Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 8

» Frequency-Hopping Pulse Position Modulation Ultrawideband Receiver
Abstract:
Pulse position modulation (PPM) has been used in the radio-frequency (RF) domain to achieve both low-dissipation requirements and provide precision ranging. In ultrawideband (UWB) architectures, it underpins an asynchronous receiver, multiple access environments, and interference-resistant transmission. When combined with frequency hopping (FH), it allows for an additional level of immunity to jamming and low probability of intercept. Realization of a FH-PPM transceiver poses a practical challenge, particularly in the UWB RF range. With UWB pulses reaching the multi-gigahertz range, FH adds to the effective bandwidth at which the receiver must be operated, exceeding the performance of a modern quantizer and digital demodulation backplane. This study describes a new photonics-assisted FH-PPM receiver architecture that rests on mutually coherent frequency combs. The performance of the new receiver was characterized by receiving and decoding an 80–Mb/s rate FH-PPM UWB signal.
Autors: Daniel J. Esman;Vahid Ataie;Bill P.-P. Kuo;Nikola Alic;Stojan Radic;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1894 - 1899
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Friction Compensation Based on Time-Delay Control and Internal Model Control for a Gimbal System in Magnetically Suspended CMG
Abstract:
Nonlinear friction torque is an important factor affecting the angular velocity precision of a gimbal system in double gimbal magnetically suspended control moment gyro. To effectively eliminate the influence of friction torque and implement high precision control of the gimbal system, a method that combines time delay control (TDC) with two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) internal model control (IMC) is proposed. First, nonlinear friction torque of the gimbal system is estimated via time-delay estimation. Second, to independently adjust the tracking performance and disturbance rejection performance, and to enhance the robustness of TDC, 2-DOF IMC is introduced. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed control method not only improves the compensation performance of the gimbal system with nonlinear friction torque, but also enhances the robustness and realizes the high precision control of the gimbal servo system.
Autors: Peiling Cui;Dachuan Zhang;Shan Yang;Haitao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3798 - 3807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Available Synchrophasor Data to Short-Circuit Fault Identity: Formulation and Feasibility Analysis
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel formulation for determining the short-circuit fault identity, that is the fault type, faulted line, and exact fault distance on it, by using available synchrophasor data. A simple and yet quite effective procedure is developed to model the fault area as a stand-alone sub-system. Thanks to phasor measurement units (PMUs), the proposed technique does not require the operating point and model of the portions being replaced. This greatly alleviates the complexity and technical problems involved in modeling the entire power system, as enforced by existing wide-area methods. A couple of effective theorems in Circuit Theory are exploited in a way as to make the prefault bus impedance matrix applicable in the postfault condition. The obtained fault equations are readily solved by the least-squares method to provide a closed-form solution for the fault distance. Two necessary and sufficient conditions are introduced to assess the fault location feasibility by any given set of PMUs. High accuracy is achieved since the calculations merely involve sound equations remaining after removing erroneous measurements of instrument transformers. The proposed method is successfully validated by more than 10 000 simulation cases conducted on the New England 39-bus and 118-bus test systems.
Autors: Sadegh Azizi;Majid Sanaye-Pasand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2062 - 2071
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Higher Education to Open Education: Challenges in the Transformation of an Online Traditional Course
Abstract:
Open education has revolutionized the educational environment. Massive open online courses have become the main showcase for open educational resources, but the competition to establish a position in this movement has led to the rapid publication of many courses of arguable quality. This paper presents and analyzes the process of creating a small private online course that meets the requirements to be offered as a massive course. The starting point was an online higher education course that had previously been published as OpenCourseWare. In this paper, data were examined from 112 students enrolled in four different academic years, during which changes were progressively incorporated to transform the traditional course to an open course. The results show an improvement in students’ perceptions of resources and assessments and in their overall satisfaction. New assessment tools were developed and validated, without affecting the academic results. The process had positive effects on the instructional design of the final course, but some risks were identified when the course was adapted as a massive course. The final course provides useful input for future developments and a more effective student-focused methodology.
Autors: José Luis Martín Núñez;Edmundo Tovar Caro;José Ramón Hilera González;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 134 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Random Matrix Theory to Coding Theory: Volume of a Metric Ball in Unitary Group
Abstract:
Volume estimates of metric balls in manifolds find diverse applications in information and coding theory. In this paper, new results for the volume of a metric ball in unitary group are derived via tools from random matrix theory. The first result is an integral representation of the exact volume, which involves a Toeplitz determinant of Bessel functions. A simple but accurate limiting volume formula is then obtained by invoking Szegő’s strong limit theorem for large Toeplitz matrices. The derived asymptotic volume formula enables analytical evaluation of some coding-theoretic bounds of unitary codes. In particular, the Gilbert–Varshamov lower bound and the Hamming upper bound on the cardinality as well as the resulting bounds on code rate and minimum distance are derived. Moreover, bounds on the scaling law of code rate are found. Finally, a closed-form bound on the diversity sum relevant to unitary space-time codes is obtained, which was only computed numerically in the literature.
Autors: Lu Wei;Renaud-Alexandre Pitaval;Jukka Corander;Olav Tirkkonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2814 - 2821
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the editors' desk
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Ed Cherney;Robert Fleming;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 6 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full Wave Analysis of Plasma Loaded Coaxial Gyrotron Cavity With Triangular Corrugations on the Insert
Abstract:
The presence of plasma inside the gyrotron interaction structure alters the mode field. The presence of a magnetic field changes the plasma to an anisotropic media. Field analysis of a plasma loaded coaxial gyrotron cavity with triangular corrugations on the insert is undertaken using full wave approach. Modes inside a plasma loaded interaction structure have all six nonzero field components and hence are hybrid modes. Plasma modes (space charge modes), cyclotron modes, and waveguide EH and HE modes are the three families of modes that can exist in plasma loaded waveguide. Inside the gyrotron interaction structure, the cyclotron mode and the desired mode (HE) couple and this coupling leads to change in the eigenvalue of the modes. In this paper, a full wave approach has been used to analyze the dispersion relation and calculate eigenvalue of the desired HE mode.
Autors: Sukwinder Singh;M. V. Kartikeyan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2369 - 2375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Device-to-Device-Aided Cooperative Nonorthogonal Multiple Access
Abstract:
This paper presents a full-duplex device-to-device (D2D)-aided cooperative nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme to improve the outage performance of the NOMA-weak user in a NOMA user pair, where the NOMA-weak user is helped by the NOMA-strong user with the capability of full-duplex D2D communications. The expressions for the outage probability are derived to characterize the performance of the proposed scheme. The results show that the proposed cooperative NOMA scheme can achieve superior outage performance compared to the conventional NOMA and orthogonal multiple access (OMA). In order to further improve the outage performance, an adaptive multiple access (AMA) scheme is also studied, which dynamically switches between the proposed cooperative NOMA, conventional NOMA, and OMA schemes, according to the level of residual self-interference and the quality of links. The results show that the AMA scheme outperforms the above multiple access schemes in terms of outage performance.
Autors: Zhengquan Zhang;Zheng Ma;Ming Xiao;Zhiguo Ding;Pingzhi Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4467 - 4471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex MIMO in Cellular Networks: System-Level Performance
Abstract:
This paper characterizes, through a stochastic geometry analysis, the increase in spectral efficiency that full-duplex transmission brings about in wireless networks. While, on isolated links, full-duplex promises a doubling of the spectral efficiency, in the context of a network this is weighted down by the corresponding rise in interference, and our characterization captures the balance of these effects. The analysis encompasses both the forward link (FL) and the reverse link (RL) with single-user and multiuser transmissions. And, as a complement to the analysis, Monte-Carlo simulations on a Vodafone LTE field test network are also presented. In the FL, the rise in interference is found to have minor impact and a doubling in spectral efficiency can indeed be approached, especially in microcellular networks. In the RL, however, a major difficulty arises in the form of exceedingly strong interference among base stations. This renders full-duplex transmission all but unfeasible in macrocellular networks (unless major countermeasures could be implemented) and undesirable in dense microcellular networks. Only in microcells with sufficient spacing among base stations does RL full-duplex pay off. Thus, full-duplex is seen not to blend easily with densification.
Autors: Ratheesh K. Mungara;Ilaria Thibault;Angel Lozano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3124 - 3137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Duplex Regenerative Relaying and Energy-Efficiency Optimization Over Generalized Asymmetric Fading Channels
Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the end-to-end performance analysis, optimal power allocation (OPA), and energy-efficiency (EE) optimization of decode-and-forward (DF)-based full-duplex relaying (FDR) and half-duplex relaying (HDR) systems. Unlike existing analyses and works that assume simplified transmission over symmetric fading channels, we consider the more realistic case of asymmetric multipath fading and shadowing conditions. To this end, exact and asymptotic analytic expressions are first derived for the end-to-end outage probabilities (OPs) of the considered DF-FDR set ups. Based on these expressions, we then formulate the OPA and EE optimization problems under given end-to-end target OP and maximum total transmit power constraints. It is shown that OP in FDR systems is highly dependent upon the different fading parameters and that OPA provides substantial performance gains, particularly, when the relay self-interference (SI) level is strong. Finally, the FDR is shown to be more energy-efficient than its HDR counterpart, as energy savings beyond 50% are feasible even for moderate values of the SI levels, especially at larger link distances, under given total transmit power constraints and OP requirements.
Autors: Paschalis C. Sofotasios;Mulugeta K. Fikadu;Sami Muhaidat;Qimei Cui;George K. Karagiannidis;Mikko Valkama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3232 - 3251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Parallax Holographic Light-Field 3-D Displays and Interactive 3-D Touch
Abstract:
A light-field 3-D display (LFD) reproduces light rays or wavefront as if there are real objects, and a perfect 3-D display that satisfies all the depth cues in human vision becomes possible. By reproducing both horizontal and vertical parallaxes, i.e., full-parallax, an LFD reconstructs a real or virtual image in 3-D space. A rich 3-D experience can be provided to viewers, and moreover, multiple viewers can share the same reproduced 3-D image. A technology called holographic stereogram (HS) is the integration of ray-based and wavefront-based methods, and has been applied to LFD. Hardcopy HS has already been commercialized. The technology of HS is helpful also for an interactive LFD; a full-parallax LFD using a projector and a holographic screen that modulates the directions of light rays is based on the principle of HS. In this case, accurate registration between the projected image and the holographic screen is necessary, and it is achieved by projecting some test patterns and capturing them with a calibration camera. As a full-parallax LFD can reproduce real images in midair between the screen and viewers, it is possible to realize interactive 3-D touch interface. If a user touches the 3-D real image floating in the air, the reproduced light is scattered by the user’s fingertip. The scattered light is detected by a color image sensor placed behind the holographic screen, and can be employed to detect the user’s touch. In this system, the reproduced 3-D images and the 3-D touch detection are associated with each other, and thus, we do not have to worry about the complicated registration between them. The identification of the user’s interaction is simple, because the color information of the 3-D image can be used for this purpose. Some experimental results of the 3-D touch-sensing display are introduced, and possible applications of this technology are discussed as well.
Autors: Masahiro Yamaguchi;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 947 - 959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Full-Sphere Angle of Arrival Detection using CMRCLEAN
Abstract:
Extraneous signals propagating into the quiet zone (QZ) of an antenna measurement chamber pose a large contribution to the error of measurements therein. From the angle of arrival (AoA) of these extraneous signals, the locations of the reflective points, from which these signals originate, can be determined. If the location of a reflection point is known, it can be treated, and thus the level of the extraneous signal can be reduced or even completely mitigated. The combining mode rotation with CLEAN (CMRCLEAN) algorithm has shown that it is capable of detecting the AoA of closely spaced reflective sources, even in the presence of a strong signal such as the main beam illuminating the QZ. In this communication, the CMRCLEAN algorithm is further improved to allow a better discrimination of signals and their amplitude. Furthermore, this communication will show the ability of the improved algorithm to detect reflections from opposing directions, such as those originating from the back wall, which is opposite to the much stronger range illumination.
Autors: Marc Dirix;Dirk Heberling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2769 - 2772
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Analysis on Data Dissemination in Mobile Opportunistic Networks With Lévy Mobility
Abstract:
Mobile opportunistic networks take advantage of contact opportunities due to the mobility of individual nodes for distributing data. Studying the inherent traits of data dissemination in mobile opportunistic networks can reveal their potential to support emerging applications, such as emergency services and mobile commerce. In this paper, we employ the Lévy mobility model to characterize the movement pattern of nodes. Because the Lévy mobility closely mimics human walking patterns, the analysis model that we adopt is realistic. Our analyses consider small- and large-scale perspectives. In the small-scale case, we investigate the distribution of the minimum time needed by the data to spread to a given region. In the large-scale case, we examine the probability bounds of the earliest time at which the data arrives in a region that is sufficiently far away. We also derive the rate at which such a probability tends to zero as the distance to the region increases to infinity. The results of extensive numerical simulations validate our analysis.
Autors: Shengling Wang;Xia Wang;Xiuzhen Cheng;Jianhui Huang;Rongfang Bie;Feng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4173 - 4187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits of Cache-Aided Interference Management
Abstract:
We consider a system, comprising a library of files (e.g., movies) and a wireless network with a transmitters, each equipped with a local cache of size of files and a receivers, each equipped with a local cache of size of files. Each receiver will ask for one of the files in the library, which needs to be delivered. The objective is to design the cache placement (without prior knowledge of receivers’ future requests) and the communication scheme to maximize the throughput of the delivery. In this setting, we show that the sum degrees-of-freedom (sum-DoF) of is achievable, and this is within a factor of 2 of the optimum, under uncoded prefetching and one-shot linear delivery schemes. This result shows that (i) the one-shot sum-DoF scales linearly with the aggregate cache size in the network (i.e., the cumulative memory available at all nodes), (ii) the transmitters’ caches and receivers’ caches contribute equally in the one-shot sum-DoF, and (iii) caching can offer a throughput gain that scales linearly with the size of the network. To prove the result, we propose an achievable scheme that exploits the redundancy of the content at transmitter’s caches to cooperatively zero-force some outgoing interference, and availability of the unint- nded content at the receiver’s caches to cancel (subtract) some of the incoming interference. We develop a particular pattern for cache placement that maximizes the overall gains of cache-aided transmit and receive interference cancellations. For the converse, we present an integer optimization problem which minimizes the number of communication blocks needed to deliver any set of requested files to the receivers. We then provide a lower bound on the value of this optimization problem, hence leading to an upper bound on the linear one-shot sum-DoF of the network, which is within a factor of 2 of the achievable sum-DoF.
Autors: Navid Naderializadeh;Mohammad Ali Maddah-Ali;Amir Salman Avestimehr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3092 - 3107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits of Cache-Aided Wireless BC: Interplay of Coded-Caching and CSIT Feedback
Abstract:
Building on the recent coded-caching breakthrough by Maddah-Ali and Niesen, the work here considers the -user cache-aided wireless multi-antenna symmetric broadcast channel with random fading and imperfect feedback, and analyzes the throughput performance as a function of feedback statistics and cache size. In this setting, this paper identifies the optimal cache-aided degrees-of-freedom (DoF) within a factor of 4, by identifying near-optimal schemes that exploit a new synergy between coded caching and delayed CSIT, as well as by exploiting the unexplored interplay between caching and feedback-quality. The DoF expressions reveal an initial gain due to current CSIT, and an additional gain due to coded caching, which is exponential in the sense that any linear decrease in the required DoF performance, allows for an exponential reduction in the required cache size. In the end, this paper reveals three new aspects of caching: a synergy between memory and delayed feedback, a tradeoff between memory and current CSIT, and a powerful ability to provide cache-aided feedback savings.
Autors: Jingjing Zhang;Petros Elia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3142 - 3160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits of Photonic RF Phase-Shift Amplification by RF Interferometry
Abstract:
The fundamental limits posed by classical noise on Photonic RF Phase amplification by RF Interferometry (PARFI) are modeled theoretically and verified experimentally. With 320-MHz modulated light and a phase-shift amplification of 3000, we demonstrate a phase-shift resolution of and 200-nm distance resolution. Based on these results, we postulate that single-nanometer distance resolution can be achieved with PARFI.
Autors: Moshe Ben Ayun;Seva Rosenberg;Daniel Gotliv;Shmuel Sternklar;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1906 - 1913
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamentals of Modeling Finite Wireless Networks Using Binomial Point Process
Abstract:
Modeling the locations of nodes as a uniform binomial point process, we present a generic mathematical framework to characterize the performance of an arbitrarily located reference receiver in a finite wireless network. Different from most of the prior works where the serving transmitter (TX) is located at the fixed distance from the reference receiver, we consider two general TX-selection policies: 1) uniform TX-selection: the serving node is chosen uniformly at random from amongst all transmitting nodes and 2) -closest TX-selection: the serving node is the th closest node (out of all transmitting nodes) to the reference receiver. The key intermediate step in our analysis is the derivation of a new set of distance distributions that lead not only to the tractable analysis of coverage probability but also enable the analysis of wide range of classical and currently trending problems in wireless networks. Using this new set of distance distributions, we further investigate the diversity loss due to correlation in a finite network. We then obtain the optimal number of links that can be simultaneously activated to maximize network spectral efficiency. Finally, we evaluate optimal caching probability to maximize the total hit probability in cache-enabled finite networks.
Autors: Mehrnaz Afshang;Harpreet S. Dhillon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3355 - 3370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Future Automotive Architecture and the Impact of IT Trends
Abstract:
The transfer of IT and consumer-electronics technologies to the automotive domain will provide major opportunities. However, both these technologies and the automotive industry will require much adaptation.
Autors: Matthias Traub;Alexander Maier;Kai L. Barbehön;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 27 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuzzy Load Modeling of Plug-in Electric Vehicles for Optimal Storage and DG Planning in Active Distribution Network
Abstract:
Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charge challenges can be addressed by including their effects on the planning of distribution network components. The planning problem becomes more combinatorial when the uncertainty of PEVs is considered as well. In this paper, storage and distributed generation (DG) planning is considered as an option to deal with the problems arising from PEV uncertainty. The optimal location, capacity, and power rating of the stationary batteries, as well as the location and capacity of dispatchable DGs, are determined to minimize the cost objective function under technical constraints. Short-term scheduling and long-term planning, as optimization problems, are solved using Tabu Search and simulated annealing algorithms, respectively. Simulation results show that when connecting PEVs to the distribution network, both of the stationary battery and DG units are needed from technical and economic points of view. Moreover, the optimal penetration of stationary storage units increases if the uncertainty of PEVs is considered.
Autors: Ali Ahmadian;Mahdi Sedghi;Masoud Aliakbar-Golkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3622 - 3631
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GaN Nanowire Schottky Barrier Diodes
Abstract:
A new concept of vertical gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky barrier diode based on nanowire (NW) structures and the principle of dielectric REduced SURface Field (RESURF) is proposed in this paper. High-threading dislocation density in GaN epitaxy grown on foreign substrates has hindered the development and commercialization of vertical GaN power devices. The proposed NW structure, previously explored for LEDs offers an opportunity to reduce defect density and fabricate low cost vertical GaN power devices on silicon (Si) substrates. In this paper, we investigate the static characteristics of high-voltage GaN NW Schottky diodes using 3-D TCAD device simulation. The NW architecture theoretically achieves blocking voltages upward of 700 V with very low specific on-resistance. Two different methods of device fabrication are discussed. Preliminary experimental results are reported on device samples fabricated using one of the proposed methods. The fabricated Schottky diodes exhibit a breakdown voltage of around 100 V and no signs of current collapse. Although more work is needed to further explore the nano-GaN concept, the preliminary results indicate that superior tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and specific on-resistance can be achieved, all on a vertical architecture and a foreign substrate. The proposed NW approach has the potential to deliver low cost reliable GaN power devices, circumventing the limitations of today’s high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) technology and vertical GaN on GaN devices.
Autors: Gourab Sabui;Vitaly Z. Zubialevich;Mary White;Pietro Pampili;Peter J. Parbrook;Mathew McLaren;Miryam Arredondo-Arechavala;Z. John Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2283 - 2290
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gas Spectroscopy System for Breath Analysis at mm-wave/THz Using SiGe BiCMOS Circuits
Abstract:
The unique fingerprint spectra of volatile organic compounds for breath analysis and toxic industrial chemicals make an mm-wave (mmW)/THz gas sensor very specific and sensitive. This paper reviews and updates results of our recent work on sensor systems for gas spectroscopy based on integrated transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), which are developed and fabricated in IHP’s SiGe BiCMOS technology. In this paper, we present an mmW/THz spectroscopic system including a folded gas absorption cell of 1.9 m length between the TX and RX modules. We discuss the results and specifications of our sensor system based on integrated TX and RX. We demonstrate TXs and RXs with integrated antennas for spectroscopy at 238–252 GHz and 494–500 GHz using integer- phase-locked loops (PLLs). We present a compact system by using fractional- PLLs allowing frequency ramps for the TX and RX, and for TX with superimposed frequency shift keying or reference frequency modulation. In another configuration, the voltage controlled oscillators of the TX and RX local oscillator are tuned directly without PLLs by applying external voltages. Further developments of our system are aimed at realizing an even wider frequency span by switching between frequency bands, and to use a more compact gas absorption cell.
Autors: Klaus Schmalz;Nick Rothbart;Philipp F.-X. Neumaier;Johannes Borngräber;Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1807 - 1818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Measurement Using Coriolis Flowmeters Incorporating Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Genetic Programming Algorithms
Abstract:
Coriolis flowmeters are well established for the mass flow measurement of single-phase flow with high accuracy. In recent years, attempts have been made to apply Coriolis flowmeters to measure two-phase flow. This paper presents data driven models that are incorporated into Coriolis flowmeters to measure both the liquid mass flowrate and the gas volume fraction of a two-phase flow mixture. Experimental work was conducted on a purpose-built two-phase flow test rig on both horizontal and vertical pipelines for a liquid mass flowrate ranging from 700 to 14500 kg/h and a gas volume fraction between 0% and 30%. Artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), and genetic programming (GP) models are established through training with the experimental data. The performance of backpropagation-ANN (BP-ANN), radial basis function-ANN (RBF-ANN), SVM, and GP models is assessed and compared. Experimental results suggest that the SVM models are superior to the BP-ANN, RBF-ANN, and GP models for two-phase flow measurement in terms of robustness and accuracy. For liquid mass flowrate measurement with the SVM models, 93.49% of the experimental data yield a relative error less than ±1% on the horizontal pipeline, while 96.17% of the results are within ±1% on the vertical installation. The SVM models predict the gas volume fraction with a relative error less than ±10% for 93.10% and 94.25% of the test conditions on the horizontal and vertical installations, respectively.
Autors: Lijuan Wang;Jinyu Liu;Yong Yan;Xue Wang;Tao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 852 - 868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gaussian Multiple Access via Compute-and-Forward
Abstract:
Lattice codes used under the compute-and-forward paradigm suggest an alternative strategy for the standard Gaussian multiple-access channel (MAC): the receiver successively decodes the integer linear combinations of the messages until it can invert and recover all messages. In this paper, a multiple-access technique called compute-forward multiple access (CFMA) is proposed and analyzed. For the two-user MAC, it is shown that without time-sharing, the entire capacity region can be attained using CFMA with a single-user decoder as soon as the signal-to-noise ratios are above . A partial analysis is given for more than two users. Finally, the strategy is extended to the so-called dirty MAC, where two interfering signals are known non-causally to the two transmitters in a distributed fashion. Our scheme extends the previously known results and gives new achievable rate regions.
Autors: Jingge Zhu;Michael Gastpar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2678 - 2695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General Stochastic Convergence Theorem and Stochastic Adaptive Output-Feedback Controller
Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the analysis methods/tools to stochastic convergence and stochastic adaptive output-feedback control. As the first contribution, a general stochastic convergence theorem is proposed for stochastic nonlinear systems. The theorem doesn't necessarily involve a positive-definite function of the system states with negative-semidefinite infinitesimal, essentially different from stochastic LaSalle's theorem (see e.g., [1]), and hence can provide more opportunities to achieve stochastic convergence. Moreover, as a direct extension of the convergence theorem, a general version of stochastic Barb ă lat's lemma is obtained, which requires the concerned stochastic process to be almost surely integrable, rather than absolutely integrable in the sense of expectation, unlike in [2]. As the second contribution, supported by the general stochastic convergence theorem, an adaptive output-feedback control strategy is established for the global stabilization of a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with severe parametric uncertainties coupled to unmeasurable states. Its feasibility analysis takes substantial effort, and is largely based on the general stochastic convergence theorem. Particularly, for the resulting closed-loop system, certain stochastic boundedness and integrability are shown by the celebrated nonnegative semimartingale convergence theorem, and furthermore, the desired stochastic convergence is achieved via the general stochastic convergence theorem.
Autors: Fengzhong Li;Yungang Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2334 - 2349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General-Purpose Clocked Gate Driver IC With Programmable 63-Level Drivability to Optimize Overshoot and Energy Loss in Switching by a Simulated Annealing Algorithm
Abstract:
A general-purpose clocked gate driver integrated circuit (IC) to generate an arbitrary gate waveform is proposed to provide a universal platform for fine-grained gate waveform optimization handling various power transistors. The fabricated IC with a 0.18 μm Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS process has 63 P-type MOS (PMOS) and 63 N-type MOS (NMOS) driver transistors on a chip whose activation patterns are controlled by 6-bit digital signals and 40 ns time step control. In the 500 V switching measurements with a manual gate waveform optimization, the proposed gate driver reduces the IC overshoot by 25% and 41%, and the energy loss by 38% and 55% for Si-insulated-gate bipolar transistor and SiC-MOSFET, respectively, which demonstrate the feasibility of driving various power devices with the same driver. An automatic optimization by simulated annealing algorithm is introduced to fully utilize the benefit of the gate driver, and the further reduction of IC overshoot by 26% and the energy loss by 18% are achieved over the manual optimization.
Autors: Koutarou Miyazaki;Seiya Abe;Masanori Tsukuda;Ichiro Omura;Keiji Wada;Makoto Takamiya;Takayasu Sakurai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2350 - 2357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Coprime Planar Array Geometry for 2-D DOA Estimation
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a generalized coprime planar array (GCPA) geometry for 2-D direction of arrival (DOA) estimation, where two rectangular uniform planar subarrays are used. The proposed geometry allows a more flexible array layout and extends the array aperture to achieve a great performance improvement. We verify that GCPA can obtain a higher degree of freedom (DOF) than square coprime planar array and we derive the principle for array layout of GCPA to obtain the maximum DOF. The superiority of GCPA are revealed by numerical simulations with the classical DOA methods.
Autors: Wang Zheng;Xiaofei Zhang;Hui Zhai;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1075 - 1078
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Line Loss Relaxation in Polar Voltage Coordinates
Abstract:
It is common for power system behavior to be expressed in terms of polar voltage coordinates. When applied in optimization settings, loss formulations in polar voltage coordinates typically assume that voltage magnitudes are fixed. In reality, voltage magnitudes vary and may have an appreciable effect on losses. This paper proposes a systematic approach to incorporating the effects of voltage magnitude changes into a linear relaxation of the losses on a transmission line. This approach affords greater accuracy when describing losses around a base voltage condition as compared to previous linear and piecewise linear methods. It also better captures the true behavior of losses at conditions away from the flat voltage profile.
Autors: Jonathon A. Martin;Ian A. Hiskens;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1980 - 1989
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Primitive Stamps for Nonlinear Circuit-Field Coupling in the Transient Case
Abstract:
The simultaneous solution of circuit and field equations is often required in the analysis of magnetic devices. Although schemes for the solution of this coupled problem have been proposed, the existing formulations are usually tied to specific time discretization or nonlinear iteration expressions and therefore lack generality. In this paper, a highly systematized approach is proposed for strong circuit-field coupling in a transient finite element context, by identifying primitive stamps for field elements, circuit elements, and circuit-field couplings. The filamentary and solid conductors of the field model are the key elements for systematic interconnection using generalized stamps and modified nodal analysis. As a result, the coupling equations are treated just as any other circuit element, simplifying the implementation and providing a unified framework for circuit-field analysis. Both circuit and field stamps are independent of the time discretization and nonlinear solving procedure. With the proposed scheme, the finite element equations can be linked to circuits of arbitrary topology. The theory is developed for the axisymmetric and Cartesian 2-D cases and several examples are then solved to show the effectiveness of our new approach. Solutions are compared with those produced by well-known and validated commercial software packages which implement different, proprietary, and/or undisclosed circuit-field coupling methods.
Autors: Enrique Melgoza-Vazquez;Rafael Escarela-Perez;Jose L. Guardado;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Small Signal Modeling of Coupled-Inductor-Based High-Gain High-Efficiency DC–DC Converters
Abstract:
Usually, the high-gain high-efficiency dc–dc converters consist of many passive components, which increases the order of the system. As the order increases, system modeling and control become more complex. Thus, there is a need for the simplification of the small signal modeling process of such converters. This paper presents a generalized small signal model and equivalent circuit for an th-order coupled-inductor-based high-voltage gain converters (CIHVGC) that can be conveniently used for the control design. The state variable representation of a generalized coupled inductor with p windings is included. A simplified step by step procedure to obtain small signal model using visual inspection is presented. Analysis is included and verified using simulations and experiments for the output voltage regulation of high-voltage gain converters. The usefulness and versatility of the proposed model is verified with three examples of high gain converters belonging to the CIHVGC family. All the analytical, simulation, and experimental details of this paper are presented.
Autors: Moumita Das;Vivek Agarwal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2257 - 2270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Stability Control for Open-Loop Operation of Motor Drives
Abstract:
This paper proposes a general approach to designing a stability control for open-loop operation that can be used for either induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor, or any other motor drives. A speed or frequency set point is adjusted by a frequency compensation value to provide the stability control to mitigate hunting or motor stoppage. The proposed method can be utilized in either conventional motor drives or motor drives with an output filter and a transformer used for oil pump applications.
Autors: Jingbo Liu;Thomas A. Nondahl;Peter B. Schmidt;Semyon Royak;Timothy M. Rowan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2517 - 2525
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generating Ambiguous Figure-Ground Images
Abstract:
Ambiguous figure-ground images, mostly represented as binary images, are fascinating as they present viewers a visual phenomena of perceiving multiple interpretations from a single image. In one possible interpretation, the white region is seen as a foreground figure while the black region is treated as shapeless background. Such perception can reverse instantly at any moment. In this paper, we investigate the theory behind this ambiguous perception and present an automatic algorithm to generate such images. We model the problem as a binary image composition using two object contours and approach it through a three-stage pipeline. The algorithm first performs a partial shape matching to find a good partial contour matching between objects. This matching is based on a content-aware shape matching metric, which captures features of ambiguous figure-ground images. Then we combine matched contours into a compound contour using an adaptive contour deformation, followed by computing an optimal cropping window and image binarization for the compound contour that maximize the completeness of object contours in the final composition. We have tested our system using a wide range of input objects and generated a large number of convincing examples with or without user guidance. The efficiency of our system and quality of results are verified through an extensive experimental study.
Autors: Ying-Miao Kuo;Hung-Kuo Chu;Ming-Te Chi;Ruen-Rone Lee;Tong-Yee Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1534 - 1545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Duplicated Off-Line Signature Images for Verification Systems
Abstract:
Biometric researchers have historically seen signature duplication as a procedure relevant to improving the performance of automatic signature verifiers. Different approaches have been proposed to duplicate dynamic signatures based on the heuristic affine transformation, nonlinear distortion and the kinematic model of the motor system. The literature on static signature duplication is limited and as far as we know based on heuristic affine transforms and does not seem to consider the recent advances in human behavior modeling of neuroscience. This paper tries to fill this gap by proposing a cognitive inspired algorithm to duplicate off-line signatures. The algorithm is based on a set of nonlinear and linear transformations which simulate the human spatial cognitive map and motor system intra-personal variability during the signing process. The duplicator is evaluated by increasing artificially a training sequence and verifying that the performance of four state-of-the-art off-line signature classifiers using two publicly databases have been improved on average as if we had collected three more real signatures.
Autors: Moises Diaz;Miguel A. Ferrer;George S. Eskander;Robert Sabourin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 951 - 964
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometric Calibration of an Aerial Multihead Camera System for Direct Georeferencing Applications
Abstract:
An aerial multihead camera consists of a photogrammetric system composed of multiple cameras, which are mounted together in a main structure. By combining the images acquired simultaneously from each camera, a single synthetic image with much larger coverage can be generated. Such systems are usually integrated with a position and orientation system (POS) to perform direct georeferencing (DG) or integrated sensor orientation (ISO). However, to obtain mapping products with high accuracy through a DG procedure, it is essential the implementation of the system geometric calibration. Usually, the aerial multihead camera manufacturers perform the geometric calibration using laboratory methods and only the camera interior orientation parameters (IOPs) and their relative orientation parameters (ROPs) are determined to generate the synthetic image (process known as “platform calibration”). The mounting parameters (lever arms and boresight misalignment angles) relating the synthetic image and GNSS/INS reference systems are usually defined using nominal installation values. The objective of this paper is to present an in-flight calibration methodology for multihead camera systems and its assessment for DG applications. The introduced methodology involves three steps: 1) determination of the cameras’ IOPs and their ROPs; 2) synthetic image generation; and 3) refinement of the IOPs of the synthetic image and the mounting parameters determination between the synthetic image and GNSS/INS reference systems using different methods. The results of the experiments shown the viability of the proposed methodology for DG applications involving photogrammetric procedures for large-scale mapping requirements.
Autors: Leonardo E. Filho;Edson A. Mitishita;Ana Paula B. Kersting;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1926 - 1937
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometrically Modified Einzel Lenses, From the Conventional Cylindrical Einzel Lens to Cubic and Continuous Einzel Lens
Abstract:
New geometrical counterparts to the conventional Einzel lens, cubic, and the continuous body electrostatic (CBE) lenses are introduced and their performances are investigated in terms of different aberrations and input beam properties. Design curves for the continuous body electrostatic lens are presented. Relative sensitivity is proposed as a figure of merit, based on which the focusing characteristics of the two new lenses are compared with that of a conventional Einzel, and a quadrupole lenses of the same size, as well. Moreover, performance and characteristics of the lenses are compared in terms of their corresponding sensitivities to the applied voltage and the incidence beam nonidealities. Electric field distributions of the lenses are studied, and different aberrations are discussed. It is shown that considering chromatic nonparaxial beams, the CBE lens outperforms the conventional Einzel lens in terms of the sensitivity and the absolute value of the lens demagnification.
Autors: Arash Riazi;Navid Yasrebi;Hossein Monjezi;Bizhan Rashidian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 828 - 835
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Communications Newsletter
Abstract:
Presents key events and topics in the global communications industry.
Autors: Stefano Bregni;Octavia A. Dobre;Maytee Zambrano N.;Magnus Jonsson;Jacek Rak;Dimitri Papadimitriou;Arun Somani;Leo Hwa Chiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 19 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global EDF Schedulability Analysis for Parallel Tasks on Multi-Core Platforms
Abstract:
With the widespread adoption of multi-core architectures, it is becoming more important to develop software in ways that takes advantage of such parallel architectures. This particularly entails a shift in programming paradigms towards fine-grained, thread-parallel computing. Many parallel programming models have been introduced for targeting such intra-task thread-level parallelism. However, most successful results on traditional multi-core real-time scheduling are focused on sequential programming models. For example, thread-level parallelism is not properly captured into the concept of interference, which is key to many schedulability analysis techniques. Thereby, most interference-based analysis techniques are not directly applicable to parallel programming models. Motivated by this, we extend the notion of interference to capture thread-level parallelism more accurately. We then leverage the proposed notion of parallelism-aware interference to derive efficient EDF schedulability tests that are directly applicable to parallel task models, including DAG models, on multi-core platforms, without knowing an optimal schedule. Our evaluation results indicate that the proposed analysis significantly advances the state-of-the-art in global EDF schedulability analysis for parallel tasks. In particular, we identify that our proposed schedulability tests are adaptive to different degrees of thread-level parallelism and scalable to the number of processors, resulting in substantial improvement of schedulability for parallel tasks on multi-core platforms.
Autors: Hoon Sung Chwa;Jinkyu Lee;Jiyeon Lee;Kiew-My Phan;Arvind Easwaran;Insik Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1331 - 1345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Parametric Polynomial Approximation of Static Voltage Stability Region Boundaries
Abstract:
A novel method for globally approximating the static voltage stability region boundaries (SVSRBs) of power systems is proposed by applying parametric polynomial approximation to the criterion equation which defines the SVSRB. Known as the Galerkin method, the implicit function portraying the SVSRB is described as a linear combination of basis polynomial functions, and the coefficients of the basis functions are obtained by projecting the SVSRB criterion onto each basis function. The approximation guarantees high precision globally in the whole domain of the parameter of interest rather than only in the neighborhood of a point, and the error can be controlled by the degree of polynomial basis functions. In the meantime, analytical expression of the left or right eigenvector of the system's Jacobian matrix corresponding to the zero eigenvalue is obtained in the form of polynomial, which provides valuable information for online voltage stability control or monitoring. Case studies in a 10-bus test system and IEEE 118-bus test system verifies the validity, accuracy, and flexibility of the proposed method.
Autors: Yiwei Qiu;Hao Wu;Yongzhi Zhou;Yonghua Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2362 - 2371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gold-Hyperdoped Black Silicon With High IR Absorption by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation
Abstract:
Gold (Au)-doped-textured silicon (Si) material with a thermostable absorption below bandgap (>50%) is obtained by femtosecond laser irradiation. Although the concentration of Au impurity (1019 cm−3 ) in textured Si is at least four orders of magnitude greater than the solid solubility of Au in crystalline Si, the sheet carrier density (approximately 1010 cm−2) in Au-doped Si is very low due to a self-compensation effect of Au impurity in Si material. The infrared absorption of Au-doped Si is related to laser-induced-structural defects and sub-band absorption of deep energy levels of Au in Si, which is determined by temperature-dependent Hall Effect measurement. Besides supersaturated doping of Au, a gold silicide phase is formed at textured Si surface.
Autors: Xin-Yue Yu;Ji-Hong Zhao;Chun-Hao Li;Qi-Dai Chen;Hong-Bo Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 502 - 506
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GPU-Accelerated Simulation of Small Delay Faults
Abstract:
Delay fault simulation is an essential task during test pattern generation and reliability assessment of electronic circuits. With the high sensitivity of current nano-scale designs toward even smallest delay deviations, the simulation of small gate delay faults has become extremely important. Since these faults have a subtle impact on the timing behavior, traditional fault simulation approaches based on abstract timing models are not sufficient. Furthermore, the detection of these faults is compromised by the ubiquitous variations in the manufacturing processes, which causes the actual fault coverage to vary from circuit instance to circuit instance, and makes the use of timing accurate methods mandatory. However, the application of timing accurate techniques quickly becomes infeasible for larger designs due to excessive computational requirements. In this paper, we present a method for fast and waveform-accurate simulation of small delay faults on graphics processing units with exceptional computational performance. By exploiting multiple dimensions of parallelism from gates, faults, waveforms, and circuit instances, the proposed approach allows for timing-accurate and exhaustive small delay fault simulation under process variation for designs with millions of gates.
Autors: Eric Schneider;Michael A. Kochte;Stefan Holst;Xiaoqing Wen;Hans-Joachim Wunderlich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 829 - 841
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grades of IEEE Membership [The Way Ahead]
Abstract:
Presents information on the different grades of IEEE membership.
Autors: J. Patrick Donohoe;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphical Representation of the Power Transfer Efficiency of Lumped-Element Circuits Based on Hyperbolic Geometry
Abstract:
By adding a passive element to a power source, an inevitable power attenuation caused by the dissipative loss occurs. It is important for some applications to reduce this undesirable attenuation. A representative example of one of these kinds of applications is impedance matching, for which we transform the source's impedance to a different preferable one with passive elements, and the attenuation is to be as low as possible. To give a visible way to design better circuits in such situations, we propose a graphical representation to understand the attenuation from the viewpoint of hyperbolic geometry. We reveal that the attenuation in logarithmic scale (typically decibels or nepers) is proportionate to the hyperbolic length of the path representing the movement of the reflection coefficient, and the constant of proportionality is determined by the unloaded Q-factor of the connected elements. Exploiting the result, we can find preferable topologies by using the Smith chart with an intuition. In addition to this graphical representation, we also reveal the lower bound of the attenuation in terms of the hyperbolic distance between the two reflection coefficients that we want to match. A new usage of the Smith chart to estimate the loss and its lower bound is given in this brief.
Autors: Kyohei Yamada;Takashi Ohira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 485 - 489
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gravity-Capillary Wave Spectral Modulation by Gravity Waves
Abstract:
In order to more fully understand the specific hydrodynamic relationship between young wind-generated gravity-capillary waves and longer gravity waves, a laboratory experiment was devised to observe changes in short wave spectral behavior over the phase of a long wave. This paper endeavors to expand on the body of laboratory wave modulation data and extend the investigation in support of the radar remote sensing of ocean surface waves. Measurements were made in the University of Miami's surge-structure-atmosphere interaction facility in the air-sea interaction saltwater tank wind-wave tank, with 10 m referenced wind speeds ranging between 5 and 23 m/s and paddle-generated wave steepnesses “ak” varying between 0.05 <; ak <; 0.3. A polarimetric camera was used to capture high sampling frequency maps of wave slope, yielding spatiotemporal information about short wind-wave behavior [provided as temporal variations in the wavenumber spectrum, where k ≈ 15(100-1000) rad/m]. The simultaneous and colocated long wave phase was measured via a side-looking camera. Hydrodynamic modulation transfer function (MTF) phases are found to be in general agreement with established values (between 2 and 10 radians) at the given wind speeds. The positive phase of the modulation places it immediately downwind of the long wave crest, with MTF magnitudes strongest for high wavenumbers at the lowest wind speeds. The results are also presented to show the modulation of gravity-capillary and pure capillary waves as variations in mean square slope over the long wave phase, with peak roughness enhancement found to move upwind of the long wave crest with increasing wind forcing.
Autors: Nathan J. M. Laxague;Milan Curcic;Jan-Victor Björkqvist;Brian K. Haus;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2477 - 2485
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Green Communications and Computing Networks
Abstract:
The articles in this special section focus on green communications and computing networks.
Autors: Jinsong Wu;John Thompson;Honggang Zhang;RangaRao Venkatesha Prasad;Song Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 160 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground Moving Target Indication for High-Resolution Wide-Swath Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems
Abstract:
This letter presents a new scheme for ground moving target indication in high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS)-synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. The asymmetry of the Doppler spectra is measured to extract the range bins with moving targets. To improve the computational efficiency, only the extracted range bins are used to restore the unambiguous Doppler spectra. The two-look processing technique is then applied to generate two looks and moving targets are indicated by comparing the difference between the two looks. In this detection scheme, the configuration of the conventional HRWS-SAR system remains unchanged and no additional receiving channels are needed. The experimental results show the effectiveness of this detection scheme.
Autors: Hongchao Zheng;Junfeng Wang;Xingzhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 749 - 753
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground-Based Cloud Detection Using Graph Model Built Upon Superpixels
Abstract:
Cloud detection plays an important role in climate models, climate predictions, and meteorological services. Although researchers have given increasing efforts on cloud detection, the performance is still unsatisfactory due to the diverse nature of clouds. Considering the fact that one source of information (color or texture) is not enough to segment cloud from clear sky, in this letter, we propose a novel ground-based cloud detection method using graph model (GM) built upon superpixels to integrate multiple sources of information. First, we use the superpixel segmentation to divide the image into a series of subregions according to the color similarity and spatial continuity. Next, adjacent superpixels are merged according to their similarity of extracted features. Finally, we build a GM on the merged superpixels by considering each superpixel as a node and adding edges between neighboring ones. The unary cost is set according to the classification score of Random Forests, while pairwise cost reflects the penalties for color and texture discontinuity between neighboring components. The final segmentation could be acquired by minimizing the cost function. Moreover, the algorithm is computationally efficient as we use the superpixels rather than raw pixels as computation units. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method for cloud detection.
Autors: Cunzhao Shi;Yu Wang;Chunheng Wang;Baihua Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 719 - 723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editor's Introduction to the Special Section on the ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D)
Abstract:
Autors: Kartic Subr;Li-Yi Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1427 - 1427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Nanoelectronic Devices and Circuits for Next Generation Sensing and Information Processing
Abstract:
The articles in this special issue focus on novel device technology and circuit designs to implement smart, efficient, reliable and secure sensing, control, and computing paradigm.
Autors: S. P. MOHANTY;X. LI;H. LI;Y. CAO;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 383 - 386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on the 2016 IEEE Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems (LASCAS 2016)
Abstract:
Welcome to this Special Section, a collection of selected papers presented at the 2016 IEEE Latin American Symposium on Circuits and Systems (LASCAS 2016), held in Florianópolis, Brazil, from February 28 to March 2, 2016. Over 250 delegates attended the conference, where 100 papers were presented, selected from 203 papers submitted across 20 tracks.
Autors: Pedro M. Julián;Lisandro Lovisolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1017 - 1018
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Special Section on Nano Devices, Circuits and Systems
Abstract:
The papers in this special section focus on nanotechnology which includes nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and nanomaterials. Since the Nanotechnology is now widely deployed in sensors, optoelectronic, biology, medicine, and material science, we are trying to enhance the research at the nanoscale, to share knowledge, expertise, techniques, and tools on nanotechnology. The purpose of these papers are to indicate the increasing demands for device, circuits and systems Designs in which the devices are analyzed in low power, high power and high frequency applications. Consequently these analysis are linked with analog and digital circuits.
Autors: V. R. Rao;C. K. Sarkar;D. Nirmal;M. Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 367 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guided Wave Tomography of Pipe Bends
Abstract:
Detection and monitoring of corrosion and erosion damage in pipe bends are open challenges due to the curvature of the elbow, the complex morphology of these defects, and their unpredictable location. Combining model-based inversion with guided ultrasonic waves propagating along the elbow and inside its walls offers the possibility of mapping wall-thickness losses over the entire bend and from a few permanently installed transducers under the realm of guided wave tomography (GWT). This paper provides the experimental demonstration of GWT of pipe bends based on a novel curved ray tomography algorithm and an optimal transducer configuration consisting of two ring arrays mounted at the ends of the elbow and a line of transducers fixed to the outer side of the elbow (extrados). Using realistic, localized corrosion defects, it is shown that detection of both the presence and progression of damage can be achieved with 100% sensitivity regardless of damage position around the bend. Importantly, this is possible for defects as shallow as 0.50% of wall thickness (WT) and for maximum depth increments of just 0.25% WT. However, due to the highly irregular profile of corrosion defects, GWT generally underestimates maximum depth relative to the values obtained from 3-D laser scans of the same defects, leading in many cases to errors between 3% WT and 8% WT.
Autors: Alex J. Brath;Francesco Simonetti;Peter B. Nagy;Geir Instanes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 847 - 858
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Handoff Performance Improvements in an Integrated Train-Ground Communication System Based on Wireless Network Virtualization
Abstract:
In existing urban rail transit systems, the train-ground communication system for different subsystems is deployed independently. Investing and constructing the communication infrastructures repeatedly not only wastes substantial social resources, but it also is difficult to maintain all these infrastructures. In this paper, we propose an integrated train-ground communication system based on wireless network virtualization for urban rail transit systems. In order to improve the communication-based train control (CBTC) subsystem performance during handoff, we propose a novel handoff scheme to support handoff between virtual networks. The application-layer quality-of-service (QoS) parameters of the CBTC, passenger information system, and closed circuit television subsystems are used as the performance measures in the handoff design. We then formulate the QoS optimization problem in the proposed integrated train-ground communication system as an approximate dynamic programming (ADP) problem. The extensive simulation results show that the proposed integrated train-ground communication system QoS can be improved substantially with our ADP-based optimization model.
Autors: Li Zhu;Fei Richard Yu;Tao Tang;Bin Ning;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1165 - 1178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hands-On Education about Standardization: Is That What Industry Expects?
Abstract:
Technical standards support compatibility and interoperability among numerous entities existing in the telecommunications market. However, the university curricula rarely include standards analysis and rarely encourage students to create solutions that are based on the standards. This fact poses a hindrance in the adoption of new technologies due to the fact that recent graduates as young professionals will most certainly have difficulties in using new standards they may get in touch with on their first job. In our approach, we acknowledge the need for students to work with standards before they graduate. Research activities, connected with industrial projects in which application of new standardized technologies is in focus, are combined with student projects, enabling students to get their own hands-on experience in analyzing and applying telecommunications standards. As the result, students gain valuable experience for their future careers, an academic setting is used as a safe environment for testing and possibly even enhancing new standards, and the industry attains deeper knowledge about standards and technologies that could be used in their real-world deployments.
Autors: Damjan Katusic;Pavle Skocir;Mario Kusek;Gordan Jezic;Carlo Ratti;Iva Bojic;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 133 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardness of Firewall Analysis
Abstract:
We identify 13 problems whose solutions can significantly enhance our ability to design and analyze firewalls and other packet classifiers. These problems include the firewall equivalence problem, the firewall redundancy problem, the firewall verification problem, and the firewall completeness problem. The main result of this paper is to prove that every one of these problems is NP-hard. Our proof of this result is interesting in the following way. Only one of the 13 problems, the so called slice probing problem, is shown to be NP-hard by a reduction from the well-known 3-SAT problem. Then, the remaining 12 problems are shown to be NP-hard by reductions from the slice probing problem. This proof suggests that the slice probing problem plays an important role in the design and analysis of firewalls. The negative results of this paper suggest that firewalls designers may need to rely on SAT solvers to solve instances of these 13 problems or may be content with probabilistic solutions of these problems. On the positive side, we show that each of the 13 firewall analysis problems presented in this paper is polynomially reducible to the slice probing problem. Thus any algorithm, that can effectively solve the slice probing problem, can also be employed to effectively solve any of these 13 problems.
Autors: Ehab S. Elmallah;Mohamed G. Gouda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 339 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Architecture Based on Parallel Tiled QRD Algorithm for Future MIMO Systems
Abstract:
QR decomposition (QRD) has been a vital component in the transceiver processor of future multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, in which antenna configuration will be more and more flexible. Therefore, the QRD hardware architecture in the future MIMO systems should be more flexible to meet various antenna configurations. Unfortunately, the existing QRD hardware architectures mainly focus on the matrix of one or several fixed sizes. This paper presents a new triangular systolic array QRD hardware architecture based on parallel tiled QRD algorithm to decompose an real matrix. The designed hardware architecture is flexible and can be used in various MIMO systems, in which the number of antennas is smaller than 4. This paper also proposes a modified algorithm for the bottleneck operations of parallel tiled QRD algorithm to reduce the hardware overhead. To further reduce the hardware overhead, the Newton–Raphson algorithm is adopted in the proposed algorithm. The implementation results show that the normalized processing latency performance and the normalized processing efficiency performance of the designed QRD hardware architecture both are better than most of the existing QRD hardware architectures. To the best of our knowledge, the hardware architecture presented in this paper achieves the superior normalized QRD rate performance to the existing QRD hardware architectures.
Autors: Cang Liu;Chuan Tang;Zuocheng Xing;Luechao Yuan;Yang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1714 - 1724
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Implementation Overhead of Switchable Matching Networks
Abstract:
Nowadays, more and more RF systems include switchable matching networks to decrease the impact of the environment-dependent antenna impedance on the RF front end performance. This paper reviews the theoretical lower limit on the required number of matching states to match VSWR ranges and then presents an analysis of hardware implementations to actually implement a suitable switchable matching network. A number of matching network topologies are analyzed: PI networks, loaded transmission lines, branch line coupler based circuits, single circulators and cascaded circulators. In our investigation only narrow-band applications are targeted. For the various circuit implementations the required number of matching states for each hardware implementation is compared to the theoretical minimum number of states required for the same matching in order to benchmark their hardware implementation overhead. It appears that a matching network using cascaded circulators is the closest to the theoretical optimum for networks with a relatively low number of states: this type of matching network was implemented and analyzed in more detail.
Autors: Ettore Lorenzo Firrao;Anne-Johan Annema;Frank E. van Vliet;Bram Nauta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1152 - 1163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware/Software Approach to Designing Low-Power RNS-Enhanced Arithmetic Units
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new approach to use a residue number system (RNS) to design an arithmetic unit to parallelize execution of addition and multiplication. The chosen RNS is defined by a moduli set composed of one larger even modulus and all remaining moduli of the type , selected to fit into the word size of a typical general-purpose processor, e.g., 32 or 64 b. The RNS operations are implemented in hardware, except for the reverse conversion, which is implemented in software, allowing not only to save hardware area but also offering the ease of run-time changing of the dynamic range, which in turn can result in reducing both power consumption and execution time. Simulation experiments were performed on synthesized seven-operation arithmetic units with varying dynamic range for three applications: constant-coefficient filtering, matrix multiplication, and large Montgomery multiplication. The results show that thanks to smaller modular multipliers, RNS arithmetic units have smaller both area and delay, and, consequently, they allow to achieve up to over 20% energy saving for a constant-coefficient filter application, up to over 28% for the matrix multiplication, and up to 27% for Montgomery multiplication, compared with executions using a positional arithmetic unit.
Autors: Piotr Patronik;Stanisław J. Piestrak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1031 - 1039
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonics and Interharmonics Analysis of Electrical Arc Furnaces Based on Spectral Model Optimization With High-Resolution Windowing
Abstract:
In this paper, a spectral model optimization based method for the analysis of harmonics and interharmonics produced by electric arc furnace (EAF) installations is presented. Detecting the changes occurring in the frequency spectrum of the EAF voltages fast and accurately has crucial importance to eliminate the undesired effects of harmonics and interharmonics using advanced technology compensation systems such as active power filters, synchronous static compensators, energy storage systems, etc. The aim of the research work presented here is to reduce the spectral leakage effects experienced by Fourier analysis based methods by estimating the spectral model parameters using nonlinear least squares. The Fourier spectrum of the signal is used as a priori information; however, the proposed model does not suffer from the spectral leakage problems encountered by the Fourier analysis based methods in case of fundamental frequency variation, which frequently occurs in the existence of EAF plants in an electrical system. Moreover, the proposed model permits frequency detection at a much higher resolution than the Fourier analysis based methods. The proposed method has been tested on both synthetic and field data and it has been shown that it is able to detect frequency components and the corresponding amplitudes and phases of harmonics and interharmonics with high accuracy for EAF plants.
Autors: Yunus Emre Vatankulu;Zekeriya Şentürk;Ozgul Salor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2587 - 2595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harnessing Encrypted Data in Cloud for Secure and Efficient Mobile Image Sharing
Abstract:
Nowadays, large volumes of multimedia data are outsourced to the cloud to better serve mobile applications. Along with this trend, highly correlated datasets can occur commonly, where the rich information buried in correlated data is useful for many cloud data generation/dissemination services. In light of this, we propose to enable a secure and efficient cloud-assisted image sharing architecture for mobile devices, by leveraging outsourced encrypted image datasets with privacy assurance. Different from traditional image sharing, we aim to provide a mobile-friendly design that saves the transmission cost for mobile clients, by directly utilizing outsourced correlated images to reproduce the image of interest inside the cloud for immediate dissemination. First, we propose a secure and efficient index design that allows the mobile client to securely find from encrypted image datasets the candidate selection pertaining to the image of interest for sharing. We then design two specialized encryption mechanisms that support secure image reproduction from encrypted candidate selection. We formally analyze the security strength of the design. Our experiments explicitly show that both the bandwidth and energy consumptions at the mobile client can be saved, while achieving all service requirements and security guarantees.
Autors: Helei Cui;Xingliang Yuan;Cong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1315 - 1329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Has Intel created a universal memory technology? [News]
Abstract:
Today's computers shuttle data around a byzantine system of several different kinds of short- and long-term memory. No wonder, then, that engineers have long dreamed of one memory technology to rule them all, a universal memory that would simplify computing and streamline the path of data.
Autors: Katherine Bourzac;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 9 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hazelnut Oil Classification by NMR Techniques
Abstract:
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis. In recent years, thanks to the development of the NMR instrumentation and the software for data analysis, it is becoming a useful tool for quality control in the food industry. In this field, several applications have been developed related to the compositional and structural analysis, authentication, packaging, and on-line monitoring. This paper highlights the capability of NMR to discern between the oil extracted from healthy and unhealthy hazelnuts, as a preliminary step toward the automatic detection of the hidden defects in full hazelnuts. Different processing techniques are analyzed on the CPMG response in order to set up the final measurement system.
Autors: Domenico Di Caro;Consolatina Liguori;Antonio Pietrosanto;Paolo Sommella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 928 - 934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Networked Cooperative Scheduling With Anarchic Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This paper proposes a mathematical model and new solving algorithm for scheduling of a distributed production network with heterogeneous parallel factories distributed in the different geographical places. In this problem, two subproblems must be solved, i.e., 1) assigning jobs to appropriate factory and 2) scheduling jobs on parallel machines in each factory. We also assume that after initial assignment, for better balancing in machines’ loading in the different factories, each job can be shifted among factories. After modeling the problem as mixed integer linear programming, with proposing a new method for solution representation, we propose a novel solving algorithm namely anarchic particle swarm optimization to minimize makespan of jobs. This algorithm is inspired by an anarchic society whose members behave anarchically to improve their situations. By such anarchic particles, the algorithm can prevent falling in local optimum traps. The obtained results of mixed integer linear programming solved by CPLEX are compared with the proposed algorithm, a genetic algorithm and a noncooperative local scheduling for small-sized instances. At the end, the effectiveness of anarchic particle swarm optimization, standard particle swarm optimization, and genetic algorithm are examined on the test problems which contained up to 500 jobs.
Autors: Javad Behnamian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 166 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical MK Splines: Algorithm and Applications to Data Fitting
Abstract:
In the era of big data, it is very important to study large-scale data fitting methods. In order to ensure the calculation speed and accuracy, we propose a new kind of hierarchical many-knot splines (hereinafter called “hierarchical MK splines,” generally abbreviated as HMK splines) in this paper. The HMK splines method produces a sequence of MK spline functions. These MK spline functions are constructed into one ideal interpolation function by the MK spline refinement. In the case of regular sampling data, HMK splines can achieve the purpose of accurate approximation for the given data points without solving systems of equations. Further, in order to deal with the issues of scattered data fitting, the use of least-squares method will lead to the necessary of solving a linear system of equations. Since the ill-conditioned systems of equations often lead to unacceptable deviation of calculation results, one tries to avoid it as much as possible. The HMK splines algorithm can meet this requirement; it can avoid the intolerable deviation caused by solving systems of equations. Experimental results show that large-scale scattered data fitting can be easily achieved by the HMK splines algorithm and the reconstruction of nonuniform samples has a high accuracy.
Autors: Zhanchuan Cai;Ting Lan;Caimu Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 921 - 934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance Ge pMOSFETs With HfO2/Hf-Cap/GeOx Gate Stack and Suitable Post Metal Annealing Treatments
Abstract:
An equivalent oxide thickness of ~0.53 nm, gate leakage current density of /cm2 at V FB + 1 V, ION/ IOFF ratio of , subthreshold swing of 136 mV/dec, and peak hole mobility of 375 cm2/V-s at N cm−2 in Ge p-type metal–oxide–semiconductor-field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs) are achieved by HfO2/Hf-cap/GeOx gate stack with suitable post-metal-annealing (PMA) treatments. Such a high mobility in Ge pMOSFETs can be attributed to an ultrathin GeOx layer at the surface of Ge substrate. Ge+ and Ge+2 in GeOx layer are re-oxidized to higher oxidation state by gettered oxygen, which is captured by Hf-cap from GeOx and HfO2 during PMA. The minimized contents of Ge+1 and Ge+2 in GeOx are crucial to achieve excellent electrical characteristics.
Autors: Shih-Han Yi;Kuei-Shu Chang-Liao;Tzung-Yu Wu;Chia-Wei Hsu;Jiayi Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 544 - 547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Quality Factor Coaxial Cable Fabry-Perot Resonator for Sensing Applications
Abstract:
This paper describes a novel coaxial cable Fabry–Perot resonator for sensing applications. The sensor is fabricated by creating two highly reflective mirrors in a coaxial cable. The device physics was discussed. The temperature response of the sensor was tested. The temperature measurement is achieved by monitoring the frequency shift of the reflection and transmission spectra as the temperature is increased linearly in steps of 5 °C from 35 °C to 80 °C. This sensor exhibited high temperature sensitivity and measurement resolution. The high quality factor of this sensor leads to high measurement resolution. Highest factor of 133 was recorded. It has been derived that the factor decreases as the frequency increases.
Autors: Mohammed Farhan Ahmed;Ting Xue;Bin Wu;Jie Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3052 - 3057
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Resolution Digital Imager Based on Time Multiplexing Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, a new high-resolution digital imager based on a time multiplexing scheme is proposed. The imager produces a 256-grayscale image through capturing 256 successive frames that each belongs to a specific luminance range. Each pixel includes a 1-b analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a single bit static memory to improve the fill factor. The in-pixel ADC is designed as a compact and fast converter to achieve a high-resolution and video-rate image sensor. The proposed sensor is designed and implemented in a standard 180-nm CMOS technology. The imager achieves an overall dynamic range of over 140 dB at video rate imaging. The pixel pitch is and the fill factor is about 48%. The circuit operates at a supply voltage as low as 800 mV. At this supply voltage and at video rate imaging, its power consumption is about 4.33 nW. The proposed imager can directly perform some pre-processing algorithms, such as image segmentation and binarization. Additionally, the proposed method transfers the memory and process units of the pixels to the external of the sensor array so it provides a suitable structure for designing high-resolution, wide dynamic range, and fast general-purpose image sensors.
Autors: Kourosh Hassanli;Sayed Masoud Sayedi;J. Jacob Wikner;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2831 - 2840
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Responsivity Fire Detectors Based on PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Photoconductors
Abstract:
In this letter, we report on high responsivity fire detectors based on PbS colloidal quantum dots photoconductors. The devices operate in the near infrared and are equipped with a visible light silicon filter for wavelength selectivity. Devices are fabricated by a simple, low cost, and silicon compatible process based on drop casting of a ligand exchanged solution of PbS nanoparticles. The photodetectors exhibit responsivity as high as 20 A/W at 1-V bias. We exploit the combination of their high responsivity and spectral response for the development of a novel fire detector able to detect a small flame at a distance exceeding 15 m in ambient illumination.
Autors: Andrea De Iacovo;Carlo Venettacci;Lorenzo Colace;Leonardo Scopa;Sabrina Foglia;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 703 - 706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Speed Band-Limited 850-nm VCSEL Link Based on Time-Domain Interference Elimination
Abstract:
Short-distance optical interconnection among servers in data centers has attracted the attentions of a multitude of researchers. The method to make the optical link with high transmission capacity and low cost becomes increasingly crucial. Considering these requirements, we propose a new equalization method for time-domain interference elimination in this letter, employed in a band-limited 850-nm vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) link. The method is named simplified maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE), which reduces about 87.8% computational complexity in digital signal processing compared with the conventional MLSE. Based on the proposed simplified-MLSE and combined with the feed-forward equalizer (FFE), a 60-Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ)-modulated VCSEL link could transmit via 56-m OM4 multimode fiber (MMF), and the bit error rate (BER) is still lower than the 7% hard-decision forward error correction (FEC) threshold. The 3-dB bandwidth of the employed 850-nm VCSEL in this transmission system is only 18 GHz, fulfilling the principle of cost-efficient optical interconnects and showing the enormous potential of our proposal in data centers.
Autors: Zhongwei Tan;Chuanchuan Yang;Yixiao Zhu;Zhaopeng Xu;Kaiheng Zou;Fan Zhang;Ziyu Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 751 - 754
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Speed Electro-Absorption Modulator for Long Range Retroreflective Free Space Optics
Abstract:
In this letter, we present the design and implementation of a pixelated electro-absorption modulator-based modulating retroreflector (MRR) for high-speed optical wireless communications. The modulator is based on a multiple quantum well structure embedded in an asymmetric Fabry–Perot cavity. This MRR was used in an outdoor link, operating at 150 Mb/s with a bit error rate (BER) of at a range of 200 m. The system was also tested in laboratory-controlled conditions achieving a data rate of 200 Mb/s with a BER of . To the best of our knowledge, this is the fastest retroreflective free-space optics demonstration in both the indoor and outdoor environments.
Autors: C. Quintana;Q. Wang;D. Jakonis;X. Piao;G. Erry;D. Platt;Y. Thueux;A. Gomez;G. Faulkner;H. Chun;M. Salter;D. O’Brien;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 707 - 710
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Step-Up DC–DC Converter With Minimum Output Voltage Ripple
Abstract:
In this paper, a new structure for high step-up dc–dc converters is proposed. In the proposed structure, it is possible to extend the topology by increasing the number of active–passive inductor cells. High voltage gain with lower duty cycle, low-current and -voltage stresses on switches, small inductors, and small size of filter are the main advantages of the proposed structure. The proposed converter is analyzed in different operating modes. In order to design the components’ values of the proposed converter, the equations of output voltage ripple are calculated in each operating mode and a design procedure is proposed based on the aforementioned equations. Moreover, the losses and efficiency of the converter are calculated. In order to validate the correctness of calculations and analyses, the experimental results are given.
Autors: Hamed Mashinchi Maheri;Ebrahim Babaei;Mehran Sabahi;Seyed Hossein Hosseini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3568 - 3575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Voltage Diodes in Diamond Using (100)- and (111)- Substrates
Abstract:
We present a comparative study of PIN structures in diamond on type IIa (100)- and type IIb (111)- oriented bulk diamond substrates. An 8.5- thick i-layer demonstrated a blocking voltage>1kV for the (100)-oriented diamond sample without any mesa isolation, passivation, or edge termination structures. PIN diodes with a 530nm thick drift region, on the (111)- sample, demonstrated a blocking voltage of 207V at a current level of 1A/cm2 with a corresponding blocking electric field of 3.9MV/cm. A deep ultraviolet light emission was observed only in (111)-diodes under forward bias, confirming well-behaved p-n junction characteristics in (111) as compared to (100).
Autors: Maitreya Dutta;Franz A. M. Koeck;Wenwen Li;Robert J. Nemanich;Srabanti Chowdhury;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 600 - 603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Voltage Stress Induced in Transparent Polycrystalline Diamond Field-Effect Transistor and Enhanced Endurance Using Thick Al2O3 Passivation Layer
Abstract:
A transparent polycrystalline diamond field-effect transistor (FET) was fabricated and measured in room temperature measurements, which reveals comparatively high maximum current density and high breakdown voltage of more than 1000 V. A harsh stress environment is proposed for simple and time-effective reliability stress measurement of the FET using a method of 50 continuous cycles of 500-V voltage stress. A 400-nm-thick Al2O3 counter-destructive passivation layer was implemented on the FET for the stress measurements. Devices with wide gate–drain length () retain their FET characteristics after the harsh stress measurements by only 50% reductions maximum current density.
Autors: Mohd Syamsul;Yuya Kitabayashi;Takuya Kudo;Daisuke Matsumura;Hiroshi Kawarada;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 607 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Breakdown, High- $f_{mathrm{ max}}$ Multiport Stacked-Transistor Topologies for the ${W}$ -Band Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
Effect of silicon technology limitations, including transistor nonidealities, layout parasitics, and low-quality factor on-chip passive components on millimeter wave stacked switching power amplifiers operating at the -band frequencies (75–110 GHz), is presented in this paper. To mitigate the performance degradation in output power and PAE arising from such causes, high-breakdown voltage, high- multiport stacked-transistor topologies are proposed for realizing power amplifiers with high output power and high efficiency at 75–110 GHz. A 90-nm silicon germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process is used to propose active structures comprising of two and three stacked transistors with integrated layout parasitics that achieve and breakdown voltage of 295 GHz and 8 V and 260 GHz and 11 V, respectively. Functionality of such multiport transistor topologies is demonstrated in proof-of-concept implementations, including a five-stage two-stacked switching power amplifier (PA) that achieves peak output power and PAE of 22 dBm and 19% at 85 GHz, and a six-stage three-stacked PA that achieves peak output power and PAE of 23.3 dBm and 17% at 83 GHz, respectively. For comparison with conventional switching PA designs using native transistor footprints, a five-stage -band nonstacked Class-E amplifiers is also fabricated in the same 90-nm SiGe BiCMOS process with output power and PAE of 19.5 dBm and 16% at 88 GHz. The superior performance of output power and PAE in designs using the multiport transistor topologies highlights the benefit of the proposed approach.
Autors: Kunal Datta;Hossein Hashemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1305 - 1319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Density Reconfigurable Devices With Programmable Bottom-Gate Array
Abstract:
A novel poly-Si reconfigurable device with a programmable bottom-gate (BG) array is demonstrated for the first time. The BG has non-volatile memory functionality. This device is very efficient in terms of device size and functionality. By changing the bias or program/erase state of the BGs, a device can be transformed to a certain device type among -/-MOSFETs, and - and - diodes. The threshold voltage () and contact resistance () of MOSFETs can be controlled independently by the BGs. The subthreshold swings for -/-MOSFETs are 200 and 230 mV/decade, respectively. The s of the -/-MOSFETs measured from a single reconfigurable device are more than , which are comparable to those of conventional poly-Si devices.
Autors: Jun-Mo Park;Jong-Ho Bae;Jai-Ho Eum;Sung Hun Jin;Byung-Gook Park;Jong-Ho Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 564 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Gain and Wide-Bandwidth Filtering Planar Antenna Array-Based Solely on Resonators
Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach for the design of high-gain and wide-bandwidth planar antenna arrays. It is based on the coupling matrix theory which allows the design of the arrays using all-resonator structures. The parameters of the matrix offer the flexibility of achieving a controllable bandwidth. They also introduce a frequency filtering functionality into the arrays which can remove the need to place a bandpass filter after the arrays at the very front end of a communication system. The new approach has been applied to using novel topologies to form two wideband planar antenna arrays utilizing rectangular waveguide cavity resonators operated at X-band frequencies. The first topology is seventh order and based on 39 resonators configured in two waveguide-layers; that is one layer for the feed resonators and one layer for the radiating resonators. The second topology is fourth order based on 25 resonators configured only in a single waveguide-layer. Fabrication and measurements have been performed, showing very good agreement with the simulations.
Autors: Rashad H. Mahmud;Michael J. Lancaster;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2367 - 2375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Linearity AlGaN/GaN FinFETs for Microwave Power Applications
Abstract:
In this letter, we have proposed a novel AlGaN/GaN FinFET featuring T-shaped gate and extremely linearity of transconductance characteristics (. The formation of AlGaN/GaN nano-fins only in the gate opening region is enabled by a developed fabrication process, which is simple and well compatible with the conventional one. When normalized to effective channel width, the fabricated FinFET delivers a 1.45 times higher current density and a 1.66 times higher output power density as high as 11.3 W/mm at 8 GHz compared with the planar HEMTs, along with clearly improved linearity characteristics thanks to a flatter response afforded by much lower source access resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of superior power performance of high-linearity GaN FinFETs, indicating significant advantages of tri-gate configuration over planar HEMTs for microwave power applications.
Autors: Kai Zhang;Yuechan Kong;Guangrun Zhu;Jianjun Zhou;Xinxin Yu;Cen Kong;Zhonghui Li;Tangsheng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 615 - 618
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Black Phosphorus MOSFETs Using Crystal Orientation Control and Contact Engineering
Abstract:
We report high performance, orientation-controlled, and locally back-gated black phosphorus (BP) n-MOSFETs and p-MOSFETs with titanium and permalloy contacts, respectively. Devices with channel length ranging from 0.3 to are analyzed. Armchair-oriented BP p-MOSFETs (n-MOSFETs) display 3.5 times (1.5 times) higher maximum current compared with zigzag devices. Saturated transconductance values up to 4.8 times (1.6 times) higher for BP p-MOSFETs (n-MOSFETs) oriented along the armchair direction compared with the zigzag direction are observed. Using this orientation control and contact engineering, n-MOSFETs with transconductance of and p-MOSFETs with contact resistance as low as 0.31 are demonstrated.
Autors: Nazila Haratipour;Seon Namgung;Roberto Grassi;Tony Low;Sang-Hyun Oh;Steven J. Koester;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 685 - 688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Ternary Adder Using CNTFET
Abstract:
Ternary logic is a promising alternative to the conventional binary logic in VLSI design as it provides the advantages of reduced interconnects, higher operating speeds, and smaller chip area. This paper presents a pair of circuits for implementing a ternary half adder using carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. The proposed designs combine both futuristic ternary and conventional binary logic design approach. One of the proposed circuits for ternary to binary decoder simplifies further circuit implementation and provides excellent delay and power advantages in data path circuit such as adder. These circuits have been extensively simulated using HSPICE to obtain power, delay, and power delay product. The circuit performances are compared with alternative designs reported in recent literature. One of the proposed ternary adders has been demonstrated power, power delay product improvement up to 63% and 66% respectively, with lesser transistor count. So, the use of these half adders in complex arithmetic circuits will be advantageous.
Autors: Subhendu Kumar Sahoo;Gangishetty Akhilesh;Rasmita Sahoo;Manasi Muglikar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 368 - 374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Uniaxial Tensile Strained n-Channel JL SOI FETs and Triangular JL Bulk FinFETs for Nanoscaled Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, one proposed an effective method to enhance current drivability of junctionless FETs (JL-FETs) by utilizing uniaxial tensile strain effects. The strained layers were deposited on JL-FETs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and bulk Si wafers, respectively. Strained JL SOI FETs show an extremely low subthreshold swing (S.S.) of 65 mV/decade with ; strained JL bulk FinFETs show an S.S. of 75 mV/decade with . For strained JL bulk FinFETs, a triangular fin shape could suppress leakage current effectively. Regardless of substrates, JL FETs showed excellent performance owing to uniaxial tensile strain technology. Analysis of leakage current in strained JL FETs included effects on Gate-induced drain leakage trap-assisted tunneling effects were discussed by – curves under various temperatures and activation energy. Compared with JL SOI gate-all-around structures, JL bulk FinFET possesses higher and offer the promise of higher integration flexibility for Si CMOS compatible process for the future applications.
Autors: Po-Jung Sung;Ta-Chun Cho;Fu-Ju Hou;Fu-Kuo Hsueh;Sheng-Ti Chung;Yao-Jen Lee;Michael I. Current;Tien-Sheng Chao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2054 - 2060
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power Photodiode-Integrated-Connected Array Antenna
Abstract:
We present a novel optical feeding technique to achieve efficient excitation of an ultrawideband-connected array (CA) antenna. The passive fiber optic feed allows for preservation of the theoretical bandwidth and low profile of elementary connected dipole elements. In order to improve effective radiated power, high-power charge compensated modified unitravelling carrier photodiodes are integrated into an antenna array for the first time. Circuit and full-wave simulations, which include all required antenna and feed components, are conducted for the optimization of the array's performance. A 9 × 12 element CA is populated with a 1-D array of four photodiode-integrated active elements to demonstrate the concept. The optically fed array is confirmed experimentally to have a 3-dB bandwidth of approximately 7–17 GHz, in good agreement with simulations.
Autors: Matthew R. Konkol;Dylan D. Ross;Shouyuan Shi;Charles E. Harrity;Andrew A. Wright;Christopher A. Schuetz;Dennis W. Prather;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2010 - 2016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Power Terahertz Wave Generation by Optical Rectification of a Gaussian Laser Pulse Propagating in Magnetoplasma
Abstract:
This paper presents an investigation of terahertz (THz) wave generation by optical rectification of a Gaussian laser pulse propagating in plasma having periodic density perturbation in the presence of an externally applied static magnetic field in the axial direction. The nonuniform intensity of laser pulse leads to the generation of quasi-static ponderomotive force. The electrons acquire nonlinear oscillatory velocity under the influence of the force. This velocity, on coupling with the density perturbation, induces a nonlinear current density in the radial direction. This nonlinear current density drives a wave, the frequency of which depends on the pulse duration of the laser. The frequency falls in the THz range if the pulse duration of the laser is chosen thoughtfully. For the resonant excitation of the radiation, phase matching is required, which is provided by the periodic density perturbation. Axially applied external magnetic field can be utilized as a controlling parameter to enhance the nonlinear coupling and the yield of the generated wave. The effect of the axial magnetic field on the generated THz intensity is investigated. Variations in THz radiation intensity as functions of the density ripple amplitude and background plasma density have also been studied.
Autors: Ram K. Singh;Subodh Kumar;Ram P. Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 786 - 790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Q Sensor Based on Symmetrical Split Ring Resonator With Spurlines for Solids Material Detection
Abstract:
This paper presents novel structures of planar microwave sensors for detecting and characterizing the dielectric properties in common solid materials which produce high Q-factors with capability to suppress undesired harmonic spurious. These sensors are based on novel planar symmetrical split ring resonator with spurlines filters by employing the perturbation theory, in which the dielectric properties of the resonator affect the Q-factor and resonance frequency. The proposed sensors achieve narrow resonance with low insertion loss and high-Q and sensitivity which peaked up to 652 at 2.22 GHz operating frequency. By using a specific experimental methodology, practical materials are applied as standards (Roger 5880, Roger 4350, FR4) to validate the sensitivity of the sensors for permitting potentially material characterization and detection. Accordingly, the mathematical equation is derived to extract the materials with unknown properties. The average accuracy percentage of the measured results for all cases of the designed sensors is found within 97%–98% compared with those in the literature for the same tested standard materials. It is believed that these sensors would lead for a promising solution of characterizing material particularly in determining material properties and quality, such as in food industry, bio-sensing medicine applications, and therapeutics goods detections.
Autors: Rammah Ali Alahnomi;Zahriladha Zakaria;Eliyana Ruslan;Siti Rosmaniza Ab Rashid;Amyrul Azuan Mohd Bahar;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2766 - 2775
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Quality and Stable Electron Emission Device With Sub-30-nm Aligned Nanogap Arrays
Abstract:
A high-quality and stable electron device of aligned gold nanogap arrays is demonstrated by using a well-controlled method with electron beam lithography and focused ion beam. Sub-30-nm nanogap arrays could be precisely fabricated with reproducibility. Field emission (FE) properties of the nanogaps are directly measured in the vacuum chamber of scanning electron microscopy with a nanomanipulator. Experimental investigation and calculations are carried out to reveal the transition process from the leakage current to the FE. Importantly, the controllable method could allow us to readily construct varying nanospacings. Besides, we also illustrate the independence of emission current on the vacuum degree over a large range, widening the applied range of the devices. These studies clearly demonstrate that electronic devices with sub-30-nm vacuum channel can be readily achieved by coupling varying nanogaps into nanostructures. It may pave the way for exploring the physics in tunneling transport devices, and therefore enable a new generation of high-performance, high-speed and low-cost electronic devices.
Autors: Ji Xu;Qilong Wang;Zhi Tao;Yusheng Zhai;Chen Guangdian;Zhiyang Qi;Xiaobing Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2364 - 2368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Resonant Surface Acoustic Wave Instrumentation Based on Instantaneous Frequency Measurement
Abstract:
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are used for a broad range of wireless sensing applications, some of them having high demands on the resolution as well as the measurement update rate. This paper presents a new interrogation method for precise and fast frequency determination of passive SAW resonators based on instantaneous frequency measurement by a low-cost six-port interferometer. Using a delay line, the frequency measurement is reduced to a phase measurement that can be instantaneously evaluated by the six-port network. No complex signal processing is necessary providing high update rates and low hardware costs. An in-depth analysis of the system concept and its building blocks is presented, and the advantages as well as the limitations are discussed and compared with the current state of the art. Finally, a demonstrator in the 2.4-GHz frequency band shows the feasibility and the precision of the concept with measurement times of only a few microseconds.
Autors: Fabian Lurz;Stefan Lindner;Sarah Linz;Sebastian Mann;Robert Weigel;Alexander Koelpin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 974 - 984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Higher Order Asymptotic Approximations of Eigenmodes for a Circular Waveguide Terminated by a Perfectly Matched Layer
Abstract:
In this paper, the improved asymptotic solutions of eigenmodes (leaky and Berenger modes) are provided for a circular waveguide terminated by a perfectly matched layer. Furthermore, a systematic asymptotic approach is developed by the inverse power series. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the high-precision asymptotic eigenmodes can be obtained.
Autors: Jianxin Zhu;Chaofeng Dong;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1980 - 1987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Higher Order Linear Dynamical Systems for Smoke Detection in Video Surveillance Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the problem of multi-dimensional dynamic texture analysis, and we introduce a new higher order linear dynamical system (h-LDS) descriptor. The proposed h-LDS descriptor is based on the higher order decomposition of the multidimensional image data and enables the analysis of dynamic textures by using information from various image elements. In addition, we propose a methodology for its application to video-based early warning systems that focus on smoke identification. More specifically, the proposed methodology enables the representation of video subsequences as histograms of h-LDS descriptors produced by the smoke candidate image patches in each subsequence. Finally, to further improve the classification accuracy, we propose the combination of multidimensional dynamic texture analysis with the spatiotemporal modeling of smoke by using a particle swarm optimization approach. The ability of the h-LDS to analyze the dynamic texture information is evaluated through a multivariate comparison against the standard LDS descriptor. The experimental results that use two video datasets have shown the great potential of the proposed smoke detection method.
Autors: Kosmas Dimitropoulos;Panagiotis Barmpoutis;Nikos Grammalidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 1143 - 1154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Higher Order Modes: A Solution for High Gain, Wide Band Patch Antennas for Different Vehicular Applications
Abstract:
Low-gain and narrow bandwidth problems are associated with patch antennas, and due to their inverse relation with each other, these problems cannot be improved simultaneously. It is well understood that the patch antenna excited at the higher order modes (HOMs) can overcome the problems of low gain and narrow bandwidth, provided that the modes are excited properly. For a given geometry, all the resonant frequencies are related in fixed ratios, providing no flexibility for the designer. Furthermore, high side lobe levels and undesirable radiation patterns are associated with the higher order modes. The excitation of higher order modes in given dimensions of the patch is achieved by surface modification and loading of slots on the patch. Two antennas based on a novel design procedure are discussed in the Ku and Ka bands to validate the proposed facts. The antenna in the Ka band has a peak gain of 8.5 dBi with 15.14% of bandwidth, while the one in the Ku band has a peak gain of 11.84 dBi with 17.6% of bandwidth. The design procedure is particularly important in designing antennas for applications like mobile satellite communication, wideband and multimedia applications, collision avoidance systems in vehicles, etc.
Autors: Qasim Umar Khan;Mojeeb Bin Ihsan;Dilaawaiz Fazal;Fahad Mumtaz Malik;Shahzad Amin Sheikh;Muhammad Salman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3548 - 3554
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive D-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber-Based Plasmonic Biosensor in Visible to Near-IR
Abstract:
A simple D-shaped photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is proposed for refractive index sensing in visible to near infrared (IR) region. A thin Titanium di-oxide (TiO2) layer is used as an adhesive layer to strongly attach the plasmonic gold (Au) layer with silica fiber surface. TiO2 also helps to tune the operating sensor wavelength from visible to near IR (550–1770-nm wavelength). Finite-element method has been used to investigate the guiding properties. The proposed sensor shows the maximum wavelength interrogation sensitivity of 46 000 nm/RIU and the average sensitivity of 9,800 nm/RIU in the sensing range of 1.33–1.43. It also shows the maximum amplitude sensitivity of 1,086 RIU. Using the wavelength and amplitude interrogation methods, proposed sensor gives the theoretical maximum resolution of 2.2 and 9.2 RIU, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it has the highest sensitivity and sensor resolution among the reported PCF SPR sensors. The proposed D-shaped PCF has been fabricated following the standard stack-and-draw method to show the feasibility of the proposed sensor. Due to the promising results over the broad range of analyte RI, it would be an excellent candidate for the detection of biomolecules, organic chemicals, chemical, and other analytes.
Autors: Ahmmed A. Rifat;Rajib Ahmed;G. Amouzad Mahdiraji;F. R. Mahamd Adikan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2776 - 2783
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Twist Sensor Based on Temperature- and Strain-Independent Fiber Lyot Filter
Abstract:
A novel highly sensitive optical fiber twist sensor based on a Lyot filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. The evolution of the transmission spectra of the Lyot filter with respect to twist, temperature, and strain are investigated, respectively. The amplitude of the resonance dip changes as a sine-like function with the twist angle varying, which agrees well with the theoretical analysis. Based on analyzing the amplitude response of the resonance dip, the sensitivities of the sensor with respect to twist, temperature, and strain are found to be −15.586 dB/rad, 0.003 dB/°C, and −0.001 dB/μϵ, indicating the viability of implementing a temperature- and strain-independent twist sensor based on a Lyot filter.
Autors: Bo Huang;Xuewen Shu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2026 - 2031
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Tunable Triangular Wave UWB Baseband Pulse Generator With Amplitude Stabilization in 40-nm CMOS
Abstract:
This brief introduces a highly configurable ultrawideband triangular wave baseband pulse generator designed in 40-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor technology. The baseband pulse width is adjustable between 660 ps and 3.8 ns. An extra amplitude compensation loop is implemented to prevent amplitude changes when the pulse width varies. The amplitude variations are limited to 13% compared with the maximum amplitude over the entire pulse width range. The amplitude compensation loop allows a pulse amplitude tuning range between 280 and 640 mV, whereas the pulse width only varies 80 ps over this entire range. The pulse generator has a maximum simulated signal-to-noise ratio of 59 dB and a measured maximum power consumption of 6.2 pJ/pulse from a 0.9-V power supply and a 100-MHz pulse repetition frequency.
Autors: B. Faes;P. Reynaert;P. Leroux;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 505 - 509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» History of Aircraft Wiring Arc-Fault Protection [History]
Abstract:
In both new and aging military and civilian aircraft, all critical power wiring has been typically protected against overheating by using combinations of thermal and magnetic circuit breakers or solid-state power controllers (SSPCs). However, the conventional types of these protective devices do not detect and react to hazardous arcing faults, and it is important that they do so to mitigate the risk of aircraft fires caused by aging, damaged insulation, wire chafing, wire breakage, chemical exposure, maintenance procedures, and contamination. Most aircraft electrical systems operate at 115 Vac, 400 Hz, both single and three phase. In addition to this ac power, they utilize 28 Vdc. Hazardous arcing faults can occur in all these power systems between parallel conductors, to ground, or in series (due to a broken or frayed wire or at a loose connection).
Autors: Barry C. Brusso;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 6 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Holographic and Light-Field Imaging as Future 3-D Displays
Abstract:
Light-field imaging and holographic imaging are currently the two mostly investigated 3-D imaging technologies because of their potentials to create the viewing environment conforming to a natural viewing condition. The basic optical geometries for image display in these imaging are not different from that of integral photography. The images in the two type of imaging are a set of different view images. These images are arranged as a 2-D point image array, and each point image is expanded with a certain angle to form a viewing zone. The differences between the two types of imaging are the number of point images in the array and the physical entities forming the images. Holographic imaging has many more point images than light-field imaging, and each image in the array consists of coherent right rays from different positions of an object. In light-field imaging, an array of pixels represents a direction view of the object. Despite these differences, they share the same goal of providing a continuous parallax to viewers and require display panels of almost the same characteristics. It is expected that in the future these two imaging techniques will be integrated into the same flat panel along with the plane image.
Autors: Jung-Young Son;Hyoung Lee;Beom-Ryeol Lee;Kwang-Hoon Lee;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 789 - 804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hot-Electron Electroluminescence Under RF Operation in GaN-HEMTs: A Comparison Among Operational Classes
Abstract:
Electroluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy are used to compare the average hot-electron concentration and temperature under radio frequency (RF) operation class A, class B, and class F modes. From the results obtained, class A results, on average, in the highest hot-electron concentration, while class F is the mode with the lowest concentration due to its “L”-shaped load line. The electron temperature extracted from the electroluminescence spectra is reduced with increasing RF power, reflecting the dominance of electroluminescence from the portion of the load line in the semi-on region. The electroluminescence method is not able to give substantial information on the portion of the load line with high field and low current density which will be responsible for the potentially damaging hottest electrons present in the channel.
Autors: Tommaso Brazzini;Michael A. Casbon;Michael J. Uren;Paul J. Tasker;Helmut Jung;Hervé Blanck;Martin Kuball;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2155 - 2160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Abundance Changes Software Engineering
Abstract:
The abundance of processing power is changing the nature of software engineering. By reducing the cost of failure, abundance changes how developers use computing technologies. Also, abundance changes the developer's role by moving the focus from technology to management. This article also contains an erratum. In "App Store 2.0: From Crowdsourced Information to Actionable Feedback in Mobile Ecosystems" (DOI: 10.1109/MS.2017.46) from the Mar./Apr. 2017 issue, in the fifth line of the second column on p. 83, "see sia" should be "see Figure 2a."
Autors: Diomidis Spinellis;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 4 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Computer Science Departments and Faculty Can Contribute to the CS for All Initiative
Abstract:
As the role of computer science becomes increasingly central to our way of life, ensuring the successful education of future computer scientists is imperative.
Autors: W. Richards Adrion;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 103 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Do Informal Ties Drive Open Innovation? The Contingency Role of Market Dynamism
Abstract:
Scholars and practitioners have recently shifted their attention from traditional closed internal innovation to open innovation (OI). Building on both the resource-based view and the network perspective, we explore the roles of three types of informal ties (i.e., business, government, and university) in driving inbound and outbound OI, and further examine such effects contingent on market dynamism. Empirical results from our study of 260 Chinese firms show that all three types of informal ties positively affect inbound innovation openness, whereas only business ties facilitate outbound innovation openness. In addition, market dynamism strengthens the relationship between university ties and inbound innovation openness, but weakens the effect of business ties on inbound innovation openness. These findings indicate the salience of informal ties in increasing innovation openness and the contingent role of external market conditions. The findings contribute to the understanding of the drivers of innovation openness, and help clarify the differences between inbound and outbound OI.
Autors: Xiaoxuan Zhu;Maggie Chuoyan Dong;Jibao Gu;Wenyu Dou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 208 - 219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Much Bandpass Filtering is Required in Massive MIMO Base Stations?
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the impact of aliased out-of-band (OOB) interference signals on the information sum rate of the maximum ratio combining receiver in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink, with both perfect and imperfect channel estimates, in order to determine the required out-of-band attenuation in radio-frequency (RF) bandpass filters (BPFs). With imperfect channel estimates, our study reveals that as the number of base-station (BS) antennas ( ) increases, the required attenuation at the BPFs increases as with , provided the desired information sum rate (both in the presence and in the absence of aliased OOB interferers) remains fixed. This implies a practical limit on the number of BS antennas due to the increase in BPF design complexity and power consumption with increasing .
Autors: Sudarshan Mukherjee;Saif Khan Mohammed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4481 - 4486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hull Structure Monitoring Using Inertial Measurement Units
Abstract:
Hull structure monitoring is needed to provide healthy suggestions for a ship. Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are available for this application. By installing IMUs on different points of the ship hull, the angular velocity and acceleration of each point can be measured. Once the hull flexure changes, the movement parameters of those points will be different, and the hull flexure can be estimated through matching these parameters by a Kalman filter. We deduced proper measurement equations of the Kalman filter, which is essential for the flexure estimation, and designed real data and simulation data experiments to verify the equation. Results showed that the hull structure can be effectively monitored by the proposed method.
Autors: Xianglu Ma;Shiqiao Qin;Xingshu Wang;Wei Wu;Jiaxing Zheng;Yao Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2676 - 2681
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Activity Classification With Transmission and Reflection Coefficients of On-Body Antennas Through Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
We propose to classify human activities based on transmission coefficient () and reflection coefficient () of on-body antennas with deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). It is shown that spectrograms of and exhibit unique time-varying signatures for different body motion activities that can be used for classification purposes. DCNN, a deep learning approach, is applied to spectrograms to learn the necessary features and classification boundaries. It is found that DCNN can achieve classification accuracies of 98.8% using and 97.1% using . The effects of operating frequency and antenna location on the accuracy have been investigated.
Autors: Youngwook Kim;Yang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2764 - 2768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Humans Are Dynamic - Our Tools Should Be Too
Abstract:
Security Operation Centers (SOCs) are being operated by universities, government agencies, and corporations to defend their enterprise networks and identify and thwart malicious behaviors in both networks and hosts. The success of a SOC depends on combining good tools and processes with efficient and effective analysts. During four years of anthropological fieldwork methods to study SOCs, the authors discovered that successful SOC innovations must resolve multiple internal and external conflicts to be effective and efficient. This discovery, guided by activity theory (AT) as a framework for analyzing the fieldwork data, enabled them understand these realities. Their research indicates conflict resolution is a prerequisite for continuous improvement of SOCs in both human and technological aspects. Failure to do so can lead to adverse effects, such as analyst burnout and reduction in overall effectiveness.
Autors: Sathya Chandran Sundaramurthy;Michael Wesch;Xinming Ou;John McHugh;S. Raj Rajagopalan;Alexandru G. Bardas;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 40 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Precoding via Successive Refinement for Millimeter Wave MIMO Communication Systems
Abstract:
We propose a hybrid precoding design for spatial multiplexing in millimeter wave massive multiple-input multiple-output systems. The proposed design relies on the popular orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. The OMP algorithm uses necessary columns of the right/left (for receiver/transmitter) unitary matrix of the channel (obtained via a singular value decomposition) to obtain the initial baseband (digital) precoder using principles of basis pursuit. The resulting baseband precoder is then used to refine the RF (analog) precoder. This iterative refinement improves the quality of hybrid preocders. Quantization of the RF and baseband precoding matrices is also discussed for limited feedback systems, where the high-dimensional RF precoder is quantized using codebooks generated using the means clustering algorithm. On the other hand, the low-dimensional baseband precoder is quantized using well-known Grassmannian codebooks. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs close to the fully digital precoding scheme.
Autors: Jawad Mirza;Bakhtiar Ali;Syed Saud Naqvi;Saqib Saleem;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 991 - 994
Publisher: IEEE
 

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