Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 5

» Construction of Voronoi Diagram using the Hollow Sphere Concept
Abstract:
This paper implements an algorithm for constructing Voronoi regions using the method we call "hollow sphere". This principle uses the circle, sphere or hyper-sphere as a geometric structure taking into account an Euclidean space of an arbitrary dimension. Boris Deloné used the property of the empty circle to build the Delaunay triangulation; in our case, the same property is used to perform the validations of the hollow spheres, but without using triangles as a fundamental structure. For convenience sake, the hollow sphere as a circle so as to work in two dimensions will be explained and illustrated. However, there is no impediment to working with spheres to take the principles to a three-dimensional space. Furthermore, the properties of the hollow sphere are detailed and an algorithm of incremental construction is used with O(nlogn) time.
Autors: Netz Romero;Ricardo Barron;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 950 - 958
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Contact-Force Control of a Flexible Timoshenko Arm in Rigid/Soft Environment
Abstract:
This technical note discusses a contact-force control problem of a one-link flexible arm. This flexible arm includes a Timoshenko beam, and thus we call it the flexible Timoshenko arm. The primary aim is to control the contact force at the contact point. To do so, we first apply our previously proposed force controller, which exponentially stabilizes the closed-loop system of a flexible Euler-Bernoulli arm, to the force-control problem of the flexible Timoshenko arm. We then show that our previously proposed force controller cannot exponentially stabilize the flexible Timoshenko arm. Next, we consider the flexible Timoshenko arm, which is making contact with a soft environment. By utilizing the damping force in the soft environment, as well as the controller, we try to overcome the problem. We then prove the exponential stability of the closed-loop system. Finally, we provide simulation results, and consider the validity of our force controller.
Autors: Takahiro Endo;Minoru Sasaki;Fumitoshi Matsuno;Yingmin Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2546 - 2553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Content Ecosystem: Serving Diverse Interests in Our Community [From the Editor]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Min Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 3 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous Top-k Monitoring on Document Streams
Abstract:
The efficient processing of document streams plays an important role in many information filtering systems. Emerging applications, such as news update filtering and social network notifications, demand presenting end-users with the most relevant content to their preferences. In this work, user preferences are indicated by a set of keywords. A central server monitors the document stream and continuously reports to each user the top-k documents that are most relevant to her keywords. Our objective is to support large numbers of users and high stream rates, while refreshing the top-k results almost instantaneously. Our solution abandons the traditional frequency-ordered indexing approach. Instead, it follows an identifier-ordering paradigm that suits better the nature of the problem. When complemented with a novel, locally adaptive technique, our method offers (i) proven optimality w.r.t. the number of considered queries per stream event, and (ii) an order of magnitude shorter response time (i.e., time to refresh the query results) than the current state-of-the-art.
Autors: Leong Hou U;Junjie Zhang;Kyriakos Mouratidis;Ye Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 991 - 1003
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous-Time Marginal Pricing of Electricity
Abstract:
The current practice of discrete-time electricity pricing starts to fall short in providing an accurate economic signal reflecting the continuous-time variations of load and generation schedule in power systems. This paper introduces the fundamental mathematical theory of continuous-time marginal electricity pricing. We first formulate the continuous-time unit commitment problem as a constrained variational problem, and subsequently define the continuous-time economic dispatch (ED) problem where the binary commitment variables are fixed to their optimal values. We then prove that the continuous-time marginal electricity price equals to the Lagrange multiplier of the variational power balance constraint in the continuous-time ED problem. The proposed continuous-time marginal price is not only dependent to the incremental generation cost rate, but also to the incremental ramping cost rate of the units, thus embedding the ramping costs in calculation of the marginal electricity price. The numerical results demonstrate that the continuous-time marginal price manifests the behavior of the constantly varying load and generation schedule in power systems.
Autors: Masood Parvania;Roohallah Khatami;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1960 - 1969
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control of a Direct Matrix Converter With Modulated Model-Predictive Control
Abstract:
This paper investigates the use of a model-predictive control strategy to control a direct matrix converter. The proposed control method combines the features of the classical model-predictive control and the space vector modulation technique into a modulated model-predictive control. This new solution maintains all the characteristics of model-predictive control (such as fast transient response, multiobjective control using only one feedback loop, easy inclusion of nonlinearities and constraints of the system, and the flexibility to include other system requirements in the controller), adding the advantages of working at fixed switching frequency and improving the quality of the controlled waveforms. Simulation and experimental results employing the control method to a direct matrix converter are presented.
Autors: Manjusha Vijayagopal;Pericle Zanchetta;Lee Empringham;Liliana de Lillo;Luca Tarisciotti;Patrick Wheeler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2342 - 2349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control of a Grid-Forming Inverter Based on Sliding-Mode and Mixed ${H_2}/{H_infty }$ Control
Abstract:
A grid-forming inverter (GFI) is an important component for the operation of an islanded microgrid. Its purpose, similar to a conventional slack bus generator, is to build up a reference voltage for other distributed generating units in the microgrid. Usually, a nested-loop proportional plus integral (PI) control structure is employed to control a GFI in a reference frame. However, conventional PI-based nested-loop control method has a deteriorative performance under parameter variations. In this paper, a novel nested-loop control strategy is proposed for control of a GFI system containing an output filter and loads. The proposed method does not require a precise model for the inverter system and can better deal with uncertainties and filter resonance without using any passive or active damping mechanisms. It utilizes a sliding-mode control in the inner current loop and a mixed optimal control in the outer voltage loop, which provides the advantages of constant switching frequency, low total harmonic distortion, robustness against parameters variations, and fast transient response. The simulation and hardware experiments presented in this paper demonstrate the proposed controller's improved transient and steady-state performance in various key criteria, over conventional PI-based nested-loop control strategy.
Autors: Zhongwen Li;Chuanzhi Zang;Peng Zeng;Haibin Yu;Shuhui Li;Jing Bian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3862 - 3872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control of Modular Multilevel Converters Under Singular Unbalanced Voltage Conditions With Equal Positive and Negative Sequence Components
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the control of Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) for High Voltage DC (HVDC) applications during unbalanced AC grid voltage sags where positive and negative sequence voltages are equal. The control scheme is based on six arm energy regulators, six independent current controllers, and two reference calculation stages that convert the power references into grid and inner current references. Conventional inner AC currents reference calculation fails if the amplitude of the positive and the negative sequence AC grid voltages are equal, a state which is referred to in this paper as singular voltage condition. This paper discusses the types of network faults that cause this condition and proposes three different solutions to operate the converter in such scenarios. The adequacy of the proposed solutions is validated through simulations considering each of the problematic fault scenarios.
Autors: Eduardo Prieto-Araujo;Adrià Junyent-Ferré;Gerard Clariana-Colet;Oriol Gomis-Bellmunt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2131 - 2141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control of Uncertain Sampled-Data Systems: An Adaptive Posicast Control Approach
Abstract:
This technical note proposes a discrete-time adaptive controller for the control of sampled-data systems. The design is inspired from the Adaptive Posicast Controller (APC) which was designed for time-delay systems in continuous time. Due to the performance degradation caused by digital approximation of continuous laws, together with the problem of assuming time-delays as integer multiples of sampling intervals, the benefits of APC could not be fully realized. In this technical note, these approximations/assumptions are eliminated. In addition, a disturbance observer is incorporated into the controller design which minimizes the effect of disturbances on the system. Extension to the case of uncertain input time-delay is also presented. The proposed approach is verified in simulation studies.
Autors: Khalid Abidi;Yildiray Yildiz;Anuradha Annaswamy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2597 - 2602
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control With Minimal Cost-Per-Symbol Encoding and Quasi-Optimality of Event-Based Encoders
Abstract:
We consider the problem of stabilizing a continuous-time linear time-invariant system subject to communication constraints. A noiseless finite-capacity communication channel connects the process sensors to the controller/actuator. The sensor's state measurements are encoded into symbols from a finite alphabet, transmitted through the channel, and decoded at the controller/actuator. We suppose that the transmission of each symbol costs one unit of communication resources, except for one special symbol in the alphabet that is “free” and effectively signals the absence of transmission. We explore the relationship between the encoder's average bit-rate, its average consumption of communication resources, and the ability of the controller and encoder/decoder pair to stabilize the process. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a stabilizing controller and encoder/decoder pair, which depends on the encoder's average bit-rate, its average resource consumption, and the unstable eigenvalues of the process. Moreover, if this condition is satisfied, a stabilizing encoding scheme can be constructed that consumes resources at an arbitrarily small rate, provided the encoder has access to a sufficiently precise clock or large memory. The paper concludes with the analysis of a simple emulation-based controller and event-based encoder/decoder pair that are easy to implement, stabilize the process, and have average bit-rate and resource consumption within a constant factor of the optimal bound.
Autors: Justin Pearson;João P. Hespanha;Daniel Liberzon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2286 - 2301
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Convergence and State Reconstruction of Time-Varying Multi-Agent Systems From Complete Observability Theory
Abstract:
We study continuous-time consensus dynamics for multi-agent systems with undirected switching interaction graphs. We establish a necessary and sufficient condition for exponential asymptotic consensus based on the classical theory of complete observability. The proof is remarkably simple compared to similar results in the literature and the conditions for consensus are mild. This observability-based method can also be applied to the case where negatively weighted edges are present. Additionally, as a by-product of the observability based arguments, we show that the nodes' initial value can be recovered from the signals on the edges up to a shift of the network average.
Autors: Brian D. O. Anderson;Guodong Shi;Jochen Trumpf;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2519 - 2523
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Convex Space Building Discretization for Ray-Tracing
Abstract:
This paper describes a point-to-multipoint 3-D convex space-based ray-tracing technique. This visibility list is calculated and stored and can be reused as needed. What distinguishes our method is that the visibility list is transmitter location-independent, is a 3-D implementation, and is highly computationally efficient. The division of the building into free and filled convex spaces leads to an efficient Method of Images reflection and diffraction path generation algorithm. This technique can be used to optimize the locations of base transceivers in a highly efficient manner. The first step in producing this tool is the generation of efficient ray-tracing algorithms. The ray-tracing algorithm was specifically designed for later incorporation into a transmitter optimization algorithm. This requires a fast ray-tracing method because of its computationally intensive needs—running multiple times over a point-to-multipoint grid. Our algorithm is executed for sample building environments and then for a real building and compared with measurements to confirm its validity. It is clear that the results are in good agreement but do indicate that a highly accurate spatial modeling of the building is required.
Autors: Eamonn M. Kenny;Eamonn O. Nuallain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2578 - 2591
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Caching and Transmission Design in Cluster-Centric Small Cell Networks
Abstract:
Wireless content caching in small cell networks (SCNs) has recently been considered as an efficient way to reduce the data traffic and the energy consumption of the backhaul in emerging heterogeneous cellular networks. In this paper, we consider a cluster-centric SCN with combined design of cooperative caching and transmission policy. Small base stations (SBSs) are grouped into disjoint clusters, in which in-cluster cache space is utilized as an entity. We propose a combined caching scheme, where part of the cache space in each cluster is reserved for caching the most popular content in every SBS, while the remaining is used for cooperatively caching different partitions of the less popular content in different SBSs, as a means to increase local content diversity. Depending on the availability and placement of the requested content, coordinated multi-point technique with either joint transmission or parallel transmission is used to deliver content to the served user. Using Poisson point process for the SBS location distribution and a hexagonal grid model for the clusters, we provide analytical results on the successful content delivery probability of both transmission schemes for a user located at the cluster center. Our analysis shows an inherent tradeoff between transmission diversity and content diversity in our cooperation design. We also study the optimal cache space assignment for two objective functions: maximization of the cache service performance and the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves performance gain by leveraging cache-level and signal-level cooperation and adapting to the network environment and user quality-of-service requirements.
Autors: Zheng Chen;Jemin Lee;Tony Q. S. Quek;Marios Kountouris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3401 - 3415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Caching Placement in Cache-Enabled D2D Underlaid Cellular Network
Abstract:
In a cache-enabled D2D underlaid cellular network, cooperation of BS caching and D2D caching can further exploit the limited storage capacity and achieve more efficient wireless resource utilization. In this complex network scenario, the closed form expression for successful transmission probability is firstly derived using stochastic geometry, to measure the proportion of users satisfying the delay guarantee. On this basis, a cooperative caching placement problem is formulated to maximize the successful transmission probability. We prove it can be transformed equivalently into a biconvex problem and then a block coordinate descent based algorithm is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the performance gain of the proposed cooperative caching placement.
Autors: Yue Wang;Xiaofeng Tao;Xuefei Zhang;Yu Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1151 - 1154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Device-to-Device Communications: Social Networking Perspectives
Abstract:
With an increasing demand to improve spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency in cellular networks, device-to-device (D2D) communications have drawn a lot of attention from both academia and industry. Cooperative D2D networking, which allows for cooperation among mobile users (MUs) via D2D links while communicating with other MUs or base stations (BSs), is one of the most promising techniques in D2D communications. In cooperative D2D communications, two major issues need to be investigated: network performance evaluation and peer selection. In order to enhance evaluation accuracy while maintaining data privacy, it is essential to employ social interactions among MUs in cooperative D2D communications. In this article, we investigate social aware cooperative D2D networks. We first introduce social relationship formation, and then social learning based cooperative network evaluation and social relationship based peer selection are investigated, respectively. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Autors: Yue Meng;Chunxiao Jiang;Hsiao-Hwa Chen;Yong Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 38 - 44
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Source Node Tracking in Non-Line-of-Sight Environments
Abstract:
The accuracy of localization is highly degraded in indoor and harsh environments where source nodes either do not have connections with a sufficient number of anchor nodes due to strong attenuation or have very poor range estimates due to NLOS propagation. Cooperative localization is a technique in which the source nodes communicate not only with the anchor nodes, but also with each other. Hence, the source nodes can collect several additional measurements which significantly improve the localization performance. Although many studies have examined NLOS-degraded localization of a static node in noncooperative networks, and many others have examined the impact of cooperation for static localization, there is no work which considers cooperative tracking of mobile nodes. To address this open problem, in this work, we examine cooperative tracking, particularly in NLOS environments. More specifically, we develop a novel sensor tracking algorithm based on semidefinite programming (SDP) which has the ability to mitigate NLOS propagation. Our simulations show that the new SDP-based tracking algorithm outperforms the classic extended Kalman filter as well as the other recently proposed algorithms for noncooperative tracking in NLOS environments. We also show that the algorithm can be extended to cooperative networks, and that a substantial performance benefit is realized by cooperation.
Autors: Reza Monir Vaghefi;R. Michael Buehrer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1287 - 1299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coordinated Control of Offshore Wind Farm and Onshore HVDC Converter for Effective Power Oscillation Damping
Abstract:
Damping contribution from wind farms (WFs) is likely to become a mandatory requirement as a part of the grid codes. For remote offshore WFs, connected through a voltage source converter (VSC)-based direct current link, the most convenient option for the onshore transmission system operator (TSO) is to modulate the reactive power at the onshore VSC within their own jurisdiction. In this paper, we show that supplementary control through the onshore VSC alone, although attractive for TSOs, could result in undesirable voltage variations in the onshore grid. On the other hand, modulation of active power output of the wind turbine generators (WTG) alone turns out to be inadequate due to the limited overload capability of the WTGs. Coordinated control over both onshore VSC and aggregated WF output overcomes the above limitations and is shown to be effective for power oscillation damping. A homotopy approach is used to design the coordinated controller, which can be implemented locally (at offshore WF and onshore converter site) using a decentralized architecture. This is a bilinear matrix inequality problem, which is solved by transforming these constraints into linear matrix inequality constraints. Case studies on two test systems show that the proposed controller yields similar system dynamic response as supplementary control through the WF alone.
Autors: Yousef Pipelzadeh;Nilanjan Ray Chaudhuri;Balarko Chaudhuri;Tim C. Green;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1860 - 1872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Correction to “Flux Control Range Broadening and Torque Ripple Minimization of a Double Excitation Synchronous Motor”
Abstract:
In [1], an error in Fig. 2 in Section II-B is corrected. In the original figure, Fig. 2(b) was exactly the same as Fig. 2(a). The correction is shown here.
Autors: K. Hoang;L. Vido;M. Gabsi;F. Gillon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 1
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Impacts of Strategic Bidding of Wind Power Producers on Electricity Markets”
Abstract:
Autors: Mohsen Banaei;Majid Oloomi Buygi;Hamidreza Zareipour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2489 - 2489
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “De Novo Annotation of Transposable Elements: Tackling the Fat Genome Issue” [Jamilloux et al., Proc. IEEE, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 474–481, Mar. 2017, DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2016.2590833]
Abstract:
In [1], Fig. 1 is inconsistent with the text manuscript. First, the black curve corresponding to case 1 did not correspond to the result from the experiment described in the paper, but to another which was removed from the final manuscript. The second error was a typo with an inversion between the green and blue text indicating NTE50 and LTE50 for cases 4 and 5, respectively. We corrected this figure for the case 1 curve with the right experimental result, and fixed the typo so that it corresponds now perfectly with the manuscript text. Note that this does not affect the text in the manuscript, which remains correct.
Autors: Véronique Jamilloux;Josquin Daron;Frédéric Choulet;Hadi Quesneville;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 978 - 978
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “A 3-D Assembled Silicon-Embedded Transformer for 10-MHz, Ultra-High-Isolation, Compact Chip-to-Chip Power Transfer”
Abstract:
In the above paper [1], the seventh reference “R. Wu, J. K. O. Sin, and S. Y. Hui, ‘A novel silicon-embedded coreless transformer for isolated DC-DC converter application,’ in Proc. IEEE 23rd Int. Symp. Power Semiconductor Devices ICs, Hong Kong, China, May 2015, pp. 297–300, doi: 10.1109/ISPSD.2011.5890863” is incorrect. The correct reference is “R. Wu, N. Liao, X. Fang, and J. K. O. Sin, ‘A novel 3D transformer for ultra-compact signal isolation,’ in Proc. IEEE 27th Int. Symp. Power Semiconductor Devices ICs, Hong Kong, China, May 2015, pp. 297-300, doi: 10.1109/ISPSD.2015.7123448.”
Autors: Rongxiang Wu;Niteng Liao;Xiangming Fang;Jian Cai;Qian Wang;Johnny K. O. Sin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 689 - 689
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Crosstalk-Canceling Multimode Interconnect Using Transmitter Encoding”
Abstract:
The authors of [1] would like to note the following corrections in reference numbering. It is difficult to find correct references in the currently published paper due to the reference discords.
Autors: HoonSeok Kim;Chanyoun Won;Paul D. Franzon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1792 - 1792
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Information Without Rolling Dice”
Abstract:
In the paper above [1], published in the March 2017 issue of the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, the following changes are noted.

In the Abstract, page 1349, left column, line 3, “using square-integrable and bandlimited signals” should be replaced by “using square-integrable, bandlimited signals.”

Autors: Taehyung J. Lim;Massimo Franceschetti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3332 - 3332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Interconnect Design and Benchmarking for Charge-Based Beyond-CMOS Device Proposals”
Abstract:
In the above-named paper [ibid., vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 508–511, Apr. 2016], a typo was found in equation 3. The corrected equation is provided.
Autors: Chenyun Pan;Azad Naeemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 690 - 690
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Lower Bounds on Q for Finite Size Antennas of Arbitrary Shape”
Abstract:
Equations (24) and (25) in [1, Appendix B] should, respectively, read as begin{align*}&hspace {-2pc}int nolimits _{V_infty }-(nabla G_{1}) G_{2}^{*} - {hat {boldsymbol {r}}} jkfrac {e^{jk( {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}- {boldsymbol {r}}_{2})cdot {hat {boldsymbol {r}}} }}{16pi ^{2}| {boldsymbol {r}}|^{2}} {dV} =-frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|}frac {cos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{8pi } notag \&-, jfrac {2 {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}}{8pi k^{2}}left ({ frac {sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{3}}-frac {kcos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} }right )notag \&-, jfrac {| {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}|^{2}-| {boldsymbol {r}}_{2}|^{2}}{8pi k^{2}}frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}}notag \× left ({ frac {k^{2}sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|}- 3left ({frac {sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{3}}-frac {kcos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} }right )}right ) end{align*} and begin{align*}&hspace {-2pc}int nolimits _{V_infty } j(nabla G_{1}) G_{2}^{*} - {hat {boldsymbol {r}}} kfrac {e^{jk( {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}- {boldsymbol {r}}_{2})cdot {hat {boldsymbol {r}}} }}{16pi ^{2}| {boldsymbol {r}}|^{2}} {dV} =jfrac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|}frac {cos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{8pi } \&{-} frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{8pi k^{2}}left ({ frac {sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{3}}-frac {kcos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} }right ) \&{-} frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}+ {boldsymbol {r}}_{2}}{8pi k^{2}}left ({ frac {sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{3}}-frac {kcos (k| {boldsymb- l {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} }right ) \&{-} frac {| {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}|^{2}-| {boldsymbol {r}}_{2}|^{2}}{8pi k^{2}}frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} \× left ({ frac {k^{2}sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|}-3left ({frac {sin (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{3}}-frac {kcos (k| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|)}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} }right )}right ) \=&jfrac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{2} text {Re}{G_{12}}-frac {1}{2 k^{2}} text {Im}{nabla _{1} G_{12}} \&{-}frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}+ {boldsymbol {r}}_{2}}{2 k^{2}} text {Im}left {{nabla _{1} G_{12}cdot frac { {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}}{| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}}}right } \&{+}frac {| {boldsymbol {r}}_{1}|^{2}-| {boldsymbol {r}}_{2}|^{2}}{2k^{2}| {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}|^{2}} text {Im}{ {boldsymbol {r}}_{12}k^{2}G_{12}+3nabla _{1} G_{12}}. end{align*}
Autors: Oleksiy S. Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2773 - 2773
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cost Optimal Integration of Flexible Buildings in Congested Distribution Grids
Abstract:
Buildings are candidates for providing flexible demand due to their high consumption and inherent thermal inertia. In the future, flexible demand side reserves may also help to relax the expected higher reserve requirements of the grid due to the presence of renewables. However, this flexible demand might be vulnerable to price signals, as the simultaneous increase in consumption by multiple buildings due to low (high) energy (reserves) price periods might cause congestion in distribution grids. In order to integrate congestion-free energy and reserve provision from buildings, this paper presents two benchmark pricing methodologies: (1 ) distribution locational marginal prices (DLMP), and (2) iterative DLMP (iDLMP). Both methods deploy convex optimization to obtain an optimal solution of the original problem. Using dual decomposition, a settlement scheme, which efficiently distributes the congestion cost among involved participants, is also presented. Case studies are performed on a benchmark distribution system along with the National Energy Market Singapore's price framework. The results prove that both methods optimally remove congestion from distribution grids and have potential to be integrated into the theoretical framework of liberalized markets. Furthermore, as a comparison, it is shown that the DLMP-based prices outperforms existing pricing structures of the distribution grid. Hence, using this scheme, the distribution system operator can evaluate existing tariffs and introduce incentives for price responsive demands. However, to support these methods, the high requirement for information sharing in the DLMP method and/or communication technology infrastructure for calculating iDLMPs must exist in the future grid.
Autors: Sarmad Hanif;Tobias Massier;Hoay Beng Gooi;Thomas Hamacher;Thomas Reindl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2254 - 2266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cost-Efficient Placement of Communication Connections for Transmission Line Monitoring
Abstract:
For overhead transmission line monitoring, wireless sensor networks offer a low-cost solution to connect sensors on towers with the control center. However, these networks cannot meet stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, in terms of packet delivery ratio and delay. Also, it is necessary to ensure robustness such that data can be delivered when a tower fails. In view of the QoS and robustness requirements, wide area network (WAN) connections, such as cellular and satellite network are needed, on top of wireless sensor networks. Different WAN connections have different characteristics in terms of availability, performance, and cost. We have proposed a novel scheme, called optimal placement for QoS and robustness (OPQR), which uses the canonical genetic algorithm to determine the numbers, locations, and types of WAN connections to be deployed to minimize cost while satisfying the QoS and robustness requirements. Evaluation results confirm that OPQR can indeed fulfil the desired requirements at minimum cost, and it is a very useful tool in cost-efficient communication network planning for transmission line monitoring. Specifically, OPQR can maintain cost below USD50 per day for a transmission line that has 80 towers spanning across 32 km, while maintaining the packet delay below 100 ms, packet delivery ratio above 99.99%, and each flow has two node-disjoint paths to the control center.
Autors: Peng-Yong Kong;Chih-Wen Liu;Joe-Air Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4058 - 4067
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CRIL: An Efficient Online Adaptive Indoor Localization System
Abstract:
Indoor localization or indoor positioning systems find their use in many important applications such as augmented reality, guided tours, tracking and monitoring, and situational awareness and have recently attracted intense research interests. Previous localization systems are usually received signal strength indication (RSSI)-based, inertial navigation system (INS)-based, or an integration of these two. However, few of them can account for dynamic communication environments, where channel states constantly change. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to propose an efficient and adaptive indoor localization system called coupled RSSI and INS localization (CRIL), which can adapt to dynamic communication environments quickly and effectively. Moreover, CRIL can account for the uncertainties in RSSI measurements such as varying covariances and outliers as well. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that our proposed CRIL system is able to track both slow changes and sudden changes of the channel states in dynamic environments. Noticeably, the proposed CRIL can perform accurate localization with estimation errors up to , while previous schemes’ localization errors are up to several meters or even tens of meters. Moreover, we test CRIL in real experiments, and its localization error is up to 3 m in dynamic environments.
Autors: Sheng Cai;Weixian Liao;Changqing Luo;Ming Li;Xiaoxia Huang;Pan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4148 - 4160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Correlated Contrast Source Inversion
Abstract:
In this paper, we improved the performance of the contrast source inversion (CSI) method by incorporating a so-called cross-correlated cost functional, which interrelates the state error and the data error in the measurement domain. The proposed method is referred to as the cross-correlated CSI. It enables better robustness and higher inversion accuracy than both the classical CSI and multiplicative regularized CSI (MR-CSI). In addition, we show how the gradient of the modified cost functional can be calculated without significantly increasing the computational burden. The advantages of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated using a 2-D benchmark problem excited by a transverse magnetic wave as well as a transverse electric wave, respectively, in comparison with classical CSI and MR-CSI.
Autors: Shilong Sun;Bert Jan Kooij;Tian Jin;Alexander G. Yarovoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2592 - 2603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Layer Rate Control and Resource Allocation in Spectrum-Sharing OFDMA Small-Cell Networks With Delay Constraints
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a dynamic resource management scheme for delay-aware applications in two-tier small-cell networks (SCNs). We propose the scheme of joint rate control at the transport layer and resource allocation at the physical layer to manage the cross-tier interference. The joint rate control and resource allocation scheme is designed to maximize the time-averaged sum capacity of small cell users in the SCN subject to each small cell user's delay constraint and an interference constraint imposed by the macrocell. By using the Lyapunov optimization technique, we develop a delay-guaranteed capacity optimal algorithm (DCOA) to obtain the optimal rate control and resource allocation decisions. We show that without prior knowledge of the data arrivals and channel statistics, DCOA achieves a capacity of SCN that can arbitrarily approach the optimal capacity achieved by the algorithm with the complete knowledge of data arrivals and channel statistics. Simulations results confirm the theoretical analysis on the performance of DCOA and also show the adaptiveness of DCOA.
Autors: Yashuang Guo;Qinghai Yang;Jiayi Liu;Kyung Sup Kwak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4133 - 4147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Network Performance Analysis of Network Coding Aided Cooperative Outband D2D Communications
Abstract:
In long term evolution advanced (LTE-A) networks, the mobile devices can concurrently participate in cooperative outband device-to-device (D2D) data exchange by virtue of user- or network-related parameters (e.g., interest in the same content and cooperative transmissions, respectively). In these scenarios, two major problems arise: 1) the coexistence of multiple devices creates channel access issues, demanding effective medium access control (MAC) schemes, and 2) cellular network factors (i.e., scheduling policy and channel conditions) affect the D2D communication, as the circulating information in D2D links is mainly of cellular network origination, stressing the need for cross network approaches. In this context, the contribution of this paper is threefold. First, exploiting idle devices as relays and the benefits of network coding (NC) in bidirectional communications, we propose an adaptive cooperative NC-based MAC (ACNC-MAC) protocol for the D2D data exchange. Then, we devise a cross-network model that captures the impact of cellular network characteristics on D2D communication. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the ACNC-MAC in terms of throughput, energy efficiency, and battery consumption. Our results show that the LTE-A parameters and the relays’ participation significantly affect the D2D throughput, while the D2D performance deteriorates with the increase of cell congestion.
Autors: Eftychia Datsika;Angelos Antonopoulos;Nizar Zorba;Christos Verikoukis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3176 - 3188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Scale Cost Aggregation for Stereo Matching
Abstract:
This paper proposes a generic framework that enables a multiscale interaction in the cost aggregation step of stereo matching algorithms. Inspired by the formulation of image filters, we first reformulate cost aggregation from a weighted least-squares (WLS) optimization perspective and show that different cost aggregation methods essentially differ in the choices of similarity kernels. Our key motivation is that while the human stereo vision system processes information at both coarse and fine scales interactively for the correspondence search, state-of-the-art approaches aggregate costs at the finest scale of the input stereo images only, ignoring inter-consistency across multiple scales. This motivation leads us to introduce an inter-scale regularizer into the WLS optimization objective to enforce the consistency of the cost volume among the neighboring scales. The new optimization objective with the inter-scale regularization is convex, and thus, it is easily and analytically solved. Minimizing this new objective leads to the proposed framework. Since the regularization term is independent of the similarity kernel, various cost aggregation approaches, including discrete and continuous parameterization methods, can be easily integrated into the proposed framework. We show that the cross-scale framework is important as it effectively and efficiently expands state-of-the-art cost aggregation methods and leads to significant improvements, when evaluated on Middlebury, Middlebury Third, KITTI, and New Tsukuba data sets.
Autors: Kang Zhang;Yuqiang Fang;Dongbo Min;Lifeng Sun;Shiqiang Yang;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 965 - 976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crossbar-Based Memristive Logic-in-Memory Architecture
Abstract:
The use of memristors and resistive random access memory (ReRAM) technology to perform logic computations, has drawn considerable attention from researchers in recent years. However, the topological aspects of the underlying ReRAM architecture and its organization have received less attention, as the focus has mainly been on device-specific properties for functionally complete logic gates through conditional switching in ReRAM circuits. A careful investigation and optimization of the target geometry is thus highly desirable for the implementation of logic-in-memory architectures. In this paper, we propose a crossbar-based in-memory parallel processing system in which, through the heterogeneity of the resistive cross-point devices, we achieve local information processing in a state-of-the-art ReRAM crossbar architecture with vertical group-accessed transistors as cross-point selector devices. We primarily focus on the array organization, information storage, and processing flow, while proposing a novel geometry for the cross-point selection lines to mitigate current sneak-paths during an arbitrary number of possible parallel logic computations. We prove the proper functioning and potential capabilities of the proposed architecture through SPICE-level circuit simulations of half-adder and sum-of-products logic functions. We compare certain features of the proposed logic-in-memory approach with another work of the literature, and present an analysis of circuit resources, integration density, and logic computation parallelism.
Autors: Georgios Papandroulidakis;Ioannis Vourkas;Angel Abusleme;Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis;Antonio Rubio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 491 - 501
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crosstalk and Ghost Gratings in a Large-Scale Weak Fiber Bragg Grating Array
Abstract:
Large-scale distributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor networks have a wide range of applications. However, serious crosstalk could occur in a near-identical serial FBG sensor network because of multiple reflections. Since crosstalk cannot be observed directly and separately from signal, experimental investigation of crosstalk is challenging. In this work, we point out the similarity and symmetry between crosstalk and ghost gratings, and by way of measuring the spectrum of ghost gratings, we experimentally study the characteristics of crosstalk in a serial array of 3010 near-identical FBGs using a commercial FBG sensor interrogation system. We show that ghost gratings drop much more rapidly in power as one goes downstream, and they are more homogeneous in spectral distribution than real gratings. The peak wavelengths of real gratings vary within ±100 pm while the peak wavelengths of the ghost gratings they generate vary within ±20 pm only. Spectral ripples are observed for ghost gratings and real gratings severely affected by crosstalk. These ripples reduce the FBG wavelength reading accuracy to ±5 pm. The work constitutes the first experimental study on crosstalk in large-scale FBG arrays.
Autors: Huiyong Guo;Li Qian;Ciming Zhou;Zhou Zheng;Yinquan Yuan;Ruquan Xu;Desheng Jiang;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 2032 - 2036
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current Status and Opportunities of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Technologies
Abstract:
Attributed to its advantages of super mechanical flexibility, very low-temperature processing, and compatibility with low cost and high throughput manufacturing, organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) technology is able to bring electrical, mechanical, and industrial benefits to a wide range of new applications by activating nonflat surfaces with flexible displays, sensors, and other electronic functions. Despite both strong application demand and these significant technological advances, there is still a gap to be filled for OTFT technology to be widely commercially adopted. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current status of OTFT technologies ranging from material, device, process, and integration, to design and system applications, and clarifies the real challenges behind to be addressed.
Autors: Xiaojun Guo;Yong Xu;Simon Ogier;Tse Nga Ng;Mario Caironi;Andrea Perinot;Ling Li;Jiaqing Zhao;Wei Tang;Radu A. Sporea;Ahmed Nejim;Jordi Carrabina;Paul Cain;Feng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1906 - 1921
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current-Voltage Model for Negative Capacitance Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
In this letter, a semi-analytical current–voltage model for a negative capacitance field-effect transistor (NCFET) with a ferroelectric material (i.e., BaTiO3) is proposed. Surface potential ( in the channel region is determined first by solving the Landau–Khalatnikov (LK) equation numerically with Poisson’s equation. Then, the drain–current is achieved based on the current continuity equation using determined earlier. In addition, by introducing a fitting potential for a given drain–voltage, threshold voltage shift can be captured, resulting in accurate surface potential and drain–current at different gate voltages. We have verified our model using the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-MATLAB simulation, and our model exhibits an excellent agreement to the simulation results. In addition, the impacts of the ferroelectric thickness and channel doping concentration on the device performance and hysteresis window of NCFET are thoroughly explored.
Autors: Hyunjae Lee;Youngki Yoon;Changhwan Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 669 - 672
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Custom Multicache Architectures for Heap Manipulating Programs
Abstract:
Memory-intensive implementations often require access to an external, off-chip memory which can substantially slow down an field-programmable gate array accelerator due to memory bandwidth limitations. Buffering frequently reused data on chip is a common approach to address this problem and the optimization of the cache architecture introduces yet another complex design space. This paper presents a high-level synthesis (HLS) design aid that automatically generates parallel multicache systems which are tailored to the specific requirements of the application. Our program analysis identifies nonoverlapping memory regions, supported by private caches, and regions which are shared by parallel units after parallelization, which are supported by coherent caches and synchronization primitives. It also decides whether the parallelization is legal with respect to data dependencies. The novelty of this paper is the focus on programs using dynamically allocated, pointer-based data structures which, while common in software engineering, remain difficult to analyze and are beyond the scope of the overwhelming majority of HLS techniques to date. Second, we devise a high-level cache performance estimation to find a heterogeneous configuration of cache sizes that maximizes the performance of the multicache system subject to an on-chip memory resource constraint. We demonstrate our technique with three case studies of applications using dynamic data structures and use Xilinx Vivado HLS as an exemplary HLS tool. We show up to speed-up after parallelization of the HLS implementations and the insertion of the application-specific distributed hybrid multicache architecture.
Autors: Felix Winterstein;Kermin E. Fleming;Hsin-Jung Yang;George A. Constantinides;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 761 - 774
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cyber Meets Control: A Novel Federated Approach for Resilient CPS Leveraging Real Cyber Threat Intelligence
Abstract:
Cyber-physical systems (CPS) embody a tight integration between network-based communications, software, sensors, and physical processes. While the integration of cyber technologies within legacy systems will most certainly introduce opportunities and advancements not yet envisioned, it will undoubtedly also pave the way to misdemeanors that will exploit systems� resources, causing drastic and severe nationwide impacts. While almost all works in the literature exclusively tackled the security of one independent aspect of CPS (i.e., cyber or physical), we argue that these systems cannot be decoupled. In this context, we present what we believe is a first attempt ever to tackle the problem of CPS security in a coupled and a systematic manner. To this end, this article proposes a novel approach that federates the cyber and physical environments to infer and attribute tangible CPS attacks. This is achieved by - Leveraging real cyber threat intelligence derived from empirical measurements. - Capturing and investigating CP data flows by devising an innovative CPS threat detector. An added value of the proposed approach is rendered by physical remediation strategies, which are envisioned to automatically be invoked as a reaction to the inferred attacks to provide CPS resiliency. We conclude this article by discussing a few design considerations and presenting three case studies that demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Autors: Elias Bou-Harb;Walter Lucia;Nicola Forti;Sean Weerakkody;Nasir Ghani;Bruno Sinopoli;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 198 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cylindrical Plasmonic Waveguides With Cladding of Hyperbolic Metamaterials
Abstract:
We propose and analyze a new design of cylindrical plasmonic waveguides with the dielectric-coated metal wire as the inner core structure and the hyperbolic metamaterial as the outer cladding. The propagation characteristics of the plasmonic waveguides are analytically solved based on the dispersion relation of a multilayered anisotropic structure in cylindrical coordinates. By using the hyperbolic cladding on the core structure, a sufficiently confined mode area comparable to that of the metal cladding can be attained, while the propagation length is substantially increased. This character is attributed to the strong anisotropy of the hyperbolic cladding that offers an extra degree of freedom to adjust the balance between confinement and loss, leading to a better waveguide performance. A significantly improved figure of merit (the ratio of propagation length to mode size) is achieved for the plasmonic waveguides made of silver and zinc oxide at the telecommunication wavelength.
Autors: Ruey-Lin Chern;Ming-Chih Tsai;You-Zhong Yu;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1995 - 2002
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cylindrical Polarimetric Phased Array Radar: Beamforming and Calibration for Weather Applications
Abstract:
Future weather radar systems will need to provide rapid updates within a flexible multifunctional overall radar network. This naturally leads to the use of electronically scanned phased array antennas. However, the traditional multifaced planar antenna approaches suffer from having radiation patterns that are variant in both beam shape and polarization as a function of electronic scan angle; even with practically challenging angle-dependent polarization correction, this places limitations on how accurately weather can be measured. A cylindrical array with commutated beams, on the other hand, can theoretically provide patterns that are invariant with respect to azimuth scanning with very pure polarizations. This paper summarizes recent measurements of the cylindrical polarimetric phased array radar demonstrator, a system designed to explore the benefits and limitations of a cylindrical array approach to these future weather radar applications.
Autors: Caleb Fulton;Jorge L. Salazar;Yan Zhang;Guifu Zhang;Redmond Kelly;John Meier;Matt McCord;Damon Schmidt;Andrew D. Byrd;Lal Mohan Bhowmik;Shaya Karimkashi;Dusan S. Zrnic;Richard J. Doviak;Allen Zahrai;Mark Yeary;Robert D. Palmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2827 - 2841
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Damage Modeling of a Low-Noise Amplifier in an RF Front-End Induced by a High Power Electromagnetic Pulse
Abstract:
The RF front-end is a very vulnerable part of the coupling paths that are induced by a high power electromagnetic (HPEM) pulse. Existing studies found through experiment or simulation that low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) often break down or are damaged, which causes the malfunction of the RF front-end. To protect the RF front-end, the damage process of LNAs based on theory is required in detail. This paper summarizes the damage process, and a new library is developed describing the damage phenomenon of LNAs by using user-defined elements. The model can be combined with other circuit models, and can also offer variation of the internal parameters of LNAs by HPEM pulse. Existing physical protection methods have high costs and complexity, and it is difficult to provide perfect protection. Thus, the proposed model can contribute to protection studies utilizing a circuit model.
Autors: Ji-Eun Baek;Young-Maan Cho;Kwang-Cheol Ko;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 798 - 804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Damped-SOGI-Based Control Algorithm for Solar PV Power Generating System
Abstract:
This paper deals with two-stage solar photovoltaic (PV) system with a damped-second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) algorithm. Proposed topology not only integrates the PV energy to the grid, in addition, it provides the load compensation, power factor correction, and harmonics elimination. Therefore, a double stage system is proposed where the first stage is a dc–dc boost converter, which performs the maximum power point tracking by regulating its duty ratio. For extracting maximum power from the PV array, an incremental conductance-based approach is utilized. Moreover, in the next stage, a voltage source converter (VSC) is utilized. To control the VSC, a damped-SOGI algorithm is used. By using a damped-SOGI-based control algorithm, fundamental active components of load currents are extracted for evaluating the reference grid currents. After comparing reference grid currents with sensed grid currents, switching pulses for the grid tied VSC are produced. A prototype of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory and test results are presented for verification of control of solar photovoltaic system.
Autors: Bhim Singh;Shailendra Kumar;Chinmay Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1780 - 1788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Damping Nomogram Method for Small-Signal Security Assessment of Power Systems
Abstract:
This paper reviews the main concepts about power systems security assessment and describes the voltage security assessment (VSA), the transient security assessment (TSA) and the small-signal security assessment (SSA) of electrical power systems. Most methods of SSA are based on the calculation of oscillation modes of power systems and the evaluation of their damping factors. The objective of the power system security assessment is to determine the distance that these systems are to certain security boundary. In small-signal security assessment case, the security limits are, in general, associated to a minimum secure damping factor of the oscillation modes. This paper proposes a nomogram method based on the analysis of oscillation damping factors to be used for small-signal security assessment of power systems and describes its computational development.
Autors: Thiago Jose Masseran Antunes Parreiras;Sergio Gomes Junior;Glauco Nery Taranto;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 877 - 883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dangers of Distractions [Electrical Safety]
Abstract:
Examines the impact distractions have on industrial electrical safety. Workers and their supervisors are constantly interrupted during their work. If you spend any time at an industrial facility, you know that paging systems and calls on mobile devices are in constant use and make it hard to concentrate. At sites with limited resources, the electrical workers may have other extended responsibilities beyond the job at hand.
Autors: Daniel Doan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 5 - 72
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data Perturbation-Based Sensitivity Analysis of Real-Time Look-Ahead Economic Dispatch
Abstract:
In this paper, the sensitivity of look-ahead economic dispatch in real-time power markets with respect to data perturbation is studied. In the look-ahead dispatch optimization problem, a small change in the data that are used for setting the interspatial and temporal equality/inequality constraints and the objective function may negatively affect normal operations, such as the calculation of real-time wholesale electricity prices and operating costs. This could lead to more distorted prices and larger operating costs with the look-ahead dispatch than with a static dispatch that use data for a single future time. We perturb Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions of the look-ahead dispatch optimization formulation and then, using them, derive a linear sensitivity matrix that assesses the impact of data corruption on look-ahead dispatch. This matrix illustrates the changing optimal solution of look-ahead dispatch subject to potential corruption in various types of spatial and temporal data—generator's bidding cost coefficients, capacity limits for generators and transmission lines, ramp rates and the estimate of initial generation output with ramp constraints, and multiple-time series of the forecast load for the look-ahead horizon. The results of the simulation are illustrated with numerical examples in the IEEE 14-bus system.
Autors: Dae-Hyun Choi;Le Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2072 - 2082
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Assisted Modeling and Speed Control of a Robotic Fish
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel data-assisted dynamical modeling and control approach is developed for robotic fish speed tracking. The data-assisted modeling focuses on the thrust mechanism, including the structure and parameters that are absent from the Newtonian-based analytic model of the robotic motion. The thrust of a robotic fish is generated through undulatory body movement interacting with surrounding water, thus a consequence of reaction from environmental hydrodynamics. It is known, however, that hydrodynamics cannot be analytically modeled. Thus, the data-assisted modeling is necessary for an underwater robotic fish. Specifically in this work, data of pulse and step responses are collected from designated experimental trials, in which the pulse responses are used to determine the thrust delay terms, and step responses are used to build up the thrust nonlinearity at steady state. A discrete-time sliding mode controller (SMC) is constructed to perform speed control. The experimental results verify that an SMC with a data-assisted model can substantially improve the speed control performance of two-dimensional robotic motion.
Autors: Saurab Verma;Jian-Xin Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4150 - 4157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Based Optimal Control for Networked Double-Layer Industrial Processes
Abstract:
This paper investigates the data-based optimal control for a class of networked industrial processes with a double-layer architecture. Without knowing the dynamics of subsystems at the device layer, the index prediction function is constructed via the input/output signals, and radial basis function neural networks. The tuning laws for the index prediction function are obtained through the optimal control strategy. Then, by treating the network-induced phenomenon as random round-trip time delay and introducing the predictive algorithm, the compensation scheme is designed at the operation layer to dynamically decompose the setpoints. Finally, two simulation examples are given to further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed compensation strategy.
Autors: Jianbin Qiu;Tong Wang;Shen Yin;Huijun Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4179 - 4186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Driven Adaptive Optimal Control of Connected Vehicles
Abstract:
In this paper, a data-driven non-model-based approach is proposed for the adaptive optimal control of a class of connected vehicles that is composed of human-driven vehicles only transmitting motional data and an autonomous vehicle in the tail receiving the broadcasted data from preceding vehicles by wireless vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication devices. Considering the cases of range-limited V2V communication and input saturation, several optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the errors of distance and velocity and to optimize the fuel usage. By employing an adaptive dynamic programming technique, the optimal controllers are obtained without relying on the knowledge of system dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is demonstrated via the online learning control of the connected vehicles in Paramics' traffic microsimulation.
Autors: Weinan Gao;Zhong-Ping Jiang;Kaan Ozbay;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1122 - 1133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Driven Control and Learning Systems
Abstract:
Autors: Zhongsheng Hou;Huijun Gao;Frank L. Lewis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4070 - 4075
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Driven Optimal Consensus Control for Discrete-Time Multi-Agent Systems With Unknown Dynamics Using Reinforcement Learning Method
Abstract:
This paper investigates the optimal consensus control problem for discrete-time multi-agent systems with completely unknown dynamics by utilizing a data-driven reinforcement learning method. It is known that the optimal consensus control for multi-agent systems relies on the solution of the coupled Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation, which is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, most real-world systems are too complicated to obtain accurate mathematical models. To overcome these deficiencies, a data-based adaptive dynamic programming method is presented using the current and past system data rather than the accurate system models also instead of the traditional identification scheme which would cause the approximation residual errors. First, we establish a discounted performance index and formulate the optimal consensus problem via Bellman optimality principle. Then, we introduce the policy iteration algorithm which motivates this paper. To implement the proposed online action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming method, two neural networks (NNs), 1) critic NN and 2) actor NN, are employed to approximate the iterative performance index functions and control policies, respectively, in real time. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Huaguang Zhang;He Jiang;Yanhong Luo;Geyang Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4091 - 4100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Driven Robust Output Tracking Control for Gas Collector Pressure System of Coke Ovens
Abstract:
Disturbances, uncertainties, nonlinearity, couplings, and measurement disturbances exist extensively in the coke oven gas collector pressure system (GCPS) and may deteriorate tracking performance. In this paper, a practical method named data-driven robust output tracking control (DROTC) combining advantages of sliding-mode contr-ol (SMC) and data-driven control (DDC) is proposed for stable pressure control of gas collectors of coke ovens. Unlike the conventional DDC approach, the proposed controller is based on SMC framework, where a novel hybrid control structure and a new data-driven sliding surface are developed to facilitate the controller design. On one hand, the couplings, disturbances, and uncertainties are suppressed owing to the application of the SMC technique and the extended state observer. On the other hand, the stability of the DROTC system with bounded measurement disturbances could also be guaranteed by applying the DDC law. Moreover, the robustness could also be ensured once the sliding mode control system enters into the sliding mode. Finally, simulation and experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed control approach.
Autors: Yongpeng Weng;Xianwen Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4187 - 4198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DC Motor Speed Control through Parallel DC/DC Buck Converters
Abstract:
This article proposes a multivariable robust controller for the regulation of DC motor angular speed, and for the active current sharing in each parallel DC/DC buck converter. Considering that the parallel DC/DC buck converter is connected in cascade to the armature of the DC motor. Additionally, the controller rejects actively the internal and external disturbances, which is subjected the multivariable linear system. These disturbances are considered time-varying, but they are bounded. The control law is based on differential flatness and active disturbance rejection control with GPI observers. Computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink verified the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
Autors: Esteban Guerrero;Jesus Linares;Enrique Guzman;Hebbert Sira;Gerardo Guerrero;Alberto Martinez;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 819 - 826
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DC-Assisted Bipolar Switched Reluctance Machine
Abstract:
In this paper, a sinusoidal excited four-phase switched reluctance machine (SRM) with modified dc-assisted windings is presented. The proposed four-phase SRM configuration with modified dc windings has a reduced number of controllable phases and power converter devices. The dc winding configuration is modified from its traditional form by taking advantage of the machine's inherent 90° phase shift between adjacent phases to achieve the desired simplification in the drive. Different power electronic converters for the proposed winding configuration have also been investigated. The proposed concepts are then verified through finite element analysis and an experimental prototype.
Autors: Tausif Husain;Yilmaz Sozer;Iqbal Husain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2098 - 2109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deadbeat Model-Predictive Torque Control With Discrete Space-Vector Modulation for PMSM Drives
Abstract:
This paper proposes an alternative strategy of finite-control-set model-predictive torque control (MPTC) to reduce the computational burden and the torque ripple and decouple the switching frequency from the controller sampling time. An improved discrete space-vector modulation (DSVM) technique is utilized to synthesize a large number of virtual voltage vectors. The deadbeat (DB) technique is used to optimize the voltage vector selection process, avoiding enumerating all the feasible voltage vectors. With this proposed method, only three voltage vectors are tested in each predictive step. Based on the improved DSVM method, the three candidate voltage vectors are calculated by using a novel algebraic way. This new strategy has the benefits of both the MPTC method and the DB method. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is validated based on a test bench.
Autors: Yuanlin Wang;Xiaocan Wang;Wei Xie;Fengxiang Wang;Manfeng Dou;Ralph M. Kennel;Robert D. Lorenz;Dieter Gerling;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3537 - 3547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decision-Based System Identification and Adaptive Resource Allocation
Abstract:
System identification extracts information from a system's operational data to derive a representative model for the system so that a decision can be made with desired accuracy and reliability. When resources are limited, especially for networked systems sharing data and communication power and bandwidth, identification must consider complexity as a critical limitation. Focusing on optimal resource allocation under a given reliability requirement, this paper studies identification complexity and its relations to decision making. Dynamic resource assignments are investigated. Algorithms are developed and their convergence properties are established, including strong convergence, almost sure convergence rate, and asymptotic normality. By a suitable design of resource updating step sizes, the algorithms are shown to achieve the CR lower bound asymptotically, and hence are asymptotically efficient. Illustrative examples demonstrate significant advantages of our real-time and individualized resource allocation methodologies over population-based worst-case strategies.
Autors: Jin Guo;Biqiang Mu;Le Yi Wang;George Yin;Lijian Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2166 - 2179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Learning Classification of Land Cover and Crop Types Using Remote Sensing Data
Abstract:
Deep learning (DL) is a powerful state-of-the-art technique for image processing including remote sensing (RS) images. This letter describes a multilevel DL architecture that targets land cover and crop type classification from multitemporal multisource satellite imagery. The pillars of the architecture are unsupervised neural network (NN) that is used for optical imagery segmentation and missing data restoration due to clouds and shadows, and an ensemble of supervised NNs. As basic supervised NN architecture, we use a traditional fully connected multilayer perceptron (MLP) and the most commonly used approach in RS community random forest, and compare them with convolutional NNs (CNNs). Experiments are carried out for the joint experiment of crop assessment and monitoring test site in Ukraine for classification of crops in a heterogeneous environment using nineteen multitemporal scenes acquired by Landsat-8 and Sentinel-1A RS satellites. The architecture with an ensemble of CNNs outperforms the one with MLPs allowing us to better discriminate certain summer crop types, in particular maize and soybeans, and yielding the target accuracies more than 85% for all major crops (wheat, maize, sunflower, soybeans, and sugar beet).
Autors: Nataliia Kussul;Mykola Lavreniuk;Sergii Skakun;Andrii Shelestov;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 778 - 782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Learning in Automotive Software
Abstract:
Deep-learning-based systems are becoming pervasive in automotive software. So, in the automotive software engineering community, the awareness of the need to integrate deep-learning-based development with traditional development approaches is growing, at the technical, methodological, and cultural levels. In particular, data-intensive deep neural network (DNN) training, using ad hoc training data, is pivotal in the development of software for vehicle functions that rely on deep learning. Researchers have devised a development lifecycle for deep-learning-based development and are participating in an initiative, based on Automotive SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination), that's promoting the effective adoption of DNN in automotive software. This article is part of a theme issue on Automotive Software.
Autors: Fabio Falcini;Giuseppe Lami;Alessandra Mitidieri Costanza;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 56 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degree-Based WCL for Video Endoscopic Capsule Localization
Abstract:
Wireless video capsule endoscope (VCE) is used to diagnose lesions along digestive tracts. For proper diagnosis, it is necessary to know the exact location of the lesions which may be estimated by localizing the VCE. In this paper, we propose a simple VCE localization approach using static and dynamic degree-based weighted centroid localization (WCL). In our proposed approach, a sensor array of eight receivers is used to estimate the distance of the moving capsule. The estimated distance is then raised to a higher degree to reduce the weight of the remote sensors marginally lower. We propose a suboptimal method of both static and dynamic degree calculation using the estimated distances. We also analytically compute the optimal values of the degree to set benchmark to compare the performance of our proposed suboptimal methods. We develop a 3 D simulation platform using MATLAB to show the results and to verify the accuracy. We use indices named localization error (LE), average localization error (ALE), standard deviation (STD) and the normalized error to evaluate the performance. Using static optimal degree, the ALE is 5.19 mm where ALE of 6.55 mm is reachable using the suboptimal method. For dynamic degree, ALE using optimal degree is 3.8 mm, while the ALE using suboptimal degree is 6.27 mm. Thus, our proposed algorithms approach benchmark accuracy even if we change the dimension of the sensor network. The performance is also compared to the existing algorithms in the literature which shows better performance using our proposed algorithms.
Autors: Umma Hany;Lutfa Akter;Farhad Hossain;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2904 - 2916
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degrees of Freedom Region of the MIMO $2 times 2$ Interference Network With General Message Sets
Abstract:
We establish the degrees of freedom (DoF) region for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) two-transmitter, and two-receiver () interference network with a general message set consisting of nine messages, one for each pair of a subset of transmitters at which that message is known and a subset of receivers where that message is desired. An outer bound on the general nine-message interference network is obtained and it is shown to be tight, thereby establishing the DoF region for the most general antenna setting wherein the four nodes have an arbitrary number of antennas each. The DoF-optimal scheme is applicable to the MIMO interference network with constant channel coefficients, and hence, a fortiori, to time/frequency varying channel scenarios. In particular, a linear precoding scheme is proposed that can achieve all the DoF tuples in the DoF region. In it, the precise roles played by transmit zero-forcing, interference alignment, random beamforming, symbol extensions, and asymmetric complex signaling (ACS) are delineated. For instance, we identify a class of antenna settings, in which ACS is required to achieve the fractional-valued corner points. Evidently, the DoF regions of all previously unknown cases of the interference network with a subset of the nine-messages are newly established as special cases of the general result of this paper. For instance, the DoF region of the well-known four-message (and even three-message) MIMO channel is newly established. This problem had remained open despite previous studies, which had foun- inner and outer bounds that were not tight in general. Hence, the DoF regions of all special cases obtained from the general DoF region of the nine-message interference network of this paper that include at least three of the four channel messages are new, among many others. This paper sheds light on how the same physical interference network could be used by a suitable choice of message sets to take most advantage of the channel resource in a flexible and efficient manner.
Autors: Yao Wang;Mahesh K. Varanasi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3259 - 3276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay and Power Evaluation of Negative Capacitance Ferroelectric MOSFET Based on SPICE Model
Abstract:
The current evaluation on negative capacitance ferroelectric MOSFET (NC-FeFET) mostly reports device-level current/capacitance-voltage prediction and approaches with ease of integration in SPICE for circuit level performance prediction are very limited. For benchmarking against intrinsic MOSFET and beyond-CMOS devices, a new Landau–Khalatnikov theory-based SPICE model of ferroelectric is presented as a series connection of a voltage controlled voltage source and a resistor. It predicts both static and dynamic behaviors by including ferroelectric damping constant. Integration of this ferroelectric model with BSIM4 model of 45-nm CMOS technology allows prediction of circuit-level performance of NC-FeEFT. In current–voltage characteristics, both subthreshold swing and off-state current are reduced compared with intrinsic MOSFET. For an inverter chain, different values of damping constants give rise to a wide range of propagation delays and power consumptions. Only NC-FeFET using sufficiently low damping constant ferroelectric with similar response time to intrinsic MOSFET can be considered as a low-power device with a similar propagation delay. In this case, its dynamic power is suppressed by the same proportion as that of internal voltage amplification and static leakage power also drops. Our results reveal the ferroelectric switching time and Landau parameter requirements for FeFET use in low-power circuit applications.
Autors: Yang Li;Kui Yao;Ganesh S. Samudra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2403 - 2408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay-Aware Flow Scheduling In Low Latency Enterprise Datacenter Networks: Modeling and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
Real-time interactive application workloads (e.g., Web search, social networking, and so on) appear in the form of a large number of mini requests and responses flowing over the datacenters’ networks. They end up being sewed all together to constitute a user-requested task or computation (e.g., display a complete Facebook timeline). Applications as such strictly impose low latency flow completion, since the service’s quality is decreed by quick aggregation of responses to the largest possible fraction of requests and their delivery back to the user. This paper presents a deadline-aware flow scheduling (DAFS). In addition to reducing the average flow completion time (FCT), DAFS aims at decreasing the deadline mismatch and blocking probabilities, hence improving the average application throughput. An analytical queuing model is formulated herein to capture the datacenter’s network dynamics and evaluate its performance when operating under DAFS. The model is validated through extensive simulations whose results also show that DAFS outperforms existing multi-queue-based priority mechanisms by 52% in terms of the average FCT and a range of 7%–29% in terms of the average throughput.
Autors: Maurice Khabbaz;Khaled Shaban;Chadi Assi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2078 - 2090
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demand Side Management in Microgrids for Load Control in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings
Abstract:
The paper presents a feasible model of architecture for the technical building systems (TBS) particularly suitable for nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs). The suggested model aggregates the users around an electric node in order to reach up the threshold value of electric power, and to get a more virtuous and flexible cumulative load profile. Present proposal is a full electric common smart micro grid with a single point of connection, with heating and domestic hot water generated by a centralized electric heat pump system. The renewable energy is provided by a photovoltaic field connected to the common grid. A building automation control system operates those electric TBS modulating the global load for a building demand response (DR). The effectiveness of the proposed model consists of exploiting thermal inertia as an energy storage, by forcing both local and central set points of heating and air conditioning systems. The control is based on the integrated and common operation of all users and all systems of the building as one unique “large user.” The integrated management of the grid is operated to control the whole electric demand exploiting the self-consumption, avoiding peaks, and maintaining a flat load profile. The suggested microgrid model allows concretely the possibility to realize a building DR with benefits for the end-users in a consumer view point. A study of the effect of these control opportunities on whole electric demand is done by simulation on a case study.
Autors: Luigi Martirano;Emanuele Habib;Giuseppe Parise;Giacomo Greco;Matteo Manganelli;Ferdinando Massarella;Luigi Parise;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1769 - 1779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demand-Side Management of Domestic Electric Water Heaters Using Approximate Dynamic Programming
Abstract:
In this paper, two techniques based on -learning and action dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) are demonstrated for the demand-side management of domestic electric water heaters (DEWHs). The problem is modeled as a dynamic programming problem, with the state space defined by the temperature of output water, the instantaneous hot water consumption rate, and the estimated grid load. According to simulation, -learning and ADHDP reduce the cost of energy consumed by DEWHs by approximately 26% and 21%, respectively. The simulation results also indicate that these techniques will minimize the energy consumed during load peak periods. As a result, the customers saved about $466 and $367 annually by using -learning and ADHDP techniques to control their DEWHs (100 gallons tank size) operation, which is better than the cost reduction that resulted from using the state-of-the-art ($246) control technique under the same simulation parameters. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that uses the approximate dynamic programming techniques to solve the DEWH’s load management problem.
Autors: Khalid Al-jabery;Zhezhao Xu;Wenjian Yu;Donald C. Wunsch;Jinjun Xiong;Yiyu Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 775 - 788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demodulation Techniques for Self-Oscillating Eddy-Current Displacement Sensor Interfaces: A Review
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive study of demodulation techniques for high-frequency self-oscillating eddy-current displacement sensor (ECDS) interfaces. Increasing the excitation frequency is essential for lowering the skin depth in many demanding industrial applications, that require better resolution. However, a high excitation frequency poses design challenges in the readout electronics, and particularly in the demodulation functional block. We analyze noise, linearity, and stability design considerations in amplitude demodulators for nanometer and sub-nanometer ECDSs. A number of state-of-the-art amplitude demodulation techniques employed in high-frequency ECDSs are reviewed, and their pros and cons are evaluated.
Autors: Vikram Chaturvedi;Mohammad Reza Nabavi;Johan G. Vogel;Stoyan Nihtianov;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2617 - 2624
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Derived Observations From Frequently Sampled Microwave Measurements of Precipitation. Part II: Sensitivity to Atmospheric Variables and Instrument Parameters
Abstract:
This is the second of two papers that quantify the high added value of frequent 3-D radar observations of the atmosphere to capture the dynamics of weather systems. Recent advances in small-satellite and radar technologies, such as the “Radar in Cubesat” developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are paving the way for the design of convoys of spaceborne radars that can directly observe the evolution of severe weather at very fine temporal scales. The analyses presented here are to establish the relation between such observations to the underlying cloud variables and processes, and to quantify the sensitivity to the different physical and instrument parameters. In this paper, we quantify the uncertainty in the relation between the measured radar reflectivities Z and their time derivatives dtZ, on one hand, and the underlying rate of change of the condensed-water mass M, and fluxes of dry and moist air in convection, on the other hand. The uncertainties are due to the variability of the atmospheric parameters as well as the constraints of an observation strategy that would use pairs of spaceborne instruments. We specifically analyze the sensitivities for pairs of satellites, each carrying a Ka-band profiling radar. Our simulations show that, with a convoy of two spacecraft separated by ~90 s, each with a pointing accuracy of ~0.025° in rms error, a sensitivity of 17 dBZ and a precision of 1 dBZ, the proposed observation strategy would capture more than 70% of the tropical convection between 5 and 10 km of altitude and resolve the air-mass and condensed-water fluxes.
Autors: O. O. Sy;Z. S. Haddad;G. L. Stephens;S. Hristova-Veleva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2898 - 2912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Applications of Approximate Circuits by Gate-Level Pruning
Abstract:
Energy-efficiency is a critical concern for many systems, ranging from Internet of things objects and mobile devices to high-performance computers. Moreover, after 40 years of prosperity, Moore’s law is starting to show its economic and technical limits. Noticing that many circuits are over-engineered and that many applications are error-resilient or require less precision than offered by the existing hardware, approximate computing has emerged as a potential solution to pursue improvements of digital circuits. In this regard, a technique to systematically tradeoff accuracy in exchange for area, power, and delay savings in digital circuits is proposed: gate-level pruning (GLP). A CAD tool is build and integrated into a standard digital flow to offer a wide range of cost-accuracy tradeoffs for any conventional design. The methodology is first demonstrated on adders, achieving up to 78% energy-delay-area reduction for 10% mean relative error. It is then detailed how this methodology can be applied on a more complex system composed of a multitude of arithmetic blocks and memory: the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which is a key building block for image and video processing applications. Even though arithmetic circuits represent less than 4% of the entire DCT area, it is shown that the GLP technique can lead to 21% energy-delay-area savings over the entire system for a reasonable image quality loss of 24 dB. This significant saving is achieved thanks to the pruned arithmetic circuits, which sets some nodes at constant values, enabling the synthesis tool to further simplify the circuit and memory.
Autors: Jeremy Schlachter;Vincent Camus;Krishna V. Palem;Christian Enz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1694 - 1702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Characterization of a Gradient-Transparent RF Copper Shield for PET Detector Modules in Hybrid MR-PET Imaging
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the design and the characterization of a frequency-selective shield for positron emission tomography (PET) detector modules of hybrid magnetic resonance-PET scanners, where the shielding of the PET cassettes is located close to the observed object. The proposed shielding configuration is designed and optimized to guarantee a high shielding effectiveness (SE) of up to 60 dB for -fields at the Larmor frequency of 64 MHz, thus preventing interactions between the radio-frequency (RF) coil and PET electronics. On the other hand, the shield is transparent to the gradient fields with the consequence that eddy-current artifacts in the acquired EPI images are significantly reduced with respect to the standard solid-shield configuration. The frequency-selective behavior of the shield is characterized and validated via simulation studies with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO in the megahertz and kilohertz range. Bench measurements with an RF coil built in-house demonstrated the high SE at the Larmor frequency. Moreover, measurements on a 4-T human scanner confirmed the abolishment of eddy current artifact and also provided an understanding of where the eddy currents occur with respect to the sequence parameters. Simulations and measurements for the proposed shielding concept were compared with a solid copper shielding configuration.
Autors: Arne Berneking;Riccardo Trinchero;YongHyun Ha;Felix Finster;Piergiorgio Cerello;Christoph Lerche;Nadim Jon Shah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1118 - 1127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Characterization of a Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter for a Synchronous Generator
Abstract:
Generally, PM machines are used as PMG pre-exciters in 3-stage brushless excitations systems. This paper presents the design, characterization, and prototyping of a rotating brushless PM exciter used in a proposed 2-stage excitation system for a synchronous generator. The proposed design reduces the number of components compared with conventional systems. A comparison with the state-of-the-art conventional excitation systems is given. The design of a fast-response, or high initial response, brushless exciter requires active rectification on the rotating frame, replacing the noncontrollable diode bridge. The objective was to construct an exciter with the capability of a 50 A output field current, as well as a high value of the available ceiling voltage and ceiling current. The final exciter was constructed to be fitted into an in-house synchronous generator test setup. A finite element model of the exciter was validated with experimental measurements. The exciter prototype is also compared with an alternative armature design with nonoverlapping single-layer concentrated windings, but with the same main dimensions. The paper includes a general design procedure suitable for optimization of PM brushless exciters that fulfill the requirements of their synchronous generators and the grid.
Autors: Jonas Kristiansen Nøland;Fredrik Evestedt;J. José Pérez-Loya;Johan Abrahamsson;Urban Lundin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2016 - 2027
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Time-Interleaved ADC Calibration Algorithm for Application in High-Speed Communication Systems
Abstract:
In this work we investigate a new background calibration technique to compensate sampling phase errors in time-interleaved analog-to-digital-converters (TI-ADCs). Timing mismatches in TI-ADC degrade significantly the performance of ultra-high-speed digital transceivers. Unlike previous proposals, the calibration technique used here optimizes a metric directly related to the performance of the communication system. Estimation of gradient of the mean-squared-error (MSE) at the slicer with respect to the sampling phases of each interleave, are computed to minimize the time errors of the TI-ADC by controlling programmable analog time delay-cells. Since () dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) such as cross-correlations or digital filtering of the received samples are not required, and (ii) metrics such as MSE are available in most commercial transceivers, the implementation is reduced to a low speed state-machine. The technique is verified experimentally by using a programmable logic-based platform with a 2 GS/s 6-bit TI-ADC. The latter has been fabricated in CMOS process, and it provides flexible sampling phase control capabilities. Experimental results show that the signal-to-noise ratio penalty of a digital BPSK receiver caused by sampling time errors in TI-ADC, can be reduced from 1 dB to less than 0.1 dB at a bit-error-rate of .
Autors: Benjamín T. Reyes;Raúl M. Sanchez;Ariel L. Pola;Mario R. Hueda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1019 - 1030
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance of a Wideband Ka-Band 5-b MMIC Phase Shifter
Abstract:
In this letter, the design and performance of a Ka-band 5-b monolithic microwave integrated circuit phase shifter is presented. In the 180° phase bit, a developed switched-path-type topology is employed in order to extend the bandwidth and achieve good phase shifting characteristics. The fabricated phase shifter demonstrates an rms phase error of less than 4.7° and an rms amplitude error of less than 0.6 dB over the frequency band from 31 to 40 GHz. The input and output return loss is measured to be better than 9 dB, and the chip size is 2.55 mm mm.
Autors: Qin Zheng;Zhiyu Wang;Kangrui Wang;Gang Wang;Hui Xu;Liping Wang;Wei Chen;Min Zhou;Zhengliang Huang;Faxin Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 482 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Criterion for SiC BJTs to Avoid ON-Characteristics Degradation Due to Base Spreading Resistance
Abstract:
It is empirically known that the ON-resistance (voltage) of the SiC bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) with a thin-base layer is prone to be larger than the resistance of a voltage-blocking collector layer. In this paper, we explain the mechanism of this degradation of ON-characteristics by focusing on a high base spreading resistance and a parasitic diode existing below the base contact. An equivalent circuit model of the SiC BJT was proposed, and SPICE simulation was performed.In addition, TCAD simulation confirmed the validity of the model well. Based on the model, a design criterion to avoid the unwanted increase of the ON-resistance is proposed.
Autors: Satoshi Asada;Tsunenobu Kimoto;Jun Suda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2086 - 2091
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design framework for optimizing maintenance efficiency in ofdma-pons supporting wireline–wireless convergence
Abstract:
Recently, a novel passive optical network (PON) has been proposed based on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) technology. The OFDMAPON provides the opportunity for the convergence of wireline and wireless services. Moreover, virtual subcarrier scheduling can be achieved by virtualization, thus hiding the difference of heterogeneous multiplexing methods in the OFDMA-PON supporting wireline and wireless services. In the multi-segment OFDMA-PON topology, each segment is connected to a distribution fiber. If all distribution fibers are under maintenance simultaneously, the service continuity will be disrupted, thus necessitating an appropriate virtual subcarrier scheduling scheme. In this paper, by migrating the traffic of virtual subcarriers during each maintenance batch, only a partial set of distribution fibers is maintained, leaving the remaining ones to fully support the operation. We formulate the problem aiming to minimize the number of maintenance batches while guaranteeing an acceptable scheduling period. The NPhard problem, feasibility conditions, and lower bound are analyzed. We also design a novel virtual subcarrier scheduling algorithm to solve the problem. Simulations show that the heuristic solution well matches the lower bound with a high convergence ratio of 93%. The optimal scheduling period is also determined.
Autors: Xiaoxue Gong;Lei Guo;Xin Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 423 - 432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a CMOS Chlorophyll Concentration Detector Based on Organic Chlorophyll Battery for Measuring Vegetable Chlorophyll Concentration
Abstract:
In this paper, a CMOS chlorophyll concentration detector based on organic chlorophyll battery for measuring vegetable chlorophyll concentration is newly proposed. The organic chlorophyll battery and analog processing circuits are compactly and robustly cooperated. Comparing with previous works, the proposed chlorophyll concentration detector can be possibly easy and low-cost realized by users. All the functions and performance of the proposed chlorophyll concentration detector for measuring vegetable chlorophyll concentration are successfully tested and proven through measurements. The measured chlorophyll concentration of spinach ranges from 25 to mol/, and the corresponding output frequency range is 599.2 kHz–1.174 MHz. The proposed chlorophyll concentration detector is suitable for devices measuring vegetable chlorophyll concentration.
Autors: Cheng-Ta Chiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1725 - 1730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Coaxially Magnetic-Geared Linear Actuator for Electric Power Steering System Applications
Abstract:
This paper will present the designs and feasibility assessments of a linear electromagnetic actuator that can directly provide the electric power steering (EPS) forces for an economy sized vehicle. Within the physical and operational constraints, a tubular device being composed by a linear permanent magnet motor and a magnetic gears set will be systematically designed to form the coaxially magnetic-geared linear actuator. Determinations of the optimized geometrical compositions of the motor and the gears set based on the fluxes and thrust forces will be assessed in detail. For practical considerations, the dynamic performances of the proposed EPS system and the corresponding radii of turning circles will also be evaluated at various driving speeds. It is thus confirmed that the adoptions of such electromagnetic systems for those common EPS systems are technically feasible.
Autors: Cheng-Tsung Liu;Chang-Chou Hwang;Yu-Wen Chiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2401 - 2408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Combined Function Magnet With Individually Adjustable Functions
Abstract:
Design of combined function magnets for accelerators is often limited to minor modifications of the existing components, maintaining the high quality of the main harmonic field component, but restricting the range of operation. We investigate the possibility to achieve a wide range of both steering magnetic flux density and focusing field gradients, by utilizing two individually powered magnet parts. A general design methodology is presented, enabling fully customized design and optimization of magnets for different applications. The design procedure is illustrated via a detailed design of a magnet proposed for application in the stripping extraction system of a multipurpose cyclotron.
Autors: Andjelija Ž. Ilić;Saša T. Ćirković;Milan M. Ilić;Jasna L. Ristić-Djurović;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1109 - 1117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Near-Field Nonperiodic Zero Phase Shift-Line Loop Antenna With a Full Dispersion Characterization
Abstract:
The tradeoff between the magnetic field distribution, the magnetic field intensity, and the interrogation zone size is one of the most challenging issues in designing a zero phase shift-line (ZPSL) loop antenna for near-field ultrahigh-frequency radio frequency identification (RFID) applications. In this communication, the dispersion characteristics, including phase and attenuation constants, of the ZPSL in a loop configuration are thoroughly analyzed, such that the important design tradeoff can be fully quantified. Based on the dispersion characteristics, a nonperiodic ZPSL loop antenna with nonuniformly arranged unit cells is proposed. Compared with the periodic configurations, the proposed nonperiodic ZPSL loop antenna shows an improved magnetic field distribution with an enhanced magnetic field intensity.
Autors: Yunjia Zeng;Zhi Ning Chen;Xianming Qing;Jian-Ming Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2666 - 2670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Novel Wideband and Dual-Polarized MagnetoElectric Dipole Antenna
Abstract:
A wideband antenna with ±45° dual polarization is proposed. The antenna is mainly comprised of four printed trapezoidal metal walls standing on a ground plane that forms a 3-D open square aperture cavity structure with tapered cut on the four wall edges. The metal walls are fed by two orthogonally positioned (±45°) feeding networks, forming two pairs of dipole arms. Because of the excited magnetic-electric resonances, wide bandwidth can be achieved. The proposed antenna is fabricated, and the measured results show that it has an impedance bandwidth of 56% (1.62–2.87 GHz) for VSWR < 1.5. In addition, isolation of larger than 30 dB is also exhibited across the bandwidth between the two feeding ports. Because the proposed antenna has a hollow inside structure, it is a good candidate for multiband sharing aperture antenna element. Furthermore, it has a simplified fabrication process and is suitable for outdoor base station antennas that require VSWR < 1.5.
Autors: Shi-Gang Zhou;Zhao-Hang Peng;Guan-Long Huang;Chow-Yen-Desmond Sim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2645 - 2649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Wideband Antenna With Stable Omnidirectional Radiation Pattern Using the Theory of Characteristic Modes
Abstract:
In this communication, the design procedure of a wideband antenna with omnidirectional radiation pattern is demonstrated based on the theory of characteristic modes. Consisting of a dipole and a loop antenna, the antenna has a very simple structure. A wide impedance bandwidth is obtained because of the simultaneous excitation of the antenna’s first two modes. Meanwhile, due to the fact that these two modes share a similar omnidirectional radiation pattern, a stable radiation pattern is also achieved across the operating frequency band. In order to identify the antenna’s different modes, a characteristic mode analysis of the antenna is carried out first. Then, a feed configuration is specifically designed to excite the desired modes. To validate the antenna design, a prototype was fabricated and tested. Measured results agree well with the simulated ones. Measurement shows that a wide impedance bandwidth of 44.2% with dB (1.85–2.9 GHz) and stable radiation patterns at both E-plane and H-plane were achieved over the operating frequency band.
Autors: Dingliang Wen;Yang Hao;Hanyang Wang;Hai Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2671 - 2676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Efficient BCD Adders in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Abstract:
Among the emerging technologies recently proposed as alternatives to the classic CMOS, quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the most promising solutions to design ultralow-power and very high speed digital circuits. Efficient QCA-based implementations have been demonstrated for several binary and decimal arithmetic circuits, but significant improvements are still possible if the logic gates inherently available within the QCA technology are smartly exploited. This brief proposes a new approach to design QCA-based BCD adders. Exploiting innovative logic formulations and purpose-designed QCA modules, computational speed significantly higher than existing counterparts is achieved without sacrificing either the occupied area or the cell count.
Autors: G. Cocorullo;P. Corsonello;F. Frustaci;S. Perri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 575 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Efficient Multiplierless Modified Cosine-Based Comb Decimation Filters: Analysis and Implementation
Abstract:
This paper presents a computationally efficient design of modified cosine-based decimation filters. One of the main contributions of this paper is the proposal of a multiplierless finite impulse response low-order linear-phase filter to increase spurious signal rejection in the so-called folding bands. The resulting filters feature reduced computational complexity compared with other recent proposals in the literature, as well as higher folding-band attenuation than traditional comb filters. The frequency behavior of the proposed class of decimation filters is compared with generalized comb filters as well as other proposals in the recent literature. Moreover, this paper addresses field-programmable gate array implementation of the proposed filters in a variety of structures, including both nonrecursive and recursive architectures, and it evaluates and compares the performance of these architectures in terms of area and power consumption. A critical comparison is provided with the goal of highlighting key design issues and computational efficient implementations for the interested reader.
Autors: Gordana Jovanovic Dolecek;Jose Ricardo Garcia Baez;Massimiliano Laddomada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1051 - 1063
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Pedestrian Target Selection With Funnel Map for Pedestrian AEB System
Abstract:
Recently, numerous vehicles have been installed with an autonomous emergency braking (AEB) system for protecting pedestrians. This system helps in avoiding or reducing accidents by alerting the driver and controlling the automatic brake actuator before an accident. Moreover, the European New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) has stipulated AEB pedestrian systems as a standard requirement since 2016. This paper presents pedestrian target selection using a funnel map for a pedestrian AEB system. The concept of target selection is based on crash probability calculations by comparing the pedestrian's predicted position and the current position to deduce the vehicle speed before an accident occurs. It is necessary to allow early breaking to avoid an accident. To determine the precise warning and brake timing, the warning distance is calculated using the vehicle and sensor fusion information. The pedestrian target selection algorithm is tested using a real vehicle on a test track in three different scenarios for the Euro NCAP using a pedestrian dummy authorized by the Euro NCAP. Upon comparing the results before and after the application of the proposed algorithm, the longitudinal distance is shown to have a maximum margin of 1.5 m, and the vehicle speed has a maximum reduction effect of 24.7 km/h. Test results show that the proposed pedestrian AEB system can avoid or mitigate an accident when the vehicle travels at speeds up to 40 km/h.
Autors: Min-Ki Park;Sang-Yeob Lee;Chan-Keun Kwon;Soo-Won Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3597 - 3609
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Power and Area Efficient Approximate Multipliers
Abstract:
Approximate computing can decrease the design complexity with an increase in performance and power efficiency for error resilient applications. This brief deals with a new design approach for approximation of multipliers. The partial products of the multiplier are altered to introduce varying probability terms. Logic complexity of approximation is varied for the accumulation of altered partial products based on their probability. The proposed approximation is utilized in two variants of 16-bit multipliers. Synthesis results reveal that two proposed multipliers achieve power savings of 72% and 38%, respectively, compared to an exact multiplier. They have better precision when compared to existing approximate multipliers. Mean relative error figures are as low as 7.6% and 0.02% for the proposed approximate multipliers, which are better than the previous works. Performance of the proposed multipliers is evaluated with an image processing application, where one of the proposed models achieves the highest peak signal to noise ratio.
Autors: Suganthi Venkatachalam;Seok-Bum Ko;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1782 - 1786
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Printed Chipless-RFID Tags With QR-Code Appearance Based on Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, the design of the chipless-Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags based on genetic algorithm (GA) optimization techniques is introduced. The GA is applied for the first time to create a family of frequency-domain chipless tags with a quick responselike appearance. The resultant tags have an area of 30 mm 30 mm and consist of a grid of small metallic elements arranged arbitrarily over a element array creating a variety of new structures. The frequency signature of the GA-based tags is optimized to fit with a frequency-shift keying-based coding methodology and a capacity of 8 b is achieved. The performance of the resultant tags is experimentally verified. Optimal tag samples are fabricated using silver-ink, low-cost flexible substrates, and by screen printing, which is a mass-compatible production technique. The feasibility of this optimization technique for the design of chipless-RFID tags is corroborated.
Autors: Diego Betancourt;Marvin Barahona;Katherina Haase;Georg Schmidt;Arved Hübler;Frank Ellinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2190 - 2195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Reduced-Order Positive Linear Functional Observers for Positive Time-Delay Systems
Abstract:
This brief considers a new problem of designing reduced-order positive linear functional observers for positive time-delay systems. The order of the designed functional observers is equal to the dimension of the functional state vector to be estimated. The designed functional observers are always nonnegative at any time and they converge asymptotically to the true functional state vector. Moreover, conditions for the existence of such positive linear functional observers are formulated in terms of linear programming. Numerical examples and simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.
Autors: H. Trinh;D. C. Huong;L. V. Hien;S. Nahavandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 555 - 559
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of SRR-Based Microwave Sensor for Characterization of Magnetodielectric Substrates
Abstract:
A novel split-ring resonator (SRR)-based microwave sensor for accurately determining the real parts of the complex permittivity and the complex permeability of magnetodielectric composites is proposed. The proposed sensor is realized using the microstrip technology, where two SRRs coupled magnetically with the microstrip line are printed on two sides of the line. The sensor is designed using the full-wave electromagnetic solver and its equivalent circuit model is obtained. A numerical model of the proposed sensor is developed for extracting the magnetic and the dielectric properties of the sample under test in terms of change in resonance frequency after loading the device with the test specimen. The proposed methodology is validated by fabricating the sensor on RT/duroid 6006 substrate and testing various standard dielectric and magnetodielectric samples viz. Teflon, Poly vinyl chloride, Plexiglas, Polyethylene, Carbonyl iron, Ni0.6Co0.4Fe2O4, and Cobalt (30%)/Polystyrene composite in S-band. The measured relative permeability and the relative permittivity of the test specimens are found to be in close agreement with their values available in literature with maximum error of less than 8%.
Autors: Muhammed Shafi K T;M. Arif Hussain Ansari;Abhishek Kumar Jha;M. Jaleel Akhtar;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 524 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Parafoil Riser Tension Sensor
Abstract:
An increasing demand for the online tension measurement in developing parafoil has arisen. In this paper, a new design for surface acoustic wave (SAW) tension sensor, which can be used to test the parafoil riser tension wirelessly and passively, is discussed. An SAW resonator is used for sensing tension by determining the frequency of the resonant reflection device. In accordance with the test requirements, a nondestructive side-loading tension testing structure is created by which stress analysis and optimization can be operated in ANSYS. To understand the relationship between size and frequency of the antenna in the sensor, a new antenna design called microstrip antenna is proposed following the high frequency structure simulator analysis. The proposed design shows good linearity and sensitivity between the SAW frequency and the riser tension through the actual experiment, which meets the stringent requirement for the shape of the sensor. Thus, the sensor can obtain tension measurement during the operation of the parafoil riser.
Autors: Min Zhao;Hang Zhang;Ruoyun Zhang;Min Yao;Minyu Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3022 - 3029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Synchronous Reluctance Motor Utilizing Dual-Phase Material for Traction Applications
Abstract:
While interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines have been considered the state-of-the art for traction motors, synchronous reluctance (SynRel) motors with advanced materials can provide a competitive alternative. IPM machines typically utilize neodymium iron boron permanent magnets, which pose an issue in terms of price, sustainability, demagnetization at higher operating temperatures, and uncontrolled generation. On the other hand, SynRel machines do not contain any magnets and are free from these issues. However, the absence of magnets as well the presence of bridges and center post limit the flux-weakening capability of a SynRel machine and limit the achievable constant power speed ratio for a given power converter rating. In this paper, a new material referred to as the dual-phase magnetic material will be evaluated for SynRel designs. This material allows for nonmagnetic regions to be selectively introduced in the bridge and post regions, thereby eliminating one of the key limitations of the SynRel designs in terms of torque density and flux weakening. This paper will focus on advanced SynRel designs utilizing dual-phase material targeting traction applications. The paper will provide a detailed comparison between a dual-phase SynRel design, a conventional SynRel design, and a spoke PM design with rare-earth-free magnets. It will highlight the key tradeoffs in terms of power density, efficiency, and flux-weakening capability.
Autors: Patel Bhageerath Reddy;Ayman M. El-Refaie;Steven Galioto;James P. Alexander;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1948 - 1957
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Thin Cladding BIF Using Cutoff Wavelength Shortening Effect
Abstract:
We experimentally investigate the cutoff wavelength shortening effect that occurs when the cladding diameter is reduced. The influence of coating thickness, and thus, cladding diameter, on the transmission loss is also discussed. We derive an empirical model of cutoff wavelength and transmission loss as a function of the cladding diameter and coating thickness. The empirical model reveals that a further reduction in the cladding diameter of step index type bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) is possible. The validity of the proposed BIF design is confirmed using a 70-μm cladding diameter BIF and jumper cords. This BIF enables us to construct optical fiber networks with higher reliability.
Autors: Yukihiro Goto;Kazuhide Nakajima;Chisato Fukai;Kotaro Saito;Toshio Kurashima;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1945 - 1951
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Space–Time Trellis-Coded Intercarrier Interference Parallel Cancelation Architectures for OFDM Systems
Abstract:
Space–time (ST) coding combined with orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a robust transmission system. However, ST-OFDM system performance may degrade because of the intercarrier interference (ICI) in frequency-selective fading channels. To mitigate the ICI, a parallel cancelation (PC) algorithm is employed and combined with a 2 1 ST code to form an STPC-OFDM system. Further developing the idea of the STPC-OFDM system, we design a modified ST trellis-coded (STTC)-ST-OFDM system and the novel STTC-STPC-OFDM architecture and algorithms to mitigate ICI without expending power or bandwidth or significant complexity. Since this new system integrates ICI PC with channel coding gain and diversity gain, its bit-error-rate performance is better compared with the STPC-OFDM system with a lower error floor in frequency-selective mobile fading channels. Moreover, the Walsh–Hadamard (WH) transformation is further applied to the STTC-STPC-OFDM system to form a novel STTC-WH-STPC-OFDM architecture and improve the overall system performance significantly with the same data rate, same power, and same complexity as that of STTC-STPC-OFDM systems.
Autors: Hen-Geul Yeh;Samet Yıldız;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 530 - 534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Structure Matrix Modeling of a Supply Chain Management System Using Biperspective Group Decision
Abstract:
This paper introduces the procedure and results of the dependence modeling for a complex supply chain management (SCM) system using the design structure matrix (DSM). The elements of the DSM are determined by the functional analysis of the overall SCM system. Population of the matrix results from utilizing the biperspective group decision method, which evaluates the degree of dependence between the influencing and the dependent components. More specifically, this is accomplished by separately eliciting the opinions of the two parties and systematically obtaining the converged assessment. A case study for dependence modeling of an SCM system of a leading aircraft manufacturer is presented. From the obtained model, we can better understand the cross-functional interactions among the components of an SCM system and corresponding behaviors. Thus, this paper analyzes the gaps between the degrees of dependence perceived by the two parties and provides some discussions on how the analysis results can be used to improve the operation of the system.
Autors: Samuel Son;Junhong Kim;Jaemyung Ahn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 220 - 233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design-Space Exploration and Optimization of an Energy-Efficient and Reliable 3-D Small-World Network-on-Chip
Abstract:
A 3-D network-on-chip (NoC) enables the design of high performance and low power many-core chips. Existing 3-D NoCs are inadequate for meeting the ever-increasing performance requirements of many-core processors since they are simple extensions of regular 2-D architectures and they do not fully exploit the advantages provided by 3-D integration. Moreover, the anticipated performance gain of a 3-D NoC-enabled many-core chip may be compromised due to the potential failures of through-silicon-vias that are predominantly used as vertical interconnects in a 3-D IC. To address these problems, we propose a machine-learning-inspired predictive design methodology for energy-efficient and reliable many-core architectures enabled by 3-D integration. We demonstrate that a small-world network-based 3-D NoC (3-D SWNoC) performs significantly better than its 3-D MESH-based counterparts. On average, the 3-D SWNoC shows 35% energy-delay-product improvement over 3-D MESH for the PARSEC and SPLASH2 benchmarks considered in this paper. To improve the reliability of 3-D NoC, we propose a computationally efficient spare-vertical link (sVL) allocation algorithm based on a state-space search formulation. Our results show that the proposed sVL allocation algorithm can significantly improve the reliability as well as the lifetime of 3-D SWNoC.
Autors: Sourav Das;Janardhan Rao Doppa;Partha Pratim Pande;Krishnendu Chakrabarty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 719 - 732
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Designing Effective Privacy Notices and Controls
Abstract:
Privacy notice and choice are essential aspects of privacy and data protection regulation worldwide. Yet, today's privacy notices and controls are surprisingly ineffective at informing users or allowing them to express choice. Here, the authors analyze why existing privacy notices fail to inform users and tend to leave them helpless, and discuss principles for designing more effective privacy notices and controls.
Autors: Florian Schaub;Rebecca Balebako;Lorrie Faith Cranor;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 70 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting a Suddenly Arriving Dynamic Profile of Finite Duration
Abstract:
This paper addresses the detection of a suddenly arriving dynamic profile of a finite duration often called a transient change. In contrast to the traditional abrupt change detection, where the post-change period is assumed to be infinitely long, the detection of a suddenly arriving transient change should be done before it disappears. The detection of transient changes after their disappearance is considered as missed. Hence, the traditional quickest change detection criterion, minimizing the average detection delays provided a prescribed false alarm rate, is compromised. The proposed optimality criterion minimizes the worst case probability of missed detection provided that the worst case probability of false alarm during a certain period is upper bounded. A suboptimal CUSUM-type transient change detection algorithm, based on a subclass of truncated Sequential Probability Ratio Tests, is proposed. The optimization of the proposed algorithm in this subclass leads to a specially designed Finite Moving Average Test. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically and by simulation. A special attention is paid to the case of Gaussian observations with a dynamic profile.
Autors: Blaise Kévin Guépié;Lionel Fillatre;Igor Nikiforov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3039 - 3052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting Cardiovascular Disease from Mammograms With Deep Learning
Abstract:
Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death in women. Breast arterial calcifications (BACs), detected inmammograms, can be useful riskmarkers associated with the disease. We investigate the feasibility of automated and accurate detection ofBACsinmammograms for risk assessment of coronary artery disease. We develop a 12-layer convolutional neural network to discriminate BAC from non-BAC and apply a pixelwise, patch-based procedure for BAC detection. To assess the performance of the system, we conduct a reader study to provide ground-truth information using the consensus of human expert radiologists. We evaluate the performance using a set of 840 full-field digital mammograms from 210 cases, using both free-responsereceiveroperatingcharacteristic (FROC) analysis and calcium mass quantification analysis. The FROC analysis shows that the deep learning approach achieves a level of detection similar to the human experts. The calcium mass quantification analysis shows that the inferred calcium mass is close to the ground truth, with a linear regression between them yielding a coefficient of determination of 96.24%. Taken together, these results suggest that deep learning can be used effectively to develop an automated system for BAC detection inmammograms to help identify and assess patients with cardiovascular risks.
Autors: Juan Wang;Huanjun Ding;Fatemeh Azamian Bidgoli;Brian Zhou;Carlos Iribarren;Sabee Molloi;Pierre Baldi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1172 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting Flying Objects Using a Single Moving Camera
Abstract:
We propose an approach for detecting flying objects such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and aircrafts when they occupy a small portion of the field of view, possibly moving against complex backgrounds, and are filmed by a camera that itself moves. We argue that solving such a difficult problem requires combining both appearance and motion cues. To this end we propose a regression-based approach for object-centric motion stabilization of image patches that allows us to achieve effective classification on spatio-temporal image cubes and outperform state-of-the-art techniques. As this problem has not yet been extensively studied, no test datasets are publicly available. We therefore built our own, both for UAVs and aircrafts, and will make them publicly available so they can be used to benchmark future flying object detection and collision avoidance algorithms.
Autors: Artem Rozantsev;Vincent Lepetit;Pascal Fua;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 879 - 892
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determination of Cell Coverage Area and its Applications in High-Speed Railway Environments
Abstract:
In this paper, a determination method of the cell coverage area for the narrow-strip-shaped cells in high-speed railways (HSRs) is proposed, which is of great importance to HSR dedicated communication network planning. A closed-form expression for the cell coverage area is first derived on the basis of the edge outage probability and the propagation channel parameters, and it is found that the linear coverage in HSRs has a higher percentage of coverage area than the traditional circular coverage of cellular systems. For the convenience of link budget computation, we also present a family of curves related with the percentage of linear coverage. Then, the implementation of the proposed determination of cell coverage area is presented, and it is found that the linear cell of HSRs has a larger maximum communication distance than circular coverage. Furthermore, the impact of frequency on the HSR link budget is investigated, and the results show that a lower frequency band reduces the number of the required base stations. The results can be used in designing and optimizing the wireless coverage and the communication network planning of HSR communications.
Autors: Bo Ai;Ruisi He;Guangkai Li;Ke Guan;Danping He;Guowei Shi;Zhangdui Zhong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3515 - 3525
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determination of Trace Lead Detection in a Sample Solution by Liquid Three-Phase Microextraction–Anodic Stripping Voltammetry
Abstract:
Herein, the micro extraction and quantification of lead (II) ions were investigated in trace levels on in situ pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membrane-based liquid three-phase micro extraction. The voltammetric cell contained the acceptor solution and reference, the counter, and working electrodes. The modified Pt electrode with 3-Trimethoxysilyl-1-propanethiol and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), respectively, was applied as the working electrode. The voltammetric cell combined with DPASV was utilized in situ during the extraction time. The obtained results showed the effect of different factors on the pre-concentration and micro extraction of lead ions, including the organic solvent, pH of the donor and acceptor phases, concentration of the complexion agent, extraction time, stirring rate, and electrochemical factors; also, the optimal extraction conditions were established. The final stable signal was achieved after 18-min extraction time for analytical applications. The relative standard deviation and the enrichment factor were obtained to be 6.0% () and 18, respectively. The calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.207–62.1 ppb Pb(II) (analytical equation: 3.986 0.381), and the limit of detection was found to be 0.021 ppb with optimum conditions. The lead (II) ions were determined in fish, rice, and wastewater samples.
Autors: Alireza Allafchian;Seyede Zohreh Mirahmadi-Zare;Marzieh Gholamian;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2856 - 2862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determining Junction Temperature of LEDs by the Relative Reflected Intensity of the Incident Exciting Light
Abstract:
Relative reflected intensity of the incident exciting light is proposed to measure the junction temperature of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) under test. Reflectance spectra at a wide junction temperature range are acquired. Multichannel optical fibers greatly increase the collecting efficiency of the reflected light. Lock-in technique is utilized to exclude the interference of the emitting light from LEDs under test and to increase the dynamic range greatly. The results are in good agreement with those directly tested by a microthermocouple. To avoid extra carrier absorption and modulation effect, the incident exciting light should harbor smaller bandgap than that of LEDs under test.
Autors: Yao Xiao;Ting-Zhu Wu;Si-Jia Dang;Yu-Lin Gao;Yue Lin;Li-Hong Zhu;Zi-Quan Guo;Yi-Jun Lu;Zhong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2257 - 2260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Developing Non-Somatotopic Phantom Finger Sensation to Comparable Levels of Somatotopic Sensation through User Training With Electrotactile Stimulation
Abstract:
Cutaneous electrical stimulation can provide tactile feedback for upper-limb amputees through somatotopic feedback (SF) or non-somatotopic feedback (NF). The SF delivers electrotactile stimulus to projection finger maps (PFMs) on the stumps of amputees, which outperforms NF that transfers stimulus to other human intact skin areas in general. However, the SF areas on stumps are very limited and often occupied by electromyography (EMG) sensors in application of myoelectric prosthesis. This work aims at improving NF performance on human upper arms through user training with electrotactile stimulation. The experiments were conducted over seven consecutive days on nine able-bodied subjects and two forearm amputees. The performance measures of NF/SF included the correct identification rates (CIRs), the response time and the NASA-TLX questionnaire. The between-day CIR s on NF sites increased logarithmically with a mean course of 3-day rapid-improving phase and plateaued in the relative-steady phase. The response time and NASA-TLX scores could also rapidly reduce to the comparable levels of the SF areas during the same mean period of 3-day rapid-improving phase, respectively. These results indicated that the performance of NF could be highly improved to the equivalent level as that of SF through 3-day electrotactile training, which we named as “3-day effect”. It provides important insights that intact skin areas without phantom sensations can effectively replace SF sites to transfer tactile feedback after continuous user training, which validates effectiveness of non-invasive interfaces of tactile feedback for upper-limb amputees in practice.
Autors: Guohong Chai;Dingguo Zhang;Xiangyang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 469 - 480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Repetitive Learning Control of Lower Limb Exoskeleton Driven by Electrohydraulic Actuators
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel development of lower limb exoskeleton, which is named as CASWELL, and its repetitive learning control design for movement assistance. CASWELL has five degrees of freedom per leg, two of which are driven by linear single-rod electrohydraulic actuators. First, the mechanical structure and embedded electronic system are constructed, respectively. Second, by incorporating the systems of rigid body and electrohydraulic actuators, the complete dynamics of CASWELL are analyzed and modeled. Third, under the framework of backstepping design, a repetitive learning control scheme is presented to address the periodic tracking control of lower limbs of exoskeleton, where the learning convergence of the closed-loop system is proved rigorously in a Lyapunov way. Finally, the proposed controller is implemented in the embedded electronic system via a 32-bit microcontroller, and tested on the developed CASWELL. The experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the whole exoskeleton system.
Autors: Yong Yang;Lei Ma;Deqing Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4169 - 4178
Publisher: IEEE
 

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