Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 13

» Optimization of Ni(Pt)/Si-cap/SiGe Silicidation for pMOS Source/Drain Contact
Abstract:
The Ni(Pt)/Si-cap/SiGe silicidation process has been optimized by modulating the Si-cap layer thickness and a cold Si preamorphization implantation (PAI), which effectively reduces the sheet resistance (Rs). In addition, it is revealed that PAI can obviously increase the Ni(Pt)Si grain size for a lower Rs.
Autors: Lin-Lin Wang;Jian-Chi Zhang;Yu-Long Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2067 - 2071
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Scalable Broadcast for a Large Number of Antennas
Abstract:
In this paper, for a system incorporating a large number of antennas, we address the optimal space–time coding of multimedia scalable sources, which require unequal target error rates in their bitstream. First, in terms of the number of antennas, we analyze the behavior of the crossover point of the outage probability curves for the vertical Bell Laboratories space–time (V-BLAST) architecture with a linear or a maximum-likelihood receiver, and orthogonal space–time block codes (OSTBCs). We prove that, as the number of antennas increases with the transmission data rate fixed, the crossover point in outage probability monotonically decreases. This holds for any data rate employed by the system and is valid over propagation channels such as spatially correlated Rayleigh or Rician fading channels, as well as independent and identically distributed Rayleigh channels. We next show that, over such propagation channels with a large number of antennas, those analytical results can be used to simplify the computational complexity involved with the optimal space–time coding of a sequence of scalable packets, with no performance degradation.
Autors: Seok-Ho Chang;Jihwan P. Choi;Pamela C. Cosman;Laurence B. Milstein;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3749 - 3764
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of Signal to Noise Ratio in Silicon Nanowire ISFET Sensors
Abstract:
Inversion-mode (IM) and depletion-mode (DM) ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) are investigated in terms of dc characteristics, pH response and low-frequency noise (LFN) characteristics. The dc characteristics show a low threshold voltage () of 28 mV for the DM ISFETs, which is preferred for the long lifetime of the pseudo-reference electrode. The DM ISFETs exhibit an enhanced pH response in the sub-threshold region, which comes from the lower sub-threshold swing. The LFN analysis for both devices shows similar level of noise equivalent current () near ; otherwise, a reduction of is obtained in the DM ISFETs in the linear region. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio of the DM ISFETs is improved by 82.9% compared with the IM ISFETs in the sub-threshold region. Consequently, the DM ISFETs can be a better sensor platform for low-power, portable, and high-precision performance.
Autors: Hyeonsu Cho;Kihyun Kim;Jun-Sik Yoon;Taiuk Rim;M. Meyyappan;Chang-Ki Baek;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2792 - 2796
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimization of the Close-to-Carrier Phase Noise in a CMOS–MEMS Oscillator Using a Phase Tunable Sustaining-Amplifier
Abstract:
In this paper, the phase noise of a 24-MHz complimentary metal–oxide–semiconductor microelectromechanical systems (CMOS-MEMS) oscillator with zero-level vacuum package is studied. We characterize and analyze the nonlinear regime of each one of the modules that compose the oscillator (CMOS sustaining-amplifier and MEMS resonator). As we show, the presented resonator exhibits a high nonlinear behavior. Such a fact is exploited as a mechanism to stabilize the oscillation amplitude, allowing us to maintain the sustaining-amplifier working in the linear regime. Consequently, the nonlinear resonator becomes the main close-to-carrier phase noise source. The sustaining amplifier, which functions as a phase shifter, was developed such that MEMS operation point optimization could be achieved without an increase in circuitry modules. Therefore, the system saves on area and power, and is able to improve the phase noise 26 dBc/Hz (at 1-kHz carrier frequency offset).
Autors: Guillermo Sobreviela;Martín Riverola;Francesc Torres;Arantxa Uranga;Núria Barniol;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 888 - 897
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimized (2, 4) Stencil Runge–Kutta ADE-ADI FDTD With Application to Plasma
Abstract:
This paper discusses the improvement of the numerical dispersion characteristics of alternating direction implicit (ADI) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) aimed at acquiring more accurate electromagnetic information of plasma. Through adding the optimization method, which is based on the optimization of spatial derivative to the (2, 4) stencil ADI FDTD, the optimized (2, 4) stencil ADI FDTD is proposed, and its unconditional stability is proved theoretically. The phase velocity error of the optimized (2, 4) stencil ADI FDTD versus propagation angle and grid density is investigated. In addition, the Runge–Kutta auxiliary differential equation (RKADE) scheme for tackling the constitutive relation equation of plasma is deduced, which is without additional storage occupation and computational burden compared with ADE scheme. Its numerical conductivity error is analyzed under different incident frequencies and electron collision frequencies. Through incorporating the RKADE scheme into the optimized (2, 4) stencil ADI FDTD, the optimized (2, 4) stencil RKADE-ADI FDTD is presented. The accuracy and relatively wideband capability of the proposed method is validated by two numerical experiments.
Autors: Song Wanjun;Zhang Hou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2558 - 2565
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimized Distributed Automatic Modulation Classification in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Information Theoretic Measures
Abstract:
Automatic modulation classification of digital signals is essential for intelligent communication systems. This paper addresses the distributed classification of digital amplitude-phase modulated signals in a system of multiple sensors, which observe the unknown signal corrupted with the additive white Gaussian noise. The sensors are connected to a fusion center through block-fading orthogonal multiple access channels. We introduce a new method, where: 1) for classification, an information-theoretic similarity measure known as correntropy is exploited by each local sensor; 2) for transmitting local decisions, an estimation of probabilities is used by local sensors; and 3) for optimizing power allocation to each sensor, the Bhattacharyya distance is employed as the objective function by the fusion center. The proposed scheme improves the classification accuracy through exploiting channel diversity, which, in turn, enhances the overall performance. Simulation results validate the theoretically claimed improvement in the performance.
Autors: Saeed Hakimi;Ghosheh Abed Hodtani;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3079 - 3091
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimized Nanocrystalline Silicon Oxide Impedance Immunosensor Electronic Tongue for Subfemtomolar Estimation of Multiple Food Toxins
Abstract:
Nanocrystalline silicon oxide (nc-SiO2) immunosensor array-based electronic tongue (E-tongue) has been recently reported to simultaneously detect multiple food toxins with subfemtomolar sensitivity. However, the quantification in these reports is quite imprecise leading to an error of more than 100%. In this paper, the quantification accuracy of multiple food toxin detection in the subfemtomolar range has been improved by more than 90% through upgraded design of the E-tongue system by incorporating two major modifications. First, the pore geometry of the nc-SiO2 immunosensors has been optimized to obtain the best combination of sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility through the evaluation of a figure of merit. Second, in the multivariate data processing using partial least squares discriminate analysis, additional input parameters corresponding to selectivity and standard deviations of the experimentally measured data have been incorporated. The final set of input parameters include peak frequency corresponding to maximum impedance sensitivity, bandwidth of the impedance sensitivity characteristics, cutoff frequency from noise spectroscopy, and their standard deviations. The optimized E-tongue system is capable of quantifying 0.1 fg/ml Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A with an error of only 10% and 20%, respectively, which is a remarkable achievement in the domain of food toxin detection. The proposed E-tongue system is low cost with minimal operator dependence and hence has immense potential for commercial deployment.
Autors: Hrilina Ghosh;Rahul Das;Chirasree RoyChaudhuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 964 - 973
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optimizing the Quality Factor of Quartz Tuning Fork Force Sensor for Atomic Force Microscopy: Impact of Additional Mass and Mass Rebalance
Abstract:
A force sensor in the heart of an atomic force microscope (AFM) plays a key role in the AFM measurements. Quartz tuning fork (QTF) based force sensor is attracting huge attention due to its peculiar traits such as self-actuating and sensing capability, high quality factor and high force sensitivity. Unfortunately, mounting a tip on a tine of the QTF degrades its quality (Q)-factor and sensitivity. Attaching an equivalent counter mass on the opposite tine (mass rebalance) can improve the Q-factor. We investigate the impact of the attached mass and counter mass on different traits of the QTF such as Q-factor, inherent relationship between excitation voltage and output as well as shift in the resonance frequency. We propose straight forward strategies to rebalance the QTF force sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that by attaching a counter mass (at the parallel position) on the opposite tine, the tip mass can be rebalanced. Q-factor is significantly improved after mass rebalance. The increase in the Q-factor depends on the mass of the tip, counter mass and position of the counter mass relative to the position of the tip ().
Autors: Danish Hussain;Jianmin Song;Hao Zhang;Xianghe Meng;Wen Yongbing;Hui Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2797 - 2806
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Optomechanical Transistor With Phonons and Photons
Abstract:
A better behaved and easily controlled optical communication device could improve the performance of signal transmission. Here, we present an optomechanical transistor within cavity-optomechanical system, where the coupled phonons–photons interfere with the input signal photons while the pump field controls the transmission spectrum of the signal laser. We demonstrate the existence of transmitted signal attenuation and amplification through the optomechanical transistor when switching OFF and ON the pump field, respectively. By increasing the input pump power, the output signal gain can be further enhanced abruptly. The proposed optomechanical transistor that has the advantages of simple manufacture technology, low cost, convenient replacement, normal working environment, and so on could be implemented in current experiments and pave the way for all-optical logic circuits and quantum repeaters.
Autors: Jinjin Li;Yanhui Chu;Jinyun Liu;Ka-Di Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3041 - 3044
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Orientation-Independent Catheter-Based Characterization of Myocardial Activation
Abstract:
Cardiac electrogram (EGM) signals and electrophysiologic (EP) characteristics derived from them such as amplitude and timing are central to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of arrhythmias. Bipolar EGMs are often used but possess polarity and shape dependence on catheter orientation contributing to uncertainty. Objective: We describe a novel method to map cardiac activation that resolves signals into meaningful directions and is insensitive to electrode directional effects. Methods: Multielectrode catheters that span 2- and 3-D space are used to derive local electric field (E-field) signals. A traveling wave model of local EGM propagation motivates a new “omnipolar” reference frame in which to understand EGM E-field signals and provide bipolar component EGMs aligned with these anatomic and physiologic directions. We validate the basis of this technology and determine its accuracy using a saline tank in which we simulate physiologic propagation. Results: Omnipole signals from healthy tissue are nearly free of catheter orientation effects and are constrained by biophysics to consistent morphologies and thus consistent measured amplitudes and timings. Using a 3-D EP mapping system, traveling wave treatment, and omnipolar technology (OT) E-field loops, we derived a new and nearly instantaneous means to determine conduction velocity and activation direction. Conclusion: We describe the basis of OT and validate it with ablation and mapping catheters in a saline tank. Finally, we illustrate OT with signals from live subjects. Significance: OT's novel approach with signal processing and real-time visualization allows for a newly detailed characterization of myocardial activation that is insensitive to catheter orientation.
Autors: Don Curtis Deno;Ram Balachandran;Dennis Morgan;Faiz Ahmad;Stéphane Massé;Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1067 - 1077
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Orthogonal or Superimposed Pilots? A Rate-Efficient Channel Estimation Strategy for Stationary MIMO Fading Channels
Abstract:
This paper considers channel estimation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels and revisits two competing concepts of including training data into the transmit signal, namely, orthogonal pilot (OP) that periodically transmits alternating pilot-data symbols, and superimposed pilot (SP) that overlays pilot-data symbols over time. We investigate rates achievable by both schemes when the channel undergoes time-selective bandlimited fading and analyze their behaviors with respect to the MIMO dimension and fading speed. By incorporating the multiple-antenna factors, we demonstrate that the widely known trend in which the OP is superior to the SP in the regimes of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and slow fading, and vice versa, does not hold in general. As the number of transmit antennas () increases, the range of operable fading speeds for the OP is significantly narrowed due to limited time resources for channel estimation and insufficient fading samples, which results in the SP being competitive in wider speed and SNR ranges. For a sufficiently small , we demonstrate that as the fading variation becomes slower, the estimation quality for the SP can be superior to that for the OP. In this case, the SP outperforms the OP in the slow-fading regime due to full utilization of time for data transmission.
Autors: A. Taufiq Asyhari;Stephan ten Brink;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 2776 - 2789
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Orthogonal STBC for MDL Mitigation in Mode Division Multiplexing System With MMSE Channel Estimation
Abstract:
Mode division multiplexing (MDM) has the potential of increasing the capacity of optical fiber transmission system. However, primary impaired factor mode-dependent loss (MDL) poses fundamental performance limitations. Recently MIMO space time coding technique has provided a potential solution to mitigate the MDL and hence started receiving considerable interests. In this paper, orthogonal space time block coding (OSTBC)-based MDM transmission system was investigated to test its efficiency in mitigating MDL. Considering the importance and necessity of channel estimation for coherent receivers and the paucity of literature on this subject, MMSE channel estimation process was introduced in the MDM system to test the robustness and efficiency of the OSTBC-MDM system in mitigating the MDL. Furthermore, an alternative linear decoding (LD) method was achieved by transferring the orthogonal characteristics of codes in OSTBC to the channel elements in MDM system. The LD method has the same performance as the optimal ML method, excepting that it only exhibits linear computational complexity, in terms of the number of modes and the size of constellations. Simulation results were provided to validate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed OSTBC-MDM system in mitigating the MDL in the presence of MMSE channel estimation.
Autors: Yong Qiang Hei;Wen Tao Li;Xiao Chuan Xu;Ray T. Chen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1858 - 1867
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Outage Analysis of the Full-Duplex Decode-and-Forward Two-Way Relay System
Abstract:
Contrary to the traditional theoretical analysis with perfect self-interference cancellation, this paper studies the outage performance of a full-duplex (FD) decode-and-forward two-way relay system with the consideration of the residual self-interference incurred by the FD mode. The exact closed-form outage probability expressions are derived in this paper. In addition, the asymptotic outage performance is investigated when the transmit powers increase to infinity, and the result demonstrates that the outage probabilities monotonically increase and finally converge to 1 as the transmit power exceeds a certain threshold. Furthermore, optimal power allocation schemes and optimal relay node placement strategies are then proposed to improve the outage performance. Finally, simulation results are conducted to verify the accuracy of the theoretical analysis.
Autors: Cheng Li;Zhiyong Chen;Yafei Wang;Yao Yao;Bin Xia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4073 - 4086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Outage Performance Analysis of Full-Duplex Relay-Assisted Device-to-Device Systems in Uplink Cellular Networks
Abstract:
This paper proposes a full-duplex cooperative device-to-device (D2D) communication system, where the relay employed can receive and transmit signals simultaneously. We adopt such a system to assist with D2D transmission. We first derive the conditional cumulative distribution function and the probability density function (pdf) of a series of channel parameters when the interference to the base station is taken into consideration and power control is applied at the D2D transmitter and the relay node. Then, we obtain an exact expression for the outage probability as an integral and as a closed-form expression for a special case, which can be used as a good approximation to the general case when residual self-interference is small. Additionally, we also investigate the power allocation problem between the source and the relay and formulate a suboptimal allocation problem, which we prove to be quasi-concave. Our analysis is verified by the Monte Carlo simulations, and a number of important features of full-duplex cooperative D2D communications can, thereby, be revealed.
Autors: Shuping Dang;Gaojie Chen;Justin P. Coon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4506 - 4510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Outage Probability of Device to Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Network in Suzuki Fading Channel
Abstract:
Radio resource allocation in device-to-device (D2D) communications can be optimized by minimizing outage probability or maximizing throughput. In this letter, we derive two closed-form expressions for the outage probability of underlay D2D communications, by considering an additive white Gaussian noise, and large-scale and small-scale fading components. We jointly model small and large scale fading components by the Suzuki distribution and derive non-analytic integrals for the outage probability, which can be solved by Gauss–Laguerre quadrature and Gauss–Legendre quadrature numerical methods. We show that these formulas for the outage probability closely approach the simulation results. Our comparative study further shows that a low-complexity approximation belongs to the three-point Gauss–Legendre-based formula. Finally, random-based and Hungarian-based resource allocations are investigated.
Autors: Hossein Ghavami;Shahriar Shirvani Moghaddam;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1203 - 1206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Output-Tracking Quantized Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Using Multiclass Support Vector Machines
Abstract:
In applications involving digital control, the set of admissible control actions is finite/quantized. Coupled with state constraints and fast dynamics, explicit model predictive control (EMPC) provides an attractive control formalism. However, the design of data-driven EMPCs with finite admissible control sets is a challenging and relatively unexplored problem. In this paper, a systematic data-driven method is proposed for the design of quantized EMPCs (Q-EMPCs) for time-varying output tracking in nonlinear systems. The design involves: 1) sampling the admissible state space using low-discrepancy sequences to provide scalability to higher dimensional nonlinear systems; 2) at each sampled data point, solving for optimal quantized model predictive control actions and determining feasibility of the intrinsic mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem; and 3) constructing the Q-EMPC control surface using multiclass support vector machines (MC-SVMs). In particular, four widely used MC-SVM algorithms are employed to construct the proposed data-driven Q-EMPC. Extensive testing and comparison among the different MC-SVM algorithms is performed on 2-D and 5-D benchmark examples to demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed methodology.
Autors: Ankush Chakrabarty;Gregery T. Buzzard;Stanisław H. Żak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4130 - 4138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Over Second Octave Power Amplifier Design Based on Resistive–Resistive Series of Continuous Class-F/F−1 Modes
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel methodology for resistive–resistive series of continuous class-F/ modes (Res.–Res. SCF/Ms) power amplifier (PA) design. The bandwidth is expanded by designing the lower band with resistive second- and third-harmonic impedances and the upper band with resistive second-harmonic impedance and reactive third-harmonic impedance using a waveform engineering method. Mathematical derivation of the methodology is described in detail. The proposed design is experimentally verified using a Res.–Res. SCF/Ms PA operating across 0.4–2.3 GHz with 62.3%–80.5% drain efficiency and 39–42 dBm output power.
Autors: Qing-Hua Tang;Yang-Hua Li;Wen-Guang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 494 - 496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Overcurrent Protection Response of a Hot Rolling Mill Filtering System: Analysis of the Process Conditions
Abstract:
This paper reproduces the abnormal operating conditions of a hot strip mill during different switching contingencies that may take place in the filtering system of the installation. Moreover, the evolution of the main electrical variables is predicted considering different characteristics of the steel to be milled. Within this work, the response of the overcurrent protection of the different filtering banks is analyzed along with different scenarios that could lead to switching operations in those filters. The analysis of the voltage stability and distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC), the evaluation of reactive power flows upstream of the PCC, the prediction of harmonic currents, and the study of the new operating conditions of the filters and the rolling stands under the said contingencies are assessed. The methodology described in this study provides the operator with important information on the expected electrical variables that can be extremely useful in deciding if the hot rolling mill can ride-through unexpected switching states of the filter banks. This forecast can avoid a good number of unscheduled stops, which could result in a significant reduction of production and economical losses.
Autors: Gonzalo Alonso Orcajo;Pablo Ardura G.;Josué Rodríguez D.;José M. Cano;Joaquín G. Norniella;Rocío Llera T.;Diego Cifrián R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2596 - 2607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Packet-Centric Tradeoff and Unfair Success Region in IEEE 802.11 WLANs
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a packet-centric analytical study of carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA)-based medium access in wireless local area networks, specifically using the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF). The packet-centric viewpoint of analysis adds a new dimension of insights over those available in the existing body of knowledge in this domain. We propose an absorbing Markov chain-based model for analyzing the behavior of head-of-line frames of each station in such networks. We generalize the long-term and short-term unfairness induced by the randomness of the DCF protocol and depict the actual unfair success region to be avoided in fair resource allocation schemes. One of the primary objectives of any CSMA/CA-based medium access control (MAC) protocol is to increase the frame delivery probability, while reducing the average delay of delivery. With such considerations, we show a tradeoff relationship between the delivery probability and access delay with respect to the maximum retransmission limit in a packet-centric approach. We numerically evaluate the packet-centric behavior of the DCF protocol for single-hop single access point networks involving both the saturated and unsaturated stations, imperfect wireless channel, and varying payload sizes.
Autors: Sudip Misra;Manas Khatua;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4223 - 4230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parameter Estimation of Resonant Fault Current Limiter for Protection and Stability Analysis
Abstract:
Aging or prolonged subjection to stressed conditions cause changes in the parameters of fault current limiter (FCL). These changes must be noticed to take remedial actions if necessary and to make sure whether the system fault current level is within the rated capacities of existing equipment or not. This paper presents a method for estimating parameters of a series resonant type FCL (RFCL) by using synchronized time-domain data from both ends of a transmission line. Estimated parameters during normal operation are used for protection and stability analysis of the system and fault data are used to analyze the performance of RFCL during fault. Electromagnetic transient line model is used to calculate the current and voltage across the device which are used to estimate the parameters of RFCL. PSCAD/EMTDC simulations are used to test the method. Applications of the parameter estimation method are also presented and as a demonstration, effect of variation in current limiting reactor on system transient stability is analyzed.
Autors: A. N. R. L. Sirisha;Ashok Kumar Pradhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2288 - 2295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Parametric Planning Model for Video Quality Evaluation of IPTV Services Combining Channel and Video Characteristics
Abstract:
Parametric planning models are designed for estimating the video quality, which can be applied to effective planning, implementation, and management of network video applications and communication networks. However, different from the bitstream-based evaluation models, the planning models are not allowed to exploit the video streams, with only limited information available for use, i.e., a few general parameters predetermined by the service providers and network operators. In this paper, a parametric planning model combining channel and video characteristics is proposed to estimate the video distortion caused by packet loss for Internet protocol television (IPTV) services. More specifically, the probability distribution of the channel states is determined by detailed analysis of the channel characteristics. Then, considering the influence of burst packet loss and the temporal dependence between frames, several sequence-level and frame-level parameters for video quality evaluation are derived from the perspective of the probability distribution of the channel states. Utilizing these parameters, the proposed model approximates the video quality considering the effects of direct packet loss and error propagation. Experimental results show that the proposed model has a superior performance for video quality estimation than the three commonly used parametric planning models.
Autors: Jiarun Song;Fuzheng Yang;Yicong Zhou;Shan Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1015 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Partial Discreteness: A Novel Prior for Magnetic Resonance Image Reconstruction
Abstract:
An important factor influencing the quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images is the reconstruction method that is employed, and specifically, the type of prior knowledge that is exploited during reconstruction. In this work, we introduce a new type of prior knowledge, partial discreteness (PD), where a small number of regions in the image are assumed to be homogeneous and can be well represented by a constant magnitude. In particular, we mathematically formalize the partial discreteness property based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and derive a partial discreteness image representation that characterizes the salient features of partially discrete images: a constant intensity in homogeneous areas and texture in heterogeneous areas. The partial discreteness representation is then used to construct a novel prior dedicated to the reconstruction of partially discrete MR images. The strength of the proposed prior is demonstrated on various simulated and real k-space data-based experiments with partially discrete images. Results demonstrate that the PD algorithm performs competitively with state-of-the-art reconstruction methods, being flexible and easy to implement.
Autors: Gabriel Ramos-Llordén;Arnold J. den Dekker;Jan Sijbers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1041 - 1053
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Partial Hard Thresholding
Abstract:
We study iterative algorithms for compressed sensing that have an “orthogonalization” step at each iteration to keep the residual orthogonal to the span of those columns of the measurement matrix that have been selected so far. To unify the design and analysis of such algorithms, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding (PHT) operator that is similar to the hard thresholding operator but restricts the amount by which the support set can change in one iteration. Using the PHT operator and its properties, we provide a general framework to prove support recovery results for iterative algorithms employing this operator as well as those employing the hard-thresholding operator. Next, based on the PHT operator, we propose a novel family of algorithms. At one end of our family of algorithms lie well-known hard thresholding algorithms iterative thresholding with inversion and hard thresholding pursuit, whereas at the other end, we get a novel algorithm that we call orthogonal matching pursuit with replacement (OMPR). Like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, OMPR too adds exactly one coordinate to the support of the iterate at each iteration based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the restricted isometry property (RIP), a condition on the measurement matrix. In contrast, OMP is known to have very weak performance guarantees under RIP. Finally, we show that most of the existing “orthogonalized” iterative algorithms, such as CoSaMP, subspace pursuit, OMP, can be expressed using the PHT operator. As a pleasing consequence of our novel and generic results for the PHT operator, we provide the tightest known RIP analysis of all of the above-mentioned iterative algorithms: CoSaMP, subspace pursuit, and OMP.
Autors: Prateek Jain;Ambuj Tewari;Inderjit S. Dhillon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3029 - 3038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Partitioned Stator Machines With NdFeB and Ferrite Magnets
Abstract:
Partitioned stator (PS) machines employ two separated stators to accommodate armature windings and permanent magnets (PMs), respectively, alleviating the space conflict in stator-PM machines, and hence boosting the torque density. However, the PM usage volume in PS machines is relatively large, and thus the material cost is high, which is undesirable for the cost-sensitive applications. In this paper, a PS machine employing ferrite PM is presented, which takes advantage of larger available space for PMs while balances the performance and cost. The electromagnetic characteristics of an optimized ferrite PS machine and an NdFeB PS machine are evaluated together with a classic Prius2010 interior PM (IPM) machine as a baseline. Meanwhile, the economic issues are considered. The results reveal that the NdFeB PS machine has higher torque density than the Prius2010 IPM machine, but is more expensive, while the ferrite PS machine can significantly reduce the cost and still exhibit good performance. The demagnetization behavior of the ferrite PS machine is evaluated and a new method to improve the demagnetization withstand capability is proposed. Moreover, the mechanical analysis is conducted for the cupped rotor of PS machines. Finally, a pair of small-scaled prototypes are manufactured to validate the predictions.
Autors: Hao Hua;Z. Q. Zhu;C. Wang;Mei Zheng;Zhongze Wu;Di Wu;Xiao Ge;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1870 - 1882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Passive Tuning of Optical Couplers Using a Thin-Film Cladding Material
Abstract:
This letter reports the demonstration of a novel method to passively tune the splitting ratio of a Ti-indiffused lithium niobate (LiNbO3) 3-dB directional coupler by the addition of a silicon-rich nitride cladding material. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of such cladding layer onto a coupler alters the effective index of the odd and even modes in the coupled waveguide. By varying the thickness of the thin-film cladding layer, we are able to precisely control the coupling ratio and compensate for variations arising from fabrication tolerances that can significantly impact coupling.
Autors: Ugochukwu J. Nsofor;Peng L. Yao;Shouyuan Shi;Dennis W. Prather;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 775 - 778
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Past as Prolog(ue): Humans, Machines, and 20 Years of Internet Computing
Abstract:
To celebrate IEEE Internet Computing's 20th anniversary, William Regli reflects on writing the lead technical article of the inaugural issue in 1997. Some of the observations he made two decades ago, as this discipline arose, were temporal in nature, and indicative of the times. Others, however, carried a certain prescience while distilling enduring themes.
Autors: William Regli;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 8 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Path Setup for Hybrid NoC Architectures Exploiting Flooding and Standby
Abstract:
Future many-core systems will require energy-efficient, high-throughput and low-latency communication architectures. Silicon Photonics appears today a promising solution towards these goals. The inability of photonics networks to perform inflight buffering and logic computation suggests the use of hybrid photonic-electronic architectures. In order to exploit the full potential of photonics, it is essential to carefully design the path-setup architecture, which is a primary source of performance degradation and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a new path-setup approach which can put allocated circuits in a stand-by state, rapidly restoring them when needed. Path-setup messages are sent using a flooding routing strategy to enhance the possibility of finding free optical paths. We compare the proposed approach with a commonly used path-setup strategy as well as some other alternatives available. The results exhibit encouraging improvements in terms of both performance and energy consumption.
Autors: Edoardo Fusella;José Flich;Alessandro Cilardo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1403 - 1416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Patient-Specific Finite-Element Simulation of the Insertion of Guidewire During an EVAR Procedure: Guidewire Position Prediction Validation on 28 Cases
Abstract:
Objective: Validation of a numerical method to compute arterial deformations under the insertion of an “extra-siff” guidewire during Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Methods: We propose the validation of a previously developed simulation method. The model is calibrated using anatomical hypothesis and intraoperative observations. Simulation results are blindly evaluated against 3-D imaging data acquired during the surgical procedure on 28 patients, based on the predicted position of the intraoperative guidewire. Results: Simulation was successfully conducted on the 28 patients. The mean position error given by the Modified Hausdorff Distance for the 28 cases was 3.8 ± 1.9 mm, which demonstrates very good results for most of the cases. Conclusion: The work reported here shows that numerical simulation can predict some rather large variations in the vascular geometry due to tools insertion, for a wide variety of aorto-iliac morphologies. This is a new step toward clinically applicable mechanical simulation. Significance: Validation on 3-D intraoperative data on a large number of cases—robustness on adverse anatomies.
Autors: J. Gindre;A. Bel-Brunon;M. Rochette;A. Lucas;A. Kaladji;P. Haigron;A. Combescure;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1057 - 1066
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pattern Reconfigurable Antenna Based on Morphing Bistable Composite Laminates
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel pattern reconfigurable antenna based on morphing bistable composite laminates is presented. The bistable asymmetric glass-fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminates have two stable configurations with curvatures of opposite signs. The antenna pattern is reconfigured by transforming the configuration of the bistable GFRP laminate which acts as the substrate of the antenna. The coplanar waveguide transmission lines feeding technique is used for the microstrip quasi-Yagi antenna. A prototype of the proposed antenna is fabricated using a semi-automatic screen printer and an autoclave. The transformation between the two stable states of the proposed antenna using Ni/Ti shape memory alloy springs is investigated experimentally. The out-of-plane displacements, reflection coefficients and radiation patterns for the two stable configurations of the antenna are measured, which agree well with the simulated results. The main beam direction is 89° and 59° for the two stable configurations, respectively. In addition, the influences of various bending radii on the radiation patterns are investigated to gain a thorough understanding of the reconfigurable mechanism of the proposed antenna. Finally, a two-element array of such an antenna is presented and measured. The proposed antenna provides a potential application in multifunctional, conformal, morphing, and integrated structures.
Autors: Jianqiang Hu;Shu Lin;Fuhong Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2196 - 2207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PBL-SEE: An Authentic Assessment Model for PBL-Based Software Engineering Education
Abstract:
The problem-based learning (PBL) approach has been successfully applied to teaching software engineering thanks to its principles of group work, learning by solving real problems, and learning environments that match the market realities. However, the lack of well-defined methodologies and processes for implementing the PBL approach represents a major challenge. The approach requires great flexibility and dynamism from all involved, whether in mapping content, in teacher performance, or laying out the process of how learners should go about solving problems. This paper suggests that management processes can help in implementing PBL throughout its life cycle (planning, implementation, monitoring, and enhancement), and proposes an assessment model called PBL-SEE for use in software engineering education (SEE). Two examples of its use are provided. The results show how the model can be applied and how the resulting information can be used to make the PBL initiatives “authentic,” in that they bring the reality of the labor market to the learning environment, while keeping to PBL principles.
Autors: Simone C. dos Santos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 120 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PBTI Investigation of MoS2 n-MOSFET With Al2O3 Gate Dielectric
Abstract:
For the first time, we report the positive bias temperature instability of the back gated multilayer MoS2 n-MOSFETs with Al2O3 gate dielectric. In the stress phase, the – curve shifts to the positive gate bias. In the recovery phase, it shifts back to the negative gate bias. After 5000 s recovery, it completely recovers to that of the fresh device. The results indicate that the voltage shift is solely due to trapping and detrapping of the pre-existing border traps in the Al2O3 dielectric. The traps consist of fast and slow components with the capture time constants of 7 and s and the emission time constants of 15 and s, respectively. The results from first-order trapping and detrapping calculations are in overall agreements with 12 measured curves including six under stress voltages and six in the recovery phases. The energy densities for the fast and slow traps are derived to be in the order of 1013 cm eV above the bottom of the MoS2 conduction band.
Autors: Hui-Wen Yuan;Hui Shen;Jun-Jie Li;Jinhai Shao;Daming Huang;Yi-Fang Chen;P. F. Wang;S. J. Ding;Albert Chin;Ming-Fu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 677 - 680
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Perceptual Spatial Audio Recording, Simulation, and Rendering: An overview of spatial-audio techniques based on psychoacoustics
Abstract:
Developments in immersive audio technologies have been evolving in two directions: physically motivated systems and perceptually motivated systems. Physically motivated techniques aim to reproduce a physically accurate approximation of desired sound fields by employing a very high equipment load and sophisticated, computationally intensive algorithms. Perceptually motivated techniques, however, aim to render only the perceptually relevant aspects of the sound scene by means of modest computational and equipment load. This article presents an overview of perceptually motivated techniques, with a focus on multichannel audio recording and reproduction, audio source and reflection culling, and artificial reverberators.
Autors: Huseyin Hacihabiboglu;Enzo De Sena;Zoran Cvetkovic;James Johnston;Julius O. Smith III;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 36 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Analysis and Optimization for SWIPT Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates and optimizes the performance of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in wireless sensor networks over Nakagami- fading channels. In the considered system, there is one mobile reader (), which is equipped with one transmit antenna and one receive antenna, and a group of passive sensors. The information delivery includes two stages: 1) broadcasts a command with radio-frequency energy to the sensors, which adopt time splitting (TS)/power splitting (PS) schemes to harvest energy and 2) sensors deliver their information to over orthogonal channels by using the harvested energy. In this paper, we propose a unified framework to study and optimize the impact of SWIPT on the system performance with both TS and PS schemes. First, we characterize the probability density function and cumulative distribution function of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio in high signal-to-noise ratio region, then we study the outage and ergodic capacity performance of the backward links. The approximated closed-form expressions for the outage probability and ergodic capacity are derived and validated through Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, we also evaluate the energy efficiency of the target system, and propose an optimal splitting scheme for TS and PS to maximize the throughput of the target system.
Autors: Gaofeng Pan;Hongjiang Lei;Yi Yuan;Zhiguo Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2291 - 2302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Analysis of Receive Space Modulation in the Shadowing MIMO Broadcast Channel
Abstract:
In this paper, the performance analysis of Receive Space Modulation (RSM) in the shadowing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) broadcast channel is presented. This is undertaken by considering Zero Forcing (ZF) precoding and both small and large scale fading. In particular, a closed form and accurate framework for the evaluation of the Symbol Error Rate (SER) is derived. In addition, the diversity order and the coding gain of the new architecture are also obtained. The derived framework can be directly extended to the conventional spatially multiplexed shadowing MIMO broadcast channel. It is shown that RSM achieves the same diversity order and, in certain scenarios which are well defined, higher coding gain than spatially multiplexing (SMX). Also, the performance difference between RSM and SMX in the shadowing broadcast channel is mathematically quantified. Finally, numerical results that verify the new framework and conclusions are provided.
Autors: Athanasios Stavridis;Marco Di Renzo;Peter M. Grant;Harald Haas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1972 - 1983
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Analysis of TanDEM-X Quad-Polarization Products in Pursuit Monostatic Mode
Abstract:
Since 2010, the two twin synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X have been acquiring high-resolution images to generate a global Earth's digital elevation model (DEM). Both satellites have been flying in a controlled close orbit formation, acquiring data in the nominal bistatic stripmap single-polarization mode. Once the acquisition of the dataset for the generation of the DEM has been completed, the flexibility offered by both SAR instruments in terms of interferometric, imaging, and polarization modes has been further exploited to demonstrate the different capabilities of the TanDEM-X experimental modes. By activating the dual-receive antenna mode, full polarimetric data can be acquired. For the first time, it has been possible to systematically command quad-polarization acquisitions in a dedicated TanDEM-X mission science phase, started in October 2014. In this paper, we present a first performance analysis and quality assessment of such quad-polarization products. The SAR image resolution and the noise equivalent sigma zero have been evaluated to show the quality of the focused SAR products. The influence of different instrument parameters on the SAR and interferometric performance, such as chirp bandwidth, pulse repetition frequency, or block adaptive quantization, has been investigated as well. For the evaluation of the interferometric performance, key parameters such as coherence and interferometric phase error have been analyzed. In this paper, the obtained results are presented and recommendations are given for the optimization in the commanding of TanDEM-X quad-polarization acquisitions.
Autors: José-Luis Bueso-Bello;Michele Martone;Pau Prats-Iraola;Carolina González-Chamorro;Thomas Kraus;Jens Reimann;Marc Jäger;Benjamin Bräutigam;Paola Rizzoli;Manfred Zink;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1853 - 1869
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance and Stability Benchmarking of Monolithic 3-D Logic Circuits and SRAM Cells With Monolayer and Few-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenide MOSFETs
Abstract:
For the first time, considering the architecture of monolithic 3-D integration, we evaluate and benchmark the performance of 3-D logic circuits and stability/performance of 3-D 6T SRAM cells with monolayer and few-layer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) devices based on ITRS 2028 (5.9 nm) technology node. The impact of random variations on the cell stability is also investigated. With the possibility of adopting monolayer or few-layer TMDs for nFET- and pFET-tiers enabled by monolithic 3-D integration, this paper indicates that the trilayer TMD device may substantially degrade the performance of 3-D logic circuits in spite of its higher mobility. This paper also reveals that stacking the monolayer pFET-tier over the bilayer nFET-tier may provide better nominal stability and read/write performance for 6T superthreshold SRAM compared with the planar technology, whereas the optimum 3-D configuration for near-/sub-threshold operations appears to be the monolayer pFET-tier over the monolayer nFET-tier. Besides the 6T cell structure, 8T SRAM cells are also investigated with monolithic 3-D integration for near-threshold/subthreshold operation. The monolayer nFET-tier over the bilayer pFET-tier configuration is shown to be the optimum 3-D 8T near-threshold/subthreshold cell design.
Autors: Chang-Hung Yu;Pin Su;Ching-Te Chuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2445 - 2451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Enhancement of MEMS-Based INS/UWB Integration for Indoor Navigation Applications
Abstract:
Inertial navigation system (INS) has an increasingly important role in indoor navigation, which mainly uses inertial measurement units based on a micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) to acquire data, and which is independent of the external environment. However, INS has serious accumulated errors, and thus, it was often integrated with wireless location systems (WLSs), such as ultra wideband (UWB) system, in order to enhance the position performance. Namely, MEMS-based inertial sensors have the problem of random errors. Besides, a UWB system is vulnerable to external environment conditions, such as the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) factor and multipath effects, and thus, many outliers are produced. In order to improve the overall performance of the INS/UWB system, this paper proposes the three-tier approach based on: 1) analysis and pre-filtering of random errors of MEMS-based inertial sensors, and use of a complementary filter to provide attitude information of navigation system; 2) use of the anti-magnetic ring (AMR) to eliminate the outliers from the UWB system in NLOS environment; and 3) improvement of positioning accuracy at information fusion level using the double-state adaptive Kalman filter. The proposed approach was verified by experiments that included AMR test and filter test. The obtained results have validated the proposed method efficiency.
Autors: Qigao Fan;Biwen Sun;Yan Sun;Xiangpeng Zhuang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3116 - 3130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Evaluation of Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbon Tunnel FETs for Digital and Analog Applications
Abstract:
The recent advancement in the fabrication of narrow graphene nanoribbon with smooth edges has catalyzed the growth of nanoribbon based transistors. Motivated by these advances, we suggest bilayer graphene nanoribbon tunnel field-effect transistors (BLGNR-TFETs) for low voltage digital and analog applications. The device performance is analyzed by quantum transport simulation, based on self-consistent solutions of two-dimensional Poisson's equation and nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The results indicate that the use of BLGNR-TFET instead of monolayer graphene nanoribbon TFET with very narrow width, increases the ON current and reduces the intrinsic device delay without lowering the ON/OFF current ratio. The BLGNR-TFET for analog/RF applications has provided higher intrinsic gain at very narrow ribbon width; however, very narrow width reduces the cutoff frequency. Furthermore, RF figure of merits are investigated in the presence of external parasitics.
Autors: Brajesh Rawat;Roy Paily;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 411 - 416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Evaluation of Self Backhauled Small Cell Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
We compare the performance of heterogeneous networks (HetNets) with self backhauled small cells (SBSCs) relative to those with wired backhaul based small cells (WBSCs). The comparisons are made for a variety of SBSC based HetNets including: 1) when the HetNets employ omni antennas at the SBSCs and Uniform PF at the macro; 2) with directional antennas at the SBSCs and uniform PF at the macro; 3) with directional antennas at the SBSCs and weighted PF at the macro; and 4) with Directional antennas at the SBSCs and QoS-aware PF at the macro. The study catalogs our learning experiences with SBSC HetNets, leading the reader through the sequence of enhancements made to improve the performance of SBSC HetNets relative to WBSC HetNets.
Autors: Matthew Andrews;Arunabha Ghosh;Rahul N. Pupala;Subramanian Vasudevan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3102 - 3110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Evaluation of the Triangle-Based Empirical Soil Moisture Relationship Models Based on Landsat-5 TM Data and In Situ Measurements
Abstract:
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is an important parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. In past decades, passive microwave remote sensing offers a good opportunity for obtaining SSM on a global scale, and many downscaling methods have been proposed using the triangle-based empirical soil moisture relationship models to overcome the limitation of coarse spatial resolution of its SSM products for regional applications. This paper aimed to examine and compare the effectiveness of five typical triangle-based empirical soil moisture relationship models for estimating SSM with Landsat-5 data and in situ measurements from the Maqu network on the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau for nine cloud-free days. The results showed that the model that treats the SSM as a second-order polynomial with land surface temperature, vegetation indices (VIs), and surface albedo as inputs exhibited the best performance compared with the results of other models. The VI comparison indicated that the use of the normalized difference VI or the fractional vegetation cover in this model outperformed other VIs, with the root-mean-square deviation of approximately 0.055 m3/m3 and the coefficient of determination ($text{R}^{2}$ ) above 0.78 at the nine-day average level. In addition, a significant spatial scale effect of the model was also found through analyzing the model fitting results at different window sizes. The study provides important insight into the best empirical relationship models for capturing soil moisture dynamics. These models can support the passive microwave soil moisture data spatial downscaling and validation applications in future studies.
Autors: Wei Zhao;Ainong Li;Huaan Jin;Zhengjian Zhang;Jinhu Bian;Gaofei Yin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2632 - 2645
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Improvement and Current Collapse Suppression of Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN HEMTs Achieved by Fluorinated Graphene Passivation
Abstract:
In this letter, fluorinated graphene (FG) is utilized to passivate GaN surface for a metal–insulator–semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MIS HEMT). The FG-MIS HEMT achieves better DC characteristics than a traditional MIS HEMT, including larger saturation drain current density (34.3%), higher peak trans-conductance (14.4%), lower ON-resistance (21.6%), and lower off-state leakage. Moreover, current collapse measurement reveals that not only can FG suppress the drain saturation current reduction of MIS HEMT from 41.8% to 8.1% at off-state drain bias of 50 V, but also it prevents dynamic ON-resistance increasing with off-state stress. The coverage of FG on GaN surface can prevent GaN being oxidized and N diffusion from GaN during gate dielectric deposition, thus suppressing the formation of Ga-O bonds and Ga dangling bonds, leading to an excellent interface condition for Al2O3/GaN with reduced fixed interface charges. Therefore, significant passivation effect is achieved.
Autors: Lingyan Shen;Dongliang Zhang;Xinhong Cheng;Li Zheng;Dawei Xu;Qian Wang;Jingjie Li;Duo Cao;Yuehui Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 596 - 599
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Investigation of a Nonlinear Energy Harvester With Random Vibrations and Subthreshold Deterministic Signals
Abstract:
In the field of energy harvesting, it has been demonstrated that under the appropriate conditions, nonlinear configurations of the harvester can provide better performance, compared with linear resonant oscillators; the performance is quantified in terms of the amount of energy extracted from environmental mechanical or seismic vibrations. In this paper, the results of investigations on a system for energy harvesting from wideband vibrations, using a nonlinear snap-through-buckling configuration and two piezoelectric actuators, placed at the stable minima of the potential energy function that underpins the dynamics of the flexible beam are presented. A nonlinear model is proposed that can describe the device behavior when it is driven by a suprathreshold deterministic signal, a wideband noise, or a subthreshold signal superimposed onto a (usually bandlimited) noise background. In the latter case, the system is seen to exhibit the so-called “stochastic resonance” behavior. The bandwidth of the nonlinear energy harvester is about 15 Hz, which is compatible with vibrational energy sources at low frequencies, e.g., a walking human. The device is seen to generate power up to when subject to a noise limited at 15 Hz. The power is sufficient to operate a standard wireless sensor node and the conversion efficiency of the harvester is about 12%.
Autors: Bruno Andò;Salvatore Baglio;Vincenzo Marletta;Antonio Pistorio;Adi R. Bulsara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 992 - 1001
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance Limit Projection of Germanane Field-Effect Transistors
Abstract:
Here we explore the performance limit of monolayer germanane (GeH) field-effect transistors (FETs). We first plotted an electronic band structure of GeH using density functional theory and then tight-binding parameters were extracted. Device characteristics of GeH FETs are investigated using rigorous self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations within tight-binding approximations. Our simulation results indicate that GeH FETs can exhibit exceptional on-state device characteristics, such as high (>2 mA/) and large (~7 mS/) with V due to the very light effective mass of GeH (0.07m0), while maintaining excellent switching characteristics (SS ~64 mV/dec). We have also performed a scaling study by varying the channel length, and it turned out that GeH FET can be scaled down to ~14-nm channel without facing significant short channel effects but it may suffer from large leakage current at the channel length shorter than 10 nm. Finally, we have benchmarked GeH FET against MoS2 counterpart, exhibiting better suitability of GeH device for high-performance applications compared with MoS2 transistors.
Autors: AbdulAziz AlMutairi;Yiju Zhao;Demin Yin;Youngki Yoon;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 673 - 676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance of a Nano-CNC Machined 220-GHz Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier
Abstract:
We report on hot test measurements of a wide-bandwidth, 220-GHz sheet beam traveling wave tube amplifier developed under the Defense advanced research projects agency (DARPA) HiFIVE program. Nano-computer numerical control (CNC) milling techniques were employed for the precision fabrication of double vane, half-period staggered interaction structures achieving submicrometer tolerances and nanoscale surface roughness. A multilayer diffusion bonding technique was implemented to complete the structure demonstrating wide bandwidth (>50 GHz) with an insertion loss of about −5 dB achieved during transmission measurements of the circuit. The sheet beam electron gun utilized nanocomposite scandate tungsten cathodes that provided over 438-A/cm2 current density in the 12.5:1 ratio sheet beam. An InP HBT-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit preamplifier was employed for TWT gain measurements in the stable amplifier operation region. In the wide-bandwidth operation mode (for gun voltage of 20.9 kV), a gain of over 24 dB was measured over the frequency range of 207–221 GHz. In the high-gain operation mode (for gun voltage of 21.8 kV), over 30 dB of gain was measured over the frequency range of 197–202 GHz. High-power tests were conducted employing an extended interaction klystron.
Autors: Anisullah Baig;Diana Gamzina;Takuji Kimura;John Atkinson;Calvin Domier;Branko Popovic;Logan Himes;Robert Barchfeld;Mark Field;Neville C. Luhmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2390 - 2397
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance of Minimum Mean-Square Error Beam Forming for Polarimetric Phased Array Weather Radar
Abstract:
In this paper, the development of a polarimetric phased array weather radar, which consists of a dual-polarized antenna with 2-D circular planar phase-array elements, is discussed. The radar is capable of measuring the 3-D rainfall distribution in less than several tens of seconds. Digital beamforming (DBF) is an important component in the development process of the phased array radar. In this paper, precipitation radar signal simulations are performed taking into consideration radar concepts in order to discuss the estimation accuracy of polarimetric precipitation profiles (differential reflectivity, specific differential phase, and copolar correlation coefficient) with two DBF methods that are based on Fourier and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) methods. A comparison of the performance of the two methods indicates that MMSE is superior in accuracy because of the effect of a stable and a robust main lobe and adaptively suppressed side lobes. MMSE also provides precipitation measurements eliminating the directional dependence of a beam pattern for improving the accuracy of measurements. It is also shown that the estimated accuracies of the precipitation profiles are almost independent of the number of pulses.
Autors: Hiroshi Kikuchi;Ting Wu;Eiichi Yoshikawa;Tomoo Ushio;Hideto Goto;Fumihiko Mizutani;Masakazu Wada;V. Chandrasekar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2757 - 2770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Performance of Silicone Rubber Insulators Under Thermal and Electrical Stress
Abstract:
In recent times, high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber insulators (SIR) are being widely used for overhead high voltage transmission and distribution systems. However, over a period, the insulator surface will be exposed to high temperature in several places, particularly in desert areas; further accumulation of pollutants can alter the temperature distribution along the insulator. In the present work, long-term electrothermal experimentation is carried out on various types of full-scale insulator units. The effect of temperature on pollution performance of SIR insulators is studied, and a novel and simple methodology to achieve uniform contamination layer on inherently hydrophobic HTV SIR insulator samples is presented. A specially fabricated oven having a provision for high voltage connection and facility for measurement of leakage currents is provided. Furthermore, study of migration of low molecular weight, recovery trends of hydrophobicity, and changes in material properties using scanning electron microscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is carried out.
Autors: Rahul Chakraborty;Subba Reddy B;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2446 - 2454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Permanent and Transient Fault Tolerance for Reconfigurable Nano-Crossbar Arrays
Abstract:
This paper studies fault tolerance in switching reconfigurable nano-crossbar arrays. Both permanent and transient faults are taken into account by independently assigning stuck-open and stuck-closed fault probabilities into crosspoints. In the presence of permanent faults, a fast and accurate heuristic algorithm is proposed that uses the techniques of index sorting, backtracking, and row matching. The algorithm’s effectiveness is demonstrated on standard benchmark circuits in terms of runtime, success rate, and accuracy. In the presence of transient faults, tolerance analysis is performed by formally and recursively determining tolerable fault positions. In this way, we are able to specify fault tolerance performances of nano-crossbars without relying on randomly generated faults that is relatively costly regarding that the number of fault distributions in a crossbar grows exponentially with the crossbar size.
Autors: Onur Tunali;Mustafa Altun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 747 - 760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PERMIT: Network Slicing for Personalized 5G Mobile Telecommunications
Abstract:
5G mobile systems are expected to meet different strict requirements beyond the traditional operator use cases. Effectively, to accommodate needs of new industry segments such as healthcare and manufacturing, 5G systems need to accommodate elasticity, flexibility, dynamicity, scalability, manageability, agility, and customization along with different levels of service delivery parameters according to the service requirements. This is currently possible only by running the networks on top of the same infrastructure, the technology called network function virtualization, through this sharing of the development and infrastructure costs between the different networks. In this article, we discuss the need for the deep customization of mobile networks at different granularity levels: per network, per application, per group of users, per individual users, and even per data of users. The article also assesses the potential of network slicing to provide the appropriate customization and highlights the technology challenges. Finally, a high-level architectural solution is proposed, addressing a massive multi-slice environment.
Autors: Tarik Taleb;Badr Mada;Marius-Iulian Corici;Akihiro Nakao;Hannu Flinck;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 88 - 93
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Personalized Assessment as a Means to Mitigate Plagiarism
Abstract:
Although every educational institution has a code of academic honesty, they still encounter incidents of plagiarism. These are difficult and time-consuming to detect and deal with. This paper explores the use of personalized assessments with the goal of reducing incidents of plagiarism, proposing a personalized assessment software framework through which each student receives a unique problem set. The framework not only auto-generates the problem set but also auto-marks the solutions when submitted. The experience of using this framework is discussed, from the perspective of both students and staff, particularly with respect to its ability to mitigate plagiarism. A comparison of personalized and traditional assignments in the same class confirms that the former had far fewer observed plagiarism incidents. Although personalized assessment may not be cost-effective in all courses (such as language courses), it still can be effective in areas such as mathematics, engineering, science, and computing. This paper concludes that personalized assessment is a promising approach to counter plagiarism.
Autors: Sathiamoorthy Manoharan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 112 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Peter Hilton on Naming
Abstract:
Host Felienne Hermans talks with Peter Hilton about why naming is much harder than we think, why it matters in programming and program comprehension, and how to improve your naming skills.
Autors: Felienne Hermans;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 117 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Phase Noise Estimation and Suppression for PDM CO-OFDM/OQAM Systems
Abstract:
Phase noise induced common phase error and inter-carrier-interference are serious impairments for coherent optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. As have been discussed in previous publications, extra signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) penalty is required to maintain the system performance under the interference of laser phase noise. The SNR penalty is proportional to the laser linewidth, the time duration of an OFDM symbol, and the system SNR. Therefore, the phase noise induced interference remains the bottleneck for CO-OFDM systems, especially for those systems employing high-order modulation formats, or with long fast Fourier transform window. Thanks to the usage of specially designed filter banks, CO-OFDM/offset quadrature amplitude modulation (CO-OFDM/OQAM) systems demonstrate lower out-of-band leakage and higher spectral efficiency compared with conventional CO-OFDM systems. Recently, both theoretical studies and experimental demonstrations for CO-OFDM/OQAM systems have been widely reported. With the relaxation of orthogonal condition from the complex field to the real field, phase noised induced interference in CO-OFDM/OQAM systems is more complicated than that in conventional CO-OFDM systems. To our best knowledge, there have been no studies on the phase noise estimation and suppression methods for CO-OFDM/OQAM systems. In this paper, we systematically study and analyze phase noise induced interference for CO-OFDM/OQAM systems. Based on the theoretical analysis and the concept of orthogonal basis expansion, we develop a time-domain phase noise estimation and suppression method for polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM/OQAM systems. As shown in numerical Montel Carlo simulations, the proposed method can improve the system robustness against phase noise effectively.
Autors: Xi Fang;Fan Zhang;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1837 - 1846
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Phase Retrieval for Wavelet Transforms
Abstract:
This paper describes a new algorithm that solves a particular phase retrieval problem, with important applications in audio processing: the reconstruction of a function from its scalogram, that is, from the modulus of its wavelet transform. It is a multiscale iterative algorithm that reconstructs the signal from low-to-high frequencies. It relies on a new reformulation of the phase retrieval problem that involves the holomorphic extension of the wavelet transform. This reformulation allows to propagate phase information from low-to-high frequencies. Numerical results, on audio and non-audio signals, show that reconstruction is precise and stable to noise. The complexity of the algorithm is linear in the size of the signal, up to logarithmic factors. It can thus be applied to large signals.
Autors: Irène Waldspurger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2993 - 3009
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Phenomenological Transparency
Abstract:
Translucent objects such as fog, clouds, smoke, glass, ice, and liquids are pervasive in cinematic environments because they frame scenes in depth and create visually-compelling shots. Unfortunately, they are hard to render in real-time and have thus previously been rendered poorly compared to opaque surfaces. This paper introduces the first model for a real-time rasterization algorithm that can simultaneously approximate the following transparency phenomena: wavelength-varying (“colored”) transmission, translucent colored shadows, caustics, volumetric light and shadowing, partial coverage, diffusion, and refraction. All render efficiently with order-independent draw calls and low bandwidth. We include source code.
Autors: Morgan McGuire;Michael Mara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1465 - 1478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Photonic Generation of Linear-Frequency-Modulated Waveforms With Improved Time-Bandwidth Product Based on Polarization Modulation
Abstract:
Polarization modulation of two phase-correlated, orthogonally polarized wavelengths by a parabolic waveform is a promising way to generate linear-frequency-modulated (LFM) signals, but the time-bandwidth product (TBWP) of the generated LFM signal is intrinsically limited by the achievable modulation index of the polarization modulator (PolM). In this paper, an approach to increase the TBWP of the LFM signal generated by polarization modulation is proposed and comprehensively studied by splitting the electrical parabolic waveforms into N pieces with identical amplitude. Applying the split parabolic signal to the PolM, the total equivalent phase shift would be boosted by N/2 times. As a result, the bandwidth as well as the TBWP of the generated LFM signal is increased by N/2 times. An experiment is carried out. As compared to the scheme using an unsplit parabolic signal, the TBWP is improved by more than 500 times. The relationships between the bandwidth, the time duration, and the TBWP of the generated signal with the parameters of the electrical waveform generator are discussed.
Autors: Yamei Zhang;Xingwei Ye;Qingshui Guo;Fangzheng Zhang;Shilong Pan;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1821 - 1829
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Physical Visualization of Geospatial Datasets
Abstract:
Geospatial datasets are too complex to easily visualize and understand on a computer screen. Combining digital fabrication with a discrete global grid system (DGGS) can produce physical models of the Earth for visualizing multiresolution geospatial datasets. This proposed approach includes a mechanism for attaching a set of 3D printed segments to produce a scalable model of the Earth. The authors have produced two models that support the attachment of different datasets both in 2D and 3D format.
Autors: Hessam Djavaherpour;Ali Mahdavi-Amiri;Faramarz F. Samavati;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 61 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Physically Based Model for Multispectral Image Simulation of Earth Observation Sensors
Abstract:
Physically based multispectral image simulation consists of sensor system modeling, bottom-of-atmosphere (BOA) image generation, and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) image calculation. TOA radiance images are usually generated using a lookup table (LUT) for computational efficiency, which is calculated by means of atmospheric radiative transfer codes with different combination of input variables, including viewing zenith, solar zenith, and relative azimuth angles; visibility; columnar water vapor; and ground elevation. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed for TOA radiance image simulation, where transmitted surface radiance and atmospheric radiance at the TOA are calculated, respectively, to improve accuracy as well as efficiency. The transmitted surface radiance image is obtained from pixel-by-pixel calculation of BOA radiance and path transmittance. In calculating the atmospheric radiance of TOA, two LUTs are built for the emitted and the scattered radiance from each atmospheric layer, respectively. The effects of visibility and columnar water vapor on the atmospheric radiance are characterized by means of an equivalent path transmittance, which is related to the scene geometry as well as the thickness of atmospheric layer. In this way, when a new scene is simulated, except for three variables, i.e., viewing and solar zenith angles and atmospheric layer number, other parameters are set as constants in building the LUTs, enabling more combinations of input variables without adding excessive computational burden. Multispectral images in different bands with moderate spatial resolution are simulated and compared with the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images to demonstrate the accuracy and the usefulness of the proposed strategy.
Autors: Xiaoyu He;Xiaojian Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1897 - 1908
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PID controller based on a self-adaptive neural network to ensure qos bandwidth requirements in passive optical networks
Abstract:
In this paper, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller integrated with a neural network (NN) is proposed to ensure quality of service (QoS) bandwidth requirements in passive optical networks (PONs). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an approach that implements aNNto tune a PID to dealwithQoS in PONs is used. In contrast to other tuning techniques such as Ziegler– Nichols or genetic algorithms (GA), our proposal allows a real-time adjustment of the tuning parameters according to the network conditions. Thus, the new algorithm provides an online control of the tuning process unlike the ZN and GA techniques, whose tuning parameters are calculated offline. The algorithm, called neural network service level PID (NNSPID), guarantees minimum bandwidth levels to users depending on their service level agreement, and it is compared with a tuning technique based on genetic algorithms (GASPID). The simulation study demonstrates that NN-SPID continuously adapts the tuning parameters, achieving lower fluctuations than GA-SPID in the allocation process. As a consequence, it provides a more stable response than GA-SPID since it needs to launch the GA to obtain new tuning values. Furthermore, NN-SPID guarantees the minimum bandwidth levels faster than GA-SPID. Finally, NN-SPID is more robust than GA-SPID under real-time changes of the guaranteed bandwidth levels, as GA-SPID shows high fluctuations in the allocated bandwidth, especially just after any change is made.
Autors: N. Merayo;D. Juárez;Juan C. Aguado;I. De Miguel;R. J. Durán;P. Fernández;R. M. Lorenzo;E. J. Abril;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 433 - 445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Planar Wideband Differential-Mode Bandpass Filter With Common-Mode Noise Absorption
Abstract:
In this letter, a planar differential-mode (DM) four-port circuit is proposed to design a balanced-to-balanced bandpass filter (BPF) with common-mode noise absorption add-on feature. By using the matrix transformation between the mixed and the single-ended scattering parameters, even- (odd-) mode equivalent circuit and the closed-form solutions of the proposed circuit structure are obtained based on the constraint rules. Finally, a microstrip DM BPF is designed and fabricated. The measured (simulated) results show that the relative bandwidth is 55.5% (57.5%) under the conditions of dB and , , and dB. Good agreements between the simulated and measured results verify the correctness of the design theory.
Autors: Weiwei Zhang;Yongle Wu;Yuanan Liu;Cuiping Yu;Abul Hasan;Fadhel M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 458 - 460
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Planar-Nanostrip-Channel InAlN/GaN HEMTs on Si With Improved ${g}_{{m}}$ and ${f}_{textsf {T}}$ Linearity
Abstract:
In this letter, we report an InAlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a planar nanostrip channel design to improve its transconductance and cut-off frequency linearity. The planar nanostrips were formed by partial arsenic ion implantation isolation in the channel under the gate. Devices with a gate length () of 80 nm and a source-to-drain distance () of 1 were fabricated. A conventional device and a device with a fin-like nanowire channel were also fabricated together for comparison. It was observed that the nanostrip and nanowire channel structures can both suppress the access resistance increase at the high output current level, and thereby improve the device’s and linearity. Compared to the one using etching to form a fin-like nanostrip channel, the GaN HEMT with a planar nanostrip channel has demonstrated reduced parasitic capacitance and improved RF performance.
Autors: Weichuan Xing;Zhihong Liu;Haodong Qiu;Geok Ing Ng;Tomás Palacios;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 619 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Plane Wave Scattering by a Conducting Cylinder Located Near an Interface Between Two Dielectric Half-Spaces: A Perturbation Method
Abstract:
A new and simple method is presented for transverse electric and transverse magnetic plane waves scattering by a perfectly conducting cylinder located near two-media interface. A particular formulation of the surface equivalence principle is employed to form a set of coupled integral equations by considering the interface as a scatterer. In this method, the infinite planar interface is represented by a single equivalent magnetic current which is expressed in terms of the difference in current with cylinder present and the exact solution with cylinder removed. Data for the induced current, near and far field are compared to the results available in the literature for verification.
Autors: Cengiz Ozzaim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2754 - 2758
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Planning of Renewable Generation in Distribution Systems Considering Daily Operating Periods
Abstract:
This paper presents an optimization approach for planning of renewable generation in energy distribution systems. The considered generations are based on wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective is to determine the optimal placement of the renewable distributed generation aiming at minimizing the investment and operational costs in a long term planning. The proposed approach represents the stochastic behavior of the renewable resources by handling historical data to determine the wind and photovoltaic capacity factors. The method for obtaining such factors considers the daily load periods, which allows representing the availability of the energetic resources in different periods. The optimization method is based on the bioinspired metaheuristic known as artificial immune system. Two systems of the literature and practical wind and solar data from Brazil are used to assess the proposed approach.
Autors: Leonardo Willer Oliveira;Thaisy Cristina Jose Maria;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 901 - 907
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PlenoPatch: Patch-Based Plenoptic Image Manipulation
Abstract:
Patch-based image synthesis methods have been successfully applied for various editing tasks on still images, videos and stereo pairs. In this work we extend patch-based synthesis to plenoptic images captured by consumer-level lenselet-based devices for interactive, efficient light field editing. In our method the light field is represented as a set of images captured from different viewpoints. We decompose the central view into different depth layers, and present it to the user for specifying the editing goals. Given an editing task, our method performs patch-based image synthesis on all affected layers of the central view, and then propagates the edits to all other views. Interaction is done through a conventional 2D image editing user interface that is familiar to novice users. Our method correctly handles object boundary occlusion with semi-transparency, thus can generate more realistic results than previous methods. We demonstrate compelling results on a wide range of applications such as hole-filling, object reshuffling and resizing, changing object depth, light field upscaling and parallax magnification.
Autors: Fang-Lue Zhang;Jue Wang;Eli Shechtman;Zi-Ye Zhou;Jia-Xin Shi;Shi-Min Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1561 - 1573
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Plug-In Electric Vehicles Parking Lot Equilibria With Energy and Reserve Markets
Abstract:
This paper proposes a comprehensive model for the interactions of the plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) involved parties. An aggregator with mixed resources is assumed to be the interface between the parking lot (PL) and the upstream energy and reserve markets. On the other hand, the interactions of the PEV owners and the PL are also modeled as they impose restrictions to the PL's behavior. Therefore, a bilevel problem is constructed where in the upper level the objective of the aggregator is to maximize its profit through its interactions, and in the lower level the PL maximizes its own profit limited to the preferences of PEVs. The objectives of the upper and lower levels are contradictory; hence, an equilibrium point should be found to solve the problem. In this regard, the duality theorem is employed to convert the bilevel model to a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. The model is implemented on the IEEE 37-bus network with added distributed generations. Various cases are thoroughly investigated and conclusions are duly drawn.
Autors: Nilufar Neyestani;Maziar Yazdani Damavandi;Miadreza Shafie-khah;Anastasios G. Bakirtzis;João P. S. Catalão;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2001 - 2016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Plug-in Free Web-Based 3-D Interactive Laboratory for Control Engineering Education
Abstract:
This paper introduces the design and implementation of a plug-in free online 3-D interactive laboratory based on networked control system laboratory (NCSLab) framework. The system relying only on HTML5 provides full supports for control engineering experimentation. The users are allowed to design their own control algorithms and apply them to the remote test rigs. Using the web-based interface, multiple widgets such as real-time charts, virtual gauges, and live images are available to customize the monitoring interfaces. To enhance the sense of immersion, 3-D animations which are synchronized with the remote experimental processes are also provided. The users can watch and interact with the remote experiments through the 3-D replicas. Various HTML5 based toolkits are integrated seamlessly under the NCSLab framework. NCSLab provides visualized services for the whole process of control experimentation including remote monitoring, tuning, configuration, and control algorithm implementation. As the network delay could disturb the 3-D representation, a communication scheme using web protocols is also implemented. The feedback from teaching shows the general acceptance and effectiveness of NCSLab is notably high. As most existing online laboratories adopt either native applications or plug-ins, the methodologies and technologies used in NCSLab could be insightful for other online laboratories toward web-based cross-platform systems.
Autors: Wenshan Hu;Zhongcheng Lei;Hong Zhou;Guo-Ping Liu;Qijun Deng;Dongguo Zhou;Zhi-Wei Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3808 - 3818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» PMCC: Fast and Accurate System-Level Power Modeling for Processors on Heterogeneous SoC
Abstract:
Accurate estimation of power at the system level is essential for system-on-chip (SoC) architects. The integration of heterogeneous processors like CPUs and emerging coarse-grained reconfigurable architectures (CGRAs) in SoCs significantly complicates the power-estimation process. This brief presents an accurate and efficient system-level power modeling framework, power modeling with a customized calibration, for processors on heterogeneous SoCs. Quantitative criteria are developed to classify the computing resources of heterogeneous SoCs, including instruction-driven processing architectures and CGRAs-based architectures, into two categories automatically. A novel power-modeling technique featuring a genetic algorithm and backpropagation neural network (GA-BPNN) is introduced to address CGRA-alike architectures, which cannot be properly handled by the traditional linear regression-based power calibration method. Experimental results show that the power estimation error for CGRAs using GA-BPNN is less than 5% with three orders faster speed compared with gate-level estimations. In the meanwhile, accuracy is improved on most benchmarks compared with the linear model. The average improvement in accuracy is 81% and ranges between 29% and 99%.
Autors: Chenchen Deng;Leibo Liu;Yang Liu;Shouyi Yin;Shaojun Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 540 - 544
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polarization-Dependent Optical Sensor Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide
Abstract:
We report a polarization-dependent optical sensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and demonstrate its applications in detecting refractive indices. The s-polarized absorption of the rGO under the conditions of total internal reflection is unique over the range of 400–1100 nm and its amplitude is sensitive to the media that is in contact with the rGO. We have conducted detailed calculations and experiments to optimize the performance of the sensor. The sensitivity of the optical sensor is R/RIU and its resolution is RIU.
Autors: Guohua Liu;Jun Yu;Lixia Xie;Zheng Dou;Wei Zhang;Zhao Yue;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 767 - 770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polarization-Independent Backscattering Enhancement of Cylinders Based on Conformal Gradient Metasurfaces
Abstract:
The electromagnetic backscattering enhancement of both elliptic and circular conducting cylinders is investigated in this paper through the design of conformal and polarization-independent gradient metasurfaces. The presented metasurface designs employ varying phase gradient along the circumferential direction of the involved cylinder so that effective retroreflection can be achieved through redirecting the scattering dispersed by the conducting cylinder back to the direction from which the plane electromagnetic wave is coming. Supported by a grounded thin substrate with a relatively high dielectric constant, a modified loop array with compact unit cell is used to implement the nonuniformly or uniformly sampled phase gradient of the metasurface. It is observed that the metasurface-coated elliptic and circular cylinders can generate backscattering very close to that by corresponding flat conducting plates with their main planes perpendicular to the incident wave vector, for both transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse electric (TE) polarizations. Compared with the conducting cylinders without coating, the backscattering is thus effectively enhanced by the conformal gradient metasurfaces. Good agreement between simulated and measured backscattering results validates the observations.
Autors: Yuping Shang;Zhongxiang Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2386 - 2396
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Polling and Prediction in the 2016 Presidential Election
Abstract:
In the wake of experts' failure to predict the outcome of the 2016 presidential election, a rigorous analysis of what went right and wrong is needed to improve future polling. Despite claims that "data is dead," low-tech factors such as sampling errors and inaccurate likely-voter models were probably most responsible.
Autors: Nicholas A. Valentino;John Leslie King;Walter W. Hill;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 110 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Portable Luminescence Based Fiber Optic Probe for REE Detection and Quantification
Abstract:
A novel luminescence-based sensor was developed for the rapid, insitu detection and quantification of rare earth elements for potential applications in waste recovery. The device has the capability to detect /L (part-per billion) concentrations of several rare earths in aqueous solution within 1 min, and it is portable given a physical dimension of less than 1/2 m3. Whereas, conventional table-top devices used for this type of analysis are bulky and have high costs, in addition to the typical two week long processing times for laboratory analyses of rare earths. The rapid return of results that this portable and rugged device provides can save the end user the cost of inaction during recovery or mining operations, potentially allowing for “in line” monitoring or rapid field sampling. Luminescence sensitizers were used to lower the limit of detection of the rare earths in comparison with direct excitation, by approximately an order of magnitude. Examples of luminescence sensitizers tested include M(CN)2 (where M = Ag, Au, Cu) and 2,2 bipyridine.
Autors: John C. Ahern;Zsolt L. Poole;John Baltrus;Paul R. Ohodnicki;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2644 - 2648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Position Sensorless Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Numerical Method
Abstract:
In this paper, a new position sensorless control method for switched reluctance motor drives is proposed. Rotor position is initially calculated based on the flux linkage-position–phase current characteristics by numerical method. Then, a third-order-phase-locked loop considering the acceleration variation is designed to undermine the impact of current sampling noise and numerical residual error on the estimated rotor position. A new start-up sequence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed position sensorless control method has achieved sufficient accuracy in terms of position and speed estimation.
Autors: Fei Peng;Jin Ye;Ali Emadi;Yunkai Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2159 - 2168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Postearthquake Landslides Mapping From Landsat-8 Data for the 2015 Nepal Earthquake Using a Pixel-Based Change Detection Method
Abstract:
The 2015 Nepal earthquake and its aftershocks not only caused huge damage with severe loss of life and property, also induced many geohazards with the major type of landslide which should bring continuous threats to the affected region. To gain a better understanding of the landslides induced by this earthquake, we proposed a pixel-based change detection method for postearthquake landslide mapping by using bitemporal Landsat-8 remote sensing data [May 29, 2014 (pre-earthquake) and June 1, 2015 (postearthquake)]. Two river valleys (Trishuli river valley and Sun Koshi river valley) that contain important economic arteries linking Nepal and China were selected as the study areas. Validation of the mapping results with postearthquake high-resolution images from Google Earth shows that the pixel-based landslide mapping method is able to identify landslides with relatively high accuracy, and it also approves the applicability of Landsat-8 satellite for landslide mapping with its multispectral information. The spatial distribution analysis indicates that both river valleys are substantially affected by landslides, and the situation is even more serious in the high mountain areas. Landslides are generally found in areas of high elevation and large surface slopes, with mean values above 1600 m and 30°, respectively. These findings suggest that these areas suffer greatly from these geohazards, and the threat will continue for the next few years.
Autors: Wei Zhao;Ainong Li;Xi Nan;Zhengjian Zhang;Guangbin Lei;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1758 - 1768
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Pothole in the Dark: Perceiving Pothole Profiles with Participatory Urban Vehicles
Abstract:
Accessing to timely and accurate road condition information, especially about dangerous potholes is of great importance to the public and the government. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, called , which utilizes smartphones placed in normal vehicles to sense and estimate the profiles of potholes on urban surface roads. In particular, a -enabled smartphone can actively learn the knowledge about the suspension system of the host vehicle without any human intervention and adopts a one degree-of-freedom (DOF) vibration model to infer the depth and length of pothole while the vehicle is hitting the pothole. Furthermore, shows the potential to derive more accurate results by aggregating individual estimates. In essence, is light-weighted and robust to various conditions such as poor light, bad weather, and different vehicle types. We have implemented a prototype system to prove the practical feasibility of . The results of extensive experiments based on real trace demonstrate the efficacy of the design. On average, can achieve low depth and length estimation error rates of 13 and 16 percent, respectively.
Autors: Guangtao Xue;Hongzi Zhu;Zhenxian Hu;Jiadi Yu;Yanmin Zhu;Yuan Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1408 - 1419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» POTORI: a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect architecture for data centers
Abstract:
Several optical interconnect architectures inside data centers (DCs) have been proposed to efficiently handle the rapidly growing traffic demand. However, not many works have tackled the interconnects at top-of-rack (ToR), which have a large impact on the performance of the data center networks (DCNs) and can introduce serious scalability limitations due to their high cost and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a passive optical ToR interconnect architecture (POTORI) to replace the conventional electronic packet switch (EPS) in the access tier of DCNs. In the data plane, POTORI relies on a passive optical coupler to interconnect the servers within the rack and interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. The POTORI control plane is based on a centralized rack controller responsible for managing the communications among the servers in the rack. We propose a cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack. We also introduce and evaluate a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for POTORI, namely largest first (LF). Extensive simulation results show that, with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers, POTORI and the proposed LF strategy are able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs under realistic DC traffic scenarios, outperforming conventional EPSs. On the other hand, with slower tunable optical transceivers, a careful configuration of the network parameters (e.g., maximum cycle time of the MAC protocol) is necessary to obtain a good network performance in terms of the average packet delay.
Autors: Yuxin Cheng;Matteo Fiorani;Rui Lin;Lena Wosinska;Jiajia Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 401 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power Management Comparison for a Dual-Motor-Propulsion System Used in a Battery Electric Bus
Abstract:
The efficiency performance of multi-motor-driven system highly depends on the power management. Three aspects of contribution have been made in this study. 1) A predictive power management for a DMPS is developed. To improve the performance of the predictive power management, an adaptive velocity predictor is proposed and the coefficients of proposed predictor can update its parameters according to identified driving patterns. Simulation results show that the new velocity predictor have best prediction performance compared with traditional predictors. 2) A neural network based power management is proposed. According to the optimization results of dynamic programming, radial-basis-function neural network is trained. The input dimensions and the number of hidden layer neurons of the neural network are optimized. 3) The performance of proposed control strategies are compared with three different drive cycles including MANHATTAN cycle, Japanese 1015 cycle, and UDDSHDV cycle. Simulation results indicate that compared with original control strategy, the predictive control strategy and neural network based control strategy show better efficiency performance. The neural network based strategy is verified by hardware-in-loop experiment and experiment results indicate that the control performance in real hardware shows similar property with simulation results.
Autors: Chengning Zhang;Shuo Zhang;Guangwei Han;Haipeng Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3873 - 3882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power Quality Enhancement for a Grid Connected Wind Turbine Energy System
Abstract:
A comprehensive control of a wind turbine system connected to an industrial plant is discussed in this paper, where an algorithm has been developed allowing a control structure that utilizes a four-leg inverter connected to the grid side to inject the available energy, as well as to work as an active power filter mitigating load current disturbances and enhancing power quality. A four-wire system is considered with three-phase and single-phase linear and nonlinear loads. During the connection of the wind turbine, the utility-side controller is designed to compensate the disturbances caused in presence of reactive, nonlinear, and/or unbalanced single- and intra-phase loads, in addition to providing active and reactive power as required. When there is no wind power available, the controller is intended to improve the power quality using the dc-link capacitor with the power converter attached to the grid. The main difference of the proposed methodology with respect to others in the literature is that the proposed control structure is based on the conservative power theory decompositions. This choice provides decoupled power and current references for the inverter control, offering very flexible, selective, and powerful functionalities. Real-time software benchmarking has been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed control algorithm for full real-time implementation. The control methodology is implemented and validated in hardware-in-the-loop based on the real time simulator “Opal-RT” and a TMSF28335 DSP microcontroller. The results corroborated our power quality enhancement control and allowed to exclude passive filters, contributing to a more compact, flexible, and reliable electronic implementation of a smart-grid based control.
Autors: Abdullah S. Bubshait;Ali Mortezaei;Marcelo Godoy Simões;Tiago Davi Curi Busarello;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2495 - 2505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power Spectral Density of Magnetization Dynamics Driven by a Jump-Noise Process
Abstract:
Random magnetization dynamics driven by a jump-noise process is reduced to stochastic magnetic energy dynamics on specific graphs using an averaging technique. An approach to analyzing stochastic energy dynamics on graphs is presented and applied to the calculation of power spectral density of random magnetization dynamics. An eigenvalue technique for computing the power spectral density under specific cases is also presented and illustrated by numerical results.
Autors: A. Lee;G. Bertotti;C. Serpico;I. Mayergoyz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power System State and Transmission Line Conductor Temperature Estimation
Abstract:
This paper presents a state estimation technique for three-phase power systems where not only bus voltage phasors but also the temperature of transmission line conductors is considered as states. Transmission line admittance parameters depending on line conductor and ambient temperature are approximated from the pre-computed data based on polynomial interpolations. Weather environment and heat-balance equations have been also included in the measurement functions in order to estimate the temperature of conductors. The technique for segmenting transmission lines is also applied for handling temperature variations along the lines. The estimation problem is then formulated as a constrained nonlinear optimization based on the weighted least-squares criterion. A solution is obtained by applying a predictor–corrector interior point algorithm. Simulation results on some three-phase power systems indicate that the proposed method yields estimations with a better accuracy.
Autors: Chawasak Rakpenthai;Sermsak Uatrongjit;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1818 - 1827
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Power-Constrained Secrecy Rate Maximization for Joint Relay and Jammer Selection Assisted Wireless Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we examine the physical layer security for cooperative wireless networks with multiple intermediate nodes, where the decode-and-forward protocol is considered. We propose a new joint relay and jammer selection (JRJS) scheme for protecting wireless communications against eavesdropping, where an intermediate node is selected as the relay for the sake of forwarding the source signal to the destination and meanwhile, the remaining intermediate nodes are employed to act as friendly jammers, which broadcast the artificial noise for disturbing the eavesdropper. We further investigate the power allocation among the source, relay and friendly jammers for maximizing the secrecy rate of proposed JRJS scheme, and derive a closed-form sub-optimal solution. Specifically, all the intermediate nodes, which successfully decode the source signal, are considered as relay candidates. For each candidate, we derive the sub-optimal closed-form power allocation solution and obtain the secrecy rate result of the corresponding JRJS scheme. Then, the candidate, which is capable of achieving the highest secrecy rate, is selected as the relay. Two assumptions about the channel state information (CSI), namely the full CSI (FCSI) and partial CSI (PCSI), are considered. Simulation results show that the proposed JRJS scheme outperforms the conventional pure relay selection, pure jamming, and generalized singular-value-decomposition-based beamforming schemes in terms of secrecy rate. Additionally, the proposed FCSI-based power allocation and PCSI-based power allocation schemes both achieve higher secrecy rates than the equal power allocation scheme.
Autors: Haiyan Guo;Zhen Yang;Linghua Zhang;Jia Zhu;Yulong Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2180 - 2193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Practical Opportunistic Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks
Abstract:
Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks (WSN-MSs) are considered a viable alternative to the heavy cost of deployment of traditional wireless sensing infrastructures at scale. However, current state-of-the-art approaches perform poorly in practice due to their requirement of mobility prediction and specific assumptions on network topology. In this paper, we focus on low-delay and high-throughput opportunistic data collection in WSN-MSs with general network topologies and arbitrary numbers of mobile sinks. We first propose a novel routing metric, Contact-Aware ETX (CA-ETX), to estimate the packet transmission delay caused by both packet retransmissions and intermittent connectivity. By implementing CA-ETX in the defacto TinyOS routing standard CTP and the IETF IPv6 routing protocol RPL, we demonstrate that CA-ETX can work seamlessly with ETX. This means that current ETX-based routing protocols for static WSNs can be easily extended to WSN-MSs with minimal modification by using CA-ETX. Further, by combing CA-ETX with the dynamic backpressure routing, we present a throughput-optimal scheme Opportunistic Backpressure Collection (OBC). Both CA-ETX and OBC are lightweight, easy to implement, and require no mobility prediction. Through test-bed experiments and extensive simulations, we show that the proposed schemes significantly outperform current approaches in terms of packet transmission delay, communication overhead, storage overheads, reliability, and scalability.
Autors: Shusen Yang;Usman Adeel;Yad Tahir;Julie A. McCann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1420 - 1433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Precise Position Synchronous Control for Multi-Axis Servo Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a general solution of precise position synchronous control for multi-axis servo systems. The control strategy to achieve high-precision motion is summarized in two main points: an adaptive-fuzzy friction compensator is adopted in the independent control loop of each axis to compensate the nonlinear friction, and then a method which combines global sliding mode control with two adjacent axes cross-coupling technology is proposed to minimize not only single-axis position error but also synchronous errors of all motion axes. At first, the adaptive fuzzy algorithm including dynamic model of the system is utilized to design a friction compensation controller. Next, to improve robustness of the multi-axis motion system against variation of motor parameters and external disturbances, global sliding mode control is introduced. In addition, the multi-axis synchronous control based on cross-coupling technology is elaborately designed via proportional-differential control law. The performance of the proposed control system is investigated through extensive simulations based on a popular motion platform. Furthermore, experimental study shows that the results successfully demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed position synchronous control method for a general four-axis servo system.
Autors: Guoliang Zhong;Zhizhong Shao;Hua Deng;Junli Ren;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3707 - 3717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Preconditioned Data Sparsification for Big Data With Applications to PCA and K-Means
Abstract:
We analyze a compression scheme for large data sets that randomly keeps a small percentage of the components of each data sample. The benefit is that the output is a sparse matrix, and therefore, subsequent processing, such as principal component analysis (PCA) or K-means, is significantly faster, especially in a distributed-data setting. Furthermore, the sampling is single-pass and applicable to streaming data. The sampling mechanism is a variant of previous methods proposed in the literature combined with a randomized preconditioning to smooth the data. We provide guarantees for PCA in terms of the covariance matrix, and guarantees for K-means in terms of the error in the center estimators at a given step. We present numerical evidence to show both that our bounds are nearly tight and that our algorithms provide a real benefit when applied to standard test data sets, as well as providing certain benefits over related sampling approaches.
Autors: Farhad Pourkamali-Anaraki;Stephen Becker;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2954 - 2974
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Predicting Image Memorability Through Adaptive Transfer Learning From External Sources
Abstract:
Remembering images is an innate human capability. Camera images are captured by different people under varying environmental conditions, which leads to highly diverse image memorability scores. However, the factors that make an image more or less memorable are unclear, and it remains unknown how we can more accurately predict image memorability by using such factors. In this paper, we propose a novel framework called multiview transfer learning from external sources (MTLES) to predict image memorability. In this framework, we simultaneously leverage different types of visual feature sets and multiple types of predefined image attributes derived from external sources. In particular, to enhance representation ability of visual features, we construct connections between visual feature sets and higher level image attributes by transferring attribute knowledge from external sources. MTLES integrates weak learning through external sources, transfer learning, and multiview consistency loss with different types of feature sets into a joint framework. To better solve this joint optimization problem, we further develop an alternating iterative algorithm to deal with it. Experiments performed on the publicly available LaMem dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Peiguang Jing;Yuting Su;Liqiang Nie;Huimin Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1050 - 1062
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Preflight Spectral Calibration of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2
Abstract:
This paper describes the preflight spectral calibration methods and results for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2), following the approach developed for the first OCO. The instrument line shape (ILS) function and dispersion parameters were determined through laser-based spectroscopic measurements, and then further optimized by comparing solar spectra recorded simultaneously on the ground by the OCO-2 flight instrument and a collocated high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The resulting ILS profiles and dispersion parameters, when applied to the FTS solar data, showed agreement between the spectra recorded by the spectrometers and FTS to approximately 0.2% RMS, satisfying the preflight spectral calibration accuracy requirement of <;0.25% RMS. Specific changes to the OCO-2 instrument and calibration process, compared to the original OCO, include stray-light protection; improved laser setup; increased spectral sampling; enhanced data screening, and incremental improvements in the ILS, dispersion, and FTS optimization analyses.
Autors: Richard A. M. Lee;Christopher W. O’Dell;Debra Wunch;Coleen M. Roehl;Gregory B. Osterman;Jean-Francois Blavier;Robert Rosenberg;Lars Chapsky;Christian Frankenberg;Sarah L. Hunyadi-Lay;Brendan M. Fisher;David M. Rider;David Crisp;Randy Pollock;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2499 - 2508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Preserving Privacy with Probabilistic Indistinguishability in Weighted Social Networks
Abstract:
The increasing popularity of social networks has inspired recent research to explore social graphs for marketing and data mining. As social networks often contain sensitive information about individuals, preserving privacy when publishing social graphs becomes an important issue. In this paper, we consider the identity disclosure problem in releasing weighted social graphs. We identify weighted 1*-neighborhood attacks, which assume that an attacker has knowledge about not only a target's one-hop neighbors and connections between them (1-neighborhood graph), but also related node degrees and edge weights. With this information, an attacker may re-identify a target with high confidence, even if any node's 1-neighborhood graph is isomorphic with other nodes’ graphs. To counter this attack while preserving high utility of the published graph, we define a key privacy property, probabilistic indistinguishability, and propose a heuristic indistinguishable group anonymization (HIGA) scheme to anonymize a weighted social graph with such a property. Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic data sets illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme.
Autors: Qin Liu;Guojun Wang;Feng Li;Shuhui Yang;Jie Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1417 - 1429
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Preserving Synchronization Accuracy From the Plug-in of NonSynchronized Nodes in a Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
The synchronization accuracy of the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be perturbed by the plug-in of nonsynchronized nodes (NSNs). In the case of peer-to-peer synchronization algorithms, the reference time of the WSN is established on the basis of the clock time of all nodes. Therefore, each NSN changes the reference time to synchronize all nodes with the new reference time interval needs. In this time interval, the synchronization accuracy can degrade, i.e., the delay among node clocks overcomes the admissible range. In the case of only one or many NSNs, it was assessed in previous papers that by filtering the message of each NSN, the synchronization accuracy of the already synchronized nodes (ASNs) is preserved. However, the spatial distribution of the NSNs can fool the ASNs, foiling the effect of the message filtering. This paper presents a procedure that overcomes this inconvenience. The new fully distributed and consensus-based procedure iteratively filters the messages of communicating NSNs that would increase the time delay over the admissible range. As a consequence, the synchronization accuracy is preserved whatever the spatial distribution of ASNs and NSNs. Numerical and experimental tests are performed to validate the proposed procedure.
Autors: Francesco Lamonaca;Domenico Luca Carnì;Maria Riccio;Domenico Grimaldi;Gregorio Andria;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 1058 - 1066
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Printed Motes for IoT Wireless Networks: State of the Art, Challenges, and Outlooks
Abstract:
Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been an active field of research for many years, the modules incorporated by WSN nodes have been mainly manufactured utilizing conventional fabrication techniques that are mostly subtractive, requiring significant amounts of materials and increased chemical waste. The new era of the Internet of Things (IoT) will see the fabrication of numerous small form factor devices for wireless sensing for a plurality of applications, including security, health, and environmental monitoring. The large volume of these devices will require new directions in terms of manufacturing cost and energy efficiency, which will be achieved with redesigned, energy-aware modules. This paper presents the state of the art of printed passives, sensors, energy harvesting modules, actives, and communication front ends, and summarizes the challenges of implementing modules that feature low power consumptions without compromising the low fabrication cost. The plethora of the modules presented herein will facilitate the implementation of low cost, additively manufactured, energy-aware IoT nodes that can be fabricated in large volumes with green processes.
Autors: Jimmy G. D. Hester;John Kimionis;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1819 - 1830
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Printed Organic Circuits for Reading Ferroelectric Rewritable Memory Capacitors
Abstract:
We demonstrate an inkjet-printed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) circuit for reading ferroelectric (FE) nonvolatile rewritable memories. With the large difference in polarization charge between FE memory states, we implement a single-OTFT gain stage with latch and show that a gain of −2.8 is sufficient to distinguish memory states. This paper evaluates the effect of device variations on the yield of this readout circuit.
Autors: Tse Nga Ng;David E. Schwartz;Ping Mei;Sivkheng Kor;Janos Veres;Per Bröms;Christer Karlsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1981 - 1984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Privacy Preserving Cloth Try-On Using Mobile Augmented Reality
Abstract:
Virtual try-on applications make it possible for buyers to watch themselves wearing different garments without physically trying on them. The prevailing approach for virtual try-on has been based on virtual fitting rooms, in which several cameras are used to identify the skeleton and posture of a user in order to render a garment on the user's image. Although this approach has been implemented successfully using different techniques, the privacy of users can be compromised as some users might be reluctant to stand in front of cameras in a fitting room. This paper proposes an alternative approach that allows a customer to watch a three-dimensional (3D) model of her/him wearing garments on a personal mobile device using augmented reality (AR). Among 3D human models that are automatically generated, a model selection technique is proposed that makes it possible to find the right size model representing the anthropometric features of the user. This approach is accompanied by body customization and face generation modules to generate a realistic representation. Several quantitative experiments as well as user studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy, efficiency, usefulness, and privacy of the proposed technique.
Autors: Yoones A. Sekhavat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1041 - 1049
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Proactive Eavesdropping via Cognitive Jamming in Fading Channels
Abstract:
To enhance the national security, there is a growing need for authorized parties to legitimately monitor suspicious communication links for preventing intended crimes and terror attacks. In this paper, we propose a new wireless information surveillance paradigm by investigating a scenario, where a legitimate monitor aims to intercept a suspicious wireless link over fading channels. The legitimate monitor can successfully eavesdrop (decode) the information of the suspicious link at each fading state only when its achievable data rate is no smaller than that at the suspicious receiver. We propose a new approach, namely, proactive eavesdropping via cognitive jamming, in which the legitimate monitor purposely jams the receiver in a full-duplex mode so as to change the suspicious communication (e.g., to a smaller data rate) for overhearing more efficiently. By assuming perfect self-interference cancelation (SIC) and global channel state information (CSI) at the legitimate monitor, we characterize the fundamental information-theoretic limits of proactive eavesdropping. We consider both delay-sensitive and delay-tolerant applications for the suspicious communication, under which the legitimate monitor maximizes the eavesdropping non-outage probability (for event-based monitoring) and the relative eavesdropping rate (for content analysis), respectively, by optimizing the jamming power allocation over different fading states subject to an average power constraint. Numerical results show that the proposed proactive eavesdropping via cognitive jamming approach greatly outperforms other benchmark schemes. Furthermore, by extending to a more practical scenario with residual SI and local CSI, we design an efficient online cognitive jamming scheme inspired by the optimal cognitive jamming with perfect SIC and global CSI.
Autors: Jie Xu;Lingjie Duan;Rui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 2790 - 2806
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probabilistic Equalization With a Smoothing Expectation Propagation Approach
Abstract:
In this paper, we face the soft equalization of channels with inter-symbol interference for large constellation sizes, . In this scenario, the optimal BCJR solution and most of their approximations are intractable, as the number of states they track grows fast with . We present a probabilistic equalizer to approximate the posterior distributions of the transmitted symbols using the expectation propagation (EP) algorithm. The solution is presented as a recursive sliding window approach to ensure that the computational complexity is linear with the length of the frame. The estimations can be further improved with a forward–backward approach. This novel soft equalizer, denoted as smoothing EP (SEP), is also tested as a turbo equalizer, with a low-density parity-check (LDPC) channel decoder. The extensive results reported reveal remarkably good behavior of the SEP. In low dimensional cases, the bit error rate (BER) curves after decoding are closer than 1 dB from those of the BJCR, robust to the channel response. For large , the SEP exhibits gains in the range of 3–5 dB compared to the linear minimum mean square error algorithm.
Autors: Irene Santos;Juan José Murillo-Fuentes;Eva Arias-de-Reyna;Pablo M. Olmos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 2950 - 2962
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probabilistic Forecasting of Photovoltaic Generation: An Efficient Statistical Approach
Abstract:
A novel efficient probabilistic forecasting approach is proposed to accurately quantify the variability and uncertainty of the power production from photovoltaic (PV) systems. Distinguished from most existing models, a linear programming-based prediction interval construction model for PV power generation is established based on an extreme learning machine and quantile regression, featuring high reliability and computational efficiency. The proposed approach is validated through the numerical studies on PV data from Denmark.
Autors: Can Wan;Jin Lin;Yonghua Song;Zhao Xu;Guangya Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2471 - 2472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Probabilistic Small-Cell Caching: Performance Analysis and Optimization
Abstract:
Small-cell caching utilizes the embedded storage of small-cell base stations (SBSs) to store popular contents for the sake of reducing duplicated content transmissions in networks and for offloading the data traffic from macrocell base stations to SBSs. In this paper, we study a probabilistic small-cell caching strategy, where each SBS caches a subset of contents with a specific caching probability. We consider two kinds of network architectures: 1) The SBSs are always active, which is referred to as the always-on architecture; and 2) the SBSs are activated on demand by mobile users (MUs), which is referred to as the dynamic on–off architecture. We focus our attention on the probability that MUs can successfully download content from the storage of SBSs. First, we derive theoretical results of this successful download probability (SDP) using stochastic geometry theory. Then, we investigate the impact of the SBS parameters, such as the transmission power and deployment intensity on the SDP. Furthermore, we optimize the caching probabilities by maximizing the SDP based on our stochastic geometry analysis. The intrinsic amalgamation of optimization theory and stochastic geometry based analysis leads to our optimal caching strategy, characterized by the resultant closed-form expressions. Our results show that in the always-on architecture, the optimal caching probabilities solely depend on the content request probabilities, while in the dynamic on–off architecture, they also relate to the MU-to-SBS intensity ratio. Interestingly, in both architectures, the optimal caching probabilities are linear functions of the square root of the content request probabilities. Monte-Carlo simulations validate our theoretical analysis and show that the proposed schemes relying on the optimal caching probabilities are capable of achieving substantial SDP improvement, compared with the benchmark schemes.
Autors: Youjia Chen;Ming Ding;Jun Li;Zihuai Lin;Guoqiang Mao;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4341 - 4354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Procedure to Match the Dynamic Response of MPPT and Droop-Controlled Microinverters
Abstract:
Due to the absence of communication needs and great reliability, the droop-control technique is a great choice for controlling of inverters that are subjected to load sharing or to work in an islanded mode. On the other hand, current-controlled inverters are often used in grid-connected systems due to their fast response to power the implementation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to maximize the power extracted from these systems. However, the application of such algorithms in grid-connected droop-controlled systems is hampered by differences in the dynamic responses of the respective techniques. In this context, this study presents the development of a strategy that enables a push–pull converter controlled by MPPT and a low-power plug and play grid-connected inverter governed by droop control to operate stably even under variations in solar radiation. The goal is achieved based on the following two approaches: designing the dc-link capacitor properly and using a control loop in order to adapt the droop curves in accordance with the available input power. Theoretical analysis and experimental results have proven the viability of the approach.
Autors: Ruben Barros Godoy;Douglas Buytendorp Bizarro;Elvey Tessaro de Andrade;Jurandir de Oliveira Soares;Pedro Eugênio Marcondes Justino Ribeiro;Leonardo A. Carniato;Marcio L. M. Kimpara;João O. P. Pinto;Kamal Al-Haddad;Carlos Alberto Canesin
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2358 - 2368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Process Monitoring for Multimodal Processes With Mode-Reachability Constraints
Abstract:
For increased efficiency and profitability, many processes have multiple modes of operation. Switching between different operating modes is performed according to the standard operating procedures. These procedures are set by considering safety and operating limitations of various subsystems and equipment, and thus put restrictions on the switching of the process modes. In this paper, a hidden Markov model based monitoring method is proposed that can not only handle the multimodality of process data but can also capture the mode switching restrictions. A two-step Viterbi algorithm is proposed for effective mode detection in the event of faults, and a reconstruction-based fault isolation algorithm is developed to build the contribution plots. Application examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed monitoring method.
Autors: Muhammad Shahzad Afzal;Wen Tan;Tongwen Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4325 - 4335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Process Variation Analysis and Optimization of a FinFET-Based VCO
Abstract:
Fin-type field-effect transistors (FinFETs) are promising substitutes for bulk CMOS for nanoscale technologies. In this paper, the viability of a mixed-signal design for FinFET-based technologies using a nanoscale current-starved voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is investigated. Design issues are analyzed and a comparison between a CMOS VCO and a FinFET-based VCO is presented. The figures-of-merit used for comparison are center frequency and frequency–voltage (–) characteristics under process variation. Models are developed for the – characteristics of both the CMOS and FinFET VCOs. In addition, width quantization-aware modeling has been performed for the FinFET-based VCO using a polynomial metamodel, which can be used for further optimization. The quantization aware modeling is highly accurate as evident from a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and root mean square error of 6.2 MHz. The FinFET VCO has faster oscillation frequency with 2.6% variability as opposed to 19.7% for the CMOS VCO. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that examines FinFET technology with respect to process variation in mixed signal designs at the circuit level, and presents a quantitative as well as qualitative comparison between CMOS and FinFET technologies.
Autors: Venkata P. Yanambaka;Saraju P. Mohanty;Elias Kougianos;Dhruva Ghai;Garima Ghai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 126 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Processing Sliding Mosaic Mode Data With Modified Full-Aperture Imaging Algorithm Integrating Scalloping Correction
Abstract:
Modified full-aperture imaging algorithm for sliding Mosaic mode synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is presented in this paper, which includes scalloping correction and spikes suppression. The full-aperture imaging algorithm is introduced into Mosaic mode and validated by real C-band airborne SAR imaging experiments. The main idea is to substitute zeros between bursts with linear-predicted data extrapolated from adjacent bursts to suppress the spikes caused by multibursts processing. Furthermore, scalloping correction for sliding Mosaic mode is integrated with this algorithm. It is innovational to correct the azimuth beam pattern weighting altered by radar antenna rotation in azimuth with deramping preprocessing operation. Finally, experiments performed by the C-band airborne SAR system with a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz validate the effectiveness of the approach.
Autors: Ning Li;Robert Wang;Yunkai Deng;Tuan Zhao;Wei Wang;Heng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1804 - 1812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Profile: enviro power - This company is bringing microcogeneration to the U.S. [Resources_Startups]
Abstract:
Cogeneration, or combined heat and power (CHP), is the simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat. The global market for cogeneration equipment could hit US $43.8 billion by 2020, according to market research firm Global Industry Analysts. Cogeneration is often associated with large power plants in North America, and few there have modified the technology for small-scale commercial use. And nobody is selling a microcogeneration unit in the United States that is affordable enough for the average single-family house.
Autors: Theresa Sullivan Barger;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 22 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Progress Overview of Capturing Method for Integral 3-D Imaging Displays
Abstract:
An integral 3-D technique provides a 3-D spatial image viewable from varying positions without the use of special light sources or viewing glasses. Therefore, this technique shows promise for diverse applications in various fields, including 3-D television broadcasting, advertising, and medical diagnostics. However, there are problems in capturing and displaying large amounts of information in realizing practical integral imaging devices. This paper overviews integral 3-D capturing methods and analyzes integral 3-D imaging technology at its capturing and displaying stages. To overcome the resolution problem, it also introduces our recent work for capturing high-resolution integral imaging information. The introduced device consists of a multiple-lens array and a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor image sensor with a circuit patterned using multiple exposures. This device can capture depth-controlled spatial information by introducing additional optics. Two types of optics for depth control are applied to the capturing device: one functions as a convex lens to control and compress a relatively large object space and the other functions as an afocal lens array that controls a relatively small object space without any distortion in the depthwise direction. Experimental results of spatial information capturing and 3-D image displays confirm that the method produces 3-D images having an appropriate motion parallax. The presented method is scalable; thus, this technique offers possibilities for developing advanced high-resolution integral 3-D imaging devices.
Autors: Jun Arai;Eisuke Nakasu;Takayuki Yamashita;Hitoshi Hiura;Masato Miura;Tomohiro Nakamura;Ryohei Funatsu;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 837 - 849
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Properties of an Aloha-Like Stability Region
Abstract:
A well-known inner bound on the stability region of the finite-user slotted Aloha protocol is the set of all arrival rates for which there exists some choice of the contention probabilities such that the associated worst case service rate for each user exceeds the user’s arrival rate, denoted . Although testing membership in of a given arrival rate can be posed as a convex program, it is nonetheless of interest to understand the properties of this set. In this paper, we develop new results of this nature, including, 1) an equivalence between membership in and the existence of a positive root of a given polynomial, 2) a method to construct a vector of contention probabilities to stabilize any stabilizable arrival rate vector, 3) the volume of , 4) explicit polyhedral, spherical, and ellipsoid inner and outer bounds on , and 5) characterization of the generalized convexity properties of a natural “excess rate” function associated with , including the convexity of the set of contention probabilities that stabilize a given arrival rate vector.
Autors: Nan Xie;John MacLaren Walsh;Steven Weber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3181 - 3208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Proportional Fairness-Based Beamforming and Signal Splitting for MISO-SWIPT Systems
Abstract:
The problem of proportional fairness-based beamforming and power splitting is investigated for simultaneous wireless information and power transferring systems. Due to the non-convexity of the formulated problem, a suboptimal solution is proposed based on the classical zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) and maximal ratio transmission techniques. To overcome the limitation of the ZFBF technique, a successive approximation-based algorithm is proposed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Yanjie Dong;Xin Ge;Jahangir Hossain;Julian Cheng;Victor C. M. Leung;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1135 - 1138
Publisher: IEEE
 

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