Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 2

» A Triple Band Frequency Selective Surface Design for GSM Systems by Utilizing a Novel Synthetic Resonator
Abstract:
In this communication, a novel triple band frequency selective surface (FSS) designed for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSMs) frequency bands is presented. Unit cell of the proposed FSS consists of one rectangular-shaped resonator designed for 942 MHz and one synthetic resonator designed for both of 1842 and 2142 MHz frequencies. A novel technique is introduced to design a synthetic resonator in which two loop-shaped resonators intersect to each other resulting a unique resonator operating at two frequencies. The proposed design has the advantages of separating two very closely spaced frequency bands as in GSM systems with a narrow notch between the two frequencies of 1842 and 2142 MHz. Furthermore, a very low-frequency response sensitivity to the oblique incidence angles is achieved by using a miniaturized single synthetic resonator for the two frequencies in a single layer. Good agreement is observed between the measured and simulated results. A minimum of 20-dB attenuation for the transmission coefficient is achieved in all downlink frequency ranges of GSM system with a good stability against the oblique angle of incidence for both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations.
Autors: M. Kartal;J. J. Golezani;B. Doken;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2724 - 2727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unified Detail-Preserving Liquid Simulation by Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Modeling
Abstract:
Traditional methods in graphics to simulate liquid-air dynamics under different scenarios usually employ separate approaches with sophisticated interface tracking/reconstruction techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which is easy and effective to produce a variety of liquid-air interface phenomena. These phenomena, such as complex surface splashes, bubble interactions, as well as surface tension effects, can co-exist in one single simulation, and are created within the same computational framework. Such a framework is unique in that it is free from any complicated interface tracking/reconstruction procedures. Our approach is developed from the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method with the mean field model, which provides a unified framework for interface dynamics but is numerically unstable under turbulent conditions. Considering the drawbacks of the existing approaches, we propose techniques to suppress oscillations for significant stability enhancement, as well as derive a new subgrid-scale model to further improve stability, faithfully preserving liquid-air interface details without excessive diffusion by taking into account the density variation. The whole framework is highly parallel, enabling very efficient implementation. Comparisons with the related approaches show superiority on stable simulations with detail preservation and multiphase phenomena simultaneously involved. A set of animation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Autors: Yulong Guo;Xiaopei Liu;Xuemiao Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1479 - 1491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Vehicle Routing Problem Solved Through Some Metaheuristics Procedures: A Case Study
Abstract:
This study presents a Vehicle Routing Problem solved through some metaheuristics procedures. A two-phase methodology was used for that: 1) defining clusters of demand points to be served, as a Facilities Location Problem (FLP); and 2) defining routes to be developed within each cluster, as a Traveling Salesman Problem Asymmetric (TSPA). For a clearer understanding, the methodology was applied to a fast transportation company, referred here as ABC, located in the district Cidade Industrial of Curitiba (CIC), in Curitiba city, in Parana State, Brazil. The metaheuristics Simulated Annealing (SA), Tabu Search (TS) and a Hybrid Algorithm (HA) were used in the first phase (FLP) and also in the second phase (TSPA). Two scenarios were evaluated, with variations of the group number. In the first scenario, the goal was to form five groups of demand points, in order to compare with the company real situation (actual scenario). In the second scenario, the goal was to form three clusters. BT and SA metaheuristics presented the best results for the 1st. and 2nd. scenarios.
Autors: Julio Cesar Ferreira;Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner;Mariana Siqueira Guersola;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 943 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Very-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Inductive Sensor System for Workpiece Recognition Using the Magnetic Polarizability Tensor
Abstract:
The automatic recognition of a metal component or workpiece currently relies on optical techniques and image matching. It is not possible to distinguish workpieces with different materials. In this paper, a novel electromagnetic inductive sensor array similar to those used in the electromagnetic tomography has been designed to address this problem. Furthermore, instead of reconstructing the full magnetic polarizability tensor, we have proposed a partial tensor approach, which shows that a 2-D tensor is capable of distinguishing the material difference and recognising the geometric dominance of workpieces with experimental data. In addition, it has been found that the phase of the tensor is strongly linked to the materials properties while the magnitude of the tensor eigenvalues implies the basic geometry of workpiece.
Autors: Yang Tao;Wuliang Yin;Wenbo Zhang;Yifei Zhao;Christos Ktistis;Anthony J. Peyton;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2703 - 2712
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wearable Inertial Pedestrian Navigation System With Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filter for Pedestrian Localization
Abstract:
This paper presents a wearable inertial pedestrian navigation system and its associated pedestrian trajectory reconstruction algorithm for reconstructing pedestrian walking trajectories in indoor and outdoor environments. The proposed wearable inertial pedestrian navigation system is constructed by integrating a triaxial accelerometer, a triaxial gyroscope, a triaxial magnetometer, a microcontroller, and a Bluetooth wireless transmission module. Users wear the system on foot while walking in indoor and outdoor environments at normal speed without any external positioning techniques. During walking movement, the measured inertial signals generated from walking movements are transmitted to a computer via the wireless module. Based on the foot-mounted inertial pedestrian navigation system, a pedestrian trajectory reconstruction algorithm composed of the procedures of inertial signal acquisition, signal preprocessing, trajectory reconstruction, and trajectory height estimation has been developed to reconstruct floor walking and stair climbing trajectories. In order to minimize the cumulative error of the inertial signals, we have utilized a sensor fusion technique based on a double-stage quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to fuse acceleration, angular velocity, and magnetic signals. Experimental results have successfully validated the effectiveness of the proposed wearable inertial pedestrian navigation system and its associated pedestrian trajectory reconstruction algorithm.
Autors: Yu-Liang Hsu;Jeen-Shing Wang;Che-Wei Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3193 - 3206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Web Services Discovery Approach Based on Mining Underlying Interface Semantics
Abstract:
In recent years, Web service discovery has been a hot research topic. In this paper, we propose a novel Web services discovery approach, which can mine the underlying semantic structures of interaction interface parameters to help users find and employ Web services, and can match interfaces with high precision when the parameters of those interfaces contain meaningful synonyms, abbreviations, and combinations of disordered fragments. Our approach is based on mining the underlying semantics. First, we propose a conceptual Web services description model in which we include the type path for the interaction interface parameters in addition to the traditional text description. Then, based on this description model, we mine the underlying semantics of the interaction interface to create index libraries by clustering interaction interface names and fragments under the supervision of co-occurrence probability. This index library can help provide a high-efficiency interface that can match not only synonyms but also abbreviations and fragment combinations. Finally, we propose a Web service Operations Discovery algorithm (OpD). The OpD discovery results include two types of Web services: services with “Single” operations and services with “Composite” operations. The experimental evaluation shows that our approach performs better than other Web service discovery methods in terms of both discovery time and precision/ recall rate.
Autors: Bo Cheng;Shuai Zhao;Changbao Li;Junliang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 950 - 962
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wideband Contactless and Bondwire-Free MMIC to Waveguide Transition
Abstract:
A contactless transition from a high-permittivity microstrip line () to an air-filled waveguide (WG) has been impedance-matched over a large simulated relative bandwidth of 38% (-band, 75–110 GHz). The transition couples the electromagnetic fields directly from the Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC’s) microstrip line via an Substrate Integrated Waveguide and an off-chip stub section to a ridge WG section. The novel structure is low loss and suits pick-and-place assembly techniques of mm-wave MMICs inside metal WGs. The design process is detailed and manufacturing tolerances of the alumina prototype printed circuit board are discussed. The measured back-to-back structure retains an appreciable insertion loss smaller than 0.8 dB for a single transition and a fractional bandwidth of 28% (72–95 GHz) over which the return loss is greater than 10 dB.
Autors: Alhassan Aljarosha;Ashraf Uz Zaman;Rob Maaskant;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 437 - 439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wideband Differentially Fed Dual-Polarized Antenna with Stable Radiation Pattern for Base Stations
Abstract:
A new wideband differentially fed dual-polarized antenna with stable radiation pattern for base stations is proposed and studied. A cross-shaped feeding structure is specially designed to fit the differentially fed scheme and four parasitic loop elements are employed to achieve a wide impedance bandwidth. A stable antenna gain and a stable radiation pattern are realized by using a rectangular cavity-shaped reflector instead of a planar one. A detailed parametric study was performed to optimize the antenna’s performances. After that, a prototype was fabricated and tested. Measured results show that the antenna achieves a wide impedance bandwidth of 52% with differential standing-wave ratio <1.5 from 1.7 to 2.9 GHz and a high differential port-to-port isolation of better than 26.3 dB within the operating frequency bandwidth. A stable antenna gain ( dBi) and a stable radiation pattern with 3-dB beamwidth of 65° ±5° were also found over the operating frequencies. Moreover, the proposed antenna can be easily built by using printed circuit board fabrication technique due to its compact and planar structure.
Autors: Ding-Liang Wen;Dong-Ze Zheng;Qing-Xin Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2248 - 2255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wideband Fully Integrated Software-Defined Transceiver for FDD and TDD Operation
Abstract:
Although there is much active research on software-defined radios (SDRs) with receive (RX) or transmit (TX) functionality, little work has been done on SDR transceivers supporting frequency division duplex (FDD). In this paper, we present a new circuit concept in which a distributed TX circuit cancels the transmitted signal at a reverse RX port through destructive interference while adding signal constructively at a forward TX port. We pair the distributed transmitter with a receiver-tracking PA degeneration technique to suppress the injected noise from TX circuits in the RX band. The system does not require off-chip filters or circulators, but still achieves both SDR flexibility and both FDD and time division duplex function. Measurements from the transceiver implemented in 65-nm CMOS show a frequency tuning range of 0.3–1.6 GHz with TX–RX isolation >23 dB and transmitted power up to 19 dBm.
Autors: Hazal Yüksel;Dong Yang;Zachariah Boynton;Changhyuk Lee;Thomas Tapen;Alyosha Molnar;Alyssa Apsel;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1274 - 1285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wideband Noise-Canceling CMOS LNA With Enhanced Linearity by Using Complementary nMOS and pMOS Configurations
Abstract:
A complementary noise-canceling CMOS low-noise amplifier (LNA) with enhanced linearity is proposed. An active shunt feedback input stage offers input matching, while extended input matching bandwidth is acquired by a -type matching network. The intrinsic noise cancellation mechanism maintains acceptable noise figure (NF) with reduced power consumption due to the current reuse principle. Multiple complementary nMOS and pMOS configurations commonly restrain nonlinear components in individual stage of the LNA. Complementary multigated transistor architecture is further employed to nullify the third-order distortion of noise-canceling stage and compensate the second-order nonlinearity of that. High third-order input intercept point (IIP3) is thus obtained, while the second-order input intercept point (IIP2) is guaranteed by differential operation. Implemented in a 0.18- CMOS process, the experimental results show that the proposed LNA provides a maximum gain of 17.5 dB and an input 1-dB compression point (IP1 dB) of −3 dBm. An NF of 2.9–3.5 dB and an IIP3 of 10.6–14.3 dBm are obtained from 0.1 to 2 GHz, respectively. The circuit core only draws 9.7 mA from a 2.2 V supply.
Autors: Benqing Guo;Jun Chen;Lei Li;Haiyan Jin;Guoning Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1331 - 1344
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Abstracted Random Mediums for Electromagnetic Hotspot Observation in Finite-Difference Time-Domain Simulation
Abstract:
Microwave excitation of energetic materials can remotely incite ignition and deflagration. While this has been experimentally observed, the underlying principles are not well understood due to the complexity of analytical solutions. Further complicating understanding is the sensitivity of the effect to geometry and the difficulty of creating simulation environments representative of realistic materials. Manageable analysis requires abstractions, and here abstractions ranging from regularly arranged spheres and cubes to randomly arranged spheres, cubes, and arbitrarily shaped crystals are examined. The randomly arranged cube model provides acceptable prediction of thermal and peak electric field hotspots while having manageable computational complexity. The hotspots resulting from multiple subwavelength scattering occur inside the body of the energetic material and are localized in time and space having spans that are a few percent or less of the period and wavelength of pulsed electromagnetic excitation.
Autors: Michael Chen;Michael B. Steer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1873 - 1879
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accumulated Chemical Adsorption Phenomenon of H2 on MOX Gas Sensor Under Temperature Programmed Cooling
Abstract:
For improving the sensitivity of MOX gas sensor, one of the effective methods is to increase the chemical adsorption of gas on the surface. This paper focused on the effect of temperature programmed cooling on the adsorption accumulation of the gas owning one chemical adsorption state. Herein, the experiments of resistance response test, work function test, and the theoretical simulation were conducted to investigate the chemical adsorption of H+ on MOX gas sensor. Compared with the constant temperature test, the resistance response and the work function change were both significantly increased for H2 detection in oxygen-free environment under temperature programmed cooling. Furthermore, the process of temperature programmed cooling was theoretically simulated based on the Langmuir adsorption model. The accumulated chemical adsorption phenomenon was revealed by the simulation. In brief, this discovery opens a way for the sensitivity improvement of MOX gas sensor.
Autors: Zhenghao Mao;Tao Lei;Yuhui He;Ziming Cai;Ya Xiong;Shunping Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2784 - 2791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate and Standardized Coronary Wave Intensity Analysis
Abstract:
Objective: Coronary wave intensity analysis (cWIA) has increasingly been applied in the clinical research setting to distinguish between the proximal and distal mechanical influences on coronary blood flow. Recently, a cWIA-derived clinical index demonstrated prognostic value in predicting functional recovery post-myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the known operator dependence of the cWIA metrics currently hampers its routine application in clinical practice. Specifically, it was recently demonstrated that the cWIA metrics are highly dependent on the chosen Savitzky–Golay filter parameters used to smooth the acquired traces. Therefore, a novel method to make cWIA standardized and automatic was proposed and evaluated in vivo. Methods: The novel approach combines an adaptive Savitzky–Golay filter with high-order central finite differencing after ensemble-averaging the acquired waveforms. Its accuracy was assessed using in vivo human data. The proposed approach was then modified to automatically perform beatwise cWIA. Finally, the feasibility (accuracy and robustness) of the method was evaluated. Results: The automatic cWIA algorithm provided satisfactory accuracy under a wide range of noise scenarios (10% and 20% error in the estimation of wave areas and peaks, respectively). These results were confirmed when beat-by-beat cWIA was performed. Conclusion: An accurate, standardized, and automated cWIA was developed. Moreover, the feasibility of beatwise cWIA was demonstrated for the first time. Significance: The proposed algorithm provides practitioners with a standardized technique that could broaden the application of - WIA in the clinical practice as well as enabling multicenter trials. Furthermore, the demonstrated potential of beatwise cWIA opens the possibility of investigating the coronary physiology in real time.
Autors: Simone Rivolo;Tiffany Patterson;Kaleab N. Asrress;Michael Marber;Simon Redwood;Nicolas P. Smith;Jack Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1187 - 1196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Equivalent-Circuit Descriptions of Thin Glide-Symmetric Corrugated Metasurfaces
Abstract:
Thin artificial surfaces that act as high frequency bandgap structures have been recently studied for the design of gap waveguides, hard surfaces, and planar lenses. Here, we propose a circuit-based method to analyze glide-symmetric corrugated metasurfaces that are embedded in a thin parallel plate waveguide. Our closed-form solution is based on rigorous analytical derivations. It achieves remarkable agreement with full-wave solvers, even when the waveguide thickness is extremely thin. In contrast, classical homogenization approaches are shown to be inaccurate for thin waveguides due to the interaction of higher order Floquet modes between the surfaces. Numerical results validate our theoretical analysis and show the utility of the proposed method.
Autors: Guido Valerio;Zvonimir Sipus;Anthony Grbic;Oscar Quevedo-Teruel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2695 - 2700
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Object Localization in Remote Sensing Images Based on Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on tackling the problem of automatic accurate localization of detected objects in high-resolution remote sensing images. The two major problems for object localization in remote sensing images caused by the complex context information such images contain are achieving generalizability of the features used to describe objects and achieving accurate object locations. To address these challenges, we propose a new object localization framework, which can be divided into three processes: region proposal, classification, and accurate object localization process. First, a region proposal method is used to generate candidate regions with the aim of detecting all objects of interest within these images. Then, generic image features from a local image corresponding to each region proposal are extracted by a combination model of 2-D reduction convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Finally, to improve the location accuracy, we propose an unsupervised score-based bounding box regression (USB-BBR) algorithm, combined with a nonmaximum suppression algorithm to optimize the bounding boxes of regions that detected as objects. Experiments show that the dimension-reduction model performs better than the retrained and fine-tuned models and the detection precision of the combined CNN model is much higher than that of any single model. Also our proposed USB-BBR algorithm can more accurately locate objects within an image. Compared with traditional features extraction methods, such as elliptic Fourier transform-based histogram of oriented gradients and local binary pattern histogram Fourier, our proposed localization framework shows robustness when dealing with different complex backgrounds.
Autors: Yang Long;Yiping Gong;Zhifeng Xiao;Qing Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2486 - 2498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Spectral Testing With Arbitrary Noncoherency in Sampling and Simultaneous Drifts in Amplitude and Frequency
Abstract:
Accurate spectral testing plays a crucial role in modern high-precision analog-to-digital converters’ (ADCs’) evaluation process. One of the challenges is to be able to cost-effectively test the continually higher resolution ADCs accurately. Due to its stringent test requirement, the standard test method for ADCs can be difficult to implement with low cost. This paper proposes an algorithm that relaxes the requirements of precise control over source amplitude and frequency, and of the need to achieve coherent sampling. The algorithm divides the output data into segments, and estimates drift fundamental via Newton iteration. By removing the estimated drift fundamental and replacing with a coherent, nondrift fundamental in time domain, accurate spectral results can be achieved. Various simulation results have validated the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm is capable of tolerating various test condition variations such as any-level of noncoherency, various input frequency range and different numbers of segmentations. In addition, several measurement results from different ADCs have verified the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, which is able to accurately obtain spectral performance of an 18 b high-resolution ADC. Such algorithm relaxes the standard test requirement such as precise control over source frequency and amplitude, which dramatically reduces the test setup complexity and cost.
Autors: Yuming Zhuang;Li Xu;Degang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 1002 - 1012
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Wind Turbine Annual Energy Computation by Advanced Modeling
Abstract:
Renewable energy is the ultimate goal for mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions and for national energy sufficiency. Optimal renewable power plant design is best accomplished by taking into account the annualized statistical wind power availability. In this paper, the annual energy has been accurately computed for a wind turbine (WT) by an advanced modeling, taking into account the characteristics of the WT and the environment. Accounting for the parameters affecting the output energy, is implemented in order to correctly model the system. This helps in monitoring the power generation and sizing of the wind farm. Mainly, two scenarios are discussed. First, accuracy of WT modeling when the wind speed only affects the output power. Second, accuracy of air density modeling, among the many parameters affecting the WT output power, such as wind speed, power coefficient, elevation above sea level, temperature, pressure, and humidity. It is shown that accurate modeling has a considerable impact on the computed annual energy extracted from a single WT, and thus, the whole wind farm. This will have a major impact on the sizing of the wind farm, and hence, affects the net present cost of the entire system.
Autors: Hussein M. K. Al-Masri;Abdullah A. Almehizia;Mehrdad Ehsani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1761 - 1768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Achieving Resilience at Distribution Level: Learning from Isolated Community Microgrids
Abstract:
Increasing power system resilience at the distribution level is crucial due to the negative social impact of blackouts, as the undesired consequences get worse the longer the system restoration takes. Statistical records demonstrate that system recovery times after high-impact, low-probability events (e.g., earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods) are often faster for generation and transmission segments than for the distribution system. During the 2010 Chilean earthquake (8.8 Mw on the Richter scale), for example, the distribution system in the most affected area (almost 1.1 million customers) was not totally back in service until two weeks after the first major seismic event. In contrast, the transmission system rapidly recovered, with most of the bulk system buses re-energized by the end of the first day and the remainder during the second day. Additional installed generation capacity and repairing minor damage to most of the affected generation plants allowed for the recovery of most of the supply within a few days. Only 6.1% of the installed generation capacity required major repairs (which took up to six months to complete).
Autors: Guillermo Jiménez-Estévez;Alejandro Navarro-Espinosa;Rodrigo Palma-Behnke;Luigi Lanuzza;Nicolás Velázquez;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 64 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Acoustic Flow-Based Control of a Mobile Platform Using a 3D Sonar Sensor
Abstract:
Moving a sensor through its environment creates signature time variations of the sensor’s readings often referred to as flow cues. We analyze the acoustic flow field generated by a sonar sensor, capable of imaging the full frontal hemisphere, mounted on a mobile platform. We show how the cues derived from this acoustic flow field can be used directly in a layered control strategy, which supports a robotic platform to perform a set of motion primitives, such as obstacle avoidance, corridor following, and negotiating corners and T-junctions. The programmable nature of the spatial sampling pattern of the sonar allows efficient support of the varying information requirements of the different motion primitives. The proposed control strategy is first validated in a simulated environment and subsequently transferred to a real mobile robot. We present simulated and experimental results on the controller’s performance while executing the different motion primitives. The results further show that the proposed control strategy can easily integrate minimal steering commands given by a user (electric wheelchair application) or by a high-level navigation module (autonomous simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) applications).
Autors: Jan Steckel;Herbert Peremans;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3131 - 3141
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Rehabilitation Exercises With a Parallel Structure Ankle Rehabilitation Prototype
Abstract:
In this paper the implementation of impedance controllers to develop active rehabilitation exercises are presented. For which it is used a parallel structure ankle rehabilitation prototype with a mechanism of the type 2-RRSP (two closed kinematic chains and consisting of joints: revolute-revolute-sphere in slot- fixed post with sphere). Free software is used to develop the computer programs associated with rehabilitation exercises. The results of active rehabilitation exercises are reported, wich involves the effect of resistance from the rehabilitation prototype to the user operation: low, medium and high opposition effects are considered.
Autors: Wilberth Melchor Alcocer Rosado;Andres Blanco Ortega;Luis Gerardo Vela Valdes;Jose Ruiz Ascencio;Carlos Daniel Garcia Beltran;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 786 - 794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Steering Actuator Fault Detection for an Automatically-Steered Electric Ground Vehicle
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the actuator fault detector design problem for an electric ground vehicle (EGV) that is equipped with an active front-wheel steering system. Since the EGV can be steered by a motor automatically, it is desired to design a fault detector for the steering actuator for safety reasons. A two degree of freedom lateral nonlinear vehicle model is established. The nonlinear vehicle model is converted to a linear-parameter-varying (LPV) form and the scheduling vector is related to the vehicle longitudinal velocity. Since it is not easy to measure the longitudinal velocity precisely, the uncertain measurement on the longitudinal velocity is considered and the weighting factors of LPV submodels are subject to uncertainties. Based on the uncertain LPV model, a gain-scheduling fault detector is proposed and an augmented system is obtained. The desired steering angle and the faulty steering angle are both involved in the augmented system. As the steering angle generally has a low-frequency working range, the steering angle amplitude spectrums of three different maneuvers are studied, and the frequency working range is determined. The stability, the performance, and the performance of the augmented system are all exploited. Based on the analysis results, the mixed / fault detector design method is developed. An experimental test is used to show the performance of the designed fault detector.
Autors: Hui Zhang;Junmin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3685 - 3702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Three-Way Circulator Using Transistor Feedback Network
Abstract:
This letter presents an active three-way circulator with both theoretical analyzes and experimental verifications. The conventional active circulators have their limitations on power handling and noise figure (NF), however, this proposed structure maintains both performances, which is formed by three 2-port transistor feedback networks (TFNs). This TFN is formed by an FET together with a feedback inductor. Experimental results show that this circulator achieves the isolation more than 35 dB, the insertion of around 2 dB, and the return losses better than 10 dB at each port at 1.8 GHz. The output power is linearly proportional to the power operation and the NF is around 5 dB. This compact structure, therefore, is suitable for use in the transmit/receive front end with a sufficient isolation, power handling, and NF for time division duplex operation.
Autors: Steve W. Y. Mung;Wing Shing Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 476 - 478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Vehicle Battery Equalization Scheme in the Condition of Constant-Voltage/Current Charging and Discharging
Abstract:
This paper presents a battery-equalization circuit and its control strategy. Energy storage inductors are applied in the circuit and their number is less than that of the switches. The topology is simple and easy to control. The antiparallel diode of the power switches can provide freewheeling path of the inductance current, and the energy can be transferred by switching. Battery charging and discharging has constant-voltage and constant-current mode. The corresponding control strategies of the equalization circuit are different. The working principle is discussed and the control strategies in the conditions of constant-voltage and constant-current modes are analyzed. The simulation model of the active battery-equalization scheme and an equalization circuit combined with the battery management system are established. Also a comparison is made to the existing inductor-based equalization schemes. The simulation and experimental results verify the theoretical analysis. The proposed battery-equalization scheme can realize the expected effect.
Autors: Xinxin Zheng;Xintian Liu;Yao He;Guojian Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3714 - 3723
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adapting LTE/LTE-A to M2M and D2D Communications
Abstract:
Long Term Evolution (LTE) and its revision, Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A), were designed for high performance communications between devices operated by human users. However, when these networks are used for Machineto- Machine (M2M) traffic, i.e., communications between smart electronic devices that do not need human supervision, performance is far from satisfactory. This is mostly due to the overload condition created when a large number of M2M devices attempts random access using the fourstep handshake prescribed by the LTE standard. In this article, we describe an overlay network that allows M2M devices to access the network without going through the full handshake. We show that the overlay provides much improved performance for M2M traffic, especially when the transmission power of M2M devices is slightly increased to combat the overload condition, and is capable of supporting M2M traffic in device-todevice (D2D) communication mode.
Autors: JelenaVojislav B. Misic;Vojislav B. Misic;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 63 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Control via Extremum Seeking: Global Stabilization and Consistency of Parameter Estimates
Abstract:
We propose an extremum seeking (ES) based algorithm for reference tracking and stabilization of unstable discrete-time systems with unknown control directions. The probing signal is a martingale difference sequence (m.d.s.) with a vanishing variance. It is proved that almost surely (a.s.) the input and output signals are uniformly bounded, and the tracking error converges to zero. It is also shown that (a.s.) the parameter estimates converge toward their true values. This shows that the proposed algorithm can also perform identification of open-loop unstable systems with unknown control directions.
Autors: Miloje S. Radenkovic;Miroslav Krstic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2350 - 2359
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Control With Exponential Regulation in the Absence of Persistent Excitation
Abstract:
With set point regulation being the most common goal in control engineering, persistence of excitation (PE) is generically absent in adaptive control applications. In the absence of PE, not only is the parameter estimate not guaranteed to converge to the true value, but the state is regulated to the set point at a rate that is not necessarily exponential. In this technical note we introduce a strategy that employs time-varying adaptation gains (as well as time-varying control gains, when appropriate) and achieves exponential regulation of the plant state, with an exponential rate that is uniform in the initial condition. This idea fundamentally differs from exponential stability results achieved in the presence of PE because we make the gains (rather than reference signals) time-varying, i.e., we use time-varying tools in a multiplicative (rather than in an additive) fashion. We provide full state feedback results for general classes of nonlinear and linear systems and establish global uniform stability, exponential regulation of the plant state, boundedness of the control input and the update rate, and the asymptotic constancy (but not convergence to the true value) of the parameter estimate.
Autors: Yongduan Song;Kai Zhao;Miroslav Krstic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2589 - 2596
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Cross-Packet HARQ
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate a coding strategy devised to increase the throughput in hybrid ARQ (HARQ) transmission over a block fading channel. In our approach, the transmitter jointly encodes a variable number of bits for the each round of HARQ. The parameters (rates) of this joint coding can vary and may be based on the negative acknowledgment provided by the receiver or, on the past (outdated) information about the channel states. These new degrees of freedom allow us to improve the match between the codebook and the channel states experienced by the receiver. The results indicate that gains obtained using the proposed cross-packet coding strategy are particularly notable for the large values of the throughput. In this region, the conventional HARQ fails to offer throughput improvement even if the number of transmission rounds is increased. We implement the proposed cross-packet HARQ using turbo codes, where we show that the theoretically predicted throughput gains materialize in practice; the implementation challenges are also discussed.
Autors: Mohammed Jabi;Abdellatif Benyouss;Maël Le Treust;Étienne Pierre-Doray;Leszek Szczecinski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2022 - 2035
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Fuzzy Control System for a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor
Abstract:
A fuzzy adaptive method is designed and implemented in order to improve the response of a scalar fuzzy control system for the speed of an induction motor. The adaptive method determines the set of output membership functions used in the difuzzification process of a typical fuzzy rule based control system. The universe, domain and distribution of the controller's output membership functions are defined at the beginning of every control cycle, thus having a dynamic generation of the set of output membership functions. In this paper, this method is applied to an induction motor in order to control its speed. The experimental results are compared to those obtained with a non-adaptive fuzzy controller, showing an improvement in torque, stator currents and voltages as well as some dynamic parameters such as steady state ripple.
Autors: Luis Antonio Mier Quiroga;Jorge Samuel Benitez Read;Regulo Lopez Callejas;Jose Armando Segovia de los Rios;Rosendo Pena Eguiluz;Francisco Javier Jimenez Ramirez;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 795 - 805
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Input Design for LTI Systems
Abstract:
Optimal input design for parameter estimation has obtained extensive coverage in the past. A key problem here is that the optimal input depends on some unknown system parameters that are to be identified. Adaptive design is one of the fundamental routes to handle this problem. Although there exist a rich collection of results on this problem, there are few results that address dynamical systems. This paper presents sufficient conditions for convergence/consistency and asymptotic optimality for a class of adaptive systems consisting of a recursive prediction error estimator and an input generator depending on the time-varying parameter estimates. The results apply to a general family of single input single output linear time-invariant systems. An important application is adaptive input design for which the results imply that, asymptotically in the sample size, the adaptive scheme recovers the same accuracy as the off-line prediction error method that uses data from an experiment where perfect knowledge of the system has been used to design an optimal input spectrum.
Autors: László Gerencsér;Håkan Hjalmarsson;Lirong Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2390 - 2405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Control for PMSM Drives With a Modified Reference Frame
Abstract:
In this paper, an adaptive interval type-2 fuzzy logic control scheme is proposed for high-performance permanent magnet synchronous machine drives. This strategy combines the power of type-2 fuzzy logic systems with the adaptive control theory to achieve accurate tracking and robustness to higher uncertainties. Unlike other controllers, the proposed strategy does not require electrical transducers and hence, no explicit currents loop regulation is needed, which yields a simplified control scheme. But, this limits the machine's operation range since it results in a higher energy consumption. Therefore, a modified reference frame is also proposed in this paper to decrease the machine's consumption. To better assess the performance of the new reference frame, comparison against its original counterpart is carried-out under the same conditions. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop control scheme is guaranteed by a Lyapunov theorem. Simulation and experimental results for numerous situations highlight the effectiveness of the proposed controller in standstill, transient, and steady-state conditions.
Autors: Hicham Chaoui;Mehdy Khayamy;Abdullah Abdulaziz Aljarboua;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3786 - 3797
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Locally Linear Embedding for Node Localization in Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Received signal strength indicator (RSSI) gives a rough initial measure of the inter-node distances at low cost without the need of additional equipment or complexity. This necessitates the need for a mechanism to obtain accurate node locations from the noisy RSSI distance estimates. In this paper, a non-linear manifold learning technique, adaptive locally linear embedding (ALLE), is proposed for node localization using the noisy RSSI distance estimates. ALLE, a modified version of LLE, considers the neighborhood around a node to determine the neighbors to approximate the node optimally. Experimental and simulation results show that ALLE is able to localize the nodes accurately in both clustered and centralized wireless sensor network. The centralized mechanism is found to have higher accuracy as compared with ALLE running on different cluster heads. However, this increase in accuracy is at the cost of significant energy overhead required for information gathering at the base station. Results also indicate that the ALLE is able to localize sensor nodes with an increased accuracy of around 9.38% as compared with native LLE.
Autors: Neeraj Jain;Shekhar Verma;Manish Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2949 - 2956
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Loop Shaping for Wideband Disturbances Attenuation in Precision Information Storage Systems
Abstract:
Modern hard disk drive (HDD) systems are subjected to various external disturbances. One particular category, defined as wide-band disturbances, can generate vibrations with their energy highly concentrated at several frequency bands. Such vibrations are commonly time-varying and strongly environment/product-dependent, and the wide spectral peaks can occur at frequencies above the servo bandwidth. This paper considers the attenuation of such challenging vibrations in the track-following problem of HDDs. Due to the fundamental limitation imposed by the Bode’s integral theorem, the attenuation of such wide-band disturbances may cause unacceptable amplifications at other frequencies. To achieve a good performance and an optimal tradeoff, an add-on adaptive vibration-compensation scheme is proposed in this paper. Through parameter adaptation algorithms that online identify both the center frequencies and the widths of the spectral peaks, the proposed control scheme automatically allocates the control efforts with respect to the real-time disturbance characteristics. The effect is that the position error signal in HDDs can be minimized with effective vibration cancelation. Evaluation of the proposed algorithm is performed by experiments on a voice-coil-driven flexible positioner system.
Autors: Liting Sun;Tianyu Jiang;Xu Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive LSTAR Model for Long-Range Variable Bit Rate Video Traffic Prediction
Abstract:
Static bandwidth allocation for variable bit rate (VBR) video traffic forfeits the available bandwidth. Prediction of the next frame size is thus useful in dynamic bandwidth allocation. It has been shown that VBR video traces are long-range dependent, which makes one-frame-ahead prediction insufficient for dynamic bandwidth allocation. Several studies have been conducted based on the linear autoregressive (AR) model to address VBR traffic prediction. In this paper, we propose the use of a nonlinear model from the AR family called logistic smooth transition autoregressive (LSTAR) to predict VBR video traffic. Furthermore, we introduce adaptive algorithms, including least mean square (LMS), normalized LMS (NLMS), kernel LMS (KLMS), and normalized KLMS (NKLMS), to obtain the parameters of the LSTAR model used in long-range VBR traffic prediction. In the proposed model, we do not separate traffic of different frame types and use only one predictor, which results in lower computational complexity. The performance of the proposed predictor for different prediction steps was evaluated and compared with recently introduced predictors. The results indicate that the proposed nonlinear LSTAR-based predictor yields better results than the optimum linear AR predictor, i.e., Wiener–Hopf and others.
Autors: Hashem Kalbkhani;Mahrokh G. Shayesteh;Nasser Haghighat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 999 - 1014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive RFID Impedance Matching Based on Phase Difference for Oil Well Applications
Abstract:
Severe impedance mismatch problems due to the various environmental issues in downhole can greatly degrade the reliability of the radio-frequency identification (RFID) control system. In this brief, a new adaptive RFID impedance-matching system for oil well applications is presented, in which the measured real-time phase difference is employed to track the impedance mismatch information, while a variable capacitor array combined with a frequency sweep is used to rematch the mismatched impedance. Experiments have been performed and the results show that the impedance can be rematched perfectly when affected by from the various environmental influences.
Autors: Jixuan Zhu;Bo Tao;Zhouping Yin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 525 - 529
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive System Optimization Using Random Directions Stochastic Approximation
Abstract:
We present new algorithms for simulation optimization using random directions stochastic approximation (RDSA). These include first-order (gradient) as well as second-order (Newton) schemes. We incorporate both continuous-valued as well as discrete-valued perturbations into both types of algorithms. The former are chosen to be independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) symmetric uniformly distributed random variables (r.v.), while the latter are i.i.d. asymmetric Bernoulli r.v.s. Our Newton algorithm, with a novel Hessian estimation scheme, requires -dimensional perturbations and three loss measurements per iteration, whereas the simultaneous perturbation Newton search algorithm of [1] requires -dimensional perturbations and four loss measurements per iteration. We prove the asymptotic unbiasedness of both gradient and Hessian estimates and asymptotic (strong) convergence for both first-order and second-order schemes. We also provide asymptotic normality results, which in particular establish that the asymmetric Bernoulli variant of Newton RDSA method is better than 2SPSA of [1]. Numerical experiments are used to validate the theoretical results.
Autors: Prashanth L. A.;Shalabh Bhatnagar;Michael Fu;Steve Marcus;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2223 - 2238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Tracking Control for a Class of Stochastic Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Input Saturation
Abstract:
In this technical note, the problem of adaptive tracking control is investigated for a class of stochastic uncertain nonlinear systems in the presence of input saturation. To analyze the effect of input saturation, an auxiliary system is employed. With the help of backstepping technique, an adaptive stochastic tracking control approach is developed. Under the proposed adaptive tracking controller, the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system is achieved almost surely. Moreover, distinct from most of the existing results, the ultimate tracking error can be bounded by an explicit function of design parameters and input saturation error (the error between the control input and saturated input) in the mean quartic sense. Finally, an example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Yong-Feng Gao;Xi-Ming Sun;Changyun Wen;Wei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2498 - 2504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Tuning of Photonic Devices in a Photonic NoC Through Dynamic Workload Allocation
Abstract:
Photonic network-on-chip (PNoC) is a promising candidate to replace traditional electrical NoC in manycore systems that require substantial bandwidths. The photonic links in the PNoC comprise laser sources, optical ring resonators, passive waveguides, and photodetectors. Reliable link operation requires laser sources and ring resonators to have matching optical frequencies. However, inherent thermal sensitivity of photonic devices and manufacturing process variations can lead to a frequency mismatch. To avoid this mismatch, micro-heaters are used for thermal trimming and tuning, which can dissipate a significant amount of power. This paper proposes a novel FreqAlign workload allocation policy, accompanying an adaptive frequency tuning (AFT) policy, that is capable of reducing thermal tuning power of PNoC. FreqAlign uses thread allocation and thread migration to control temperature for matching the optical frequencies of ring resonators in each photonic link. The AFT policy reduces the remaining optical frequency difference among ring resonators and corresponding on-chip laser sources by hardware tuning methods. We use a full modeling stack of a PNoC that includes a performance simulator, a power simulator, and a thermal simulator with a temperature-dependent laser source power model to design and evaluate our proposed policies. Our experimental results demonstrate that FreqAlign reduces the resonant frequency gradient between ring resonators by 50%–60% when compared to existing workload allocation policies. Coupled with AFT, FreqAlign reduces localized thermal tuning power by 19.28 W on average, and is capable of saving up to 34.57 W when running realistic loads in a 256-core system without any performance degradation.
Autors: José L. Abellán;Ayse K. Coskun;Anjun Gu;Warren Jin;Ajay Joshi;Andrew B. Kahng;Jonathan Klamkin;Cristian Morales;John Recchio;Vaishnav Srinivas;Tiansheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 801 - 814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Vector Control of Wave Energy Converters
Abstract:
Many grid connection concerns, such as maximum power absorption and improved power quality, are increasingly gaining research interest in the wave energy sector, as several wave energy converter (WEC) concepts approach their near-commercial deployments. In this regard, several wave energy control solutions have been proposed without a clear sign of a straightforward preferred candidate. Therefore, this paper aims at contributing to the wave energy field by proposing a novel WEC control concept, based on an adaptive vectorial approach for achieving maximum power absorption of the wave energy resource. Thanks to the adaptive characteristic of the proposed controller, maximum energy extraction can be achieved at any time regardless of the dominant frequency characteristics of the waves. Finally, the proposed vectorial approach further contributes in reducing the large instantaneous power fluctuations when operating at maximum power extraction conditions.
Autors: Antoni Mir Cantarellas;Daniel Remon;Pedro Rodriguez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2382 - 2391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AdScope: Search Campaign Scoping Using Relevance Feedback
Abstract:
In a search ad campaign, the host search network provides information on expenses and revenue, user clicks, conversions, and search queries issued pre-click. An experienced advertiser goes through these queries and identifies the relevant ones to sharpen and the irrelevant ones to shrink to improve the campaign's reach and scope. With the right scope, the budget can be spent to target relevant users. AdScope ranks user queries with respect to relevance and recommends to advertisers the topmost queries for inclusion in a campaign and the bottommost queries for exclusion. It does this by combining the feedback collected from both users and advertisers to improve the ranking. The authors measured AdScope's performance with relevance classification and found that it achieved the highest classification accuracy (89.3) percent for queries that contain at least two terms.
Autors: Kevser Nur Çogalmis;Oguzhan Sagoglu;Ahmet Bulut;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 14 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Control of Thermostatic Loads for Rapid Frequency Response in Great Britain
Abstract:
In the Great Britain power system, reduced system inertia (particularly during low demand conditions) and larger possible infeed loss would make grid frequency regulation extremely challenging in future. Traditional primary frequency response could be insufficient to limit the frequency variation within acceptable range. This paper shows that thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) (domestic refrigerators) can be controlled without real-time communication and in a nondisruptive way to collectively enhance the network frequency response. The aggregated power consumption of TCLs, distributed across the system, could be controlled as a ‘linear’ function of the locally measured frequency and its rate of change. Alternatively, their aggregated consumption could be made to follow a ‘pre-set’ power profile depending on the estimated infeed loss. A novel technique for accurate estimation of infeed loss and consequent postfault TCL power reduction is also proposed. The effectiveness of the two TCL control strategies is compared for primary and secondary frequency response through a case study on a 36 busbar reduced equivalent of the Great Britain power system. The effect of spatial variation of transient frequencies and the time delays in frequency measurement and filtering are considered to show how the TCLs can realistically provide rapid frequency response.
Autors: Vincenzo Trovato;Inmaculada Martínez Sanz;Balarko Chaudhuri;Goran Strbac;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2106 - 2117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Cooling Methods for High-Speed Electrical Machines
Abstract:
High-speed electrical machines are gaining increasing attention, as they enable higher power densities in several applications such as micromachining spindles and turbo compressors. This brings along an important challenge in thermal management due to the higher loss densities in the machine. Therefore, a careful thermal analysis is required along with the electromagnetic and mechanical considerations during the design phase of the machines. In this paper, different forced cooling options are compared for a slotless-type high-speed permanent-magnet machine. Fast, yet sufficiently accurate thermal models are derived for analyzing these cooling concepts. This enables their coupling with electromagnetic models and incorporation into the machine optimization procedure, which would not be feasible when using computationally very intensive methods such as three-dimensional finite element method or computational fluid dynamics. The developed thermal models are first verified on mechanically simplified stator designs (in which no rotor coupling is possible), and later on fully functional high-speed electrical machine prototypes. Using an integrated cooling method instead of a standard cooling jacket, the power density can be nearly doubled while keeping the maximum winding temperature below 80 °C, without altering the rotor or the stator core geometries.
Autors: Arda Tüysüz;Francesca Meyer;Mathis Steichen;Christof Zwyssig;Johann W. Kolar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2077 - 2087
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced electro-thermal life and reliability model for high voltage cable systems including accessories
Abstract:
A high voltage (HV) cable system consists of cable lengths and accessories. The latter are essentially - joints between adjacent cable lengths and - terminations at cable system ends, where the transition from insulated cables to bare overhead conductors, or to gas insulated substation components, takes place.
Autors: Giovanni Mazzanti;Massimo Marzinotto;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 17 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Fault-Monitoring Scheme for Ring-Based Long-Reach Optical Access Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel fiber fault-monitoring system for long-reach optical access networks based on a transmission–reflection analysis approach. By launching an unmodulated continuous-wave optical signal into the feeder ring and measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers, the proposed monitoring scheme is able to detect, identify, and localize any major fault (covering both reflective and nonreflective events) with a good spatial accuracy (≤10 m) and a high detection speed (3 s). Both experimental and simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed system provides fiber monitoring functionality better than that obtained by the conventional methods.
Autors: Min Cen;Jiajia Chen;Véronique Moeyaert;Patrice Mégret;Marc Wuilpart;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1876 - 1886
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Volume-Compensation Method for Indirect Finger Arterial Pressure Determination: Comparison with Brachial Sphygmomanometry
Abstract:
Objective: The so-called volume-compensation method (VCM) allows noninvasive instantaneous arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement in human fingers. The VCM is mostly carried out with photoplethysmography (PPG) to detect arterial volume pulsations. However, measurement errors may occur due to movement of the PPG sensors relative to skin and underlying vasculature. We report here the effectiveness of a new technique, “advanced VCM” (AVCM), developed by us to resolve this significant problem. Methods: The AVCM described uses a control system with procedures for adjusting system parameters derived from the pulsatile PPG signal and the finger cuff pressure. In open loop pre-operation, mean BP is estimated from a finger using the volume-oscillometric method. The control system reference is then adjusted to yield approximately equal values in mean BP and this gives optimum performance for instantaneous BP measurement. Systolic and diastolic BP values (SBP, DBP) from the instantaneous BP by the VCM and the AVCM were compared with the conventional brachial SBP/DBP measured simultaneously during 5-min baseline. SBP/DBP from the AVCM were also compared with brachial SBP/DBP during 36-min bicycle ergometer exercise. Results: Measurement errors that occurred when the BP measurement was run using the previous VCM essentially disappeared in the AVCM. Bland–Altman analysis revealed negligible fixed and proportional bias between finger SBP/DBP and brachial SBP/DBP. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the AVCM could be an effective technique to resolve the problem of measurement errors occurring with standard VCM. Significance: The newly proposed AVCM is potentially useful for all research and clinical situations where noninvasive continuous BP measurement is needed.
Autors: Kenta Matsumura;Takehiro Yamakoshi;Peter Rolfe;Ken-ichi Yamakoshi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1131 - 1137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advances in Learning Technologies
Abstract:
New and innovative technologies enable a variety of instructional environments that help students overcome many traditional boundaries and constraints to learning. As the classroom becomes more of an abstraction than a physical space, educators and learners embrace a variety of pioneering tech-powered teaching and learning paradigms that will serve students well upon graduation.
Autors: Carl K. Chang;Sorel Reisman;Edmundo Tovar;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 14 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AFD-DFE Using Constraint-Based RLS and Phase Noise Compensation for Uplink SC-FDMA
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop a constraint-based block recursive least-squares (CRLS) for an adaptive frequency-domain decision feedback equalizer (AFD-DFE) in uplink single-carrier frequency division multiple access systems. For the AFD-DFE, both the feedforward and feedback filters are implemented in the frequency domain; therefore, the CRLS complexity can be reduced substantially when compared to its time-domain counterpart by exploiting the matrix structure in the frequency domain. The performance of the CRLS algorithm is better than that of the RLS when applied to the AFD-DFE, with no increase in the computational complexity. Our designed AFD-DFE with CRLS not only enjoys a lower computational complexity when compared to the frequency-domain channel-estimate-based minimum mean square error DFE (MMSE DFE), but its performance is also better than that of the MMSE DFE with decision errors (practical case) and is close to the MMSE DFE with correct decisions (ideal case). Moreover, we iteratively compensate the transmitter and receiver phase noise using its properties in the time and frequency domains. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of our designed AFD-DFE using CRLS.
Autors: Naveed Iqbal;Azzedine Zerguine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4435 - 4443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AI medicine comes to Africa's rural clinics
Abstract:
In rural health clinics across Kenya, women have started showing up with a surprising request: They've come for their "cervical selfies." ¶ Their enthusiasm is a good omen for a public health campaign against cervical cancer now under way in six African countries. Using an optical accessory that snaps onto any Android smartphone and makes use of its camera, health workers are examining women and catching early signs of cancer, enabling them to get immediate treatment. And soon this diagnostic device will be better still. With the integration of artificial intelligence, this technology may serve as a model for smarter health care in Africa and beyond.
Autors: Cary Champlin;David Bell;Celina Schocken;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 42 - 48
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Air-Gap and Yoke Flux Density Optimization for Multiphase Induction Motor Based on Novel Harmonic Current Injection Method
Abstract:
This paper investigates a novel harmonic current injection method to optimize air-gap and yoke flux density distribution for multiphase motor simultaneously. The effect of harmonic currents on air-gap flux density and yoke flux density is analyzed as a whole, while the traditional method focuses on air-gap flux density optimization only. The proposed method fully makes use of multiple control freedoms and the optimal coefficients for corresponding harmonic current are derived. The theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that novel harmonic current injection method is suitable for heavy load condition. Maintaining the same stator current density, a nine-phase induction motor improves torque density up to 8.47% with the proposed method. A three-phase induction motor is designed to verify the effectiveness of multiphase motor with concentrated full-pitched winding. Furthermore, the torque density and efficiency for two motors are compared under various load condition. Finally, a multiphase variable speed drive system is constructed and the proposed method is validated by experiments.
Autors: Wubin Kong;Ronghai Qu;Min Kang;Jin Huang;Libing Jing;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2140 - 2148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Alcohol-Based Digital Etch for III–V Vertical Nanowires With Sub-10 nm Diameter
Abstract:
This letter introduces a novel alcohol-based digital etch technique for III–V FinFET and nanowire MOSFET fabrication. The new technique addresses the limitations of the conventional water-based approach in enabling structures with sub-10-nm 3-D features. Using the same oxidation step, the new technique shows an etch rate of 1 nm/cycle, identical to the conventional approach. Sub-10 nm fins and nanowires with a high mechanical yield have been achieved. InGaAs nanowires with a diameter of 5 nm and an aspect ratio greater than 40 have been demonstrated. The new technique has also been successfully applied to InGaSb-based heterostructures, the first demonstration of digital etch in this material system. Vertical InGaAs nanowire gate-all-around MOSFETs with a subthreshold swing of 70 mV/decade at 50 mV have been obtained at a nanowire diameter of 40 nm, demonstrating the good interfacial quality that the new technique provides.
Autors: Wenjie Lu;Xin Zhao;Dongsung Choi;Salim El Kazzi;Jesús A. del Alamo;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 548 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Algorithms for Balanced Graph Colorings with Applications in Parallel Computing
Abstract:
Graph coloring—in a generic sense—is used to identify subsets of independent tasks in parallel scientific computing applications. Traditional coloring heuristics aim to reduce the number of colors used as that number also corresponds to the number of parallel steps in the application. However, if the color classes produced have a skew in their sizes, utilization of hardware resources becomes inefficient, especially for the smaller color classes. Equitable coloring is a theoretical formulation of coloring that guarantees a perfect balance among color classes, and its practical relaxation is referred to here as balanced coloring. In this paper, we consider balanced coloring models in the context of parallel computing. The goal is to achieve a balanced coloring of an input graph without increasing the number of colors that an algorithm oblivious to balance would have used. We propose and study multiple heuristics that aim to achieve such a balanced coloring for two variants of coloring problem, distance-1 coloring (the standard coloring problem) and partial distance-2 coloring (defined on a bipartite graph). We present parallelization approaches for multi-core and manycore architectures and cross-evaluate their effectiveness with respect to the quality of balance achieved and performance. Furthermore, we study the impact of the proposed balanced coloring heuristics on a concrete application-viz. parallel community detection, which is an example of an irregular application. In addition, we propose several extensions to our basic balancing schemes and evaluate their balancing efficacy and performance characteristics. The thorough treatment of balanced coloring presented in this paper from algorithms to application is expected to serve as a valuable resource to parallel application developers who seek to improve parallel performance of their applications using coloring.
Autors: Hao Lu;Mahantesh Halappanavar;Daniel Chavarría-Miranda;Assefaw H. Gebremedhin;Ajay Panyala;Ananth Kalyanaraman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1240 - 1256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All Operation Region Characterization and Modeling of Drain and Gate Current Mismatch in 14-nm Fully Depleted SOI MOSFETs
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a complete study of the drain and gate current local variability in high-/metal gate-stack 14-nm fully depleted silicon-on-insulator CMOS transistors. A thorough experimental characterization of both drain and gate current mismatch was performed. In addition, we developed, for the first time, models of the drain and gate current mismatch, valid in all operation regions. Finally, we demonstrate the universal validity of our models through Monte Carlo simulations.
Autors: Theano A. Karatsori;Christoforos G. Theodorou;Emmanuel Josse;Charalabos A. Dimitriadis;G. Ghibaudo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2080 - 2085
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All Polymer FETs Direct-Written on Flexible Substrates Achieving MHz Operation Regime
Abstract:
We report the successful combination of digital, direct-writing techniques, such as inkjet printing and femtosecond laser writing in order to fabricate megahertz operating, all-polymer FETs on flexible substrates without the use of any mask. By a control of the layout of the device, maximizing the ratio between the channel area with respect to the total gate overlap area through a simple interdigitated scheme, the frequency of transition for an n-type polymer FET can be enhanced up to 4.9 MHz.
Autors: Sadir Gabriele Bucella;Andrea Perinot;Mario Caironi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1960 - 1967
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All Regimes Parasitic Capacitances Extraction Using a Multi-Channel CBCM Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a multi-channel charge-based capacitance measurement (MCCBCM) technique for parasitic capacitances extraction of MOSFETs. The proposed technique is developed from a leakage- and parasitic-insensitive charge-based capacitance measurement technique, which is applied to measure gate-to-channel capacitance in certain regimes. Using the MCCBCM technique, we can measure all of the parasitic capacitance components of an MOSFET which are related to its terminals, such as the gate-to drain capacitance (), gate-to-source capacitance (), gate-to-bulk capacitance (), and so on. We designed a complex control methodology for the MCCBCM circuit. Specific control methods are provided for different parasitic capacitance components when MOSFETs work in different regimes. We can measure capacitances of sub-femto-farad level in all regimes, including the accumulation, depletion, and inversion regimes.
Autors: Peiyong Zhang;Qing Wan;Chenhui Feng;Huiyan Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 121 - 125
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Allocation of Centralized Energy Storage System and Its Effect on Daily Grid Energy Generation Cost
Abstract:
The increasing limitations on available energy require use of new environmentally friendly resources and enhancement of utilization efficiency of available resources. Energy storage systems (ESSs) are a promising technology to realize such a goal; however, their application in networks requires an investment that must be economically justified. This study examined the effect of ESS use on energy generation costs in networks for a specific time period. This includes determining the best location for installation of the ESS and the best possible operation schedules for the ESS and power plants to achieve the greatest decrease in daily energy generation costs. The influences of all the factors affecting the final solution were studied under different scenarios. The effects of power plant cost functions, transmission line capacity, and network upgrades were compared. All scenarios were implemented in an IEEE standard 30-bus network. The best possible specifications of ESS can reduce daily energy generation cost by 3% for selected power plant cost functions. It was found that the use of ESS in a network uniformed stress on the transmission line and, in such a case, it would be possible to defer the network upgrade for 21 years.
Autors: Farshad Mohammadi;Hassan Gholami;Gevork B. Gharehpetian;Seyed Hossein Hosseinian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2406 - 2416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Almost Universal Codes Achieving Ergodic MIMO Capacity Within a Constant Gap
Abstract:
This paper addresses the question of achieving capacity with lattice codes in multi-antenna block fading channels when the number of fading blocks tends to infinity. A design criterion based on the normalized minimum determinant is proposed for division algebra multi-block space-time codes over fading channels; this plays a similar role to the Hermite invariant for Gaussian channels. Under maximum likelihood decoding, it is shown that this criterion is sufficient to guarantee transmission rates within a constant gap from capacity both for deterministic channels and ergodic fading channels. Moreover, if the number of receive antennas is greater than or equal to the number of transmit antennas, the same constant gap is achieved under naive lattice decoding as well. In the case of independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading, the error probability vanishes exponentially fast. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, which employs random lattice ensembles, the existence results in this paper are derived from the number theory. First, the gap to capacity is shown to depend on the discriminant of the chosen division algebra; then, class field theory is applied to build families of algebras with small discriminants. The key element in the construction is the choice of a sequence of division algebras whose centers are number fields with small root discriminants.
Autors: Laura Luzzi;Roope Vehkalahti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3224 - 3241
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aloha from the IMS2017 Technical Program Committee Chairs
Abstract:
Provides a notice of upcoming conference events of interest to practitioners and researchers.
Autors: Olga Boric-Lubecke;Ryan Y. Miyamoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 24 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aloha from the State of Hawai'i
Abstract:
Presents information on the IMS 2017 Conference.
Autors: Justin Akagi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 20 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Amping Up the PA for 5G: Efficient GaN Power Amplifiers with Dynamic Supplies
Abstract:
Signals designed for high-capacity communications result in high peak-to-average ratio (PAR) waveforms that the transmitter power amplifier (PA) must amplify with low distortion. With emerging fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems, carrier frequencies and signal bandwidths are expected to increase significantly from the current S- and C-band allocations. All these factors are contributing to the increasingly challenging goals of maintaining transmitter PA efficiency for the following reasons.
Autors: Zoya Popovic;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 137 - 149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Amplifying the Signal of Metal Oxide Gas Sensors for Low Concentration Gas Detection
Abstract:
Nowadays, detection of trace concentration gases is still challenging for portable sensors, especially for the low-cost and easily operated metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOX) gas sensors. In this paper, a widely applicable amplification circuit is designed and fabricated to evidently enhance the signal of the MOX sensors by adding a field effect transistor (FET) into the conventional circuits. By optimizing the FET parameters and the loading resistance, this amplification circuit enables the commercial Figaro TGS2602 toluene sensors response effectively to the highest permissive limit (0.26 ppm) of toluene in indoor air of cars, with the detection limit of ~0.1 ppm. Furthermore, this circuit can also make the commercial Hanwei MP502 acetone sensors and MQ3 ethanol sensors response to the 1–2-ppm acetone in breath of diabetes and 2-ppm ethanol for fast and effectively drinker driver screening. The mechanism is investigated to be the gate voltage induced resistance change of the FET, with the highest theoretically estimated and experimentally measured magnification factor of 5–6. This FET amplifier can effectively enable the ppm level commercial MOX sensors response to sub-ppm level gases, promising for MOX gas sensor integration and also for other kind of resistive sensors.
Autors: Xinyuan Zhou;Ying Wang;Jinxiao Wang;Zheng Xie;Xiaofeng Wu;Ning Han;Yunfa Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2841 - 2847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An $X$ -Band Half-Watt CMOS Power Amplifier Using Interweaved Parallel Combining Transformer
Abstract:
An -band half-watt fully integrated power amplifier (PA) using standard 0.18- 1P6M CMOS technology is presented in this letter. Utilizing an interweaved three-primary parallel combining transformer, the CMOS PA delivers 27.1 dBm of measured saturation output power () with 22.7% of power-added efficiency at 9 GHz from a 3.3-V power supply. The measured output 1-dB gain compression point (OP1 dB) is 24.2 dBm and the gain performance is 11.2 dB at 9 GHz. The chip size is mm. To the best of our knowledge, the PA is the first half-watt CMOS PA with excellent power density at the -band.
Autors: Jeng-Han Tsai;Jen-Wei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 491 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An 802.11a/b/g/n Digital Fractional- $N$ PLL With Automatic TDC Linearity Calibration for Spur Cancellation
Abstract:
A fractional-N digital phase-locked loop (PLL) architecture with low fractional spur is presented in this paper. A 2-D Vernier time-to-digital convertor (TDC) is implemented to achieve wide detection range with fine resolution. The TDC is calibrated automatically utilizing the ramp signal generated from the fractional-N accumulator for optimal linearity. A digi-phase spur cancellation technique with automatic TDC gain tracking is also implemented to further suppress the fractional spurs. The chip also includes an improved multimodulus divider (MMD) structure that overcomes the glitch problem during division ratio toggling associated with the prior art MMDs, enabling carrier synthesis across wide frequency range continuously. As part of an 802.11a/b/g/n transceiver, the DPLL can provide coverage for both 2.4/5 G WiFi bands. The proposed fractional-N DPLL is implemented in a 55-nm CMOS technology. The DPLL achieves a largest fractional spur level of −55 dBc without using a sigma–delta modulator and an in-band phase noise of −107 dBc/Hz (0.55 ps integrated jitter) while consuming 9.9 mW.
Autors: Dongyi Liao;Hechen Wang;Fa Foster Dai;Yang Xu;Roc Berenguer;Sara Munoz Hermoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1210 - 1220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An AC Input Switching-Converter-Free LED Driver With Low-Frequency-Flicker Reduction
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel switching-converter-free ac–dc light-emitting diode (LED) driver with low-frequency-flicker reduction for general lighting applications. The proposed driving solution can minimize the system size as it enables the monolithic integration of the controller and power transistors while both the bulky off-chip electrolytic capacitors and magnetics are eliminated. Moreover, the driver can effectively reduce the harmful optical flicker at the double-line-frequency by employing a novel quasi-constant power control scheme while maintaining high efficiency and a good power factor (PF). The proposed driver is implemented with a single controller integrated circuit chip, which includes the controller and high-voltage power transistors, and the off-chip diode bridge and valley-fill circuit. The chip is fabricated with a 0.35- 120-V high-voltage CMOS process and occupies 1.85 mm2. The driver can provide up to 7.8-W power to the LED and achieves 87.6% peak efficiency and an over 0.925 PF with only 17.3% flicker from a 110-Vac 60-Hz input.
Autors: Yuan Gao;Lisong Li;Philip K. T. Mok;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1424 - 1434
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Active Microwave Sensor for Near Field Imaging
Abstract:
Near-field imaging using microwaves in medical applications is of great current interest for its capability and accuracy in identifying features of interest, in comparison with other known screening tools. This paper documents microwave imaging experiments on breast cancer detection, using active antenna tuning to obtain matching over a wide bandwidth. A simple phantom consisting of a plastic container with a low dielectric material emulating fatty tissue and a high dielectric constant object emulating a tumor is scanned between 4 and 8 GHz with a ultra-wideband microstrip antenna. Measurements indicate that this prototype microwave sensor is a good candidate for such imaging applications.
Autors: Ahmed Faraz Mirza;Chan Hwang See;Isah Musa Danjuma;Rameez Asif;Raed A. Abd-Alhameed;James M. Noras;Roger W. Clarke;Peter S. Excell;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2749 - 2757
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Adaptive Background Modeling Method for Foreground Segmentation
Abstract:
Background modeling has played an important role in detecting the foreground for video analysis. In this paper, we presented a novel background modeling method for foreground segmentation. The innovations of the proposed method lie in the joint usage of the pixel-based adaptive segmentation method and the background updating strategy, which is performed in both pixel and object levels. Current pixel-based adaptive segmentation method only updates the background at the pixel level and does not take into account the physical changes of the object, which may result in a series of problems in foreground detection, e.g., a static or low-speed object is updated too fast or merely a partial foreground region is properly detected. To avoid these deficiencies, we used a counter to place the foreground pixels into two categories (illumination and object). The proposed method extracted a correct foreground object by controlling the updating time of the pixels belonging to an object or an illumination region respectively. Extensive experiments showed that our method is more competitive than the state-of-the-art foreground detection methods, particularly in the intermittent object motion scenario. Moreover, we also analyzed the efficiency of our method in different situations to show that the proposed method is available for real-time applications.
Autors: Zuofeng Zhong;Bob Zhang;Guangming Lu;Yong Zhao;Yong Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1109 - 1121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Adaptive Fusion Strategy for Distributed Information Estimation Over Cooperative Multi-Agent Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the problem of distributed information estimation that is closely relevant to some network-based applications, such as distributed surveillance, cooperative localization, and optimization. We consider a problem where an application area containing multiple information sources of interest is divided into a series of subregions in which only one information source exists. The information is presented as a signal variable, which has finite states associated with certain probabilities. The probability distribution of information states of all the subregions constitutes a global information picture for the whole area. Agents with limited measurement and communication ranges are assumed to monitor the area, and cooperatively create a local estimate of the global information. To efficiently approximate the actual global information using individual agents’ own estimates, we propose an adaptive distributed information fusion strategy and use it to enhance the local Bayesian rule-based updating procedure. Specifically, this adaptive fusion strategy is induced by iteratively minimizing a Jensen–Shannon divergence-based objective function. A constrained optimization model is also presented to derive minimum Jensen–Shannon divergence weights at each agent for fusing local neighbors’ individual estimates. Theoretical analysis and numerical results are supplemented to show the convergence performance and effectiveness of the proposed solution.
Autors: Daxin Tian;Jianshan Zhou;Zhengguo Sheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3076 - 3091
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An All-Passive Negative Feedback Network for Broadband and Wide Field-of-View Self-Steering Beam-Forming With Zero DC Power Consumption
Abstract:
This paper presents an all-passive negative feedback network that performs autonomous radio-frequency (RF) front-end beam-forming and dynamic beam-tracking toward the direction of the incident RF signal. The proposed feedback network consists of a passive RF signal processing network, voltage rectifiers, and voltage-controlled delay-line phased shifters, all of which are passive-only circuits. The negative feedback loop is realized by passive phase detection, phase-to-voltage conversion, and voltage-controlled phase shifting, achieving a large loop-gain and autonomous operation with zero DC power consumption. The nonlinear behavior of the loop is exploited to substantially expand the array field of view (FoV). A proof-of-concept broadband four-element all-passive self-steering beam-former at 5 GHz with a wide FoV is implemented in a standard 130 nm CMOS process. A high-quality four-element synthesized array factor is measured for the input progressive phase shift from −180° to 180°. When the proposed negative feedback loop is enabled, the normalized array factor is −2.87/−2.8 dB at /−90° with an input RF power of −17 dBm/element at 5 GHz, achieving >25 dB array factor improvement over the open-loop operation. Moreover, the nonlinear feedback loop allows for significant array factor improvement even at /−180°. The proposed beam-former also achieves high- quality self-steering beam-forming from 4 to 5.68 GHz with 34.7% fractional bandwidth. Therefore, the proof-of-concept all-passive self-steering beam-former outperforms the state-of-the-art active designs in terms of beam-forming quality, FoV, and fractional bandwidth. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an all-passive negative feedback network for a broadband and wide FoV self-steering beam-forming with zero DC power consumption.
Autors: Min-Yu Huang;Taiyun Chi;Fei Wang;Hua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1260 - 1273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Alternative Direction Decomposition Scheme and Error Analysis for Parabolic Equation Model
Abstract:
Alternate direction implicit (ADI) method has been widely used to analyze the tunnel propagation or electromagnetic scattering problem for the finite difference method. In this paper, a novel alternate direction decomposition (ADD) scheme is proposed to simplify the split-step Fourier transform (SSFT) algorithm in parabolic equation (PE) model. The spatial matrix of electric field is decoupled into two subarrays by ADD-SSFT algorithm, which is used to decrease the computational burden for 3-D PE problems in a large scale environment after the integration order exchanged. Also, the phase error of this approximation is analyzed to show the algorithm performance, along with several numerical results, including the tunnel cases with traditional modal theory, and they are provided to validate and calibrate the PE model, and demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, the scattering computation is investigated and compared with multilevel fast multipole method to show that ADD-SSFT is appropriate for solving the scattering problems for the electrical large target.
Autors: Liang Zhou;Cheng Liao;Xiangzheng Xiong;Qinghong Zhang;Dongming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2547 - 2557
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Analytical Model for the Threshold Voltage of Intrinsic Channel MOSFET Having Bulk Trap Charges
Abstract:
An analytical model for the bulk trap charge-induced threshold voltage variation in the intrinsic channel MOSFET is presented. A new definition of the flat band voltage, the gate voltage necessary to nullify the gate charge, which is induced by the bulk charges, is introduced. With the newly defined flat band voltage based on the bulk charge sheet approximation, the analytical MOS equations are derived for both the intrinsic channel nanowire and planar MOSFETs. It is shown that the analytical models predict the device characteristics reasonably well, compared with the numerical device simulations. Also, the error induced by the charge sheet approximation is compared with the point charge, using the numerical simulation. The model will be useful to predict the threshold voltage variation of the intrinsic poly-Si, adopted by the modern 3-D nand flash memory cell transistors.
Autors: Hyunwoo Jo;Seongwook Choi;Sungman Rhee;Young June Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2113 - 2120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Approach for Estimating Disturbance Arrival Time Based on Structural Frame Model
Abstract:
With the development of power grid interconnection, disturbance propagation phenomena are more and more apparent in the form of electromechanical waves. Once a disturbance occurs, its propagation might cause cascading events and even large blackouts. With the help of advanced communications networks in smart grids, new event-based protection systems can be devised by the reveal of disturbance propagation mechanisms. In this paper, a widely used measurement-based protection system is analyzed and the idea of event-based protection is proposed. By introducing the inverse process of lumped mass method, the impact scope of generator inertia is proposed. Then, the structural frame model of power networks for disturbance propagation is built, which is sectionalized homogeneously. The spatial heterogeneity of propagation velocity of the electromechanical waves is depicted. According to the constant velocity characteristic of the segments in the structural frame model, a weighted undirected graph is formulated. Then, the Dijkstra algorithm based shortest path searching method for arrival time of electromechanical wave is proposed. The simulations are carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed electromechanical wave propagation model and disturbance arrival time estimation algorithm. The research work is one of the essential steps for realizing event-based protection strategies.
Autors: Tianshu Bi;Junda Qin;Yuehao Yan;Hao Liu;Kenneth E. Martin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1741 - 1750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Azimuth-Variant Autofocus Scheme of Bistatic Forward-Looking Synthetic Aperture Radar
Abstract:
In bistatic forward-looking synthetic aperture radar (BFSAR), conventional autofocus algorithms cannot estimate the phase errors accurately when the range walk is compensated in the azimuthal time domain. This problem stems from the influence of the azimuth-variant Doppler coefficients after linear range cell migration correction in azimuthal time domain. In principle, nonlinear chirp scaling processing can be carried out to remove the azimuth variance. Nevertheless, Doppler azimuth variations of the Doppler parameters induced by the motion errors are not taken into consideration and serious defocus would emerge in the final image. To cope with such a problem, an estimation–evaluation–equalization scheme is proposed before conventional autofocus for BFSAR. Different from the conventional autofocus method, the azimuth-variant Doppler coefficients are additionally estimated and equalized before autofocus, and as a consequence, phase errors can be precisely estimated. The BFSAR data processing results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method on the improvement of autofocus in BFSAR.
Autors: Wei Pu;Wenchao Li;Junjie Wu;Yulin Huang;Jianyu Yang;Haiguang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 689 - 693
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Approach for Associating the Sources of Defect Signatures to Process Zones
Abstract:
A semiconductor wafer undergoes various processing steps before it is transformed from a plain silicon wafer to one populated with thousands of integrated circuits. Each of these processing steps is susceptible to specific types of defects. Some defects may not be captured by in-line inspection tools or may not be sampled during defect review-scanning electron microscope and are carried over multiple processing steps. Such defects can be discovered at the end of the fabrication procedure, which requires process engineers to trace back the manufacturing processes that caused these defects. Despite the success of most current methods that detect defects during wafer fabrication, most of these methods are inable to accurately associate the source of an individual defect type to a specific semiconductor processing step. We believe that this limitation can be overcome by considering the carry-over of defect signatures rather than individual defects. We propose in this paper a system called step-defect contribution analyzer (SDCA) that detects defect signatures on semiconductor wafers and overcomes the limitations outlined above. SDCA allows process engineers to trace back and associate the source of a final defectivity discovered at the end of the fabrication procedure to specific defect signatures carried over multiple process zones. We experimentally evaluated the quality of SDCA by measuring its prediction accuracy. Results revealed marked prediction accuracy.
Autors: Kamal Taha;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 176 - 184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Method Based on ACF for Aircraft Detection in Remote Sensing Images
Abstract:
Detecting artificial targets, such as aircraft, in satellite images is significant in military and civil applications. Although the performance has improved with the use of more complicated features and better learning methods, effectively handling aircraft with variations of type, pose, and size is still very challenging. To solve this problem, we propose a multiscale sliding-window framework based on aggregate channel features, well-designed features that contain rich information. We also employ a fast feature pyramids algorithm to accelerate multiscale aircraft detection. In this framework, features are trained by Cascade AdaBoost including multiple rounds of bootstrapping that leads to improved overall accuracy. A two-step nonmaximum suppression algorithm is carefully designed based on a given set of detections. Our method shows a competitive performance on the QuickBird images of 0.6 m resolution.
Autors: An Zhao;Kun Fu;Hao Sun;Xian Sun;Feng Li;Daobing Zhang;Hongqi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 744 - 748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Effective Method for Synthesizing Multiple-Pattern Linear Arrays With a Reduced Number of Antenna Elements
Abstract:
An innovative technique based on the enhanced unitary matrix pencil (MP) method is presented for the design of sparse multiple-pattern linear arrays. By virtue of the equivalent MP obtained with a unitary transformation, the relation between the element positions and the generalized eigenvalues is achieved in this method, which contributes to the real solutions of the common element positions for all multiple patterns. Owing to the utilization of a unitary transformation that can convert a complex matrix to a real one, the computational complexity can be significantly reduced since only the real computations are involved in the singular value decomposition and eigenvalue decomposition procedures. Consequently, by only varying the obtained excitation distributions, different patterns are generated with a higher matching accuracy. Representative experiments are provided to validate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method.
Autors: Haiou Shen;Buhong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2358 - 2366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient and Accurate Solution for Distribution System State Estimation with Multiarea Architecture
Abstract:
Distribution system state estimation (DSSE) is an essential tool for the management and control of future distribution networks. Distribution grids are usually characterized by a very large number of nodes and different voltage levels. Moreover, different portions of the system can be operated by different distribution system operators. In this context, multiarea approaches are key tools to efficiently perform DSSE. This paper presents a novel approach for multiarea state estimation in distribution systems. The proposed algorithm is based on a two-step procedure, where the first-step local estimations are refined through a newly designed second step that allows the integration of the measurement information available in the adjacent areas. The main novelty in this paper is the mathematical analysis of the impact brought by possible measurements shared among different areas, which drives the design of a new efficient weighted least squares formulation of the second step to maximize the achievable estimation accuracy. Tests performed on the unbalanced IEEE 123-bus network prove the goodness of the new multiarea estimator proposed and show the accuracy and efficiency enhancements obtainable with respect to previous literature.
Autors: Marco Pau;Ferdinanda Ponci;Antonello Monti;Sara Sulis;Carlo Muscas;Paolo Attilio Pegoraro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 910 - 919
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Design Optimization Framework for Nonlinear Switched Reluctance Machines
Abstract:
A new computationally efficient paradigm for the design and analysis of switched reluctance machines is proposed. At the heart of the rapid analysis and design methodology is the reduced-order computational method based on a flux-tube model, which has been refined and extended. It is demonstrated how the improved model enables consistent and accurate analysis and design optimization. Instead of an analytical derivation, an automatic generation of cubic splines is introduced to model the magnetic flux. The flux-linkage functions obtained from the improved flux-tube method indicate that the method offers good accuracy compared with the finite-element-based analysis, but with significantly improved computational efficiency. The approach is applicable to translating and rotating switched reluctance machines of various topologies, and therefore, enables rapid design search and optimization of novel topologies.
Autors: Aleksas Stuikys;Jan K. Sykulski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1985 - 1993
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Eligible Error Locator Polynomial Searching Algorithm and Hardware Architecture for One-Pass Chase Decoding of BCH Codes
Abstract:
In numerous memory and communication systems, Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) codes are widely employed to enhance reliability. A one-pass Chase soft-decision decoding algorithm for BCH codes was previously proposed to achieve significant performance improvement over traditional hard-decision decoding while not increasing too much computational complexity. The bottleneck in conventional one-pass Chase decoding is the procedure of judging whether an obtained error locator polynomial is valid. In this brief, a novel algorithm that can efficiently verify eligibility of each generated error locator polynomial is proposed. The problem is first reformulated as a polynomial modulo problem, where repeated squaring can be employed for further simplification. In order to decrease the critical path delay and hardware complexity, an efficient polynomial division algorithm based on polynomial inversion is also proposed. In addition, a VLSI architecture for the proposed algorithm is presented. The implemented results show that the proposed eligibility checking algorithm reduces the gate counts to only 12% of a conventional polynomial selection algorithm without introducing any speed penalty. The projected area reduction achieved in a complete one-pass Chase decoder is approximately 75%. In addition, post-layout simulation shows that the proposed algorithm is 20 times more power efficient than the conventional method.
Autors: Nan Zheng;Pinaki Mazumder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 580 - 584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Game for Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging
Abstract:
A novel class of auction-based games is formulated to study coordination problems arising from charging a population of electric vehicles (EVs) over a finite horizon. To compete for energy allocation over the horizon, each individual EV submits a multidimensional bid, with the dimension equal to two times the number of time-steps in the horizon. Use of the progressive second price (PSP) auction mechanism ensures that incentive compatibility holds for the auction games. However, due to the cross elasticity of EVs over the charging horizon, the marginal valuation of an individual EV at a particular time is determined by both the demand at that time and the total demand over the entire horizon. This difficulty is addressed by partitioning the allowable set of bid profiles based on the total desired energy over the entire horizon. It is shown that the efficient bid profile over the charging horizon is a Nash equilibrium of the underlying auction game. An update mechanism for the auction game is designed. A numerical example demonstrates that the auction process converges to an efficient Nash equilibrium. The auction-based charging coordination scheme is adapted to a receding horizon formulation to account for disturbances and forecast uncertainty.
Autors: Suli Zou;Zhongjing Ma;Xiangdong Liu;Ian Hiskens;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2374 - 2389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Indexing Method for Skyline Computations with Partially Ordered Domains
Abstract:
Efficient processing of skyline queries with partially ordered domains has been intensively addressed in recent years. To further reduce the query processing time to support high-responsive applications, the skyline queries that were previously processed with user preferences similar to those of the new query contribute useful candidate result points. Hence, the answered queries can be cached with both their results and the user preferences such that the query processor can rapidly retrieve the result for a new query only from the result sets of cached queries with compatible user preferences. When caching a significant number of queries accumulated over time, it is essential to adopt effective access methods to index the cached queries to retrieve a set of relevant cached queries for facilitating the cache-based skyline query computations. In this paper, we propose an extended depth-first search indexing method (e-DFS for short) for accessing user preference profiles represented by directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), and emphasize the design of the e-DFS encoding that effectively encodes a user preference profile into a low-dimensional feature point which is eventually indexed by an R-tree. We obtain one or more traversal orders for each node in a DAG by traversing it through a modified version of the depth-first search which is utilized to examine the topology structure and dominance relations to measure closeness or similarity. As a result, e-DFS which combines the criteria of similarity evaluation is able to greatly reduce the search space by filtering out most of the irrelevant cached queries such that the query processor can avoid accessing the entire data set to compute the query results. Extensive experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance and utility of our indexing method, which outperforms the baseline planning techniques by reducing 37 percent of the computational time on average.
Autors: Yu-Ling Hsueh;Chia-Chun Lin;Chia-Che Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 963 - 976
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Narrowband Interference Suppression Approach in Ultra-Wideband Receiver
Abstract:
Ultra-wideband (UWB) radio will be sharing the propagation environment with other pre-existing wireless systems, some possibly creating UWB multiple access interference, and others creating narrowband interference in the UWB radio bands. The Federal Communications Commission regulations have set conditions that limit the interference from the UWB radiators to other wireless systems, however, the issue of eliminating interference to the UWB radios from the pre-narrow band interference existing system is left to the ingenuity of the UWB radio designer. To optimize the performance of UWB wireless communication systems deteriorated by strong narrowband interferences, a high-efficiency interference suppression scheme is proposed in this paper. The closed-form weight coefficient iteration expression of basic adaptive notch filter cell with two constrained zero-pole pairs is derived. For multiple narrowband interferences case, a high-order cascaded adaptive interference suppression scheme is also presented. The simulation result demonstrates that the proposed narrowband interference suppression approach has excellent suppression effects to narrowband interferences in UWB systems, since a significant signal to noise ratio improvement is obtained. In addition, the proposed narrowband interference suppression algorithm is particularly fit for low-cost UWB wireless reception connected with Rake combining techniques.
Autors: Hailiang Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2741 - 2748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO Cognitive Radio Networks With Interference Constraints
Abstract:
We consider a linear precoder design for an underlay cognitive radio multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel, where the secondary system consisting of a secondary base station (BS) and a group of secondary users is allowed to share the same spectrum with the primary system. All the transceivers are equipped with multiple antennas, each of which has its own maximum power constraint. Assuming zero-forcing (ZF) method to eliminate the multiuser interference, we study the sum rate maximization problem for the secondary system subject to both per-antenna power constraints at the secondary BS and the interference power constraints at the primary users. The problem of interest differs from the ones studied previously that often assumed a sum power constraint and/or single antenna employed at either both the primary and secondary receivers or the primary receivers. To develop an efficient numerical algorithm, we first invoke the rank relaxation method to transform the considered problem into a convex–concave problem based on a downlink-uplink result. We then propose a barrier interior-point method to solve the resulting saddle point problem. In particular, in each iteration of the proposed method we find the Newton step by solving a system of discrete-time Sylvester equations, which help reduce the complexity significantly, compared to the conventional method. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate fast convergence and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Van-Dinh Nguyen;Le-Nam Tran;Trung Q. Duong;Oh-Soon Shin;Ronan Farrell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3991 - 4004
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Regenerative Braking System Based on Battery/Supercapacitor for Electric, Hybrid, and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles With BLDC Motor
Abstract:
Complementary features of batteries and supercapacitors can be effectively used in a hybrid energy storage system (HESS). The utilization of the HESS in electric vehicles (EVs) offers many advantages, such as efficient regenerative braking, battery safety, and improved vehicle acceleration. In this paper, a new regenerative braking system (RBS) is proposed for EVs with HESS and driven by brushless DC (BLDC) motor. During regenerative braking, the BLDC acts as a generator. Hence, by using an appropriate switching algorithm, the dc-link voltage is boosted and the energy is transferred to the supercapacitor or the battery through the inverter. The harvested energy can be utilized to improve the vehicle acceleration and/or keep the battery pack from deep discharging while driving uphill. To provide a reliable and smooth brake, braking force distribution is realized through an artificial neural network. Simultaneously, the braking current is adjusted by a PI controller for constant torque braking. To evaluate the performance of the proposed RBS, different simulations and experiments are carried out. The results confirm high capability of the proposed RBS.
Autors: Farshid Naseri;Ebrahim Farjah;Teymoor Ghanbari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3724 - 3738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Efficient Semianalytical Method for Hypersingularity Treatment Over Curved Patches
Abstract:
In this communication, we propose an efficient method to evaluate hypersingular integrals defined on curved surfaces. First an exact expression for hypersingular kernel is derived by projecting the integral on curvilinear element on a flat surface. Next singularity subtraction employed, where the singular core is hypersingular and the remaining part is weakly singular. The singular core is evaluated analytically using finite part interpretation and the remaining weakly singular part is evaluated numerically using Gauss–Legendre quadrature rules. By numerical experiments we have shown that the convergence rate of the purposed method is quite high even for few number of quadrature nodes. Accuracies over ten digits are obtained for relatively large and highly curved surfaces, which may cover entire domain of local corrections in Nyström method.
Autors: G. Selcuk;S. Koc;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2740 - 2744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Electronically Scannable Reflector Antenna Using a Planar Active Array Feed at Ka-Band
Abstract:
This contribution presents the system design procedure and performance of an array fed reflector antenna. Combining the inherent benefits of a reflector antenna—high gain, low-cost, and simplicity—with the agility provided by a scannable active array feed, enables a new range of applications, for instance in commercial mobile antenna terminals. The whole arrangement features a restricted field of view for either scanning or multibeam applications. To minimize system cost, a planar patch antenna array in printed circuit board technology is used for the feed and the reflector diameter is restricted to 60 cm. To obtain optimal performance, both the reflector and the feed are specifically designed for the desired application, i.e., mobile satellite communication at Ka-band. A comprehensive study of various rotationally symmetric reflectors is carried out to determine arrangements maximizing the field of view and still complying with the respective regulations. For the feed, a 30 GHz transmit array with 49 elements is developed, enabling 2-D scanning in a ±6° conical sector. It includes a wideband signal distribution network and frontend electronics.
Autors: Benjamin Rohrdantz;Thomas Jaschke;Torsten Reuschel;Stefan Radzijewski;Anton Sieganschin;Arne F. Jacob;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1650 - 1661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy-Efficient Frequency-Domain CMOS Temperature Sensor With Switched Vernier Time-to-Digital Conversion
Abstract:
This paper presents a CMOS smart temperature sensor using a switched Vernier time-to-digital converter to achieve an energy-efficient temperature sensing. The proposed temperature sensor employs two switched ring oscillators (SROs), of which the oscillation frequencies are slightly different from each other and varying linearly with temperature due to the deployment of a proportional-to-absolute-temperature current generator. The frequencies of the two SROs are measured by counting the rising edges with two counters, and hence, the frequency difference corresponding to temperature can be readily monitored with the digital numbers. A control strategy that switches OFF the ring oscillators after each sampling is developed, such that significant power saving is achieved. The proposed temperature sensor shows a measured resolution of 0.048 °C from −20 °C to 120 °C with 100-ms conversation time. With 1-kHz sampling rate, the power consumption is as small as 93.6 , resulting in 93.6 nJ per sampling. The chip area is 0.118 mm2 in a standard 0.18- CMOS process.
Autors: Qiwei Huang;Hyobin Joo;Jinwoo Kim;Chenchang Zhan;Jinwook Burm;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3001 - 3011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy-Efficient Tensile-Strained Ge/InGaAs TFET 7T SRAM Cell Architecture for Ultralow-Voltage Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we benchmark the read/write performance and standby power of several static random access memory (SRAM) cell architectures utilizing 45-nm Si CMOS MOSFET and/or tensile-strainedGe/InGaAs tunnel FET (TFET) devices under low-voltage operation ( V). We then introduce a novel tensile-strained Ge/InGaAs TFET-based SRAM circuit using several access schemes and investigate the impact of cell access design on static and dynamic performance. SRAM cells utilizing outwardaccess transistors exhibit wide read andwrite static noise margins, but suffer from increased read delay times. A 7T SRAM cell architecture is proposed in order to resolve the degraded read delay time. Cell standby energy was found to exhibit a strong dependenceon operational voltage andGe strain state. Variation of theGe strain state from 1.5% to 3% resulted in an up to 98% reduction in cell standby energy ( V) as compared with similar CMOS-based SRAM cells. These results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed 7T TFET SRAM design for operation in the low- and ultralow-voltage regime.
Autors: Jheng-Sin Liu;Michael B. Clavel;Mantu K. Hudait;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2193 - 2200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Enhancement of Crosstalk Avoidance Code Based on Fibonacci Numeral System for Through Silicon Vias
Abstract:
Through silicon vias (TSVs) play an important role as the vertical electrical connections in 3-D stacked integrated circuits. However, the closely clustered TSVs suffer from the crosstalk noise between the neighboring TSVs, and result in the extra delay and the deterioration of signal integrity. For a TSV array, the severity of crosstalk noise in the center victim TSV is classified into 11 levels, which is defined as 0C to 10C from low noise to high noise, depending on the combinations of the digital patterns applied to the TSV array. An enhanced code based on the Fibonacci number system (FNS) to suppress the crosstalk noise below 6C level is proposed, in which both the redundancy of numbers and the nonuniqueness of Fibonacci-based binary codeword are utilized to search the proper codeword. Experimental results show that the proposed technique decreases about 22% latency of TSVs comparing with the worst crosstalk cases. This technique is applicable in the large-scale TSV array for it has a quasi-linear hardware overhead, and its system overhead is less than that of the 3-D 4-LAT counterpart if the data width is greater than 18, and it has good usability for it consumes less power per TSV and achieves lower bit error rate at the interested frequency range comparing with that of the original FNS coding technique.
Autors: Xiaole Cui;Xiaoxin Cui;Yewen Ni;Min Miao;Jin Yufeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1601 - 1610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Exact Linearization Method for OLTC of Transformer in Branch Flow Model
Abstract:
The branch flow based optimal power flow (OPF) problem in radially operated distribution networks can be exactly relaxed to a second-order cone programming model without considering transformers. However, the introduction of nonlinear transformer models will make the OPF model nonconvex. This letter presents an exact linearized transformer's on-load tap-changer model to keep the OPF model convex via a binary expansion scheme and big-M method. Validity of the proposed method is verified using IEEE 33-bus test network.
Autors: Wenchuan Wu;Zhuang Tian;Boming Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2475 - 2476
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved DTC Technique for Low-Speed Operation of a Five-Phase Induction Motor
Abstract:
In this paper, an improved direct torque control (DTC) technique of a two-level inverter-fed five-phase induction motor (FPIM) drive for low-speed operation is presented. The operation of the FPIM with distributed winding requires the elimination of third-harmonic voltage, which, if not taken care of, would generate distorted stator current. For this, the concept of virtual vectors (VVs) is utilized. Before selecting the VVs for the DTC operation, a theoretical analysis is carried out to find the effects of these VVs on the torque and flux response of the FPIM under different speed and loading conditions. It is found that the rotor speed plays a crucial role in the selection of VVs. A particular VV has different effects on the torque change as speed varies. This analysis helps in the selection of VVs, hysteresis torque bandwidth, flux bandwidth, and efficient formation of sectors. Furthermore, in this paper, the performance of the FPIM during low-speed operation is improved by avoiding the demagnetization of the stator flux. To achieve this, a new modified lookup table is proposed. Superiority of the proposed method over the reported approaches is illustrated by experimental results.
Autors: Saifullah Payami;Ranjan Kumar Behera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3513 - 3523
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Move-Blocking Strategy in Predictive Control for Setpoint Tracking
Abstract:
One of the main features of model predictive control is its ability to incorporate in the computation of the control law the advance (future) knowledge of the setpoint trajectory. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the standard move-blocking approaches that take into account this future information could reduce rather than improve its performance with no stability guarantees. Therefore, objective of this paper is first demonstrate where existing algorithms have weaknesses and then develop an algorithm based on move-blocking which allows nominal stability guarantees, optimal nominal performance and tracking.
Autors: Guillermo Valencia Palomo;Francisco Ronay Lopez Estrada;Carlos Daniel Garcia Beltran;Jorge Alberto Orrante Sakanassi;Jose Antonio Hoyo Montano;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 806 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Indirect Data-Driven Method for Trajectory Tracking Control of a Class of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents an indirect data-driven method for the trajectory tracking control problem of a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which have unknown dynamics. This method first establishes an approximate model of the controlled object using historical I/O data and neural network; then, designs and adjusts the feedback gain matrix online using measured output data and previous estimates. This is an adaptive control process of prediction, estimation, and adjustment, which needs to solve some nonlinear optimization problems online, can overcome the adverse effects of the modeling errors caused by neural networks, and is the key to making the system output asymptotically track the reference trajectory. The convergence analysis and simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented method. In addition, based on Lagrange's mean value theorem, we also give an online linearization technique which is applicable to nonlinear discrete-time systems, whose dynamic models have continuous partial derivatives with respect to the input and the output.
Autors: Zhuo Wang;Renquan Lu;Furong Gao;Derong Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4121 - 4129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Induction Generator-Based AC/DC Hybrid Electric Power Generation System for More Electric Aircraft
Abstract:
In more electric aircraft (MEA) system, both ac and dc electric power with multiple voltage levels are required for various aircraft loads. This paper presents an induction generator-based ac/dc hybrid electric power generation system for MEA. In the proposed system architecure, a high-speed induction starter/generator and a low-speed induction generator are installed on the high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) spools of the engine, respectively. In generating mode of operation, all of the constant voltage variable frequency ac power is generated by the HP generator while the dc power demand is shared by both HP and LP generators. A control scheme is developed to regulate the ac load voltage and coordinate dc power generation between the two generators. The proposed induction generator based ac/dc hybrid generation system results in reduced hardware requirement compared with both ac and dc primary generation systems.
Autors: Yijiang Jia;Kaushik Rajashekara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2485 - 2494
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Inductive 2-D Position Detection IC With 99.8% Accuracy for Automotive EMR Gear Control System
Abstract:
In this paper, the analog front end (AFE) for an inductive position sensor in an automotive electromagnetic resonance gear control applications is presented. To improve the position detection accuracy, a coil driver with an automatic two-step impedance calibration is proposed which, despite the load variation, provides the desired driving capability by controlling the main driver size. Also, a time shared analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed to convert eight-phase signals while reducing the current consumption and area to 1/8 of the conventional structure. A relaxation oscillator with temperature compensation is proposed to generate a constant clock frequency in vehicle temperature conditions. This chip is fabricated using a 0.18- CMOS process and the die area is 2 mm mm. The power consumption of the AFE is 23.1 mW from the supply voltage of 3.3 V to drive one transmitter (Tx) coil and eight receiver (Rx) coils. The measured position detection accuracy is greater than 99.8 %. The measurement of the Tx shows a driving capability higher than 35 mA with respect to the load change.
Autors: SangYun Kim;Hamed Abbasizadeh;Imran Ali;Hongjin Kim;SungHun Cho;YoungGun Pu;Sang-Sun Yoo;Minjae Lee;Keum Cheol Hwang;Youngoo Yang;Kang-Yoon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1731 - 1741
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Information and Tracking System for Inland Shipping
Abstract:
The Information and Tracking System for Inland Shipping (in Dutch, abbreviated as IVS90) functions in one of the busiest areas of inland shipping in the Netherlands. Because the large locks, bridges, and vessel-traffic-service centers operate 24/7 and the occurrence of incidents is unpredictable, IVS90 requires high availability and 24/7 support.
Autors: Therry van der Burgt;Allard Baronner;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 105 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Insight Into Torque Production and Power Factor in Transverse-Flux Machines
Abstract:
Despite transverse-flux machines (TFMs) being intrinsically three-dimensional, it is still possible to analyze them using relatively simple analytical models. This paper aims to provide an insight into the behavior of TFMs using a compact equation, which relates torque to the electric and magnetic loadings of the machine and a flux factor. The flux factor is also used to estimate the flux linkage and therefore the power factor of this kind of machine. It is shown that the low power factor of TFMs is not only due to leakage, but also due to the nature of the electromagnetic interaction that takes place. The TFM developed at the University of Southampton is used as the basis of a case study to illustrate the tradeoff between torque density and power factor, and to provide some design guidelines. The analytical results are verified using finite elements analysis and experimental data.
Autors: Jaime Renedo Anglada;Suleiman M. Sharkh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1971 - 1977
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Dynamic Modeling and Adaptive Controller Approach for Flywheel Augmented DFIG Based Wind System
Abstract:
This paper presents an integrated Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and flywheel energy storage architecture that provide output power stability based on a new dynamic adaptive control approach. First, a grid-connected two-mass DFIG and a grid-supportive single-mass squirrel cage induction generator based flywheel energy storage system models have been considered for controller design and proof of concept exploration. Second, new adaptive dynamic control architecture is designed for active and reactive power balancing from wind farm with flywheel energy storage during normal and abnormal operating conditions. The proposed architecture is very effective in mitigating oscillations, thus providing a novel methodology for a stable microgrid or increasing wind energy penetration to the grid.
Autors: Sudipta Ghosh;Sukumar Kamalasadan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2161 - 2171
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Framework for Software Defined Networking, Caching, and Computing
Abstract:
Although some excellent works have been done on networking, caching and computing, these three important areas have traditionally been addressed separately in the literature. In this article, we propose a novel framework that jointly considers networking, caching and computing techniques in order to improve end-to-end system performance. This integrated framework can enable dynamic orchestration of networking, caching and computing resources to meet the requirements of different applications. We define and develop the key components of this framework: the data plane, the control plane, and the management plane. The data plane consists of the devices that are responsible for networking, caching and computing operations. The control plane has a logically centralized controller to guide these operations. The management plane enables not only traditional applications, such as traffic engineering, but also new applications, such as content distribution and big data analytics. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework. In addition, we discuss a number of challenges of implementing the proposed framework of software defined networking, caching and computing.
Autors: Qingxia Chen;Fei Richard Yu;Tao Huang;Renchao Xie;Jiang Liu;Yunjie Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 46 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Model-Data-Based Zero-Phase Error Tracking Feedforward Control Strategy With Application to an Ultraprecision Wafer Stage
Abstract:
In precision motion control, well-designed feedforward control can effectively compensate the reference-induced tracking error. To achieve excellent tracking performance such as nanometer accuracy regardless of reference variations, an integrated model-data-based zero-phase error tracking feedforward control (ZPETFC) strategy is synthesized for precision motion systems with complex and nonminimum phase (NMP) dynamics. The feedforward controller comprises a conventional ZPETFC controller and a gain compensation filter structured with symmetric finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Especially, the conventional ZPETFC is predesigned based on the plant model, and consequently, the feedforward controller is parameterized by the gain compensation filter coefficients, which results in excellent capacity for approximating the inverse behavior of the complex and NMP dynamics. In order to compensate the modeling error in the conventional ZPETFC design and improve the tracking performance, a data-based instrumental-variable method with impulse response experiment is developed to obtain the optimal parameter vector under the existence of noise and disturbances. Furthermore, the ridge estimate method using singular value decomposition is employed to guarantee a fast convergent iteration in the case of ill-conditioned Hessian matrix. The proposed ZPETFC strategy enables a convex optimization procedure with the inherent stability in the iterative tuning process, and is finally implemented on a developed ultraprecision wafer stage. Comparative experimental results demonstrate that the strategy is insensitive to reference variations in comparison with iterative learning control, and outperforms preexisting model-based ZPETFC and data-based FIR feedforward control.
Autors: Min Li;Yu Zhu;Kaiming Yang;Chuxiong Hu;Haihua Mu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4139 - 4149
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Intelligent Driver Alerting System for Real-Time Range Indicator Embedded in Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper proposes a state-of-the-art algorithm for a real-time charging recommendation for an electric vehicle driver based on an accurate real-time range indicator system to avoid range anxiety. The charging recommendation algorithm alerts the driver when charging is deemed required for the selected route. This algorithm determines the nearest charging location obtained using GPS based on an accurate estimation of state of charge (SoC) at the destination and when charging determines the optimum charging time required by the battery to have sufficient energy to reach the destination. The graphical user interface of the real-time range indicator system is also used to show the driver an accurate estimation of the remaining range to destination and the current SoC. The results from simulations of a range of routes validate the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Kaveh Sarrafan;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Danny Sutanto;Graham E. Town;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1751 - 1760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Internal Crown Geometric Model for Conifer Species Classification With High-Density LiDAR Data
Abstract:
The knowledge of the tree species is a crucial information that governs the success of precision forest management practice. High-density small footprint multireturn airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scanning can collect a huge amount of point samples containing structural details of the forest vertical profile, which can reveal important structural information of the forest components. LiDAR data have been successfully used to distinguish between coniferous and deciduous/broadleaved tree species. However, species classification within a class (e.g., the conifer class) using LiDAR data is a challenging problem when considering the tree external crown characteristics only. This paper presents a novel method for conifer species classification based on the use of geometric features describing both the internal and external structures of the crown. The internal crown geometric features (IGFs) are defined based on a novel internal branch structure model, which uses 3-D region growing and principal component analysis to delineate the branch structure of a conifer tree accurately. IGFs are used together with external crown geometric features to perform conifer species classification. Three different support vector machines have been considered for classification performance evaluation. The experimental analysis conducted on high-density LiDAR data acquired over a portion of the Trentino region in Italy proves the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Aravind Harikumar;Francesca Bovolo;Lorenzo Bruzzone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2924 - 2940
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Investigation of ELDRS in Different SiGe Processes
Abstract:
Enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) in different process Silicon–Germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) is investigated. Low and high dose rate irradiations are performed to evaluate the ELDRS of SiGe HBTs manufactured by Tsinghua University (THU). THU SiGe HBTs experience significantly low dose rate sensitivity than that of IBM 8HP SiGe HBTs and behave a “true” dose rate effect. TCAD models were used to explicate the microcosmic structure in THU and IBM 8HP SiGe HBTs. Comparison and discussion show that different SiGe processes may involve different HBT structures and device designs which are the critical influence of ELDRS effect. The different responses of ELDRS should be first attributed to the device structure and design in nature, particularly the geometry of emitter–base junction and the isolation structure.
Autors: Pei Li;Chaohui He;Hongxia Guo;Qi Guo;Jinxin Zhang;Mohan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1137 - 1141
Publisher: IEEE
 

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