 3D content while 3D content requires larger bandwidth compared to that of 2D content. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes a hybrid 3DTV broadcasting system, which utilizes both a terrestrial broadcast network and a broadband network. In the proposed system, two elementary streams of left and right views for a stereoscopic video service are transmitted over a terrestrial broadcasting network and a broadband network, respectively. In addition, the proposed system suggests a new mechanism for synchronization between these two elementary streams. The proposed scheme can provide high-quality 3DTV service regardless of bandwidth of the terrestrial broadcast network while maintaining backward compatibility with a 2D DTV broadcasting service.
Autors: Lee, J.;Yun, K.;Kim, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 59, issue:2, pages: 281 - 289
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-b 4.1-GS/s Flash ADC With Time-Domain Latch Interpolation in 90-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A 6-b 4.1-GS/s flash ADC was fabricated using a 90-nm CMOS with a time-domain latch interpolation technique that reduces the number of front-end dynamic comparators by half. The reduced number of comparators lowers power consumption, load capacitance to the T/H circuit, and the overhead of comparator calibration. The measured peak INL and DNL after comparator calibration are 0.74 and 0.49 LSB, respectively. The measured SNDR and SFDR are 31.2 and 38.3 dB, respectively, with a 2.02-GHz input at 4.1-GS/s operation while consuming 76 mW of total power. This ADC achieves a figure of merit of 0.625 pJ/conversion-step at 4.1 GS/s.
Autors: Kim, J.-I.;Sung, B.-R.-S.;Kim, W.;Ryu, S.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1429 - 1441
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6.5-Gb/s 1-mW/Gb/s/CH Simple Capacitive Crosstalk Compensator in a 130-nm Process
Abstract:
A capacitive crosstalk compensator (CXC) at a transmitter is presented. It employs double-path capacitive coupling to cancel accurately crosstalk-induced jitter. A mode detector and an additional clock for compensation are eliminated, and only buffers and capacitors are used. The simple architecture consumes low power (1 mW/Gb/s/CH) and occupies small area (0.009 ). The chip was fabricated in a 130-nm CMOS process. CXC has the maximum jitter reduction of 34.1 ps (90.5%) and the maximum voltage improvement of 26.6 mV. CXC operates at up to 6.5 Gb/s.
Autors: Hwang, K.-D.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 302 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 79-GHz Radar Sensor in LTCC Technology Using Grid Array Antennas
Abstract:
Concept, design, and measurement results of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar sensor in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology is presented in this paper. The sensor operates in the frequency band between 77–81 GHz. As a key component of the system, wideband microstrip grid array antennas with a broadside beam are presented and discussed. The combination with a highly integrated feeding network and a four-channel transceiver chip based on SiGe technology results in a very compact LTCC RF frontend (23 mm 23 mm). To verify the feasibility of the concept, first radar measurement results are presented.
Autors: Bauer, F.;Wang, X.;Menzel, W.;Stelzer, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2514 - 2521
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 990- 1.6-GHz PLL Based on a Novel Supply-Regulated Active-Loop-Filter VCO
Abstract:
A low-power 1.6-GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) based on a novel supply-regulated voltage-controlled oscillator (SR-VCO) including an active-loop filter (ALF) is realized. In this PLL, an active filter is combined with SR-VCO, achieving the advantages of ALF PLL without penalties in power consumption or phase noises. The PLL has measured rms jitter of 4.82 ps, and its core consumes 990 from 1-V supply while the chip area is including on-chip passive components required for the ALF and the supply regulator.
Autors: Choi, K.-C.;Kim, S.-G.;Lee, S.-W.;Lee, B.-C.;Choi, W.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 311 - 315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Balanced Digital Phase Shifter by a Novel Switching-Mode Topology
Abstract:
A balanced digital phase shifter by a novel switching-mode topology is proposed. A 3-bit balanced digital phase shifter is given as an example, the working bandwidth of which is from 2.3 to 2.7 GHz. The proposed 3-bit balanced phase shifter comprises two balanced loaded-line phase shifters (90 and 45 ) and six twist-line broadband 180 phase shifters. The balanced loaded-line digital phase shifter changes phases while the even- or odd-mode signal is excited. The 180 phase shifter controls the balanced signal to be even or odd mode. The commensurate transmission line filter is used as the biasing circuit.
Autors: Lin, Y.-W.;Chou, Y.-C.;Chang, C.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2361 - 2370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bang-Bang Clock and Data Recovery Using Mixed Mode Adaptive Loop Gain Strategy
Abstract:
Pub Dtl A Bang-Bang Clock and Data Recovery (CDR) with adaptive loop gain strategy is presented. The proposed strategy enhances CDR jitter performance even if jitter spectrum information is limited a priori. By exploiting the inherent hard-nonlinearity of Bang-Bang Phase Detector (BBPD), the CDR loop gain is adaptively adjusted based on a posteriori jitter spectrum estimation. Maximizing advantages of analog and digital implementations, the proposed mixed-mode technique achieves PVT insensitive and power efficient loop gain adaptation for high speed applications even in limited technologies. A modified CML D-latch improves CDR input sensitivity and BBPD performance. A folded-cascode- based Charge Pump (CP) is proposed to minimize CP latency. The 5 G/10 G CDR prototype is fabricated in 0.18 µm CMOS technology to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques for applications with high ratio of data-rate to . The proposed CDR recovers data with BER and generates only 1.04 ps RMS and 7.5 ps peak-peak jitter. Jitter Tolerance (JTOL) test shows that the proposed CDR enhances low frequency jitter tracking and high frequency jitter filtering simultaneously for various jitter profiles. The CDR power consumption is 110.6 mW where only 3.9 mW is used for loop gain adaptation circuitry.
Autors: Jeon, H.-J.;Kulkarni, R.;Lo, Y.-C.;Kim, J.;Silva-Martinez, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 48, issue:6, pages: 1398 - 1415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A bi-functional structure with tunable electrical and optical properties for organic photovoltaic cells
Abstract:
We have successfully developed a C60:LiF/BCP (bathocuproine) bilayer-buffer structure to optimize both the light absorption enhancement and the exciton-blocking at the cathode interface of a small molecular photovoltaic cell based on the archetypical CuPc/C60 structure. The function of the C60:LiF layer is to serve as an optical spacer and is found to yield a peak power conversion efficiency (PCE) with a 50 wt. % LiF at a thickness of 30 nm. A BCP layer is added between the optimized C60:LiF layer and the Al metal electrode to function as a barrier for excitons. This combined bilayer-buffer structure yields an optimal performance in short circuit current (Jsc) and PCE. A detailed study using a single carrier electron-only structure and a numerical simulation of optical electric-field distribution suggests that C60:LiF layer enhances light absorption at long wavelengths.
Autors: Luo, D.Y.;Yu, L.M.;Man, J.X.;Liu, T.L.;Li, J.J.;Xu, T.;Liu, Z.;Wang, Z.B.;Lu, Z.H.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 113, issue:22, pages: 224506 - 224506-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bias Source for the Voltage Reference of the BIPM Watt Balance
Abstract:
We have developed a programmable current bias source to set the voltage output of a Josephson voltage standard based on a nonhysteretic array of Josephson junctions (JJs). The device will be operated on the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) watt balance experiment and has been designed to bias separately each of the 13 independent subarrays of the superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor JJs to be able to track the induced voltage across the moving coil during the acceleration phases. At the time that the constant velocity mode is reached, the voltage difference measurement setup will be ready for data acquisition. The current bias source is powered by lithium-ion batteries to avoid electrical offsets originating from ground loops and to allow a long series of measurements. We report the results of the first tests carried out since the assembly of the current source.
Autors: Solve, S.;Chayramy, R.;Stock, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1594 - 1599
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bidirectional Microstrip X-Band Antenna Array on Liquid Crystal Polymer for Beamforming Applications
Abstract:
This communication presents for the first time a 16-element planar X-band bidirectional antenna array for beamforming applications. The planar (2D) antenna array is comprised of planar polygon slot antenna elements that utilize a metamaterial inspired reactive coupling element. Simulation and measurement results are presented for both a single antenna element and a 16-element planar array, which resides on a Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) substrate. Successful comparison between measured and simulated results verifies that the single antenna element achieves a 10 dB return loss bandwidth of 17.5% and the planar antenna array achieves a 10 dB return loss bandwidth of 25% both at a center frequency of approximately 11 GHz. The measured gain of the planar antenna array is more than 14.5 dBi with an efficiency of 65%. The overall size of the planar antenna array is at 11 GHz.
Autors: Chieh, J.-C.S.;Pham, A.-V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3364 - 3368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Binary Independent Component Analysis Approach to Tree Topology Inference
Abstract:
Using multicast probes to infer network topologies and internal link/node characteristics is an attractive approach due to its bandwidth efficiency and suitability for large-scale measurements. In this paper, we propose a new approach to tree topologies inference by exploiting dependence among end-point receivers. We first show that under the assumption of independent failure of intermediate nodes or links, inferring tree topology is a special instance of the more general problem of binary independent component analysis (bICA), and thus is amiable to existing analytical results and algorithms for bICA. Then, we propose the seqBICA algorithm that is tailored for tree topology inference. Evaluation study shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing approaches in convergence speed and accuracy even when the number of measurements is small.
Autors: Nguyen, H.;Zheng, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:12, pages: 3071 - 3080
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bionics Chemical Synapse
Abstract:
Implementation of the current mode CMOS circuit for chemical synapses (AMPA and NMDA receptors) with dynamic change of glutamate as the neurotransmitter input is presented in this paper. Additionally, circuit realisation for receptor and with an electrical signal which symbolises -Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) perturbation is introduced. The chemical sensor for glutamate sensing is the modified ISFET with enzyme (glutamate oxidase) immobilisation. The measured results from these biomimetics chemical synapse circuits closely match with the simulation result from the mathematical model. The total power consumption of the whole chip (four chemical synapse circuits and all auxiliary circuits) is 168.3 W. The total chip area is 3 mm in 0.35- m AMS CMOS technology.
Autors: Thanapitak, S.;Toumazou, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 296 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Brief History of the NSREC
Abstract:
This is the 50 year anniversary of the annual IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effect Conference (NSREC). The first official IEEE NSREC was held at the University of Washington, Seattle, WA in 1964. Although the NSREC started primarily as a forum for the reporting of U.S. research on nuclear weapons effects in electronics it has grown to be primarily an international conference on the effect of space radiation on microelectronics. In this paper the history of NSREC will be discussed in terms of changes in technical content, change in mix of papers between industry, government labs and universities, change in venue, growth in number of authors per paper and the addition of new features in the conference.
Autors: Pease, R.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 1668 - 1673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broad Perspective: Patent Law Suits Gordon Well [Women to Watch]
Abstract:
While working in network security for the telecommunications industry, Lori Gordon says she felt like she was in a ?good versus evil? situation. ?We would try to figure out how hackers would break the network next, so we could fix it before they did,? she says. A few years later, Gordon parlayed that experience with technology and an attitude to defend into a successful career as a patent attorney, a transition she calls ?the best career decision I could have ever made.?
Autors: Prives, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 14 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Waveguide Calorimeter in the Frequency Range From 50 to 110 GHz
Abstract:
A new broadband rectangular waveguide calorimeter for radio-frequency (RF) power meter calibration in the millimeter-wave region is reported. The calorimeter has a quasi-twin structure exploiting the WR-10 and WR-15 rectangular waveguides, and its operational frequency ranges from 50 to 110 GHz. This calorimeter is characterized by its high measuring speed and sensitivity. A thermal feedback control system reduces the typical reading time per frequency to less than 10 min, and the minimum measurable incident RF power is 0.2 mW. A new technique for reducing the equivalence error by utilizing a flat millimeter-wave absorber is also discussed.
Autors: Shimaoka, K.;Kinoshita, M.;Inoue, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1828 - 1833
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadside-Split-Ring Resonator-Based Coil for MRI at 7 T
Abstract:
A coil design termed as broadside-coupled loop (BCL) coil and based on the broadside-coupled split ring resonator (BC-SRR) is proposed as an alternative to a conventional loop design at 7T. The BCL coil has an inherent uniform current which assures the rotational symmetry of the radio-frequency field around the coil axis. A comparative analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio provided by BCL coils and conventional coils has been carried out by means of numerical simulations and experiments in a 7T whole body system.
Autors: Freire, M.J.;Lopez, M.A.;Meise, F.;Algarin, J.M.;Jakob, P.M.;Bock, M.;Marques, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 32, issue:6, pages: 1081 - 1084
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Capacitorless LDO Regulator With Fast Feedback Technique and Low-Quiescent Current Error Amplifier
Abstract:
This brief presents an ultralow quiescent class-AB error amplifier (ERR AMP) of low dropout (LDO) and a slew-rate (SR) enhancement circuit to minimize compensation capacitance and speed up transient response designed in the 0.11- 1-poly 6-metal CMOS process. In order to increase the current capability with a low standby quiescent current under large-signal operation, the proposed scheme has a class-AB-operation operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) that acts as an ERR AMP. As a result, the new OTA achieved a higher dc gain and faster settling time than conventional OTAs, demonstrating a dc gain improvement of 15.8 dB and a settling time six times faster than that of a conventional OTA. The proposed additional SR enhancement circuit improved the response based on voltage-spike detection when the voltage dramatically changed at the output node.
Autors: Kim, Y.;Lee, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 326 - 330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Characterization of Entanglement-Assisted Quantum Low-Density Parity-Check Codes
Abstract:
As in classical coding theory, quantum analogs of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have offered good error correction performance and low decoding complexity by employing the Calderbank–Shor–Steane construction. However, special requirements in the quantum setting severely limit the structures such quantum codes can have. While the entanglement-assisted stabilizer formalism overcomes this limitation by exploiting maximally entangled states (ebits), excessive reliance on ebits is a substantial obstacle to implementation. This paper gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of quantum LDPC codes which are obtainable from pairs of identical LDPC codes and consume only one ebit, and studies the spectrum of attainable code parameters.
Autors: Fujiwara, Y.;Tonchev, V.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 59, issue:6, pages: 3347 - 3353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Classification of Unimodular Lattice Wiretap Codes in Small Dimensions
Abstract:
Lattice coding over a Gaussian wiretap channel, where an eavesdropper listens to transmissions between a transmitter and a legitimate receiver, is considered. A new lattice invariant called the secrecy gain is used as a code design criterion for wiretap lattice codes since it was shown to characterize the confusion that a chosen lattice can cause at the eavesdropper: the higher the secrecy gain of the lattice, the more confusion. In this paper, secrecy gains of extremal odd unimodular lattices as well as unimodular lattices in dimension , , are computed, covering the four extremal odd unimodular lattices and all the 111 nonextremal unimodular lattices (both odd and even), providing thus a classification of the best wiretap lattice codes coming from unimodular lattices in dimension , . Finally, to permit lattice encoding via Construction A, the corresponding error correction codes of the best lattices are determined.
Autors: Lin, F.;Oggier, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 59, issue:6, pages: 3295 - 3303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS High-Voltage Transmitter IC for Ultrasound Medical Imaging Applications
Abstract:
A high-voltage (HV) transmitter integrated circuit for ultrasound medical imaging applications is implemented using 0.18- bipolar/CMOS/DMOS technology. The proposed HV transmitter achieves high integration by only employing standard CMOS transistors in a stacked configuration with dynamic gate biasing circuit while successfully driving the capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer device immersed in an oil environment without breakdown reliability issues. The HV transmitter including the output driver and the voltage level shifters generates over 10- pulses at 1.25-MHz frequency and occupies only 0.022 of core die area.
Autors: Cha, H.-K.;Zhao, D.;Cheong, J.H.;Guo, B.;Yu, H.;Je, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 316 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Magnitude/Phase Measurement Chip for Impedance Spectroscopy
Abstract:
The measurement of electrical impedance is used in a plethora of biomedical applications. The most common technique used is synchronous demodulation, which provides the real and imaginary parts of the impedance. However, in practice, the method requires elaborate calibration and matching between the injection and monitoring stages. This paper presents the integrated realization of an alternative method that is less intricate to implement. The circuit was fabricated in a 0.35-μm CMOS technology, occupies an active area of 0.4 mm2 , and dissipates about 21 mW of power from ±2.5 V supplies. The chip was used to measure equivalent RC circuits of the electrode-tissue interface over the frequency range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz, showing good correlation with the theoretical results.
Autors: Kassanos, P.;Triantis, I.F.;Demosthenous, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 13, issue:6, pages: 2229 - 2236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Transformer-Based Current Reused SSBM and QVCO for UWB Application
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of a low-voltage current-reused single-sideband mixer (SSBM) and quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator (QVCO) for Mode-1 multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband frequency synthesizer application. The proposed architecture is a low-voltage and low-power solution by stacking the SSBM on top of a pMOS parallel QVCO. For low-voltage operation, two symmetric transformers are used to perform quadrature oscillation and signal coupling. In addition, source degeneration capacitors are introduced to eliminate bimodal oscillation in QVCO and fix the phase sequence of the quadrature signal. For experimental demonstration, the proposed circuit was fabricated in a 0.18- CMOS technology. The prototype occupies a core area of 0.8 and consumes about 11 mA from a 1.6-V power supply. Measurement results show that the image spurious rejection is over 43 dBc and the output phase noise of the SSBM is better than at 1-MHz offset from carrier (3.432 GHz).
Autors: Li, W.;Cheng, K.-K.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 2395 - 2401
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Force and Thermal Feedback Interface for Minimally Invasive Procedures Simulation
Abstract:
We present a new interface for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) training that incorporates novel broadband sensory modalities that include visual, force, and thermal technology, into the evolution of the next generation of surgical robotics and simulators. A new haptic device is designed to provide high force and torque capabilities for a better touch feedback. Part of the surgical tool is kept to be the real grasper (i.e., the handle) of the haptic interface. Yet, our main novel contribution is in integrating thermal feedback in MIS applied perspectives; indeed, thermal sensing finds particular utility in detecting and isolating unstable arterial plaque and tumors. In addition, thermal energy is used in several therapeutic procedures such as tumor ablation or tissue welding. We propose several thermal exchange models based on the Pennes' bioheat transfer equation. The overall haptic interface (force and thermal display) is interfaced with an open source virtual reality simulator (the SOFA framework). We added in SOFA the necessary models dealing with thermal simulation using built-in data structure and methods. The integration is successful, and realistic simulation scenarios combining visual, thermal, and force feedback were achieved. Results using the overall simulation are presented and evaluated.
Autors: Guiatni, M.;Riboulet, V.;Duriez, C.;Kheddar, A.;Cotin, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 1170 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Bandpass Filter Based on Right- and Left-Handed Transmission Line Sections
Abstract:
A new type of a compact second-order bandpass filter (BPF) with two transmission zeros based on transversal signal-interference technique is proposed in this letter. Unlike other transversal filters published, the proposed structure is composed of artificial right- and left-handed transmission lines, instead of traditional distributed transmission line sections. Such an approach is not only helpful in size reduction, but also promising for frequency-asymmetrical stopband performance achievement. Design equations and guidelines to adjust filter performance are provided in the letter. To validate the proposed design approach, a two-pole BPF was designed, fabricated using multilayer liquid crystal polymer (LCP) technology and measured.
Autors: Ni, J.;Vendik, I.;Kholodnyak, D.;Hong, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 23, issue:6, pages: 279 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator
Abstract:
LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.
Autors: Fan, Xuliang;Liu, Jinliang;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 84, issue:6, pages: 064703 - 064703-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparison between conventional and collapse-mode capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers in 10-MHz 1-D arrays
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive comparison between a collapse-mode and a conventional-mode capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT); both devices have a 1-μm-thick silicon plate and operate at 10 MHz when biased at 100 V. The radii of the circular plates and the gap heights are modified to meet the design specifications required for a fair comparison. Finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the collapse-mode CMUT has higher output pressure sensitivity (46.5 kPa/V) than the conventional CMUT (13.1 kPa/V), and achieves a 3-dB fractional bandwidth (FBW) of 124% compared with 128% for the conventional mode. These results were validated by experiments performed on devices fabricated in a 1-D phased array configuration using the local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS)/wafer-bonding process. The measured output pressure sensitivity and the FBW of the collapse-mode and the conventional CMUTs at 100 V were 26.4 kPa/V and 103% and 12.7 kPa/V and 111%, respectively. The maximum output pressure of the collapse-mode CMUT was 1.19 MPa at 10 MHz, which was much higher than the conventional CMUT (0.44 MPa). However, the second harmonic distortion (SHD) level of the collapse-mode CMUT is higher than the conventional CMUT at the same excitation condition. Even with higher electric field in the cavity, the collapse-mode CMUT was as stable as the conventional CMUT in a long-term test. A 30-h test with a total of 3.2 ?? 109 cycles of 30 V ac excitation resulted in no significant degradation in the performance of the collapse-mode devices.
Autors: Park, K.K.;Oralkan, O.;Khuri-Yakub, B.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparison of numerical methods for charge transport simulation in insulating materials
Abstract:
Bipolar charge transport (BCT) model has been widely used to simulate time/space evolution of space charges in insulating materials. The BCT simulations are performed to investigate the relationships between space charge accumulation and conduction, electroluminescence (EL), charge packet formation, electrical breakdown, and surface potential decay (SPD) properties. Accordingly, the charge advection-reaction equation that contains shocks or high gradient regions should be solved by highly accurate and stable numerical methods to obtain high resolution. We use Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method and finite differential weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) method to resolve the charge advection-reaction equation. Then, we calculate the SPD properties and space charge profiles of corona charged low-density polyethylene (LDPE) at various initial surface potentials. The simulated results of the two schemes are compared with analytical SPD results, and also compared with each other. It is found that the simulated SPD curves of RKDG and WENO in the case of single carrier injection are both consistent with the analytical results. Moreover, in the case of both single carrier injection and bipolar carrier injection, WENO scheme is more accurate than RKDG scheme at a given spatial discretization.
Autors: Min, D.;Li, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 20, issue:3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of the Performance Improvement by Collocated and Noncollocated Active Damping in Motion Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, both collocated and noncollocated active vibration control (AVC) of the vibrations in a motion system are considered. Pole-zero plots of both the AVC loop and the motion-control (MC) loop are used to analyze the effect of the applied active damping on the system dynamics. Using these plots and the simulated end-effector position of the actively damped plant, a comparison is made between the collocated AVC, using integral force feedback (IFF), and noncollocated AVC, by means of acceleration feedback. It is demonstrated that collocated AVC improves the performance of the plant by adding damping to both the resonance and antiresonance mode of the plant and making it possible to increase the MC bandwidth. The applied noncollocated AVC improves the performance by adding damping to the resonance mode. However, as opposed to the collocated AVC, for the applied noncollocated AVC, there is a tradeoff between various performance criteria, such as rise time and settling time, that is determined by the balance between the added damping and the increase of the bandwidth. This is true for all the AVC methods that do not increase the damping of the antiresonance mode.
Autors: Babakhani, B.;de Vries, T.J.A.;van Amerongen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 905 - 913
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive 3-D Framework for Automatic Quantification of Late Gadolinium Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
Abstract:
Late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) can directly visualize nonviable myocardium with hyperenhanced intensities with respect to normal myocardium. For heart attack patients, it is crucial to facilitate the decision of appropriate therapy by analyzing and quantifying their LGE CMR images. To achieve accurate quantification, LGE CMR images need to be processed in two steps: segmentation of the myocardium followed by classification of infarcts within the segmented myocardium. However, automatic segmentation is difficult usually due to the intensity heterogeneity of the myocardium and intensity similarity between the infarcts and blood pool. Besides, the slices of an LGE CMR dataset often suffer from spatial and intensity distortions, causing further difficulties in segmentation and classification. In this paper, we present a comprehensive 3-D framework for automatic quantification of LGE CMR images. In this framework, myocardium is segmented with a novel method that deforms coupled endocardial and epicardial meshes and combines information in both short- and long-axis slices, while infarcts are classified with a graph-cut algorithm incorporating intensity and spatial information. Moreover, both spatial and intensity distortions are effectively corrected with specially designed countermeasures. Experiments with 20 sets of real patient data show visually good segmentation and classification results that are quantitatively in strong agreement with those manually obtained by experts.
Autors: Wei, D.;Sun, Y.;Ong, S.-H.;Chai, P.;Teo, L.L.;Low, A.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 60, issue:6, pages: 1499 - 1508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Constant Throughput Geometric Mean Decomposition Scheme Design for Wireless MIMO Precoding
Abstract:
The geometric mean decomposition (GMD) algorithm is a popular approach in developing a precoding scheme for joint multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) transceiver designs. In this paper, the adverse effects of conventional GMD algorithms on hardware implementations are first reviewed. Then, a constant throughput modified GMD algorithm is presented. The proposed GMD scheme is constructed on a QR decomposition framework and requires no singular value decomposition (SVD) preprocessing. The new scheme is exempt from the convergence problem, which may seriously degrade throughput performance. It also features lower computational complexity and permutation-free operations and supports hardware sharing between precoding and signal detection modules. Quantitative analysis shows that, under similar symbol-error-rate (SER) performance, the proposed scheme possesses a computational complexity edge over conventional schemes by a margin of 30%. The complexity breakdown indicates that the SVD nullification sweep is the dominant factor of the SVD-based GMD schemes. Even when the sweep number is set to twice the matrix size , the implementation loss is still 0.5 dB inferior to the proposed scheme. Finally, an architecture design of the proposed scheme is given to demonstrate a constant throughput implementation and the feasibility of hardware sharing between precoding and signal detection modules.
Autors: Chen, W.-D.;Hwang, Y.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2080 - 2090
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Convergent Version of the Max SINR Algorithm for the MIMO Interference Channel
Abstract:
The problem of designing linear transmit signaling strategies for the multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) interference channel is considered. For this problem, the best known iterative solution, in terms of maximizing signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the receivers, is the Max SINR algorithm. However, there is no proof that the Max SINR algorithm converges. In this paper, a modification to the Max SINR algorithm is proposed, in which a power control step is used to make a metric similar to the sum rate increase monotonically with each iteration, thus making the modified Max SINR algorithm convergent. It is further shown that with successive interference cancellation (SIC), the metric that the modified Max SINR algorithm optimizes is exactly the sum rate. Finally, simulations are used to demonstrate that the performance of the modified Max SINR algorithm, unlike other convergent alternatives, is nearly identical to that of the original Max SINR algorithm.
Autors: Wilson, Craig;Veeravalli, Venugopal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 12, issue:6, pages: 2952 - 2961
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coordinated Multiuser Relaying Technique through Interference Precoding at the Base Station
Abstract:
We propose a new precoder design technique for a cooperative basestation (BS) and relay station (RS) network. The proposed approach provides substantial reduction in terms of transmission power for a given set of target user rates as compared to a scheme known in the literature. The system model considered is a BS serving a number of users directly and another set of users through a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless RS. A set of beamformers are designed at the RS and the BS to achieve a set of target rates for users. Compared to the existing scheme, we make use of the knowledge available at the BS in terms of the information transmitted by the RS to perform more efficient interference mitigation which results into a lower overall network power consumption. Simulation results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed technique.
Autors: Bournaka, G.;Tang, J.;Lambotharan, S.;Lazarakis, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1176 - 1179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cost-effective self-sensing biosensor for detection of biological species at ultralow concentrations
Abstract:
Detection of ultrasmall masses and identification of biological molecules have been made possible as a result of advances in nanotechnology. Development of biosensing tools has significantly contributed to high-throughput diagnosis and analytical sensing exploiting high affinity of biomolecules. MicroCantilever (MC)-based detection has emerged as a promising biosensing tool for offering label-free and cost-effective sensing capabilities. One of the main criteria determining the success of each biosensor is the capability of the sensing platform to operate in aqueous media. Although being characterized with high sensitivity and simplicity, MCs do not provide an effective tool for measurement of marker proteins in liquid media due to large hydrodynamic damping and losses in the surrounding liquid. In this study, we describe two approaches to high sensitivity biomolecular detection using piezoelectric microcantilevers. (i) Immobilized Mass Detection in Air using electro-mechanical resonance: a unique self-sensing measurement technique is reported utilizing a self-sensing circuit consisting of a piezoelectric MC to address the mentioned limitation. The capability of the self-sensing measurement technique was first verified by detecting ultrasmall biological masses immobilized over the surface of MC by monitoring the shift in fundamental mechanical resonance frequency of the system in air and comparing it with optical-based measurement. This was further utilized for calibration of mass detection in liquid media. (ii) Immobilized Mass Detection in Liquid using the electrical self-sensing circuit's resonance: Once the capability to detect adsorbed mass was verified, the self-sensing platform was implemented to detect different concentrations of target molecule (glucose in this study) in liquid media by adopting the highly sensitive resonance frequency of the whole circuit instead of the mechanical response of MC. Molecular binding occurring over the surface of MC changes- the capacitance of the total interface thus changing the resonance frequency of the circuit. The amount of shift in the measured circuit's resonance frequency provides qualitative and quantitative insight into the amount of target protein concentration. The reported diagnostic platform offers a simple, cost-effective, all-electronics method of detection where the need for any bulky, expensive optical based measurement is eliminated. Utilizing this technique, physiological concentration of glucose as low as 500 nM was measured in liquid media. This sensitivity is significantly higher than what has been previously reported using other mechanical resonance techniques.
Autors: Faegh, Samira;Jalili, Nader;Yavuzcetin, Ozgur;Nagesha, Dattatri;Kumar, Rajiv;Sridhar, Srinivas;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 113, issue:22, pages: 224905 - 224905-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CPHD Filter for Tracking With Spawning Models
Abstract:
In some applications of multi-target tracking, appearing targets are suitably modeled as spawning from existing targets. However, in the original formulation of the cardinalized probability hypothesis density (CPHD) filter, this type of model is not supported; instead appearing targets are modeled by spontaneous birth only. In this paper we derive the necessary equations for a CPHD filter for the case when the process model also includes target spawning. For this generalized filter, the cardinality prediction formula might become computationally intractable for general spawning models. However, when the cardinality distribution of the spawning targets is either Bernoulli or Poisson, we derive expressions that are practical and computationally efficient. Simulations show that the proposed filter responds faster to a change in target number due to spawned targets than the original CPHD filter. In addition, the performance of the filter, considering the optimal subpattern assignment (OSPA), is improved when having an explicit spawning model.
Autors: Lundgren, M.;Svensson, L.;Hammarstrand, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 496 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Creative and Innovative Problem Solver: Tabatabai Actively Involved in Recruitment and Mentoring [WIE from Around the World]
Abstract:
Shirin Tabatabai was not sure she wanted to be an engineer until a conversation with a high school teacher sparked an idea. Her calculus teacher suggested either becoming a math teacher (which was immediately not appealing to her) or pursuing a career in engineering. She asked what engineers do and he stated, ?they use creative, innovative ideas to solve problems.? That immediately stoked her curiosity and after studying the field in her early college career, she pursued her electrical engineering degree. With assistance from Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), she also completed her master?s in power engineering. She has been with the utility company for ten years.
Autors: Molica, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Women in Engineering Magazine
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 47 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cross-Layer Approach to Privacy-Preserving Authentication in WAVE-Enabled VANETs
Abstract:
We present an anonymous authentication and verification scheme for the IEEE Wireless Access in Vehicular Communications (WAVE)-based vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Our contribution includes vehicular message authentication and an efficient prioritized verification strategy for periodic road safety messages. A variation of elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA) is used in combination with the identity-based (ID-based) signature, where current position information on a vehicle is utilized as the ID of the corresponding vehicle. This waives the need for a third-party public key certificate for message authentication in VANETs. A high-density road traffic condition poses a challenge for authentication of vehicular messages since the required verification time is often much longer than the average interarrival time. To mitigate the issue, messages of each traffic class are verified following the VANET's medium access control (MAC) layer priorities and the application relevance of individual safety messages. Performance analysis and simulation results have shown that our approach is secure, privacy preserving, scalable, and resource efficient.
Autors: Biswas, S.;Misic, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2182 - 2192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A degree in big data
Abstract:
How can a car-sharing company figure out the best spots to park vehicles, or an electric utility forecast the demand for power? The solution today often involves crunching terabytes, and sometimes petabytes, of data. Whether retail, telecom, or health care, businesses in almost every sector are hoping to innovate and increase profits by analyzing immense data sets.
Autors: Patel, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 50, issue:6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Delay-Aware Network Structure for Wireless Sensor Networks With Consecutive Data Collection Processes
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) utilize large numbers of wireless sensor nodes to perform close-range sensing and thus enhance sensing qualities. In typical sensing applications, data packets are flowing from sensor nodes to a base station in a many-to-one network structure. To keep event detection delay at a low value, in applications that require occasion data snapshots, it is always desirable to reduce the duration of a data collection process (DCP). Conversely, for applications that require continuous monitoring, the number of DCPs completed in a given period of time is important for reconstructing an accurate data trend. In this paper, a delay-aware network structure is proposed for WSNs with consecutive DCPs. The proposed network structure is able to increase the number of DCPs per unit time without imposing extra delay on each single DCP. A multistage network formation algorithm is proposed to construct the proposed network structure while keeping communication distances among sensor nodes at low values. Simulation results shows that the proposed network structure can provide significant improvements on data collection rates without increasing data collection durations.
Autors: Chi-Tsun Cheng;Tse, C.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 13, issue:6, pages: 2413 - 2422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Demodulation Technique for Spindle Rotor Position Detection With Resolver
Abstract:
This paper presents a demodulation technique for amplitude modulated signals from a resolver based on amplitude detection of a sinusoidal waveform by numerical integration. The proposed technique performs synchronous integration on output signals of the resolver. The integration period is determined from zero crossing detection of the same output signals. The actual envelopes of the signal waveforms are obtained by utilizing the phase relationship of the integrated waveforms with the delayed carrier signal. Due to integration, the noise and disturbance effects are averaged out and the achievable accuracy is improved without applying filters. The method is developed from exploration of detecting HDD spindle rotor position in high resolution. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is demonstrated with the simulations and compared to the other methods. Experimental results are also provided to support the proposed method.
Autors: Aung, N.L.H.;Bi, C.;Al Mamun, A.;Soh, C.S.;YinQuan, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 49, issue:6, pages: 2614 - 2619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Descalloping Postprocessor for ScanSAR Images of Ocean Scenes
Abstract:
Due to its specific way of recording signals from multiple adjacent swaths in an alternating manner, a scanning synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (ScanSAR) cannot sample Doppler histories continuously like a SAR in stripmap mode. This can cause an effect known as azimuth scalloping, a wavelike modulation of the image intensity in near-azimuth direction. In theory, azimuth scalloping can be straightened out by using appropriate beam pattern corrections and multilooking techniques in the SAR processor. This works well over land, but lower signal-to-noise ratios and less accurate Doppler centroid estimates over water cause significant residual scalloping in many ScanSAR images of ocean scenes. The scalloping patterns hamper a correct interpretation of signatures of wind streaks, waves, and other phenomena. To overcome this problem once and for all, we have developed an algorithm that can eliminate scalloping patterns from existing ScanSAR images by postprocessing. Our algorithm detects the dominant scalloping pattern in an image automatically and eliminates most of it with very small side effects. We treat the scalloping pattern as a multiplicative effect, i.e., the amplitude spectrum of an affected image is assumed to be the convolution of the amplitude spectra of the unscalloped image and of the scalloping pattern. The proposed descalloping technique works partly in the spatial and partly in the spectral domain to approximate an exact deconvolution. We give a detailed technical description, show example results, and perform a quality analysis. We demonstrate the positive effects of the proposed descalloping treatment with a wind field retrieval example.
Autors: Romeiser, R.;Horstmann, J.;Caruso, M.J.;Graber, H.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 51, issue:6, pages: 3259 - 3272
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digitally Assisted Current Comparator Bridge for Impedance Scaling at Audio Frequencies
Abstract:
A current comparator impedance bridge, suitable for the comparison of four-terminal-pair impedance standards having similar phase angles (e.g., resistors or capacitors) in the audio frequency range at 1 : 1 and 10 : 1 nominal ratios, is here presented. The bridge is digitally assisted: Its accuracy is granted by an electromagnetic device, a high-permeability core current comparator, but the voltages and currents needed to achieve both principal and auxiliary equilibria are generated by programming a polyphase direct-digital-synthesis generator. The resulting implementation is neat and simple and does not include variable components such as decade dividers. The measurement is semiautomated: After an initial setting, the equilibrium can be achieved in a few minutes. Measurements performed on calculable resistors give a base accuracy of a few parts in 107 at kilohertz frequency, sufficient for calibration purposes, with the potential for further improvement.
Autors: Trinchera, B.;D'Elia, V.;Callegaro, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1771 - 1775
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Approach to Interference Alignment in OFDM-Based Two-Tiered Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a two-tiered network and focus on the coexistence between two tiers at the physical layer. We target our efforts on a Long-Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) orthogonal frequency-division multiple-access (OFDMA) macrocell sharing the spectrum with a randomly deployed second tier of small cells. In such networks, high levels of cochannel interference between the macrocell base station and the small-cell base station (SBS) may largely limit the potential spectral efficiency gains provided by frequency reuse 1. To address this issue, we propose a novel cognitive interference alignment-based scheme to protect the macrocell from cross-tier interference while mitigating the co-tier interference in the second tier. Remarkably, only local channel state information (CSI) and autonomous operations are required in the second tier, resulting in a completely self-organizing approach for the SBSs. The optimal precoder that maximizes the spectral efficiency of the link between each SBS and its served user equipment is found by means of a distributed one-shot strategy. Numerical findings reveal nonnegligible spectral efficiency enhancements with respect to traditional time division multiple access (TDMA) approaches at any signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Additionally, the proposed technique exhibits significant robustness to channel estimation errors, achieving remarkable results for the imperfect CSI case and yielding consistent performance enhancements to the network.
Autors: Maso, M.;Debbah, M.;Vangelista, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 1935 - 1949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on the Solutions of Spatially-Constrained Local Problems
Abstract:
We present a distributed localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks. Each sensor estimates its position by iteratively solving a set of local spatially-constrained programs. The constraints allow sensors to update their positions simultaneously and collaboratively using range and position estimates to those neighbors within their communications range. Moreover, the algorithm is designed for implementation with resource-limited devices. Since the exchange of information among sensors is a key component for this method, we introduce a stopping criterion to monitor the wireless transmissions for the whole network in order to significantly reduce energy consumption with minimal impact on localization accuracy. Experimental results show that we can determine the best tradeoff between wireless transmissions and accuracy. The performance of the proposed scheme is very competitive when compared with similar and more computationally demanding schemes.
Autors: Cota-Ruiz, J.;Rosiles, J.-G.;Rivas-Perea, P.;Sifuentes, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 13, issue:6, pages: 2181 - 2191
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Method of Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) Based on Dual Decomposition for Interference-Limited Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper we present a novel distributed Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (ICIC) scheme for interference-limited heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNet). We reformulate our problem in such a way that it can be decomposed into a number of small sub-problems, which can be solved independently through an iterative subgradient method. The proposed dual decomposition method can also address problems with binary-valued variables. The proposed algorithm is compared with some reference schemes in terms of cell-edge and total cell throughput.
Autors: Kosta, Chrysovalantis;Hunt, Bernard;Quddus, Atta UI;Tafazolli, Rahim;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1144 - 1147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributive-Transconductance Model for Border Traps in III–V/High-k MOS Capacitors
Abstract:
By in-depth analysis of the electrical response of border traps in gate oxide, a new border-trap model is proposed where the ac charging and discharging current associated with those traps is proportional to the variation of the surface potential of semiconductors, resembling the behavior of transconductors. In contrast, the border trap current is directly related to the local potential in the gate oxide in the existing model. The model is then used to provide a qualitative understanding of the temperature-dependent frequency dispersion observed on the /n-GaAs(111)A MOS capacitors at high positive bias.
Autors: Zhang, C.;Xu, M.;Ye, P.D.;Li, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 735 - 737
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Double-Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT With Improved Dynamic Performance
Abstract:
In this letter, a double-gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor operated in a synchronized switching mode is demonstrated, and improved dynamic performances are obtained. The additional gate sits on top of the conventional gate and stretches 2/4 to the source/drain electrodes, respectively. A positive voltage pulse is applied to the top gate and is synchronized with the ON-OFF switching pulse applied to the conventional gate. Such a double-gate driving method significantly improves the dynamic performances of the device. Moreover, it allows us to investigate the dynamic on-resistance in the drift region in detail.
Autors: Yu, G.;Cai, Y.;Wang, Y.;Dong, Z.;Zeng, C.;Zhao, D.;Qin, H.;Zhang, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 747 - 749
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doubly Fed Induction Generator Controlled in Single-Sided Grid Connection for Wind Turbines
Abstract:
This paper proposes a configuration of wind turbine using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) in single-sided grid connection. The stator of the machine is connected with a direct power grid, and the rotor is controlled by an inverter without any external power source. This is called a single external feeding of DFIG (SEF-DFIG). The conventional DFIG uses an additional grid power converter to regulate the rotor power; but in SEF-DFIG, the external source of a grid power is only connected to the stator windings. Due to this feature, the rotor-side inverter can be integrated on the rotor without any slip ring. In this paper, for applying the proposed scheme to the wind turbine, the performances of the generating operation are analyzed. The experimental results of a 2.4-kW DFIM system are presented to prove the feasibility of the proposed system and method.
Autors: Han, Y.;Kim, S.;Ha, J.-I.;Lee, W.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 413 - 424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual Inverter-Based Supercapacitor Direct Integration Scheme for Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Abstract:
Interfacing converters used in connecting energy storage systems like supercapacitors and battery banks to wind power systems introduce additional cost and power losses. This paper therefore presents a direct integration scheme for supercapacitors used in mitigating short-term power fluctuations in wind power systems. This scheme uses a dual inverter topology for both grid connection and interfacing a supercapacitor bank. The main inverter of the dual inverter system is powered by the rectified output of a wind turbine-coupled permanent-magnet synchronous generator. The auxiliary inverter is directly connected to the supercapacitor bank. With this approach, an interfacing converter is not required, and there are no associated costs and power losses incurred. The operation of the proposed system is discussed in detail. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the efficacy of the proposed system in suppressing short-term wind power fluctuations.
Autors: Jayasinghe, S.D.G.;Vilathgamuwa, D.M.;Madawala, U.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 1023 - 1030
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Mode Highly Efficient Class-E Stimulator Controlled by a Low-Q Class-E Power Amplifier Through Duty Cycle
Abstract:
This paper presents the design flow of two high-efficiency class-E amplifiers for the implantable electrical stimulation system. The implantable stimulator is a high- class-E driver that delivers a sine-wave pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation, which was verified to have a superior efficacy in pain relief to a square wave. The proposed duty-cycle-controlled class-E PRF driver designed with a high- factor has two operational modes that are able to achieve 100% DC-AC conversion, and involves only one switched series inductor and an unchanged parallel capacitor. The measured output amplitude under low-voltage (LV) mode using a 22% duty cycle was 0.98 V with 91% efficiency, and under high-voltage (HV) mode using a 47% duty cycle was 2.95 V with 92% efficiency. These modes were inductively controlled by a duty-cycle detector, which can detect the duty-cycle modulated signal generated from the external complementary low- class-E power amplifier (PA). The design methodology of the low- inductive interface for a non-50% duty cycle is presented. The experimental results exhibits that the 1.5-V PA that consumes DC power of 14.21 mW was able to deliver a 2.9-V sine wave to a load. The optimal 60% drain efficiency of the system from the PA to the load was obtained at a 10-mm coupling distance.
Autors: Chiu, H.-W.;Lu, C.-C.;Chuang, J.-M.;Lin, W.-T.;Lin, C.-W.;Kao, M.-C.;Lin, M.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 243 - 255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Composition and Stubless Invocation Approach for Information-Providing Services
Abstract:
The automated specification and execution of composite services are important capabilities of service-oriented systems. In practice, service invocation is performed by client components (stubs) that are generated from service descriptions at design time. Several researchers have proposed mechanisms for late binding. They all require an object representation (e.g., Java classes) of the XML data types specified in service descriptions to be generated and meaningfully integrated in the client code at design time. However, the potential of dynamic composition can only be fully exploited if supported in the invocation phase by the capability of dynamically binding to services with previously unknown interfaces. In this work, we address this limitation by proposing a way of specifying and executing composite services, without resorting to previously compiled classes that represent XML data types. Semantic and structural properties encoded in service descriptions are exploited to implement a mechanism, based on the Graphplan algorithm, for the run-time specification of composite service plans. Composite services are then executed through the stubless invocation of constituent services. Stubless invocation is achieved by exploiting structural properties of service descriptions for the run-time generation of messages.
Autors: Paganelli, Federica;Parlanti, David;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 10, issue:2, pages: 218 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Family of Augmented Duffy Transformations for Near-Singularity Cancellation Quadrature
Abstract:
A new family of systematically constructed near-singularity cancellation transformations is presented, yielding quadrature rules for integrating near-singular kernels over triangular surfaces. This family results from a structured augmentation of the well-known Duffy transformation. The benefits of near-singularity cancellation quadrature are that no analytical integral evaluations are required and applicability in higher-order basis function and curvilinear settings. Six specific transformations are constructed for near-singularities of orders one, two and three. Two of these transformations are found to be equivalent to existing ones. The performance of the new schemes is thoroughly assessed and compared with that of existing schemes. Results for the gradient of the scalar Green function are also presented. For simplicity, static kernel results are shown. The new schemes are competitive with and in some cases superior to the existing schemes considered.
Autors: Botha, M.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 61, issue:6, pages: 3123 - 3134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Field-Programmable Analog Array Development Platform for Vestibular Prosthesis Signal Processing
Abstract:
We report on a vestibular prosthesis signal processor realized using an experimental field programmable analog array (FPAA). Completing signal processing functions in the analog domain, the processor is designed to help replace a malfunctioning inner ear sensory organ, a semicircular canal. Relying on angular head motion detected by an inertial sensor, the signal processor maps angular velocity into meaningful control signals to drive a current stimulator. To demonstrate biphasic pulse control a 1 k resistive load was placed across an H-bridge circuit. When connected to a 2.4 V supply, a biphasic current of 100 A was maintained at stimulation frequencies from 50–350 Hz, pulsewidths from 25–400 sec, and interphase gaps ranging from 25–250 sec.
Autors: Toreyin, H.;Bhatti, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 319 - 325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A File Assignment Strategy Towards Minimized Response Time for Parallel Storage Systems
Abstract:
Prompt response to data access requests is the key performance concern of parallel storage systems. Sort partition (SP) is one of the most promising file allocation solutions for the static scenario due to its sorted partition and placing mechanism. The online variant of SP, hybrid partition (HP), however, does not perform well in the dynamic scenario. The recently proposed balanced allocation with sort (BAS) and its online version balanced allocation with sort for batch (BASB) try to compete with SP and HP by providing better load balancing together with sorting. BAS's performance is close to SP, and BASB greatly outperforms HP. In this paper, we proposed new file placement solutions for the parallel storage systems: Optimized Sort Partition (OSP) for the static scenario and Optimized Sort Partition Online (OSPOnline) for the dynamic scenario. By eliminating the drawbacks of SP/HP and BAS/BASB in the file assignment, OSP and OSPOnline can achieve optimized system response time. Conducted simulations show that OSP and OSPOnline steadily outperform their competitors under various conditions.
Autors: Yu, Y.;Zhu, Y.;Ng, W.;Samsudin, J.;Li, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 49, issue:6, pages: 2459 - 2465
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A first-principles study on magnetocrystalline anisotropy at interfaces of Fe with non-magnetic metals
Abstract:
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of Fe(001) interfaces with various non-magnetic metals (Hf, Zr, Ti, Ta, Nb, V, Ir, Rh, Pt, Pd, Au, Ag, Cu, and Zn) was investigated by first-principles calculations. We found that Fe interfaces with non-magnetic metals with fully occupied d states tend to show perpendicular MCA. The spin-orbit coupling in interfacial Fe atoms plays an important role in perpendicular MCA. Conversely, Fe interfaces with non-magnetic metals with partially occupied d states exhibit in-plane MCA. The Hf/Fe(001) interface shows an exceptionally large perpendicular MCA energy of 1.5 mJ/m2, which corresponds to that of the MgO/Fe(001) interface. In these cases, contributions from interfacial Fe atoms to MCA are relatively small, and the large spin-orbit coupling of non-magnetic atoms is the primary contribution to MCA. We conclude that formation of Hf/Fe(001) interfaces will enhance the perpendicular magnetization of MgO/CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions.
Autors: Miura, Yoshio;Tsujikawa, Masahito;Shirai, Masafumi;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 113, issue:23, pages: 233908 - 233908-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A flexible high potential printed battery for powering printed electronics
Abstract:
Mechanically flexible arrays of alkaline electrochemical cells fabricated using stencil printing onto fibrous substrates are shown to provide the necessary performance characteristics for driving ink-jet printed circuits. Due to the dimensions and material set currently required for reliable low-temperature print processing of electronic devices, a battery potential greater than that sourced by single cells is typically needed. The developed battery is a series interconnected array of 10 low resistance Zn-MnO2 alkaline cells, giving an open circuit potential of 14 V. This flexible battery is used to power an ink-jet printed 5-stage complementary ring oscillator based on organic semiconductors.
Autors: Gaikwad, Abhinav M.;Steingart, Daniel A.;Nga Ng, Tse;Schwartz, David E.;Whiting, Gregory L.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 102, issue:23, pages: 233302 - 233302-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible IGZO Thin-Film Transistor With Stacked -Based Dielectrics Fabricated at Room Temperature
Abstract:
This letter demonstrates the feasibility of full room temperature InGaZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) using trilayer gate dielectric on flexible substrate. Through integrating high- (STS) gate-stack as well as InGaZnO channel thickness modulation, the resulting flexible indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO)/STS TFTs show low threshold voltage of 0.5 V, small subthreshold swing of 0.129 V/decade, high field effect mobility of 76 , and good ratio of , which have the potential for the application of high-resolution flexible display.
Autors: Hsu, H.-H.;Chang, C.-Y.;Cheng, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 34, issue:6, pages: 768 - 770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fluid Model for Layered Queueing Networks
Abstract:
Layered queueing networks are a useful tool for the performance modeling and prediction of software systems that exhibit complex characteristics such as multiple tiers of service, fork/join interactions, and asynchronous communication. These features generally result in nonproduct form behavior for which particularly efficient approximations based on mean value analysis (MVA) have been devised. This paper reconsiders the accuracy of such techniques by providing an interpretation of layered queueing networks as fluid models. Mediated by an automatic translation into a stochastic process algebra, PEPA, a network is associated with a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) whose size is insensitive to the population levels in the system under consideration. A substantial numerical assessment demonstrates that this approach significantly improves the quality of the approximation for typical performance indices such as utilization, throughput, and response time. Furthermore, backed by established theoretical results of asymptotic convergence, the error trend shows monotonic decrease with larger population sizes&#x2014;a behavior which is found to be in sharp contrast with that of approximate mean value analysis, which instead tends to increase.
Autors: Tribastone, Mirco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 39, issue:6, pages: 744 - 756
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A flux-coupled ac/dc magnetizing device
Abstract:
We report on an instrument for applying ac and dc magnetic fields by capturing the flux from a rotating permanent magnet and projecting it between two adjustable pole pieces. This can be an alternative to standard electromagnets for experiments with small samples or in probe stations in which an applied magnetic field is needed locally, with advantages that include a compact form-factor, very low power requirements and dissipation as well as fast field sweep rates. This flux capture instrument (FLUXCAP) can produce fields from -400 to +400 mT, with field resolution less than 1 mT. It generates static magnetic fields as well as ramped fields, with ramping rates as high as 10 T/s. We demonstrate the use of this apparatus for studying the magnetotransport properties of spin-valve nanopillars, a nanoscale device that exhibits giant magnetoresistance.
Autors: Gopman, D.B.;Liu, H.;Kent, A.D.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 84, issue:6, pages: 065101 - 065101-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Formal Data-Centric Approach for Passive Testing of Communication Protocols
Abstract:
Pub DtlThere is currently a high level of consciousness of the importance and impact of formally testing communicating networks. By applying formal description techniques and formal testing approaches, we are able to validate the conformance of implementations to the requirements of communication protocols. In this context, passive testing techniques are used whenever the system under test cannot be interrupted or access to its interfaces is unavailable. Under such conditions, communication traces are extracted from points of observation and compared to the expected behavior formally specified as properties. Since most works on the subject come from a formal model context, they are optimized for testing the control part of the communication with a secondary focus on the data parts. In the current work, we provide a data-centric approach for black-box testing of network protocols. A formalism is provided to express complex properties in a bottom-up fashion starting from expected data relations in messages. A novel algorithm is provided for evaluation of properties in protocol traces. Experimental results on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) traces for IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) services are provided.
Autors: Lalanne, F.;Maag, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 788 - 801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Unconditional Stability Analysis of Multimaster/Multislave Teleoperation Systems
Abstract:
A novel robust stability analysis framework is presented for unconditional stability analysis of multimaster/multislave teleoperation systems. Unlike the unconditional stability criterion for single-user systems, the newly proposed criteria for unconditional stability of multimaster/multislave teleoperation systems depend on the multiport network parameters and the port terminations. In addition to the analytical solution, the graphical demonstration of the unconditional stability region facilitates the analysis of coupled stability against variations in the dynamics of the environments and operators, even when they behave actively. The proposed robust stability analysis framework is examined on two multilateral shared control architectures that were previously developed for dual-user teleoperation systems.
Autors: Khademian, B.;Hashtrudi-Zaad, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 684 - 694
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A framework of the PHY-layer approach to defense against security threats in cognitive radio networks
Abstract:
In this article we focus on the security in cognitive radio, which is one of the needs for new technologies requiring spectrum bands. The PHY-layer in CR is more complex than a conventional wireless communication system because of spectrum sensing and the dynamic spectrum access mechanism. Therefore, it becomes vulnerable to be invaded. We present the PHY-layer approaches to defense against security threats in CR networks. We analyze the validities and benefits of proposed approaches, which can be valid not only for the attacks in the PHY-layer but also for those in the upper layer.
Autors: Wen, H.;Li, S.;Zhu, X.;Zhou, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Jun 2013, volume: 27, issue:3
Publisher: IEEE
 

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