Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 12

» Multiple Solutions of Optimal PMU Placement Using Exponential Binary PSO Algorithm for Smart Grid Applications
Abstract:
For smart grid execution, one of the most important requirements is fast, precise, and efficient synchronized measurements, which are possible by phasor measurement unit (PMU). To achieve fully observable network with the least number of PMUs, optimal placement of PMU (OPP) is crucial. In trying to achieve OPP, priority may be given at critical buses, generator buses, or buses that are meant for future extension. Also, different applications will have to be kept in view while prioritizing PMU placement. Hence, OPP with multiple solutions (MSs) can offer better flexibility for different placement strategies as it can meet the best solution based on the requirements. To provide MSs, an effective exponential binary particle swarm optimization (EBPSO) algorithm is developed. In this algorithm, a nonlinear inertia-weight-coefficient is used to improve the searching capability. To incorporate previous position of particle, two innovative mathematical equations that can update particle's position are formulated. For quick and reliable convergence, two useful filtration techniques that can facilitate MSs are applied. Single mutation operator is conditionally applied to avoid stagnation. The EBPSO algorithm is so developed that it can provide MSs for various practical contingencies, such as single PMU outage and single line outage for different systems.
Autors: Tapas Kumar Maji;Parimal Acharjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2550 - 2559
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Frequency DBIM-TwIST Algorithm for Microwave Breast Imaging
Abstract:
A novel distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) algorithm is proposed for microwave breast imaging based on the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding method. We show that this implementation is more flexible and robust than using traditional Krylov subspace methods such as the CGLS as solvers of the ill-posed linear problem. This paper presents several strategies to increase the algorithm’s robustness: a hybrid multifrequency approach to achieve an optimal tradeoff between imaging accuracy and reconstruction stability; a new approach to estimate the average breast tissues properties, based on sampling along their range of possible values and running a few DBIM iterations to find the minimum error; and finally, a new regularization strategy for the DBIM method based on the norm and the Pareto curve. We present reconstruction examples which illustrate the benefits of these optimization strategies, which have resulted in a DBIM algorithm that outperforms our previous implementations for microwave breast imaging.
Autors: Zhenzhuang Miao;Panagiotis Kosmas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2507 - 2516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiport Interferometer-Enabled 2-D Angle of Arrival (AOA) Estimation System
Abstract:
A systematic scheme for finding the direction of arrival (DOA) or 2-D angle of arrival (AOA) of an electromagnetic beam is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This system estimates the respective angle of propagation vector of an incoming plane wave in either horizontal or vertical plane. It consists of three main parts, namely, an antenna, a multiport wave interferometric receiver or phase discriminator, and a signal processor. The antenna is composed of four receiving elements located in the same plane, which is arranged in a diamond-shaped configuration. The received signals manifest relative phase differences that contain information about the beam’s DOA. With the proposed eight-port junction topology, the interferometer extracts these informative phase differences and leaves them for a simple signal processing algorithm to estimate the two angles. The theoretical analysis of the proposed scheme is presented along with system-level simulation results for the proof of concept. In addition, an appropriate calibration technique is formulated to deal with nonidealities and consecutive errors in practice. One of the main applications of such a system is related to the angular detection of an antenna-to-antenna misalignment in pencil beam millimeter-wave systems. Therefore, implementation of the presented system scheme for millimeter wave applications is briefly discussed for its prototyping over 60-GHz range (V-band). Finally, the performance of the prototype system is assessed through a set of system-level measurements. Excellent results are obtained, thus validating the outstanding functionality of the proposed system. Simplicity, low cost, compact size, and operational accuracy make this system a superior candidate for 2-D angle detection applications.
Autors: Jaber Moghaddasi;Tarek Djerafi;Ke Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1767 - 1779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Simulation of Power System Transients Based on the Matrix Exponential Function
Abstract:
Power system electro-magnetic transient programs (EMTP) have been popular among researchers and practitioners due to their detailed component modeling and high simulation accuracy for complex system operations. Despite broad applications in simulations with wide range of timescales, the small discretization step of these programs makes their use very time-consuming for system studies with long time span. Facing the increasingly complex power system transient characteristics and simulation demands, a multiscale algorithm that integrates the simulations of the electromagnetic and slower electromechanical transients is desirable. The multiscale simulation algorithm preserves the high fidelity of the EMTP and attains higher efficiency for the overall transient simulation. In this paper, we achieve this goal by exploiting the unique properties of the matrix exponential function. The proposed algorithm is capable of utilizing large step sizes to speed up the simulation of slow dynamics, whereas the fast transients are accurately reconstructed through efficient dense output mechanism, which is built upon the matrix exponential function computation. Numerical studies including a large-scale wind farm simulation are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multiscale algorithm.
Autors: Chengshan Wang;Xiaopeng Fu;Peng Li;Jianzhong Wu;Liwei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1913 - 1926
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multisensor Coupled Spectral Unmixing for Time-Series Analysis
Abstract:
We present a new framework, called multisensor coupled spectral unmixing (MuCSUn), that solves unmixing problems involving a set of multisensor time-series spectral images in order to understand dynamic changes of the surface at a subpixel scale. The proposed methodology couples multiple unmixing problems based on regularization on graphs between the time-series data to obtain robust and stable unmixing solutions beyond data modalities due to different sensor characteristics and the effects of nonoptimal atmospheric correction. Atmospheric normalization and cross calibration of spectral response functions are integrated into the framework as a preprocessing step. The proposed methodology is quantitatively validated using a synthetic data set that includes seasonal and trend changes on the surface and the residuals of nonoptimal atmospheric correction. The experiments on the synthetic data set clearly demonstrate the efficacy of MuCSUn and the importance of the preprocessing step. We further apply our methodology to a real time-series data set composed of 11 Hyperion and 22 Landsat-8 images taken over Fukushima, Japan, from 2011 to 2015. The proposed methodology successfully obtains robust and stable unmixing results and clearly visualizes class-specific changes at a subpixel scale in the considered study area.
Autors: Naoto Yokoya;Xiao Xiang Zhu;Antonio Plaza;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2842 - 2857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multispectral and Hyperspectral Image Fusion Using a 3-D-Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a method using a 3-D convolutional neural network to fuse together multispectral and hyperspectral (HS) images to obtain a high resolution HS image. Dimensionality reduction of the HS image is performed prior to fusion in order to significantly reduce the computational time and make the method more robust to noise. Experiments are performed on a data set simulated using a real HS image. The results obtained show that the proposed approach is very promising when compared with conventional methods. This is especially true when the HS image is corrupted by additive noise.
Autors: Frosti Palsson;Johannes R. Sveinsson;Magnus O. Ulfarsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 639 - 643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Robust Unit Commitment With Dynamic Uncertainty Sets and Energy Storage
Abstract:
The deep penetration of wind and solar power is a critical component of the future power grid. However, the intermittency and stochasticity of these renewable resources bring significant challenges to the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Motivated by these challenges, we present a multistage adaptive robust optimization model for the unit commitment (UC) problem, which models the sequential nature of the dispatch process and utilizes a new type of dynamic uncertainty sets to capture the temporal and spatial correlations of wind and solar power. The model also considers the operation of energy storage devices. We propose a simplified and effective affine policy for dispatch decisions, and develop an efficient algorithmic framework using a combination of constraint generation and duality-based reformulation with various improvements. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed method can efficiently solve multistage robust UC problems on the Polish 2736-bus system under high dimensional uncertainty of 60 wind farms and 30 solar farms. The computational results also suggest that the proposed model leads to significant benefits in both costs and reliability over robust models with traditional uncertainty sets as well as deterministic models with reserve rules.
Autors: Álvaro Lorca;Xu Andy Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1678 - 1688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Interference Analysis of FBMC-Based Return Channel for Bidirectional T-DMB System
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate an effective scheme for implementing the return channel by exploiting the guard band between orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) blocks for uplink transmission, which enables guaranteeing compatibility with legacy systems. In order to resolve the interference problem between the conventional broadcast channel and the return channel, we employ the filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) system. Toward this goal, the mutual interference between the return and OFDM channels is derived as a closed form through numerical analysis. Based on the mutual interference analysis and the channel condition, an adaptive modulation scheme is applied to increase data throughput. Through the simulation, it can be seen that more than 350 (500) kb/s/Channel can be achieved for the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 20 dB (30 dB) when the quality of service constraint is lower than a bit error rate of ( ). Consequently, the additional throughput above can be achieved in a given resource without the adverse effect to the legacy systems.
Autors: Hojae Lee;Beom Kwon;Donghyun Jeon;Seonghyun Kim;Sanghoon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3829 - 3842
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Outage Probability
Abstract:
The performance of any multiuser wireless communications system is strongly affected by interference. Consequently, the design of such systems must comply with some outage probability criteria. Although interference occurs in a mutual entangled basis, with wireless devices interfering with each other, outage is commonly considered on an individual per-device basis. This approach, however, is a simplified solution to a more intricate multidimensional and system-wide problem, in which several mutually interfering devices may be experiencing an outage simultaneously. The true outage probability across several devices is given by a set of mutual entangled boundary conditions to be fulfilled. This paper presents useful novel formulations for outage probability in multiuser wireless settings, here named mutual outage probability (MOP), for the interference-limited environment. Several scenarios are envisaged, in which some signals are in outage, whereas others are not and still for some others these conditions are irrelevant, all at the same time. We introduce a general framework for calculating the MOP, and present closed-form formulas for the Rayleigh case. Finally, we illustrate the practical use of these formulations in a call admission control application.
Autors: Flavio du Pin Calmon;Álvaro Augusto Machado de Medeiros;Michel Daoud Yacoub;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3138 - 3150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Best Decision [Memoirs]
Abstract:
Reports on the author's work with the IEEE P1584 Working Group to make the workplace a safer place.
Autors: Wei-Jen Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 80 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My First Lecture and Other Lessons in Teaching
Abstract:
I recently started teaching a course on programmable system-on-chip design for senior undergraduates and full-time and parttime master's degree students. The undergraduate students come from the Bachelor in Computer Engineering program while the master's degree students are in the Master in Embedded Systems program. At the time you are reading this article, it will have been almost two months since my first lecture.
Autors: Sharad Sinha;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 30 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My L-3 Internship: The Power of Positivity
Abstract:
Ever since I was a little girl, I've known that my sole purpose was to accomplish one very simple goal: to enjoy life and be happy. So far, I've found happiness with a lot of different things; whether it be from dance, music, or going on adventures. But what trumps all of these activities is my mission: I want to live a life where I'll know that I have made a positive impact on the lives of other people. I am currently at the point in my life where I need to make some clear choices for what I would like to pursue with my career. I knew that one of the best ways for me to find some direction would be to gain as much hands-on experience as I could through projects and internships.
Autors: Hamna Kahn;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 36 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Named Data Networking over WDM-Based Optical Networks
Abstract:
Named data networking (NDN) is a typical implementation of information-centric networking (ICN), which has been widely investigated in recent years for its potential as the next-generation network architecture. Optical networks are important as the demand for Internet bandwidth is enormous and they can be used to attain extremely high bandwidth. In this article, we study optical named data networking (ONDN), which is a complete solution for NDN deployment over optical networks based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to deploy NDN over optical networks. We first introduce the basic network architecture of ONDN, based on which we discuss the intuitive packet routing and forwarding approach in ONDN, and propose an innovative alternative to improve network performance. In our proposed approach, a novel packet type, called a response packet, is proposed to reserve wavelength along the routing path for data transmission. Packet aggregation in ONDN is discussed to improve the efficiency of wavelength utilization. In addition, the optical node structure of ONDN is developed and discussed to support all functionalities proposed in this article.
Autors: Rui Hou;Luoyang Fang;Yuzhou Chang;Liuqing Yang;Feiyue Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 70 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanocrystalline CopperNickelZinc Ferrite: Efficient Sensing Materials for Ethanol and Acetone at Room Temperature
Abstract:
Nanostructured CuNiZnFe2O4 in varied molar concentrations is synthesized by the rate-controlled co-precipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern and the analysis of their micrographs have confirmed the Single-phase structure of the prepared samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy study reveals the surface morphology of the samples with nanosized grains and open pores. The average grain size of both the prepared samples is found to be 24 and 25 nm, which is obtained by the histogram analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs. The dc magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies together reveal that both the samples are magnetically well ordered at the room temperature with superparamagnetic relaxation due to finite size effect. The ethanol and acetone sensing characteristics of the prepared samples are studied at room temperature by conductive measurements. The maximum sensitivity of 77% is observed for 500 ppm of acetone vapor by Cu0.5Ni0.25Zn0.25Fe2O4 (CNZ1), whereas a sensitivity of 75% is observed for 500 ppm of ethanol vapor by Cu0.25Ni0.5Zn0.25Fe2O4 (CNZ2). Moreover, a quick and good response of acetone vapors by CNZ1 and ethanol vapor by CNZ2 within 10 min is also noticeable. The sensor responses are quite stable and highly reproducible.
Autors: Chandra Mukherjee;R. Mondal;S. Dey;S. Kumar;Jayoti Das;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2662 - 2669
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NaPer: A TSV Noise-Aware Placer
Abstract:
Through-silicon-via (TSV)-to-TSV coupling issue can degrade the signal integrity in 3-D integrated circuit designs. This paper develops a 3-D partitioning-based force-directed placer, NaPer, to reduce the total coupling noise between TSVs and alleviate the maximum coupling noise between them. We introduce two denoise forces: TSV decoupling force and TSV density force. The TSV decoupling force is determined by the coupling noise between TSVs for separating strong coupling TSVs, and the TSV density force is determined by the TSV density for evenly distributing TSVs. The experimental results show that NaPer can effectively reduce 15.0% total TSV coupling noise and 42.7% maximum TSV coupling noise on average with only 4.5% wirelength overhead. Besides, NaPer also shows great performance in wirelength that is competitive to the state-of-the-art 3-D placer.
Autors: Yu-Min Lee;Kuan-Te Pan;Chun Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1703 - 1713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nasal Patches and Curves for Expression-Robust 3D Face Recognition
Abstract:
The potential of the nasal region for expression robust 3D face recognition is thoroughly investigated by a novel five-step algorithm. First, the nose tip location is coarsely detected and the face is segmented, aligned and the nasal region cropped. Then, a very accurate and consistent nasal landmarking algorithm detects seven keypoints on the nasal region. In the third step, a feature extraction algorithm based on the surface normals of Gabor-wavelet filtered depth maps is utilised and, then, a set of spherical patches and curves are localised over the nasal region to provide the feature descriptors. The last step applies a genetic algorithm-based feature selector to detect the most stable patches and curves over different facial expressions. The algorithm provides the highest reported nasal region-based recognition ranks on the FRGC, Bosphorus and BU-3DFE datasets. The results are comparable with, and in many cases better than, many state-of-the-art 3D face recognition algorithms, which use the whole facial domain. The proposed method does not rely on sophisticated alignment or denoising steps, is very robust when only one sample per subject is used in the gallery, and does not require a training step for the landmarking algorithm.
Autors: Mehryar Emambakhsh;Adrian Evans;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 995 - 1007
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near Optimal Control Based on the Tensor-Product Technique
Abstract:
This brief investigates the near optimal control problem and targets at the rigid body attitude dynamic system that are characterized by its typical nonlinearity. In order to apply the linear matrix inequality-based optimization, a second-order linear-parameter-varying model is specifically derived from the attitude system by means of the tensor-product transformation. Furthermore, an adaptive attitude tracking control law is designed to achieve both the offline optimization and online control simplification. The final control law is provided in a combined form. As a result, the dynamic response of the system mainly depends on the near optimal virtual controller and the stability can be further guaranteed by the adaptive tracking controller. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Xiangdong Liu;Xing Xin;Zhen Li;Zhen Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 560 - 564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing for 5G with SDN/NFV: Concepts, Architectures, and Challenges
Abstract:
The fifth generation of mobile communications is anticipated to open up innovation opportunities for new industries such as vertical markets. However, these verticals originate myriad use cases with diverging requirements that future 5G networks have to efficiently support. Network slicing may be a natural solution to simultaneously accommodate, over a common network infrastructure, the wide range of services that vertical- specific use cases will demand. In this article, we present the network slicing concept, with a particular focus on its application to 5G systems. We start by summarizing the key aspects that enable the realization of so-called network slices. Then we give a brief overview on the SDN architecture proposed by the ONF and show that it provides tools to support slicing. We argue that although such architecture paves the way for network slicing implementation, it lacks some essential capabilities that can be supplied by NFV. Hence, we analyze a proposal from ETSI to incorporate the capabilities of SDN into the NFV architecture. Additionally, we present an example scenario that combines SDN and NFV technologies to address the realization of network slices. Finally, we summarize the open research issues with the purpose of motivating new advances in this field.
Autors: Jose Ordonez-Lucena;Pablo Ameigeiras;Diego Lopez;Juan J. Ramos-Munoz;Javier Lorca;Jesus Folgueira;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 80 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing in 5G: Survey and Challenges
Abstract:
5G is envisioned to be a multi-service network supporting a wide range of verticals with a diverse set of performance and service requirements. Slicing a single physical network into multiple isolated logical networks has emerged as a key to realizing this vision. This article is meant to act as a survey, the first to the authors� knowledge, on this topic of prime interest. We begin by reviewing the state of the art in 5G network slicing and present a framework for bringing together and discussing existing work in a holistic manner. Using this framework, we evaluate the maturity of current proposals and identify a number of open research questions.
Autors: Xenofon Foukas;Georgios Patounas;Ahmed Elmokashfi;Mahesh K. Marina;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 94 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing to Enable Scalability and Flexibility in 5G Mobile Networks
Abstract:
We argue for network slicing as an efficient solution that addresses the diverse requirements of 5G mobile networks, thus providing the necessary flexibility and scalability associated with future network implementations. We elaborate on the challenges that emerge when designing 5G networks based on network slicing. We focus on the architectural aspects associated with the coexistence of dedicated as well as shared slices in the network. In particular, we analyze the realization options of a flexible radio access network with focus on network slicing and their impact on the design of 5G mobile networks. In addition to the technical study, this article provides an investigation of the revenue potential of network slicing, where the applications that originate from this concept and the profit capabilities from the network operator�s perspective are put forward.
Autors: Peter Rost;Christian Mannweiler;Diomidis S. Michalopoulos;Cinzia Sartori;Vincenzo Sciancalepore;Nishanth Sastry;Oliver Holland;Shreya Tayade;Bin Han;Dario Bega;Danish Aziz;Hajo Bakker;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 72 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Utility Maximization in Wireless Networks Over Fading Channels With Uncertain Distribution
Abstract:
In this the network utility maximization problem is investigated for wireless networks when only channel mean and variance are known. Due to the randomness of wireless channel, link outage will happen and a traffic flow’s rate will gradually decrease along its routing path. When only channel mean and variance are known, channel distribution is uncertain and it is harder to control the rate loss caused by link outage. We take into account this feature of rate loss and target at maximizing the network utility of multiple traffic flows’ rates at their destinations. An optimization problem is formulated, which is non-convex. Global optimal solution is achieved with the aid of bilevel optimization method and monotonic optimization method. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Autors: Song Jin;Rongfei Fan;Gongpu Wang;Xiangyuan Bu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1107 - 1110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Virtualization in Spectrum Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks
Abstract:
The recent decade has witnessed an evolution toward virtualization of everything for the IT industry. Resources, from utility resources to networking components and functions, are abstracted as logical or virtual services. Virtualization results in elastic, agile, and automated resource provision, and facilitates the resource pricing in a pay-as-you-go model. Among this wave, the optical community has made parallel efforts in virtualizing resources in optical networks including both optical node and link resources. A virtualized optical network can not only seamlessly support automated resource provision, but also supply high-bandwidth any-to-any connectivity for network virtualization. In this paper, we overview the motivations and architecture for optical-based network virtualization. Among candidate optical networking paradigms, we argue that spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) networks can be considered as a promising substrate choice, and study the key enabling problem, namely optical virtual network embedding over SLICE networks (OVNE-SLICE). We prove the NP-completeness of the OVNE-SLICE problem, and propose two mathematical models for this problem based on a concept named path-channel. The models are evaluated in our simulation, and compared with alternative models proposed in the literature.
Autors: Yang Wang;Zachary McNulty;Hung Nguyen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1962 - 1970
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Based Data-Driven Filtering With Bounded Noises and Packet Dropouts
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the problem of a network-based data-driven filter design for discrete-time linear systems with bounded noises and packet dropouts. One favorable feature is that the designed filter can be directly employed without identifying the unknown system model. To compensate the negative effects of packet dropouts, an output predictor is first designed to reconstruct the missing data based on the received outputs and the inputs of the system. The asymptotic convergence of the output prediction error is established, of which the rate can be adjusted by the parameter. Then utilizing the predicted outputs and the received measurements, an almost-optimal data-driven filter with tractability is proposed within the set membership (SM) framework and the bound on the worst case estimation error is derived. Finally, two illustrative examples, including a comparison example and an application example, are presented to show the advantages of the proposed design and the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Autors: Yuanqing Xia;Li Dai;Wen Xie;Yulong Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4257 - 4265
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Centric Versus User-Centric Multihoming Strategies in LTE/WiFi Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the interworking between multiple wireless access networks and study the multihomed users’ performance for different fourth-generation (4G)/WiFi multihoming techniques. We specifically compare two points of view for multihoming: network centric—wherein the scheduler is controlled by the network—versus user centric—where each user chooses a splitting policy for its packets. In the former, we study two proportional fairness strategies: a global one applied to the whole network and a local one applied to each wireless access network apart. In the user-centric approach, we study user policies based on the information received from the network and consider two variants: a simple one in which the user has only information on the peak rates of the radio interfaces and an optimized selfish policy in which the user receives complete information on the interfaces peak rates and traffic intensities. We then prove that this optimal selfish strategy achieves a global optimum for the system. Our numerical results show that network-centric strategies are better than user-centric ones in terms of achievable throughput but are worse in terms of computational complexity.
Autors: Ghina Dandachi;Salah Eddine Elayoubi;Tijani Chahed;Nada Chendeb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4188 - 4199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networked Control Under Random and Malicious Packet Losses
Abstract:
We study cyber security issues in networked control of a linear dynamical system. Specifically, the dynamical system and the controller are assumed to be connected through a communication channel that face malicious attacks as well as random packet losses due to unreliability of transmissions. We provide a probabilistic characterization for the link failures which allows us to study combined effects of malicious and random packet losses. We first investigate almost sure stabilization under an event-triggered control law, where we utilize Lyapunov-like functions to characterize the triggering times at which the plant and the controller attempt to exchange state and control data over the network. We then provide a look at the networked control problem from the attacker's perspective and explore malicious attacks that cause instability. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of our results with numerical examples.
Autors: Ahmet Cetinkaya;Hideaki Ishii;Tomohisa Hayakawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2434 - 2449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networks on Chips: 15 Years Later
Abstract:
The authors of a Computer article from 2002 reflect on their proposal to use networks on chips to address scalable communications on silicon VLSI chips.
Autors: Giovanni De Micheli;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 10 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neuro-Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Tracking Control of Lagrange Systems Pursuing Targets With Unknown Trajectory
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the problem of steering Lagrange system to track targets with unknown trajectory in the presence of modeling uncertainties and actuation faults. Artificial neural network technique is employed to reconstruct the behavior of the targets with unknown trajectory, with which robust adaptive fault-tolerant tracking control algorithms are developed. The developed control scheme is able to cope with unknown desired trajectory, attenuate modeling uncertainties and accommodate actuation faults. The proposed control scheme is shown to be able to maintain close target tracking despite actuation ineffectiveness and desired trajectory uncertainty. The benefits and feasibility of the developed control are also confirmed by simulations.
Autors: Yongduan Song;Junxia Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3913 - 3920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Active Capacitor Voltage Balancing Method for Flying Capacitor Multicell Converter Based on Logic-Form-Equations
Abstract:
This paper presents a new active capacitor voltage balancing control method for the flying capacitor multicell (FCM) converters which is fully implemented using logic-form equations. The proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control technique, measures output current and flying capacitor (FC) voltages to generate the switching states in order to produce the required output voltage level and to balance FCs’ voltages at their reference values. Output voltage of the FCM converter controlled with proposed active capacitor voltage balancing method can be modulated with any pulse width modulation (PWM) technique such as the phase-shifted-carrier PWM or level-shifted-carrier PWM. An advantage of the proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control method is its simplicity as it does not require any complex computations and tedious optimization calculations. Simulation results and experimental measurements of a three-cell four-level and four-cell five-level FCM converters are presented to verify the performance of the proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control technique.
Autors: Arash Khoshkbar Sadigh;Vahid Dargahi;Keith A. Corzine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3467 - 3478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New and Optimized Magnetization Scheme for the Baby Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector at J-PARC
Abstract:
The Baby-MIND (magnetized iron neutrino detector) collaboration is building a muon detector to be installed downstream of the WAGASCI experiment at J-PARC (Japan). Due to the challenging timeline and space constraints for the installation in the ND280 pit, an innovative magnetization scheme has been developed for the iron plates. The magnetization scheme optimizes flux return for minimum stray field and operating current, while maximizing the useful tracking area with T. The 33 iron plates of the detector are individually magnetized by coils wound on their surface by “sewing” an aluminum conductor through slits cut in the plates. In this paper, we present the details of the magnetization scheme and coil winding procedure as well as the results of magnetization tests performed on a prototype module and the first eighteen detector plates.
Autors: Gabriella Rolando;Philippe Benoit;Alain Blondel;Alexey Dudarev;Etam Noah;Helder Pais Da Silva;Mark Rayner;Herman H. J. ten Kate;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Beamforming Designs for Joint Spatial Division and Multiplexing in Large-Scale MISO Multi-User Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we study a joint spatial division multiplexing (JSDM) beamforming scheme, which enables large-scale spatial multiplexing gains for massive multi-input multi-output downlink systems. In contrast to the conventional JSDM, which employs a block diagonalization method as a pre-beamformer, we aim to maximize sum-rate by applying minimum-mean-squared error (MMSE) approaches when designing a pre-beamformer and a multi-user precoder sequentially. First, to suppress inter-group interference, we design the pre-beamformer, which minimizes an upper bound of the sum mean-squared-error in the large-scale array regime. Then, to mitigate same-group interference, we present the multi-user precoder based on the weighted MMSE (WMMSE) optimization method, which requires the same channel state information overhead as the conventional JSDM. Also, in order to reduce the computational complexity, we compute deterministic equivalents of the WMMSE beamforming parameters to generate the beamformers by employing asymptotic results of large system analysis. Through simulation results, we confirm that the proposed two-step beamforming methods bring substantial performance gains in terms of sum-rate over the conventional JSDM schemes especially in a low and medium signal-to-noise ratio regime with comparable complexity.
Autors: Younghyun Jeon;Changick Song;Sang-Rim Lee;Seungjoo Maeng;Jaehoon Jung;Inkyu Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3029 - 3041
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Design of a Variable Impedance Based on Polarized Diodes at Microwave Frequency
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a new variable impedance termination consisting of two polarized diodes. To generate a complex-valued impedance, two controlled current sources polarize the diodes, which are interconnected with a Wilkinson power divider through transmission lines of different electric lengths. Because of the reduced number of diodes, this structure presents low power consumption and simple control. We validated the proposed design by implementing a prototype at the operating frequency of 1575.42 MHz. Mapping the measured results in the Smith chart, the impedance can produce reflection coefficients with full-phase coverage within the circle of magnitude 0.35 over a frequency range of 1.5–1.6 GHz.
Autors: Alejandro J. Venere;Martín Hurtado;Ramón Lopéz La Valle;Carlos H. Muravchik;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 470 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Directions in Navigation and Positioning: Signal processing-enabled technologies pinpoint people, places, and things [Special Reports]
Abstract:
In an era of same-day product deliveries, interplanetary space probes, and autonomous vehicles, transporting something—or someone—from here to there quickly, directly, and precisely is becoming increasingly important. An array of navigation and positioning technologies are now available to help guide and locate vehicles, people, and almost endless number of objects. The satellite-based global positioning system (GPS), for instance, now lies at the heart of an almost endless array of location, navigation, timing, mapping, and tracking tools. Real-time location system (RTLS) technologies, meanwhile, rely on resources such as GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near-field communication (NFC), and radio-frequency identification (RFID) to detect the current location of a target, which may be anything from a vehicle to an item in a manufacturing plant to a person.
Autors: John Edwards;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 10 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New for IMS2017: Exhibitor Workshops
Abstract:
Provides a notice of upcoming conference events of interest to practitioners and researchers.
Autors: Bryan Wu;Susie Horn;Lee Wood;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 68 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Hybrid Surface–Volume Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor for Ozone Generation
Abstract:
Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is the most efficient way used in industry for ozone generation. In the last decades, many papers were published on such DBD-based ozone generators. Several geometric configurations can be used to generate ozone. They can be classified into two types depending on the discharge form: volume DBD, which is the common one in ozone industry, and surface DBD. Many studies have been conducted to analyze the ozone generation efficiency of both reactors to get maximum ozone production with the lowest possible power consumption. The aim of this paper is to carry out an experimental analysis of a patent-pending new reactor, of hybrid configuration, in which occur simultaneously a volume and a surface DBD. The hybrid reactor comprises a ground stainless steel cylindrical electrode, within which is placed a glass tube separated by an interval of 1 mm in which the volume DBD occurs. A second mesh stainless steel electrode connected to the high voltage is placed inside the glass tube wherein the surface discharge occurs. The obtained results showed a clear superiority of the hybrid reactor compared with both volume and surface DBD in terms of the ozone concentration. The difference in the ozone concentration reaches up to 50% compared with the volume DBD and 30% compared with the surface DBD.
Autors: Kamel Nassour;Mostefa Brahami;Said Nemmich;Nacera Hammadi;Noureddine Zouzou;Amar Tilmatine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2477 - 2484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Normal Mode dv/dt Filter With a Built-In Resistor Failure Detection Circuit
Abstract:
Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) will soon be replaced by wide band gap devices (SiC and GaN) as the choice for power semiconductor switch in voltage source inverters. These devices have extremely fast rise time and fall time compared with IGBT devices. The high dv/dt of pulse-width modulation outputs create excessive voltage stress in the insulation system of ac motors due to voltage reflection issues associated with motors at large distances from the drive. In many oil field applications, the distance between the motor and the variable frequency drive approaches 300 m. In walking rig applications, it is common to use multiple smaller sized conductors per phase, bunched together, to achieve the desired ampacity. This practice results in higher than usual value of the cable parasitic capacitance. Traditional dv/dt filters used for mitigating over-voltage at motor terminals have been found to be inadequate in reducing the over voltage at the motor terminals in such oil field installations. The damping resistor often experiences high voltage and gets damaged. A new dv/dt filter suitable for use with high power ac motors at distances nearing 300 m with a built-in resistor failure detection circuit is proposed here. Test results are given to demonstrate its efficacy.
Autors: Mahesh M. Swamy;Mark A. Baumgardner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2149 - 2158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Propeller-Type Tribocharging Device With Application to the Electrostatic Separation of Granular Insulating Materials
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is the development and functional optimization of a new propeller-type aerodynamic tribocharging device with application in the field of electrostatic separation. The originality of the system consists of its modular structure: one or several propellers can be stacked in the same device to provide appropriate tribocharging conditions to a wide variety of granular mixtures containing two or more of insulating materials. The study is conducted with samples of the following various insulating materials: polycarbonate, polyamide, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyvinyl chloride, and high-impact polystyrene, grain sizes up to 4 mm in diameter, for several values of the propeller rotation speed, and of the mass of the particles in the tribocharging device, the wall of which are made of acetate, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), or aluminum. The efficiency of the device is tested by processing the charged granular mixture in a metal-belt conveyor-type electrostatic separator. The aluminum-wall device enables better charging that PMMA and acetate. The mass introduced in the device has no significant effect on the outcome of the process, but the speed of the propellers does. Successful separation of a mixture of three insulating materials is reported.
Autors: Djamel Eddine Fekir;Mohamed Miloudi;Farid Miloua;Karim Medles;Lucian Dascalescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2416 - 2422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Newly Elected CIS Administrative Committee Members (2017-2019) [Society Briefs]
Abstract:
Presents a listing of newly elected CIS administrative committee members.
Autors: Pablo A. Estevez;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 11 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NLMS Algorithm Based on a Variable Parameter Cost Function Robust Against Impulsive Interferences
Abstract:
The conventional step-size scaler (SSS) normalized least-mean-square algorithm is robust against impulsive noise. However, the constant parameter in the SSS needs to be controlled to satisfy the conflicting requirements of fast convergence rate and low steady-state misadjustment. Therefore, to address this problem, an adaptive approach for the parameter in the cost function is proposed in this brief. The proposed approach is then tested in system identification and acoustic echo-cancelation scenarios, which have demonstrated that the proposed approach is effective and robust against non-Gaussian impulsive interferences.
Autors: Fuyi Huang;Jiashu Zhang;Sheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 600 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» No Downlink Pilots Are Needed in TDD Massive MIMO
Abstract:
We consider the Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output downlink with maximum-ratio and zero-forcing processing and time-division duplex operation. To decode, the users must know their instantaneous effective channel gain. Conventionally, it is assumed that by virtue of channel hardening, this instantaneous gain is close to its average and hence that users can rely on knowledge of that average (also known as statistical channel information). However, in some propagation environments, such as keyhole channels, channel hardening does not hold. We propose a blind algorithm to estimate the effective channel gain at each user, that does not require any downlink pilots. We derive a capacity lower bound of each user for our proposed scheme, applicable to any propagation channel. Compared with the case of no downlink pilots (relying on channel hardening), and compared with training-based estimation using downlink pilots, our blind algorithm performs significantly better. The difference is especially pronounced in environments that do not offer channel hardening.
Autors: Hien Quoc Ngo;Erik G. Larsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 2921 - 2935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» No-Reference and Robust Image Sharpness Evaluation Based on Multiscale Spatial and Spectral Features
Abstract:
The human visual system exhibits multiscale characteristic when perceiving visual scenes. The hierarchical structures of an image are contained in its scale space representation, in which the image can be portrayed by a series of increasingly smoothed images. Inspired by this, this paper presents a no-reference and robust image sharpness evaluation (RISE) method by learning multiscale features extracted in both the spatial and spectral domains. For an image, the scale space is first built. Then sharpness-aware features are extracted in gradient domain and singular value decomposition domain, respectively. In order to take into account the impact of viewing distance on image quality, the input image is also down-sampled by several times, and the DCT-domain entropies are calculated as quality features. Finally, all features are utilized to learn a support vector regression model for sharpness prediction. Extensive experiments are conducted on four synthetically and two real blurred image databases. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed RISE metric is superior to the relevant state-of-the-art methods for evaluating both synthetic and real blurring. Furthermore, the proposed metric is robust, which means that it has very good generalization ability.
Autors: Leida Li;Wenhan Xia;Weisi Lin;Yuming Fang;Shiqi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 1030 - 1040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Invasive Stimulation-Based Tactile Sensation for Upper-Extremity Prosthesis: A Review
Abstract:
An ideal hand prosthesis should provide satisfying functionality based on reliable decoding of the user’s intentions and deliver tactile feedback in a natural manner. The absence of tactile feedback impedes the functionality and efficiency of dexterous hand prostheses, which leads to a high rejection rate from prostheses users. Thus, it is expected that integration of tactile feedback with hand prostheses will improve the manipulation performance and enhance perceptual embodiment for users. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of non-invasive stimulation-based tactile sensation for upper-extremity prostheses, from the physiology of the human skin, to tactile sensing techniques, non-invasive tactile stimulation, and an emphasis on electrotactile feedback. The paper concludes with a detailed discussion of recent applications, challenging issues, and future developments.
Autors: Kairu Li;Yinfeng Fang;Yu Zhou;Honghai Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2625 - 2635
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Iterative Enhanced SDP Relaxations for Optimal Scheduling of Distributed Energy Storage in Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Convexification of an optimal scheduling algorithm for distributed energy storage (DES) in radial distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic resources is studied. The AC power flow equalities are taken into account as constraints in the optimization model. Different from the typical optimal power flow problem, the objective function of a DES optimal scheduling (DESOS) problem varies with changing operational requirements. In this paper, three frequently-used objective functions are considered for the DESOS problem. Two of them are monotonic over the feasible set while the third is not. An illustrative example elucidates that the descent direction of a chosen objective function significantly impacts the efficiency of the second-order cone programming (SOCP) relaxation for the DESOS problem. To obtain tighter semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations for the DESOS cases where the SOCP relaxation is not exact, this paper looks for computationally efficient convex constraints that can approximate the rank-1 constraint in the non-iterative framework. The designed non-iterative enhanced SDP relaxations are compared in terms of tightness of convexification for the DESOS problems considering the three objective functions independently. The comparison is performed on several radial IEEE test systems and a real world distribution feeder.
Autors: Qifeng Li;Vijay Vittal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1721 - 1732
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoherent Short Packet Detection and Decoding for Scatter Radio Sensor Networking
Abstract:
Scatter radio, i.e., communication by means of reflection, has been recently proposed as a promising technology for low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Specifically, this paper offers noncoherent receivers in scatter radio frequency-shift keying, for either channel-coded or uncoded scatter radio reception, in order to eliminate the need for training bits of coherent schemes (for channel estimation) at the packet preamble. Noncoherent symbol-by-symbol and sequence detectors based on hybrid composite hypothesis test (HCHT) and generalized likelihood-ratio test, for the uncoded case and noncoherent decoders based on HCHT, for small block-length channel codes, are derived. Performance comparison under Rician, Rayleigh, or no fading, taking into account fixed energy budget per packet is presented. It is shown that the performance gap between coherent and noncoherent reception depends on whether channel codes are employed, the fading conditions (e.g., Rayleigh versus Rician versus no fading), as well as the utilized coding interleaving depth; the choice of one coding scheme over the other depends on the wireless fading parameters and the design choice for extra diversity versus extra power gain. Finally, experimental outdoor results at 13-dBm transmission power corroborate the practicality of the proposed noncoherent detection and decoding techniques for scatter radio WSNs.
Autors: Panos N. Alevizos;Aggelos Bletsas;George N. Karystinos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2128 - 2140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonintrusive Power Measurement Method With Phase Detection for Low-Cost Smart Meters
Abstract:
This paper describes a nonintrusive power measurement method that is suitable for a new type of low-cost and easy-to-install smart meters in measuring current and power from parallel electric cables based on noncontact magnetic flux and identifying the power consumption of each phase. By placing noncontact magnetic flux sensors close to the parallel electric cables that carry electric currents, a method for providing flux-to-current conversion and reducing mutual coupling effects among these cables is introduced. By using the mains voltage of the electronic control circuit as a reference, a new and simple method for accurately differentiating the phase currents and power in the cables is proposed. The proposed method has been verified with practical power measurements with reasonable accuracy for this specific application.
Autors: Haoyuan Yang;Shu-Yuen Ron Hui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3962 - 3969
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Using Strong-Coupling Effect of Resonant Magnetics
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel noninvasive electromagnetic brain stimulation system, namely the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), via strongly coupled magnetic resonances, which is used to improve treatment effects, enrich treatment means, and increase energy utilizations. To achieve expected stimulation effects, the conventional TMS system normally needs strict requirements for the power supply and the circuit. Inevitably, it not only deteriorates the implementability and flexibility of the noninvasive electromagnetic brain stimulation, but also increases the manufacture cost and energy consumption, thus significantly impeding the popularization of TMS technologies. Hence, a novel TMS system is proposed by utilizing the magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) mechanism, aiming to offer a brand new way to fulfill expected stimulation effects. By comparing with conventional TMS systems, the proposed system can effectively increase the strength so as to improve the stimulation depth, enhance the focality so as to prevent from impacting on nonfocal zones, and reduce the requirement on the power and frequency so as to promote the popularization of noninvasive electromagnetic treatments. In this paper, both simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the feasibility and superiority of the proposed MRC-based TMS system.
Autors: Bin Deng;Shuai Li;Bin Li;Jiang Wang;Zhen Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Analytical Model of Eccentric Synchronous Reluctance Machines Considering the Iron Saturation and Slotting Effect
Abstract:
This paper deals with an improved analytical model of synchronous reluctance (REL) machine considering rotor eccentricity. This model considers the magnetic saturation in the iron parts of both the stator and the rotor. This saturation results from the actual B–H characteristic of the iron. In addition, the slotting effect is considered in the analytical model. The unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) on the rotor is accurately estimated. Furthermore, the impact on the estimated UMF due to the slotting effect and the magnetic saturation is studied. Both static and dynamic eccentricity cases are considered. As an example, a four-pole 36-slot REL motor with three flux-barriers per rotor pole is considered. Experimental measurements confirm the results achieved by means of both finite-element analysis and the improved analytical model.
Autors: Hanafy Mahmoud;Nicola Bianchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2007 - 2015
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Thermal Management in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) for the thermal management (TM) of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is presented. TM in PHEVs is crucial to ensure high components’ performance and durability in all possible climate scenarios. A drawback of accurate TM solutions is the higher electrical consumption due to the increasing number of low-voltage actuators used in the cooling circuits. Hence, more complex control strategies are needed for minimizing components’ thermal stress and, at the same time, electrical consumption. In this context, NMPC proves to be a powerful method for achieving multiple objectives in multiple input multiple output systems. This paper proposes an NMPC for the TM of the high-voltage battery and the power electronics cooling circuit in a PHEV. It distinguishes itself from the previously NMPC reported methods in the automotive sector by the complexity of its controlled plant, which is highly nonlinear and controlled by numerous variables. The implemented model of the plant, which is based on experimental data and multidomain physical equations, has been validated using six different driving cycles logged in a real vehicle, obtaining a maximum error, in comparison with the real temperatures of 2  C. For one of the six cycles, an NMPC software-in-the loop (SIL) is presented, where the models inside the controller and for the controlled plant are the same. This simulation is compared with the finite-state machine-based strategy performed in the real vehicle. The results show that NMPC keeps the battery at healthier temperatures and reduces the cooling electrical consumption by more than 5%. In terms of the objective function, which is an accumulated and weighted sum of the two goals, this improvement amounts to 30%. Finally, the online SIL presented in this pap- r suggests that the used optimizer is fast enough for a future implementation in the vehicle.
Autors: Jorge Lopez-Sanz;Carlos Ocampo-Martinez;Jesus Alvarez-Florez;Manuel Moreno-Eguilaz;Rafael Ruiz-Mansilla;Julian Kalmus;Manuel Gräeber;Gerhard Lux;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3632 - 3644
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Observer for Temperatures and Emissivities in a Strip Annealing Furnace
Abstract:
The annealing process plays an important role for the product quality of steel strips. To achieve a high product quality, an accurate temperature control is essential, which typically requires information about the temperature evolution inside the strip annealing furnace. However, usually only a few temperatures at discrete points in the furnace can be measured. Therefore, this paper proposes an extended Kalman filter and an ad-hoc adaptive estimator for the furnace temperatures. Moreover, both observers also estimate the inexactly known strip emissivity. The observers are validated by means of measurement data from an industrial furnace. This validation demonstrates the reliability and accuracy of the ad-hoc adaptive estimator.
Autors: Stephan Strommer;Martin Niederer;Andreas Steinboeck;Lukas Jadachowski;Andreas Kugi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2578 - 2586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Radar for Finding RF Electronics: System Design and Recent Advancements
Abstract:
An extensive review of nonlinear radar systems is performed. Emphasis is placed on designs relevant to detecting RF electronics that were not intentionally manufactured as visible radar targets. The state of the art in nonlinear radar is conveyed by presenting high-level system architecture, explaining the rationale behind design decisions pertaining to that architecture, and listing the specifications that nonlinear radar designers have achieved. The authors’ recent advancements in nonlinear radar technology are summarized.
Autors: Gregory J. Mazzaro;Anthony F. Martone;Kenneth I. Ranney;Ram M. Narayanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1716 - 1726
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonvolatile Resistance Effect Modulated by Pulse With Laser Observed in Nano-Carbon Film
Abstract:
A nonvolatile resistance effect modulated by pulse with laser was observed in nano-carbon oxide semiconductor structures. By applying a short voltage pulse with laser illumination, the lateral resistance of the structure can be permanently changed. The resistance change ratio can reach up to 65%. More interestingly, the effect shows polarity under different illumination spot and voltage directions. This phenomenon is attributed to the trapping effect of laser-stimulated electrons in be useful for the development of laser-and pulse-modulated resistors, switches, and sensors.
Autors: Z. K. Gan;P. Q. Zhou;X. Huang;C. L. Mei;J. Q. Hu;H. Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 560 - 563
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Not Happy? Move On
Abstract:
Over the past 50 years, a number of papers have been published in an attempt to determine what factors make an employee happy and satisfied versus those factors that lead to dissatisfaction and poor performance. Perhaps the two most prominent authors are Frederick Hertzberg and Abraham Maslow. While Maslow first published his hierarchy of needs, Herzberg extended that work, developing his own needs model. The two models compare quite closely, with minor differences in the words used to define the separate levels of an individual's feeling of satisfaction on the job.
Autors: Raymond E. Floyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 23 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Chest Compression Depth Measurement Sensor Using IR-UWB for Improving Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Abstract:
Cardiac arrest is a common cause of death in the world. Immediate high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the chances of survival of cardiac arrest patients. In particular, maintaining an adequate chest compression depth (CCD) during CPR is a key determinant for survival from cardiac arrest. If it is possible to measure the CCD accurately during CPR, we could increase the survival rate of patients by improving the quality of CPR. This work proposes a new sensor that could measure the CCD accurately during CPR. Compared with existing sensors that utilize pressures or accelerometers, the proposed sensor employs distance measurements based on the time-difference-of-arrival using impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB). The method directly measures the CCD using two antennas at the chest and at the back, thereby eliminating the distance error under CPR environments, which is present in existing accelerometer sensors. The designed sensor has an 0.08 mm resolution, and an inaccuracy of less than ±1.25 mm, within a range of 0-40 cm. This sensor was applied to a CPR manikin to measure the CCD in an environment where CPR is performed.
Autors: Yeomyung Kim;Byung Gyu Yu;Je Hyeok Oh;Tae Wook Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 3174 - 3183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Dynamic Voltage Support Capability of Photovoltaic Systems for Improvement of Short-Term Voltage Stability in Power Systems
Abstract:
The large integration of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems into power systems causes deterioration in power system stability. In our previous work, we showed that reactive power control using the inverters of PV systems, known as dynamic voltage support (DVS) capability, is a promising approach to improve the short-term voltage stability in power systems. In this paper, we propose a novel DVS capability as a function of PV inverters. In contrast to the conventional DVS capability, the proposed method uses both active and reactive power injection to improve the short-term voltage stability. Numerical examples show that the proposed DVS capability further improves the short-term voltage stability compared with the conventional DVS capability. Furthermore, the proposed method can alleviate a frequency drop after a fault caused by interruption in PV systems.
Autors: Kenichi Kawabe;Yutaka Ota;Akihiko Yokoyama;Kazuyuki Tanaka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1796 - 1804
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Fast Coherent Detection Algorithm for Radar Maneuvering Target With Jerk Motion
Abstract:
The detection performance of radar maneuvering target with jerk motion is affected by the range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM). To address these problems, a fast algorithm without searching target's motion parameters is proposed. In this algorithm, the second-order keystone transform is first applied to eliminate the quadratic coupling between the range frequency and slow time. Then, by employing a new defined symmetric autocorrelation function, scaled Fourier transform, and inverse fast Fourier transform, the target's initial range and velocity are estimated. With these two estimates, the azimuth echoes along the target's trajectory, which can be modeled as a cubic phase signal (CPS), are extracted. Thereafter, the target's radial acceleration and jerk are estimated by approaches for parameters estimation of the CPS. Finally, by constructing a compensation function, the RM and DFM are compensated simultaneously, followed by the coherent integration and target detection. Comparisons with other representative algorithms in computational cost, motion parameter estimation performance, and detection ability indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve a good balance between the computational cost and detection ability. The simulation and raw data processing results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Jiancheng Zhang;Tao Su;Jibin Zheng;Xuehui He;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1792 - 1803
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Folded-KES Architecture for High-Speed and Area-Efficient BCH Decoders
Abstract:
In this brief, we present a novel folding technique for high-speed and low-cost Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) decoders. In the conventional BCH decoder, the critical path lies on the Galois-field (GF) multiplier of the key equation solver, where the speedup of the critical path is very difficult due to a significant area increase. In the proposed work, the regularly structured GF multiplier is introduced to be efficiently folded to reduce the complexity and the critical delay. Moreover, the conventional global folding scheme can be applied to further reduce the hardware costs. The implementation results show that the proposed folding scheme enhances the area efficiency by 1.73 and 1.9 times in the Digital Video Broadcasting–Satellite–Second Generation system and the storage controller, respectively.
Autors: Byeonggil Park;Seungyong An;Jongsun Park;Youngjoo Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 535 - 539
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Matching Network and Its Application to Quad-Channel Diplexers
Abstract:
This letter reports a new kind of matching network for quad-channel diplexers. The matching network is comprised by some open- and short-circuited transmission lines, which can be chosen based on the design graph. The impact of loading resonators on the network is discussed. The diplexer can be easily realized by the combination of different bandpass filters without complicated tuning. To illustrate the concept, one quad-channel diplexer is designed, fabricated, and measured. Simulated and measured results are found to be in good agreement with each other.
Autors: Qiang Shao;Fu-Chang Chen;Jian-Feng Qian;Jie-Ming Qiu;Qing-Xin Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 452 - 454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Methodology for Selecting Representative Operating Points for the TNEP
Abstract:
As part of transmission network expansion planning (TNEP), a technical and economical assessment of several planning alternatives must be performed in order to ensure fulfillment of the network security criteria and to estimate the alternatives’ expected operating costs. This task requires performing load flow calculations for different operating points (OPs) of the power system. Due to the high computational burden, considering all possible OPs is simply not possible. As a consequence, only a set of representative OPs is usually taken into account. Most works in the TNEP focus on issues related to optimization algorithms and modeling, neglecting the selection process of the representative OPs. Furthermore, most works only consider a few OPs, providing little or no insight about the criteria used in the selection process or about the error made when evaluating planning alternatives using a limited number of OPs. In this work, a novel methodology for selecting representative OPs to consider within the TNEP is presented. The proposal pays special attention to critical situations, where the network security may be endangered. Furthermore, the methodology allows quantifying the error made when evaluating network operation using a limited number of representative OPs.
Autors: Ricardo Alvarez;Albert Moser;Claudia Andrea Rahmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2234 - 2242
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Microfluidically Tunable Differential Dual-Mode Patch Filter
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel microfluidcally tunable differential bandpass filter (BPF) with precisely controlled passband frequency. The frequency tunability of the filter is realized by inserting microfluidic channels, which can be filled with high dielectric constant fluid, i.e., distilled water, between the dual-mode patch resonator and the ground plane. Meanwhile, the frequency-tuning capability of the channels highly depends on the E-field distributions of the two modes on the patch. By properly choosing the orientations and spaces of the channels, the two-mode resonant frequencies can be simultaneously shifted up/down, and thus the frequency tuning states of the differential-mode passband can be precisely controlled with proper water-filling sequence. For demonstration, the proposed BPF is designed and fabricated. The simulated and measured results are presented, showing good agreement.
Autors: Wen-Jun Zhou;Hui Tang;Jian-Xin Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 461 - 463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Multidimensional Models of Opinion Dynamics in Social Networks
Abstract:
Unlike many complex networks studied in the literature, social networks rarely exhibit unanimous behavior, or consensus. This requires a development of mathematical models that are sufficiently simple to be examined and capture, at the same time, the complex behavior of real social groups, where opinions and actions related to them may form clusters of different size. One such model, proposed by Friedkin and Johnsen, extends the idea of conventional consensus algorithm (also referred to as the iterative opinion pooling) to take into account the actors’ prejudices, caused by some exogenous factors and leading to disagreement in the final opinions. In this paper, we offer a novel multidimensional extension, describing the evolution of the agents’ opinions on several topics. Unlike the existing models, these topics are interdependent, and hence the opinions being formed on these topics are also mutually dependent. We rigorously examine stability properties of the proposed model, in particular, convergence of the agents’ opinions. Although our model assumes synchronous communication among the agents, we show that the same final opinions may be reached “on average” via asynchronous gossip-based protocols.
Autors: Sergey E. Parsegov;Anton V. Proskurnikov;Roberto Tempo;Noah E. Friedkin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2270 - 2285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Radiation-Hardened-by-Design (RHBD) 12T Memory Cell for Aerospace Applications in Nanoscale CMOS Technology
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel radiation-hardened-by-design (RHBD) 12T memory cell is proposed to tolerate single node upset and multiple-node upset based on upset physical mechanism behind soft errors together with reasonable layout-topology. The verification results obtained confirm that the proposed 12T cell can provide a good radiation robustness. Compared with 13T cell, the increased area, power, read/write access time overheads of the proposed 12T cell are −18.9%, −23.8%, and 171.6%/−50.0%, respectively. Moreover, its hold static noise margin is 986.2 mV which is higher than that of 13T cell. This means that the proposed 12T cell also has higher stability when it provides fault tolerance capability.
Autors: Jing Guo;Lei Zhu;Wenyi Liu;Hai Huang;Shanshan Liu;Tianqi Wang;Liyi Xiao;Zhigang Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1593 - 1600
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Summation Inequalities and Their Applications to Stability Analysis for Systems With Time-Varying Delay
Abstract:
The inequality technique plays an important role in stability analysis for time-delay systems. This technical note presents a new sequence of novel summation inequalities by introducing some free matrices, which includes the newly-developed Wirtinger-based and free-matrix-based summation inequalities as special cases. Moreover, the idea can be easily extended to the multiple-summation-inequality case. Based on the proposed inequalities, relaxed stability conditions are obtained for systems with time-varying delay. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Jun Chen;Shengyuan Xu;Xianglei Jia;Baoyong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2470 - 2475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Two-Phase Approach for Process Optimization of Customer Collaborative Design Based on Fuzzy-QFD and DSM
Abstract:
In response to fast-growing and rapidly changing global markets, launching new products faster than competitors does not only assist enterprises in acquiring a larger market share, but also in reducing development lead time. However, owing to the intrinsically uncertain properties of new product development management, manufacturing companies often struggle with the dilemma of whether to increase product variety or control manufacturing complexity. This paper proposes a novel two-phase method to assist an enterprise in achieving a customer collaborative product design. In the first phase, quality function deployment, which is based on fuzzy multicriteria decision making and suppliers’ budget constraints, is presented to maximize customers’ satisfaction. In the second phase, an effective approach is proposed to determine the appropriate sequence of several coupled activities with the minimum total feedback time in a design structure matrix. Finally, a real case is used to illustrate the overall applicability of the approach. The optimization results show the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method over other reported methods in the literature.
Autors: Aijun Liu;Hesuan Hu;Xiao Zhang;Deming Lei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 193 - 207
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Investigation of an UWB Localization Technique for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Outdoor Scenarios
Abstract:
In this paper, the numerical investigation of an ultra wideband (UWB) localization technique suitable for the tracking and control of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in a specific outdoor scenario is presented. A set of UWB nodes are located on a moving/still ground station (GS) and interrogate an UWB node placed on the UAV that is flying in front of the GS. The distances between the GS-nodes and the UAV-node are estimated through a conventional two-way time-of-flight ranging method, one at a time, and then used in a multilateration algorithm. Due to the unavoidable relative motion between the UAV and the GS, the above distances are actually measured for different UAV-GS relative positions, and then, the UAV localization performance deteriorates as a function of the UAV-GS relative speed and the ranging-method processing time. An approach is here proposed to mitigate the above adverse effect, by exploiting an estimate of the UAV-GS relative speed along the GS forward direction. A preliminary numerical analysis is used to show that a decimeter order localization accuracy can be obtained for a tridimensional localization process.
Autors: Fabrizio Lazzari;Alice Buffi;Paolo Nepa;Sandro Lazzari;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2896 - 2903
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Manipulation of Digital Holograms for 3-D Imaging and Display: An Overview
Abstract:
In the last two decades, thanks to the considerable technological development of solid-state sensors, digital holography (DH) has gained credits as the elective imaging technique for applications in various research fields, e.g., material science, biotechnology, as well as a diagnostic tool for applications at lab-on-a-chip scale. However, since its beginning, the intrinsic coherent nature of holography made 3-D imaging and display one of its preferred applications. Still today, several research groups around the world are working to develop novel numerical solutions in the framework of DH-based 3-D imaging and display technology. In this paper, we report an overview of the most important contributions given to this field over the last years.
Autors: P. Memmolo;V. Bianco;M. Paturzo;P. Ferraro;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 892 - 905
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Model of an Injection-Locked Wideband Frequency Modulator for Polar Transmitters
Abstract:
We present a numerical model of a wideband injection-locked frequency modulator used in a polar transmitter for 3G cellular radio application. At the heart of the system is a self-injection-locked oscillator with a programmable linear tuning range of up to 200 MHz at 4-GHz oscillation frequency. The oscillator is injection locked to a time-delayed version of its resonating voltage, and its frequency is modulated by manipulating the phase and amplitude of the injected current. The model is used to study the feasibility of the proposed system by analyzing the impact of various impairments in the auxiliary injection loop on the system performance. The model is written in MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the simulation output is analyzed by a vector signal analyzer in terms of 3GPP specifications. Based on the simulation results, key specifications for individual blocks in the system are determined. The key benefits of the presented modeling methodology are simplicity, efficiency, and portability.
Autors: Imran Bashir;Robert Bogdan Staszewski;Poras T. Balsara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1914 - 1920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Simulation of Vacuum Arc Behavior Considering Action of Adjacent Phases in Vacuum Circuit Breakers
Abstract:
In the interrupting process of a three-phase vacuum interrupter, there exists a transverse magnetic field (TMF) in the interelectrode region, which is produced by adjacent phases. The deflection of the vacuum arc caused by TMF will affect the interrupting process of vacuum circuit breakers. In this paper, the vacuum arc characteristics considering the action of TMF produced by adjacent phases is simulated based on a steady 2-D asymmetrical magnetohydrodynamic model. The simulation results show that the vacuum arc will swing around and is especially obvious at the smaller current moments near current-zero during one ac half-cycle, because of the changed direction of TMF produced by adjacent phases. This kind of swing phenomena can also be observed in the electrode erosion of unsuccessful interruption. At the moments near current-zero, axial magnetic field is relatively weaker, while TMF generated by adjacent phases is relatively stronger, therefore, the offset phenomenon of plasma parameters is more significant. Compared with smaller diameter electrode arc, larger diameter electrode has larger arc deflection distance, while its value of plasma parameters is much smaller.
Autors: Lijun Wang;Kang Qin;Lilan Hu;Xiao Zhang;Shenli Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 859 - 867
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object-Based Analysis and Fusion of Optical and SAR Satellite Data for Dwelling Detection in Refugee Camps
Abstract:
This study investigates the potential of very high spatial resolution (VHSR) optical WorldView-2 (WV-2) and single-polarized TerraSAR-X (TSX) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data for an automated detection of different dwelling types in a refugee camp by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA). First, the optical data and SAR data are analyzed independently, and then a fusion of both data sets is performed applying two different approaches: 1) an overlay operation-based procedure integrating the independent results of the optical- and SAR-based dwelling detection, and 2) a feature-based analysis approach taking advantage of the conjoint analysis of both data sets. The results of the single-sensor and the data fusion approaches are evaluated in detail on the basis of object-based and area-based accuracy assessments. Advantages and limitations of the analysis approaches are discussed. The accuracy rates reveal that the use of optical satellite data shows promising results regardless of the dwelling material, while the SAR data are suitable for the detection of metal sheet dwellings only. In complex camp areas, with closely spaced containers, the results of the independent analyses can be improved significantly by the proposed fusion approaches. The combination of SAR and optical data allows for the separation of contiguous dwellings in cases this was not possible by the optical sensor information
Autors: Kristin Spröhnle;Eva-Maria Fuchs;Patrick Aravena Pelizari;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1780 - 1791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observer-Based Controllers for Max-Plus Linear Systems
Abstract:
Max-plus algebra is a suitable algebraic setting to model discrete event systems involving synchronization and delay phenomena which are often found in transportation networks, communications systems, and manufacturing systems. One way of controlling this kind of systems consists in choosing the dates of input events in order to achieve the desired performances, e.g., to obtain output events in order to respect given dates. This kind of control is optimal, according to a just-in-time criterion, if the input-event dates are delayed as much as possible while ensuring the output events to occur before a desired reference date. This paper presents the observer-based controller for max-plus linear systems where only estimations of system states are available for the controller. As in the classical sense, this is a state-feedback control problem, which is solved in two steps: first, an observer computes an estimation of the state by using the input and the output measurements, then, this estimated state is used to compute the state-feedback control action. As a main result, it is shown that the optimal solution of this observer-based control problem leads to a greater control input than the one obtained with the output feedback strategy. A high throughput screening example in drug discovery illustrates this main result by showing that the scheduling obtained from the observer-based controller is better than the scheduling obtained from the output feedback controller.
Autors: Laurent Hardouin;Ying Shang;Carlos Andrey Maia;Bertrand Cottenceau;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2153 - 2165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observer-Based Human Knee Stiffness Estimation
Abstract:
Objective: We consider the problem of stiffness estimation for the human knee joint during motion in the sagittal plane. Methods: The new stiffness estimator uses a nonlinear reduced-order biomechanical model and a body sensor network (BSN). The developed model is based on a two-dimensional knee kinematics approach to calculate the angle-dependent lever arms and the torques of the muscle-tendon-complex. To minimize errors in the knee stiffness estimation procedure that result from model uncertainties, a nonlinear observer is developed. The observer uses the electromyogram (EMG) of involved muscles as input signals and the segmental orientation as the output signal to correct the observer-internal states. Because of dominating model nonlinearities and nonsmoothness of the corresponding nonlinear functions, an unscented Kalman filter is designed to compute and update the observer feedback (Kalman) gain matrix. Results: The observer-based stiffness estimation algorithm is subsequently evaluated in simulations and in a test bench, specifically designed to provide robotic movement support for the human knee joint. Conclusion: In silico and experimental validation underline the good performance of the knee stiffness estimation even in the cases of a knee stiffening due to antagonistic coactivation. Significance: We have shown the principle function of an observer-based approach to knee stiffness estimation that employs EMG signals and segmental orientation provided by our own IPANEMA BSN. The presented approach makes realtime, model-based estimation of knee stiffness with minimal instrumentation possible.
Autors: Berno J. E. Misgeld;Markus Lüken;Robert Riener;Steffen Leonhardt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1033 - 1044
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observing Sea/Ice Transition Using Radar Images Generated From TechDemoSat-1 Delay Doppler Maps
Abstract:
In this letter, Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) delay Doppler maps (DDMs) acquired by the U.K. TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) mission are analyzed to identify sea ice infesting waters in circumpolar areas. First, the sensitivity of actual DDM to sea ice is investigated using reference information provided by a Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar imagery and a Special Sensor Microwave/Imager based sea–ice concentration map. Then, a new product is proposed that consists of normalized radar cross section measurements derived from actual DDMs and arranged in gridded format. This product is shown to provide spatial information on the sea ice transition that cannot be obtained exploiting the conventional DDM product. Hence, this new product can be used to improve/complement conventional remote sensing techniques for sea ice observation.
Autors: Domenico Schiavulli;Frédéric Frappart;Guillaume Ramillien;José Darrozes;Ferdinando Nunziata;Maurizio Migliaccio;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 734 - 738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observing the Permanent-Magnet Temperature of Synchronous Motors Based on Electrical Fundamental Wave Model Quantities
Abstract:
Estimating the magnet temperature of permanent-magnet synchronous motors on a model basis is the key for both the highest device utilization and preventing irreversible demagnetization. Using an exact flux linkage observer in the fundamental wave domain is an elegant way to indirectly retrieve the magnet temperature without requiring any additional sensors or signal injection. This contribution addresses several important issues for the real-world applicability of a permanent magnet temperature observer: thermal expansion affecting the radial air gap thickness, operation at low speeds or even standstill, and estimating the fundamental content of the motor's terminal voltage within one switching cycle. The proposed observer is comprehensively validated in the entire electrical and thermal operation range achieving a satisfying worst case error less than 10 K.
Autors: Oliver Wallscheid;Andreas Specht;Joachim Böcker;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3921 - 3929
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Occluded Object Detection in High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Using Partial Configuration Object Model
Abstract:
Deformable-part-based model (DPM) has shown great success in object detection in recent years. However, its performance will degrade on partially occluded objects and is even worse on largely occluded objects in real remote sensing applications. To address this problem, a novel partial configuration object model (PCM) is developed in this paper. Compared to conventional single-layer DPMs, an extra partial configuration layer, which is composed of partial configurations defined according to possible occlusion patterns, is introduced in PCM to block the transmission of occlusion impact. During detection, each hypothesis from a partial configuration layer will infer the entire object based on spatial interrelationship and final detection results are obtained from the fusion of these possible entire objects using a weighted continuous clustering method. As PCM makes a better compromise between the deformation modeling flexibility of small parts and the discriminative shape-capturing capability of large DPM, its performance on occluded object detection will be improved. Moreover, occlusion states of detected objects can be inferred with the intermediate results of our model. Experimental results on multiple high-resolution remote sensing image datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Autors: Shaohua Qiu;Gongjian Wen;Yaxiang Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 10, issue:5, pages: 1909 - 1925
Publisher: IEEE
 
» OFDM Based Multi-Node Transmission in the Presence of Phase Noises for Small Cell Backhaul
Abstract:
In this letter, the phase noise (PN) effect on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based multi-node transmission for small cell backhaul is studied. Since each transmitter is equipped with an independent oscillator, the received signals are corrupted by all of these independent PNs (plus the PN at the receiver), which renders the conventional PN compensation schemes at the receiver ineffective. In this letter, a PN compensation scheme for multi-node transmission is proposed, which can effectively mitigate the effect of the multiple PNs.
Autors: Xiaoming Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1207 - 1210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Off-the-Grid Compressive Time Delay Estimation via Manifold-Based Optimization
Abstract:
The time delay estimation (TDE) of some known waveforms from sampled data is of great interest in the area of signal processing, e.g., wireless communication, radar, and sonar. Classical algorithms, such as matched filters, multiple signal classification always work under the Nyquist sampling rate determined by the bandwidth of the waveform. With the assumption of sparsity, the novel compressive sensing (CS)-based algorithms are proposed in recent studies, which theoretically reduce the sampling rate but preserve the same accuracy. Yet these novel algorithms often suffer from the-so-called off-the-grid issue (or basis mismatch) and do not perform as well as expectations. This letter proposes a manifold-based optimization strategy to improve the CS-based TDE algorithms in order to solve this issue and improve the estimation accuracy and the resolution. The proposed algorithm not only achieve a much higher accuracy but also works under a much lower sampling rate compared with the state-of-the-art CS-based algorithms.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Feng Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 983 - 986
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Connectivity and Robustness in Random Intersection Graphs
Abstract:
Random intersection graphs have received much attention recently and been used in a wide range of applications ranging from key predistribution in wireless sensor networks to modeling social networks. For these graphs, each node is equipped with a set of objects in a random manner, and two nodes have an undirected edge in between if they have at least one object in common. In this paper, we investigate connectivity and robustness in a general random intersection graph model. Specifically, we establish sharp asymptotic zero-one laws for -connectivity and -robustness, as well as the asymptotically exact probability of -connectivity, for any positive integer . The -connectivity property quantifies how resilient is the connectivity of a graph against node or edge failures, while -robustness measures the effectiveness of local-information-based consensus algorithms (which do not use global graph topology information) in the presence of adversarial nodes. In addition to presenting the results under the general random intersection graph model, we consider two special cases of the general model, a binomial random intersection graph and a uniform random intersection graph, which both have numerous applications as well. For these two specialized graphs, we present asymptotically exact probabilities of -connectivity and asymptotic zero-one laws for -robustness.
Autors: Jun Zhao;Osman Yağan;Virgil Gligor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2121 - 2136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On distance-adaptive routing and spectrum assignment in mesh elastic optical networks
Abstract:
The routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) problem has emerged as the key design and control problem in elastic optical networks. Distance-adaptive spectrum allocation exploits the tradeoff between spectrum width and reach to improve resource utilization by tailoring the modulation format to the level of impairments along the path. In this paper, we consider the distance-adaptive RSA (DA-RSA) problem with fixed alternate routing. We first show that the DA-RSA problem in networks of general topology is a special case of a well-studied multiprocessor scheduling problem. We then leverage insights from the scheduling theory to 1) present new results regarding the complexity of the DA-RSA problem and 2) build upon the list of scheduling concepts to develop a computationally efficient solution approach that is effective in utilizing the available spectrum resources.
Autors: Sahar Talebi;George N. Rouskas;
Appeared in: IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Communications and Networking
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 456 - 465
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Emerging Family of Elliptic Curves to Secure Internet of Things: ECC Comes of Age
Abstract:
Lightweight Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is a critical component for constructing the security system of Internet of Things (IoT). In this paper, we define an emerging family of lightweight elliptic curves to meet the requirements on some resource-constrained devices. We present the design of a scalable, regular, and highly-optimized ECC library for both MICAz and Tmote Sky nodes, which supports both widely-used key exchange and signature schemes. Our parameterized implementation of elliptic curve group arithmetic supports pseudo-Mersenne prime fields at different security levels with two optimized-specific designs: the high-speed version (HS) and the memory-efficient (ME) version. The former design achieves record times for computation of cryptographic schemes at roughly -bit security levels, while the latter implementation only requires half of the code size of the current best implementation. We also describe our efforts to evaluate the energy consumption and harden our library against some basic side-channel attacks, e.g., timing attacks and simple power analysis (SPA) attacks.
Autors: Zhe Liu;Xinyi Huang;Zhi Hu;Muhammad Khurram Khan;Hwajeong Seo;Lu Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 237 - 248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Joint Pareto Frontier in Multiple Access and Relay Rate Regions With Rayleigh Fading
Abstract:
To meet the growing demand for wireless traffic, various types of relay and heterogeneous networks have received attention in the recent literature. This paper focuses on novel norm balancing algorithms based on cost-reward formulations on multiple access channels (MACs), and the results are extended to decode-and-forward (DF) relay systems. The achievable rates by different users in multiuser systems present an inherent tradeoff, which is formally known as Pareto efficiency. The analyses carried out in this paper show that any power allocation can be Pareto efficient in an MAC, provided certain conditions on the performance metric and decoding order. Based on the analysis, a novel method for efficient power allocation has been proposed to meet a target sum rate. The results have been explained in light of previous literature on polymatroid rate region and the requirement of rate vector equality. It is necessary to ensure and find the intersection of two polymatroids to operate the systems at a joint Pareto frontier of the relay channels. Two algorithms to test for the existence of the joint Pareto frontier have been proposed and compared.
Autors: Swagato Barman Roy;A. S. Madhukumar;Jingon Joung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3777 - 3786
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Low Complexity ML Decoder for Quaternion Orthogonal Designs
Abstract:
Quaternion orthogonal designs (QODs) provide an efficient way of constructing orthogonal space time polarization block codes to achieve larger transmit diversity gains without substantial increase in antenna dimensions. However, their optimal decoding remains a big challenge. This letter introduces an important constraint, which has not been emphasized before, for decoupled decoding of QODs and proposes a generalized low complexity maximum-likelihood decoder for QODs based on symmetric-paired designs. The main contribution of this letter is to explore the benefits of QODs for smaller as well as higher order designs without compromising system performance. Results show that the proposed decoder yields optimal decoupled decoding with remarkably low complexity. This letter also compares the performance of quaternion coordinate interleaved orthogonal designs (QCIODs), which provide full diversity, with proposed symmetric-paired designs and shows that proposed designs significantly outperform QCIODs.
Autors: Erum Mushtaq;Sajid Ali;Syed Ali Hassan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1087 - 1090
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Market-Driven Hybrid-P2P Video Streaming
Abstract:
Consistent (pause-free) quality of service is required in peer-to-peer (P2P) video streaming systems. In this paper, we aim to eliminate the problem of playback pauses in such systems via the use of positive incentives for peers to contribute high upload rates. We model our problem as a market, where the market stakeholders consist of multiple content providers, advertisement providers, and network peers; the positive incentives for peers in the market are reduced advertisement (ad) viewing durations. From a system design perspective, one of our primary goals is to compute the market equilibria that include appropriate ad viewing durations, offering sufficient incentives for network peers to continue contributing. Our simulation-based studies demonstrate that we mitigate the “playback pause” problem for peers by up to 80% as compared to existing approaches, generate sufficient utility for advertisers to be part of the market, and enable content providers to achieve their desired utility by providing sufficient incentives for all peers to stay in the system without violating ad provider agreements.
Autors: Sung-Han Lin;Ranjan Pal;Bo-Chun Wang;Leana Golubchik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 984 - 998
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Measuring the Geographic Diversity of Internet Routes
Abstract:
Route diversity in networks is elemental for establishing reliable, high-capacity connections with appropriate security between endpoints. As for the Internet, route diversity has already been studied at both the autonomous system and router level topologies by means of graph theoretical disjoint paths. In this article we complement these approaches by proposing a method for measuring the diversity of Internet paths in a geographical sense. By leveraging the recent developments in IP geolocation we show how to map the paths discovered by traceroute into geographically equivalent classes. This allows us to identify the geographical footprints of the major transmission paths between end-hosts, and building on our observations, we propose a quantitative measure for geographical diversity of Internet routes between any two hosts.
Autors: Attila Csoma;Andras Gulyas;Laszlo Toka;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 192 - 197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Missing Tag Detection in Multiple-Group Multiple-Region RFID Systems
Abstract:
We formulate and study a missing tag detection problem arising in multiple-group, multiple-region radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, where a mobile reader needs to detect whether there is any missing event for each group of tags. The problem we tackle is to devise missing tag detection protocols with minimum execution time while guaranteeing the detection reliability requirement for each group. By leveraging the technique of Bloom filter, we develop a suite of three missing tag detection protocols, each decreasing the execution time compared to its predecessor by incorporating an improved version of the Bloom filter design and parameter tuning. By sequentially analyzing the developed protocols, we gradually iron out an optimum detection protocol that works in practice.
Autors: Jihong Yu;Lin Chen;Rongrong Zhang;Kehao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1371 - 1381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Novel Methods for Characterizing the Arc/Contact Movement and Its Relation With the Current/Voltage in Low-Voltage Circuit Breaker
Abstract:
This paper presents a work that was aimed to develop methods along with test facilities for characterizing the arc/contact movement in low-voltage miniature circuit breaker which has a related current under 125 A, and to find its relation with the short-circuit current/voltage in the circuit. The method consists of: 1) the high-speed camera for obtaining the image of the arc or contact movement; 2) the data acquisition system that measures the current during the short-circuit break; and 3) the circuitry system that establishes the synchronization of the arc movement capturing and the current acquisition. In particular, two methods were developed for this purpose: one based on analog signal and the other based on digital signal. The experiment shows that the accuracy of the synchronization, dependent on the sampling rate of the high-speed camera, is about from tens of microseconds to hundreds of microseconds with both methods. The two methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and they can be tailored to applications for the best performance.
Autors: Chunlei Li;Dong Wei;Bing Zhang;Jin Li;Wenjun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 882 - 888
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Optimal Infrastructure Sharing Strategies in Mobile Radio Networks
Abstract:
The rapid evolution of mobile radio network technologies poses severe technical and economical challenges to mobile network operators (MNOs); on the economical side, the continuous roll-out of technology updates is highly expensive, which may lead to the extreme, where offering advanced mobile services becomes no longer affordable for MNOs which thus, are not incentivized to innovate. Mobile infrastructure sharing among MNOs becomes then an important building block to lower the required per-MNO investment cost involved in the technology roll-out and management phases. We focus on a radio access network (RAN) sharing situation where multiple MNOs with a consolidated network infrastructure coexist in a given set of geographical areas; the MNOs have then to decide if it is profitable to upgrade their RAN technology by deploying additional small-cell base stations and whether to share the investment (and the deployed infrastructure) of the new small-cells with other operators. We address such strategic problems by giving a mathematical framework for the RAN infrastructure sharing problem which returns the “best” infrastructure sharing strategies for operators (coalitions and network configuration) when varying techno-economic parameters such as the achievable throughput in different sharing configurations and the pricing models for the service offered to the users. The proposed formulation is then leveraged to analyze the impact of the aforementioned parameters/input in a realistic mobile network environment based on LTE technology.
Autors: Lorela Cano;Antonio Capone;Giuliana Carello;Matteo Cesana;Mauro Passacantando;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3003 - 3016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Parallelizing Single Dynamic Simulation Using HPC Techniques and APIs of Commercial Software
Abstract:
Time-domain simulations are heavily used in today's planning and operation practices to assess power system transient stability, posttransient voltage/frequency profiles as well as oscillatory behavior following severe contingencies to comply with industry standards. Because of the increased modeling complexity, it is many times slower than real time for state-of-the-art commercial software packages to complete a dynamic simulation for a large-scale model. With the growing stochastic behavior introduced by emerging technologies, power industry has seen a growing need for performing security assessment in real time. This paper presents an innovative parallel implementation framework to speed up a single dynamic simulation by leveraging the existing stability model library in commercial tools through their application programming interfaces (APIs). Several high performance computing (HPC) techniques are explored and implemented such as parallelizing the calculation of generator current injection, identifying fast linear solvers for network solution, and parallelizing data outputs when interacting with APIs in the commercial package, TSAT. The proposed method has been tested on a Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) planning base case with detailed synchronous generator models and it exhibits outstanding scalable performance with sufficient accuracy.
Autors: Ruisheng Diao;Shuangshuang Jin;Frederic Howell;Zhenyu Huang;Lei Wang;Di Wu;Yousu Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2225 - 2233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Secrecy Rate and Optimal Power Allocation of the Full-Duplex Amplify-and-Forward Relay Wire-Tap Channel
Abstract:
We present the secrecy rate of a relay wire-tap channel in which a source node communicates securely to a destination node in the presence of an eavesdropper using an amplify-and-forward (AF) relay operating in full-duplex (FD) mode. We explicitly account for the residual self-interference due to FD transmission and compute the optimal power allocation (PA) that maximizes the secrecy rate under both individual and joint power constraints of the source and the relay nodes. For slowly varying fading channels, we show that the optimal PA problem is quasiconcave and, hence, determine the globally optimal solution. Applying the method of dominant balance to analyze the capacity and PA schemes in different high-power regimes, we demonstrate that full PA at the relay is only necessary when the power at the relay is sufficiently small compared to the power at the source. Our results show that FD relaying achieves a significantly higher secrecy rate than half-duplex (HD) relaying. We extend the results to ergodic fading channels where the channel gains are assumed to be available at the receivers but not the transmitters. To this end, we first calculate the expectation of linear functions of exponentially distributed random variables using the exponential integral function. This method allows us to obtain a closed-form expression for the ergodic secrecy rate. The bisection method can then be applied to find the optimal PA scheme. Numerical results also reveal the superiority of FD over HD relaying in channels with ergodic fading.
Autors: Cuong Dang;Leonardo Jiménez-Rodríguez;Nghi H. Tran;Sachin Shetty;Shivakumar Sastry;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3887 - 3899
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On Stabilization of 2D Roesser Models
Abstract:
This note is devoted to the stabilization of 2D Roesser models which are discrete, continuous, or mixed continuous-discrete. A recent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) necessary and sufficient condition for stability of such models is used to derive a quasi non conservative technique for state feedback stabilization.
Autors: Olivier Bachelier;Nima Yeganefar;Driss Mehdi;Wojciech Paszke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2505 - 2511
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Application of Inverse-Mode SiGe HBTs in RF Receivers for the Mitigation of Single-Event Transients
Abstract:
Best practice in mitigation strategies for single-event transients (SETs) in radio-frequency (RF) receiver modules is investigated using a variety of integrated receivers utilizing inverse-mode silicon–germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). The receivers were designed and implemented in a 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS technology platform. In general, RF switches, low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), and downconversion mixers utilizing inverse-mode SiGe HBTs exhibit less susceptibility to SETs than conventional RF designs, in terms of transient peaks and duration, at the cost of RF performance. Under normal RF operation, the SET-hardened switch is mainly effective in peak reduction, while the LNA and the mixer exhibit reductions in transient peaks as well as transient duration.
Autors: Ickhyun Song;Moon-Kyu Cho;Michael A. Oakley;Adrian Ildefonso;Inchan Ju;Stephen P. Buchner;Dale McMorrow;Pauline Paki;John. D. Cressler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1142 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Asymptotic Equivalence of Circulant and Toeplitz Matrices
Abstract:
Any sequence of uniformly bounded Hermitian Toeplitz matrices is asymptotically equivalent to a certain sequence of circulant matrices derived from the Toeplitz matrices in the sense that as . This implies that certain collective behaviors of the eigenvalues of each Toeplitz matrix are reflected in those of the corresponding circulant matrix and supports the utilization of the computationally efficient fast Fourier transform (instead of the Karhunen-Loève transform) in applications like coding and filtering. In this paper, we study the asymptotic performance of the individual eigenvalue estimates. We show that the asymptotic equivalence of the circulant and Toeplitz matrices implies the individual asymptotic convergence of the eigenvalues for certain types of Toeplitz matrices. We also show that these estimates asymptotically approximate the largest and smallest eigenvalues for more general classes of Toeplitz matrices.
Autors: Zhihui Zhu;Michael B. Wakin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2975 - 2992
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Broadcast Capacity Scaling of Large Wireless Networks at Low SNR
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the problem of broadcasting information in the most efficient manner in a large 2-D ad hoc wireless network at low SNR and under line-of-sight propagation. A new communication scheme is proposed, where source nodes first broadcast their data to the entire network, despite the lack of sufficient available power. The signal’s power is then reinforced via successive back-and-forth beamforming transmissions between different groups of nodes in the network, so that all nodes are able to decode the transmitted information at the end. This scheme is shown to achieve asymptotically the broadcast capacity of the network, which is expressed in terms of the largest singular value of the matrix of fading coefficients between the nodes in the network. A detailed mathematical analysis is then presented to evaluate the asymptotic behavior of this largest singular value.
Autors: Serj Haddad;Olivier Lévêque;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 3242 - 3258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Chiroferrite Medium-Based Waveguide Dispersion Compensator
Abstract:
The letter investigates a kind of dispersion compensator composed of dual-core planar waveguide separated by isotropic dielectric medium. Both the resonantly coupled cores are comprised of anisotropic chiroferrite materials. A dielectric clad layer of silicon dioxide is combined adjacent to one of the core sections. Supermodes are generated through mode-coupling at the resonance frequency that lead to the investigation of the group velocity dispersion (GVD) feature of the structure. The chiroferrite material parameters, particularly the chiral admittance and gyrotropy of the cores, play vital roles in achieving high GVDs. A fine tuning of resonance is achieved through proper choice of the core material parameters, and the results would be useful to devise dispersion compensator for usage in communication systems.
Autors: N. Iqbal;P. K. Choudhury;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 715 - 718
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Design and Analysis of Reliable RRAM-CMOS Hybrid Circuits
Abstract:
Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are one of the most promising alternatives for nonvolatile storage and nonconventional computing systems. However, their behavior, and therefore their reliability, is limited by technology intrinsic constraints. Standard CMOS reliability analyses do not take into account RRAM-related misbehaviors. Consequently, new and more thorough characterization approaches are needed. Even more important, as RRAM is proposed to become a key piece in aerospace solutions, new radiation and temperature analyses should also be considered in reliability-oriented methodologies. This work presents a solution that completely characterizes RRAM and CMOS hybrid circuits under the combined effects of both technology and environmental error sources. The analysis strategy is based on three pillars: the definition of suitable models, the application of user-defined metrics to measure both circuit reliability and performance, and the efficient definition of the design space. These concepts are used by a powerful simulation framework, achieving automatic characterization of RRAM-based circuits by simultaneously considering multiple error sources. As a case of study, a thorough analysis of an RRAM read driver, including RRAM lifetime, circuit temperature, CMOS and RRAM variability, and radiation—both accumulated dose and single particle impacts—highlights the proposed approach capabilities.
Autors: Fernando García-Redondo;Marisa López-Vallejo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 514 - 522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Effect of Disorder on Stray Capacitance of Transformer Winding in High-Voltage Power Supplies
Abstract:
Stray capacitance of transformer winding is an important parasitic element influencing the behavior of the switching power converters, especially for high-voltage transformers. There are various methods for calculating the stray capacitance in transformers and inductors with ordered windings. However, an ordered winding is less likely with an increased number of turns and layers. In this paper, it is shown that a slight disorderliness in winding leads to a considerable difference between the value of winding stray capacitance of the former ordered winding and its slightly disordered scheme. Therefore, regular methods for calculating the stray capacitance have significant errors in a disordered winding. A generic method is proposed to calculate the stray capacitance of a winding with disordered turns. The proposed method is to apply the probabilistic tools to evaluate the possible position of winding turns and calculation of stray capacitance for all possible winding diagrams. As the number of possible winding diagrams is very large, especially in high turn windings, Kolmogorov–Smirnov theorem is used to estimate the winding stray capacitance based on the reduced number of possible winding diagrams. The energy method is used to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance of winding. Using this calculation method, the effect of disorder and some other parameters on the value of stray capacitance is investigated. The proposed method is tested and validated with the computer simulation and the experimental measurement.
Autors: Morteza Aghaei;Shahriyar Kaboli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3608 - 3618
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Electromagnetic Steel Selections and Performance Impact Assessments of Synchronous Reluctance Motors
Abstract:
To achieve relatively lower costs and higher operational efficiencies, without adopting permanent magnets or rotor conductors, the synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) has received more and more attentions as a competitive solution recently. To establish a rational guidance for the related designs and constructions, this paper is aimed to present the thorough performance impact assessments of SynRMs that are composed of different electromagnetic steels at various operational specifications. Based on the magnetization and hysteresis characteristics of the steel sheets, variations of the average torques, torque ripples, and iron losses by using different stator and rotor materials are investigated, and some valuable comparison results can be provided for designers and engineers in the related motor and metal industries.
Autors: Cheng-Tsung Liu;He-Yu Chung;Sheng-Yang Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2569 - 2577
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Feasibility of Breast Cancer Imaging Systems at Millimeter-Waves Frequencies
Abstract:
Medical imaging currently relies on several techniques, including X-rays, magnetic resonance, and echography. However, these techniques exhibit drawbacks, and alternative approaches are required. Microwave imaging has been proposed as a possible solution, especially for breast cancer imaging. However, most of these systems work with a central frequency of a few gigahertz, and this leads to a suboptimum resolution, which can jeopardize the image quality. Millimeter waves can provide superior resolutions, at the cost of a lower penetration depth within the breast tissue. In addition, a significant fraction of the power generated by a mm-wave imaging system would be reflected back from the skin. For these reasons, and also considering that mm-wave transmitters and receivers have been historically outperformed by microwave counterparts in terms of available power and sensitivity, mm-wave imaging has not been considered a possible solution. This paper contributes to demonstrate a paradigm shift toward the possible use of mm-waves for breast cancer imaging of targets a few centimeter below the skin, a useful penetration depth for several cases. All key points are addressed using analytical, full-wave, and multiphysics simulations, including the system architecture (linear and conformal), the safety aspects (power density, specific absorption rate, and temperature increase), and the use of realistic breast models derived from ex vivo measurements.
Autors: Simona Di Meo;Pedro Fidel Espín-López;Andrea Martellosio;Marco Pasian;Giulia Matrone;Maurizio Bozzi;Giovanni Magenes;Andrea Mazzanti;Luca Perregrini;Francesco Svelto;Paul Eugene Summers;Giuseppe Renne;Lorenzo Preda;Massimo Bellomi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1795 - 1806
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Feasibility of Full-Duplex Relaying in Multiple-Antenna Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we perform a system-level feasibility analysis of full-duplex (FD) relay-aided cellular networks that are equipped with multiple antennas at the base stations (BSs) and the relay nodes (RNs). The aim is to understand whether FD relaying is capable of enhancing the rate of cellular networks. With the aid of tools from stochastic geometry, we develop a tractable approach for computing the percentile rate, which allows us to gain insights on the impact of FD relaying for both the cell-edge and the cell-median mobile terminals subject to network interference. Contrary to previous works that do not consider the network interference, the framework reveals that even in the absence of self-interference at the FD RNs, a network with half-duplex (HD) RNs can outperform its FD counterpart for a moderate number of antennas at the BSs and RNs. On the other hand, the FD-based network can substantially outperform both the HD-based one and the one without RNs for a sufficiently large number of antennas at the BSs and RNs and substantially small self-interference power effect at the RNs. Finally, the aforementioned analytical insights are validated by means of Monte Carlo simulations.
Autors: Konstantinos Ntontin;Marco Di Renzo;Christos Verikoukis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2234 - 2249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Fronthaul Statistical Multiplexing Gain
Abstract:
Breaking the fronthaul capacity limitations is vital to make cloud radio access network scalable and practical. One promising way is aggregating several remote radio units (RRUs) as a cluster to share a fronthaul link, so as to enjoy the statistical multiplexing gain brought by the spatial randomness of the traffic. In this letter, a tractable model is proposed to analyze the fronthaul statistical multiplexing gain. We first derive the user blocking probability caused by the limited fronthaul capacity, including its upper and lower bounds. We then obtain the limits of fronthaul statistical multiplexing gain when the cluster size approaches infinity. Analytical results reveal that the user blocking probability decreases exponentially with the average fronthaul capacity per RRU, and the exponent is proportional to the cluster size. Numerical results further show considerable fronthaul statistical multiplexing gain even at a small to medium cluster size.
Autors: Liumeng Wang;Sheng Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1099 - 1102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On The Fundamental Energy Trade-offs of Geographical Load Balancing
Abstract:
Geographical load balancing can optimize the utilization of green energy and the cost of electricity by taking advantage of greenness and price diversities at geographically dispersed data centers. However, higher green energy utilization or lower electricity cost may actually increase the total energy consumption, and is not necessarily the best option. The achievable energy trade-offs can be captured by taking into consideration a defined service efficiency parameter for geo-dispersed data centers.
Autors: Abbas Kiani Kiani;Nirwan Ansari;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 170 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Incident Power on a Receiving Slender Antenna and the Optical Theorem in the Near Field
Abstract:
Incident power upon a slender scatterer or a receiving antenna is not well defined, since physical apertures of such structures have little meaning. However, an area over which the incident power is admitted can nonetheless be defined. For a definition that relies solely on the receive mode, we develop a near-field version of the optical theorem. When equated with the conventional far-field version, an equation for the admitting area appears. This equation is solved via both a full-wave simulation and a quasi-analytical way. The result is also supported by two transmit-mode assessments. It is shown that under this definition, the half-wavelength dipole can be replaced by an equivalent aperture antenna facing the direction of the incident wave.
Autors: Hamid Shannan;Raphael Kastner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2421 - 2427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» On the Limits of Coexisting Coverage and Capacity in Multi-RAT Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
This paper devises a general modeling and analyzing framework for a heterogeneous wireless network (HetNet) in which several wireless subnetworks coexist and use multiple radio access technologies (multi-RATs). The coexisting coverage and network capacity in such a multi-RAT HetNet are hardly investigated in prior works. To characterize the coexisting interactions in a multi-RAT HetNet, in this paper, we consider a HetNet consisting of tiers of access points (APs) and two different RATs, RAT- and RAT-, are adopted in the HetNet. RAT- is adopted by the APs in the first tiers and APs in the th tier only use RAT-. Both noncrossing-RAT and crossing-RAT user association scenarios are considered. In each scenario, the void probability and the channel access probability of the APs in each tier are first found and then the tight lower bounds and their lowest limits on the proposed coexisting coverage and network capacity are derived. We show that multi-RAT networks in general can achieve higher link coverage and capacity by using opportunistic carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance that avoids/alleviates severe interfering between all coexisting APs. Also, crossing-RAT user association is shown to achieve much higher coexisting coverage and network capacity than noncrossing-RAT user association. Finally, numerical simulations for the LTE-U and WiFi networks coexisting in the HetNet valida- e our findings.
Autors: Chun-Hung Liu;Hong-Cheng Tsai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3086 - 3101
Publisher: IEEE
 

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