Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 11

» Microscopic Origin of Electron Transport Properties and Ultrascalability of Amorphous Phase Change Material Germanium Telluride
Abstract:
The electron transport in prototypical amorphous (-) phase change material (PCM) germanium telluride is investigated using density functional theory, ab initio molecular dynamics, nonequilibriumGreen’s function, and quantum hydrodynamics. It is found that the measured peculiar electron transport properties of -PCM are governed by bias-dependent dynamics of local current swirls, which originate from defects-induced electron backscattering and localization. The microscopic balance between defects-induced electron localization and field-induced electron delocalization is the origin of the linear, exponential, and S-shape snapback current–voltage curve shapes. It is revealed that the threshold switching is a manifestation of quantum percolation. It is shown that the local current swirls are well confined in Å-scale, leading to the promising single-digit nanometer scalability of related device technologies.
Autors: Jie Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2207 - 2215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Characteristics of an Independently Biased 3-Stack InGaP/GaAs HBT Configuration
Abstract:
This paper investigates various important microwave characteristics of an independently biased 3-stack InGaP/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip at both small-signal and large-signal operation. By taking the advantage of the independently biased functionality, bias condition for individual transistor can be adjusted flexibly, resulting in the ability of independent control for both small-signal and large-signal performances. It was found that at small-signal operation stability and isolation characteristics of the proposed configuration can be significantly improved by controlling bias condition of the second-stage and the third-stage transistors while at large-signal operation its linearity and power gain can be improved through controlling the bias condition of the first-stage and the third-stage transistors. To demonstrate the benefits of using such an independently biased configuration, a measured optimum large-signal performance at an operation frequency of 1.6 GHz under an optimum bias condition for the high gain, low distortion were obtained as: , dBm; dB at IMD3 = −35 dBc. Moreover, to demonstrate the superior advantage of the proposed configuration, its small-signal and large-signal performance were also compared to that of a single stage common-emitter, a conventional 2-stack, an independently biased 2-stack and a conventional 3-stack configuration. The compared results showed that the independently biased 3-stack is the best candidate among the configurations for various wireless communications applications.
Autors: Manh Duy Luong;Ryo Ishikawa;Yoichiro Takayama;Kazuhiko Honjo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1140 - 1151
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Voltage-Controlled Oscillator With Harmonic-Suppressed Stepped-Impedance-Resonator Filter
Abstract:
This brief proposes a new low-phase-noise microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a harmonic-suppressed stepped-impedance-resonator (SIR) filter. Since the filter is synthesized by multiple resonators, it can provide a high-quality factor to improve the phase-noise performance. In addition, the harmonic-suppressed property of the filter adopted in this brief can alleviate the noise contributed from the oscillation harmonics. By applying the two techniques mentioned, the proposed VCO is designed at 2.4 GHz with a three-pole Butterworth filter, which is synthesized by the parallel transmission-line SIRs to reduce the circuit size. The proposed VCO using a three-pole filter has a measured phase noise of −147 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset frequency with a corresponding figure-of-merit of −203.18 dBc/Hz.
Autors: Chao-Hsiung Tseng;Tien-Sheng Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 520 - 524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwaves-Based High Sensitivity Sensors for Crack Detection in Metallic Materials
Abstract:
This paper presents a highly sensitive sensor for crack detection in metallic surfaces. The sensor is inspired by complementary split-ring resonators which have dimensions much smaller than the excitation’s wavelength. The entire sensor is etched in the ground plane of a microstrip line and fabricated using printed circuit board technology. Compared to available microwave techniques, the sensor introduced here has key advantages including high sensitivity, increased dynamic range, spatial resolution, design simplicity, selectivity, and scalability. Experimental measurements showed that a surface crack having 200- width and 2-mm depth gives a shift in the resonance frequency of 1.5 GHz. This resonance frequency shift exceeds what can be achieved using other sensors operating in the low GHz frequency regime by a significant margin. In addition, using numerical simulation, we showed that the new sensor is able to resolve a 10--wide crack (equivalent to /4000) with 180-MHz shift in the resonance frequency.
Autors: Ali M. Albishi;Omar M. Ramahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1864 - 1872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mid-Infrared Waveguide Array Inter-Chip Coupling Using Optical Quilt Packaging
Abstract:
A MEMS-based mid-infrared (MIR) chip-to-chip optical coupling technique, optical quilt packaging (OQP), is described. Numerical simulations are performed to predict performance and establish fabrication tolerances. The OQP fabrication process is described in detail and MIR inter-chip optical coupling between two waveguide arrays joined by OQP is characterized. The coupling loss between Ge-on-Si passive MIR waveguides is found to be ~ 4.1 dB, which is the lowest butt-coupling loss reported between two chips.
Autors: Tahsin Ahmed;Tian Lu;Thomas P. Butler;Jason M. Kulick;Gary H. Bernstein;Anthony J. Hoffman;Douglas C. Hall;Scott S. Howard;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:9, pages: 755 - 758
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Migration From Fixed to Flexible Grid Optical Networks With Sub-Band Virtual Concatenation
Abstract:
A novel strategy is presented to operate a mixed fixed/flexible grid optical network which may be used to gradually migrate from a fixed to a flexible mode of operation. Routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) in an optical network where fixed and flexible grids co-exist using a multi-path sub-band virtual concatenation (VCAT) or split spectrum (SS) technique is considered. Mixed integer linear programming models and an efficient heuristic algorithm based on spectrum window planes are proposed for the RSA optimization. The results obtained for the static traffic demand indicate that it is operationally more convenient to use the multi-path VCAT only by itself in a mixed grid optical network to guarantee performance comparable to that of the joint multi-path and single-path VCAT case. Network performance is also evaluated in terms of bandwidth blocking probability (BBP) under a dynamic traffic demand. Simulation results show that the multi-path VCAT scheme can efficiently utilize the overall spectrum resources with low blocking. The results of studies with both static and dynamic traffic demands also confirm that migration from a pure fixed grid optical network to a pure flexible grid will be desirable for better network capacity utilization.
Autors: Ya Zhang;Yao Zhang;Sanjay K. Bose;Gangxiang Shen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1752 - 1765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MIMO Energy Harvesting in Full-Duplex Multi-User Networks
Abstract:
This paper considers the efficient design of precoding matrices for sum throughput maximization under throughput quality of service (QoS) constraints and energy harvesting (EH) constraints for energy-constrained devices in a full-duplex (FD) multicell multi-user multiple-input-multiple-output network. Both time splitting (TS) and power splitting are considered to ensure practical EH and information decoding. These problems are quite complex due to non-concave objectives and nonconvex constraints. Especially, with TS, which is implementation-wise quite simple, the problem is even more challenging because the time splitting variable is not only coupled with the downlink throughput function but also coupled with the self-interference in the uplink throughput function. New path-following algorithms are developed for their solutions, which require only a single convex quadratic program for each iteration and ensure rapid convergence. Moreover, the FD EH maximization problem under throughput QoS constraints with TS is also considered. The performance of the proposed algorithms is compared with that of the modified problems assuming half-duplex systems. Finally, the merit of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated through extensive simulations.
Autors: Ho Huu Minh Tam;Hoang Duong Tuan;Ali Arshad Nasir;Trung Q. Duong;H. Vincent Poor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3282 - 3297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MIMO Sphere Decoding With Successive Interference Cancellation for Two-Dimensional Non-Uniform Constellations
Abstract:
Non-uniform constellations (NUCs) have been introduced to improve the performance of quadrature amplitude modulation constellations. 1D-NUCs keep the squared shape, while 2D-NUCs break that constraint to provide robustness. An impending problem with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is the optimum demapping complexity, which grows exponentially with the number of antennas and the constellation order. Some well-known sub-optimum MIMO demappers, such as soft fixed-complexity sphere decoders (SFSD), can reduce that complexity. However, SFSD demappers do not work with the 2D-NUCs, since they perform a quantization step in separated I/Q components. In this letter, we provide an efficient solution for the 2D-NUCs based on Voronoi regions. Both complexity implications and SNR performance are also analyzed.
Autors: Carlos Barjau;Manuel Fuentes;Takuya Shitomi;David Gómez-Barquero;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1015 - 1018
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniature Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Mobile Devices
Abstract:
We present our recent advances on developing a miniature sensor for carbon dioxide that may be used in mobile devices. Until now, limiting factors for the implementation of gas sensors in mobile devices, such as smartphones, include their production costs and large size, which is associated with the comparatively poor sensitivity. To overcome these constraints, we employ a photoacoustic-based infrared detection technology to gauge the light intensity of a mid-infrared LED. The photoacoustic detector mainly consists of a commercially available microphone inside a hermetically sealed, carbon dioxide filled cell. To save space and minimize intensity losses, a novel waveguide is used to direct the LED radiation to the detector. The waveguide simultaneously forms the measuring chamber. Because of the high sensitivity of our device, the overall size can be reduced to a level where it is compatible with standard IC sockets. Gas measurements were performed that demonstrate the suitability of the sensor. While providing high sensitivity, the influence of humidity on the sensor signal is insignificant and influences due to temperature shifts may be compensated for.
Autors: Louisa Scholz;Alvaro Ortiz Perez;Benedikt Bierer;Ponkanok Eaksen;Jürgen Wöllenstein;Stefan Palzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2889 - 2895
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturization of Frequency Selective Surfaces Using 2.5-D Knitted Structures: Design and Synthesis
Abstract:
This paper explores the potential of using vias for the miniaturization of frequency selective surfaces (FSSs). A new concept of knitting the loop-type FSS elements in 2.5-D is proposed, where successive segments of the loop are placed alternately on the two surfaces of the substrate and then interconnected through vias. A 2.5-D square-loop FSS (2.5-D SL-FSS) based on the proposed method is designed with the inclusion of ten vias at each side and characterized by a full-wave simulator. The transmission curves indicate a significant size reduction with a figure-of-merit , where is the free-space wavelength of resonant frequency and is the periodicity of unit element. In addition, the frequency response of this miniaturized FSS is also stable for various incident angles and polarizations. Furthermore, a general equivalent circuit model (ECM) is developed for 2.5-D SL-FSS by combining the prevailing electrical models of planar square loop and through-silicon vias. A wide set of parametric simulations for various element sizes, substrate thicknesses, and via counts are carried out with this ECM. Then, its performance is assessed on the basis of root-mean-square error (RMSE) criteria by comparing the results with appropriate electromagnetic simulations. The findings suggest that the ECM has sufficient accuracy for estimating the resonant frequency of 2.5-D SL-FSS with the RMSE values close to 3%. Moreover, the proposed concept of knitting is further validated by measuring two physical prototypes of the 2.5-D SL-FSS and the experimental results show a good consistency with full-wave simulations.
Autors: Tauseef Hussain;Qunsheng Cao;Jahangir Khan Kayani;Irfan Majid;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2405 - 2412
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Millimeter-Wave Radar Sensor for High-Accuracy Applications
Abstract:
A highly miniaturized and commercially available millimeter wave (mmw) radar sensor working in the frequency range between 121 and 127 GHz is presented in this paper. It can be used for distance measurements with an accuracy in the single-digit micrometer range. The sensor is based on the frequency modulated continuous wave (CW) radar principle; however, CW measurements are also possible due to its versatile design. An overview of the existing mmw radar sensors is given and the integrated radar sensor is shown in detail. The radio frequency part of the radar, which is implemented in SiGe technology, is described followed by the packaging concept. The radar circuitry on chip as well as the external antennas is completely integrated into an 8 mm mm quad flat no leads package that is mounted on a low-cost baseband board. The packaging concept and the complete baseband hardware are explained in detail. A two-step approach is used for the radar signal evaluation: a coarse determination of the target position by the evaluation of the beat frequency combined with an additional determination of the phase of the signal. This leads to an accuracy within a single-digit micrometer range. The measurement results prove that an accuracy of better than can be achieved with the sensor over a measurement distance of 35 mm.
Autors: Mario Pauli;Benjamin Göttel;Steffen Scherr;Akanksha Bhutani;Serdal Ayhan;Wolfgang Winkler;Thomas Zwick;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1707 - 1715
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Transparent Metallodielectric Resonator Antennas Integrated With Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells
Abstract:
Miniaturized transparent metallodielectric resonator antennas are developed and integrated on amorphous silicon solar cells. The horizontal metallic strips attached on the sidewalls of transparent low-profile dielectric resonators are used to manipulate electric near-fields and achieve novel dominant modes that represent miniaturized narrowband, wideband, or multiband antennas with various far-field properties. The radiation properties of each mode can also be adjusted to suit a prospective application by a simple change in position and/or size of the strip. The horizontal strip on the sidewall can be as narrow as one twelfth of the resonator height, and the top wall of the resonator is always kept clear to maximize the solar cell efficiency. A comprehensive comparison including far-field, near-field, and impedance properties of different modes is presented. Several prototypes of the integrated antennas were fabricated and tested. The experimental results are along with the theoretical achievements showing miniaturized antennas with maximum dimension as small as and multimode operation with realized gain higher than 6 dBi.
Autors: Atabak Rashidian;Lotfollah Shafai;Cyrus Shafai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2265 - 2275
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimal Load Shedding Using the Swing Equation
Abstract:
Load shedding constitutes the very last resort for preventing total blackouts and cascading events. Conventional load shedding schemes, which are massively applied in industrial practice, adopt a step-wise approach that usually causes overshedding or fails to prevent frequency decay above the allowable limits. Recently proposed schemes based on real time intelligent control and neural networks achieve the control objective, but fail to minimize the amount of load to be shed due to the delay incurred in consecutive control decisions. This letter proposes a new load shedding scheme, decoupled from the conventional scheme. This scheme, based on the equivalent swing equation of the system, determines the minimal amount of load that should be shed immediately (in a single step) after the load event/disturbance occurs, in order to guarantee system stability.
Autors: Yiannis Tofis;Stelios Timotheou;Elias Kyriakides;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2466 - 2467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimax Compression and Large Alphabet Approximation Through Poissonization and Tilting
Abstract:
This paper introduces a convenient strategy for coding and predicting sequences of independent, identically distributed random variables generated from a large alphabet of size . In particular, the size of the sample is allowed to be variable. The employment of a Poisson model and tilting method simplifies the implementation and analysis through independence. The resulting strategy is optimal within the class of distributions satisfying a moment condition, and it is close to optimal for the class of all i.i.d distributions on strings of a given length. The method also can be used to code and predict strings with a condition on the tail of the ordered counts, and it can be applied to distributions in an envelope class. Moreover, we show that our model permits exact computation of the minimax optimal code, for all alphabet sizes, when conditioning on the size of the sample.
Autors: Xiao Yang;Andrew R. Barron;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 63, issue:5, pages: 2866 - 2884
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimization of Waiting Time Variation in a Generalized Two-Machine Flowshop With Waiting Time Constraints and Skipping Jobs
Abstract:
Wafer quality issues are becoming essential concerns in semiconductor manufacturing industry. It is becoming increasingly important for fab managers to raise the wafer quality level. Quality variation across wafers and wafer lots is also recognized as of vital importance. Wafer waiting times, which occur between consecutive wafer processing steps, are critical for the quality and quality variation of wafers. To resolve these quality issues, we consider waiting time constraints and variation in a flowshop. To follow the actual operating features of the fab, we define a two-machine flowshop with jobs that can skip the first process step and are ready to enter the second step from the beginning of scheduling. This research thus examines a machine scheduling problem that minimizes the variation in job waiting times in a generalized two-machine flowshop with skipping jobs and waiting time constraints. The mathematical properties of the problem such as the dominance properties and feasibility conditions are vigorously analyzed. These analyses provide profound insights into reduction of the search space in the solution procedure. We also observe that the derived properties are intuitively consistent with the well-known principles of queueing theory. From these, we develop efficient approximation algorithms and present their computational performance.
Autors: Tae-Sun Yu;Hyun-Jung Kim;Tae-Eog Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 155 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimizing Coefficients Wordlength for Piecewise-Polynomial Hardware Function Evaluation With Exact or Faithful Rounding
Abstract:
Piecewise polynomial interpolation is a well-established technique for hardware function evaluation. The paper describes a novel technique to minimize polynomial coefficients wordlength with the aim of obtaining either exact or faithful rounding at a reduced hardware cost. The standard approaches employed in literature subdivide the design of piecewise-polynomial interpolators into three steps (coefficients calculation, coefficients quantization and arithmetic hardware optimization) and estimate conservatively the overall approximation error as the sum of the error components arising in each step. The proposed technique, using Integer Linear Programming (ILP), optimizes the polynomial coefficients taking into account all error components simultaneously. This gives two advantages. Firstly, we can obtain exactly rounded approximations; secondly, for faithfully rounded interpolators, we avoid any overdesign due to pessimistic assumptions on error components, optimizing in this way the resulting hardware. The proposed ILP based algorithm requires an acceptable CPU time (from few seconds to tens of minutes) and is suited for approximations up to, maximum, 24 input bits. The results compare favorably with previously published data. We present synthesis results in 28 nm and 90 nm CMOS technologies, to further assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Davide De Caro;Ettore Napoli;Darjn Esposito;Gerardo Castellano;Nicola Petra;Antonio G. M. Strollo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1187 - 1200
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MISO Networks With Imperfect CSIT: A Topological Rate-Splitting Approach
Abstract:
Recently, the Degrees-of-Freedom (DoFs) region of multiple-input-single-output (MISO) networks with imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) has attracted significant attention. An achievable scheme, known as rate-splitting (RS), integrates common-message-multicasting and private-message-unicasting. In this paper, focusing on the general -cell MISO IC with an arbitrary CSIT quality of each interfering link, we first identify the DoF region achieved by RS. Second, we introduce a novel scheme, so called topological RS (TRS), whose novelties compared with RS lie in a multi-layer structure and in transmitting multiple common messages to be decoded by groups of users rather than all users. The design of TRS is motivated by a novel interpretation of the -cell IC with imperfect CSIT as a weighted sum of a series of partially connected networks. We show that the DoF region achieved by TRS yields the best known result so far, and we find the maximal sum DoF via hypergraph fractional packing. Finally, for a realistic scenario where each user is connected to three dominant transmitters, we identify the sufficient condition where TRS strictly outperforms conventional schemes, and show that TRS is optimal for some CSIT qualities.
Autors: Chenxi Hao;Bruno Clerckx;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2164 - 2179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed Iterative Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Optimal Battery Energy Control in Smart Residential Microgrids
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel mixed iterative adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm is developed to solve the optimal battery energy management and control problem in smart residential microgrid systems. Based on the data of the load and electricity rate, two iterations are constructed, which are -iteration and -iteration, respectively. The -iteration is implemented based on value iteration, which aims to obtain the iterative control law sequence in each period. The -iteration is implemented based on policy iteration, which updates the iterative value function according to the iterative control law sequence. Properties of the developed mixed iterative ADP algorithm are analyzed. It is shown that the iterative value function is monotonically nonincreasing and converges to the solution of the Bellman equation. In each iteration, it is proven that the performance index function is finite under the iterative control law sequence. Finally, numerical results and comparisons are given to illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm.
Autors: Qinglai Wei;Derong Liu;Frank L. Lewis;Yu Liu;Jie Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4110 - 4120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobility Aware Virtual Network Embedding
Abstract:
Over the last years, network virtualization has become one of the most promising solutions for sustainability towards the ongoing increase of data demand in mobile networks. Within that context, the virtual network embedding problem has recently been studied extensively and many different solutions have been proposed; but, mainly these studies have focused on wired networks. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an optimization framework for optimal virtual network embedding, including a heuristic algorithm with low computational complexity, by explicitly considering the effect of supporting the actual user mobility, assuming the emerging Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) scheme as well as a traditional Centralized Mobility Management (CMM) scheme. In addition to that, service differentiation is introduced, giving higher priority to time-critical over-the-top (OTT) services compared to more traditional elastic Internet applications. The performance of the proposed framework is compared to mobility agnostic greedy algorithms as well as virtual network embedding algorithms from the literature. Numerical investigations reveal that the effect of user mobility has a significant impact on the design of virtual networks. Additionally, the mobility aware scheme can provide tangible gains in the overall performance compared with the previous proposed schemes that do not take explicitly into account the effect of user mobility.
Autors: Giorgos Chochlidakis;Vasilis Friderikos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1343 - 1356
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Self-Aware Performance and Resource Management Using the Descartes Modeling Language
Abstract:
Modern IT systems have increasingly distributed and dynamic architectures providing flexibility to adapt to changes in the environment and thus enabling higher resource efficiency. However, these benefits come at the cost of higher system complexity and dynamics. Thus, engineering systems that manage their end-to-end application performance and resource efficiency in an autonomic manner is a challenge. In this article, we present a holistic model-based approach for self-aware performance and resource management leveraging the Descartes Modeling Language (DML), an architecture-level modeling language for online performance and resource management. We propose a novel online performance prediction process that dynamically tailors the model solving depending on the requirements regarding accuracy and overhead. Using these prediction capabilities, we implement a generic model-based control loop for proactive system adaptation. We evaluate our model-based approach in the context of two representative case studies showing that with the proposed methods, significant resource efficiency gains can be achieved while maintaining performance requirements. These results represent the first end-to-end validation of our approach, demonstrating its potential for self-aware performance and resource management in the context of modern IT systems and infrastructures.
Autors: Nikolaus Huber;Fabian Brosig;Simon Spinner;Samuel Kounev;Manuel Bähr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 43, issue:5, pages: 432 - 452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Free Optimal Control Based Intelligent Cruise Control with Hardware-in-the-Loop Demonstration [Research Frontier]
Abstract:
It is difficult to implement optimal control for a system whose model is unknown and operation environment is uncertain, such as the intelligent cruise control of vehicles. This article will address the problem from the perspective of reinforcement learning by learning the optimal policy from the state transition data. The model-free optimal control algorithm is employed to approximate the optimal control policy for the intelligent cruise control system, which considers the comfort performance and the safety performance comprehensively by setting up a total performance index. The algorithm is implemented by two multi-layer neural networks which are the critic network and the actor network. The critic and actor networks are employed to approximate the stateaction value function and the control action, respectively. In addition, a data collecting strategy is proposed to obtain the state transition data distributed uniformly in the state action space from the running trajectory of the host car. The critic network and the action network are trained alternatively by the collected data until converging. The convergent action network is used to obtain the optimal control policy. At last, the policy is tested on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator built upon dSPACE by comparing with a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controller and a proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller. Results show its excellent performance on both aspects of the safety and the comfort.
Autors: Dongbin Zhao;Zhongpu Xia;Qichao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 56 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Characterization of Vertical GaN Schottky Diodes With AlGaN Cap Layers
Abstract:
A new gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky device structure suitable for power electronic applications is discussed. A GaN Schottky diode with an ultrathin AlGaN cap layer was fabricated using an Ni/Au metal stack as the Schottky electrode. – measurements at various temperatures were used to calculate a barrier height of 0.65 V with a free electron concentration of cm both of which appear temperature independent. A forward conduction model based on a thermionic emission–diffusion process with tunneling through the AlGaN barrier was developed and compared favorably to experimental data. A reverse conduction model utilizing thermionic field emission (TFE) with a triangular energy barrier is presented and then improved upon with a scaling factor that modifies the barrier thickness. This TFE model compares more favorably with the experimental data than the standard thermionic emission model typically used in Schottky diodes. Both the forward conduction and reverse conduction characteristics were assessed at room temperature and elevated temperature. The model can be used to predict how the physical parameters of the device affect its – characteristics.
Autors: Michael R. Hontz;Yu Cao;Mary Chen;Ray Li;Austin Garrido;Rongming Chu;Raghav Khanna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2172 - 2178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Dimensioning of a Virtualized MME for 5G Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Network function virtualization is considered one of the key technologies for developing future mobile networks. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework to evaluate the performance of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) virtualized mobility management entity (vMME) hosted in a data center. This theoretical framework consists of 1) a queuing network to model the vMME in a data center and 2) analytic expressions to estimate the overall mean system delay and the signaling workload to be processed by the vMME. We validate our mathematical model by simulation. One direct use of the proposed model is vMME dimensioning, i.e., to compute the number of vMME processing instances to provide a target system delay given the number of users in the system. Additionally, the paper includes a scalability analysis of the system. In our study, we consider the billing model and a data center setup of Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud service and estimate the processing time of MME processing instances for different LTE control procedures experimentally. For the considered setup, our results show that the vMME is scalable for signaling workloads up to 37 000 LTE control procedures per second for a target mean system delay of 1 ms. The system design and database performance assumed imposes this limit in the system scalability.
Autors: Jonathan Prados-Garzon;Juan J. Ramos-Munoz;Pablo Ameigeiras;Pilar Andres-Maldonado;Juan M. Lopez-Soler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4383 - 4395
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Exploration of the Voltage-Controlled Magnetic Anisotropy Effect for the Next-Generation Low-Power and High-Speed MRAM Applications
Abstract:
Spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) has been widely regarded as a potential nonvolatile memory candidate in the next-generation computer architectures. Nevertheless, the write energy consumption and delay are two significant concerns for STT-MRAM, blocking its applications for working memories. Recently, magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based on voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect shows tremendous superiority in terms of dynamic write energy and delay over the STT-based one, attracting much attention for advanced low-power and high-speed MRAM designs. In this paper, we evaluate the prospects and challenges of the VCMA-MTJ devices for advanced MRAM applications. First, the magnetization dynamics of the free layer of VCMA-MTJ devices are studied by solving a modified Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Afterward, a VCMA-MTJ electrical model is built by integrating the VCMA effect, Slonczewski STT model, Brinkman resistance model, and tunnel magnetoresistance model. Finally, three MTJ switching strategies, including precessional VCMA, STT-assisted precessional VCMA and STT-assisted thermally-activated VCMA, are studied for MRAM applications. Our results show that the STT-assisted precessional VCMA strategy is the most potential one for high-speed and low-power VCMA-MRAM design. This paper provides models, strategies, and guidelines for VCMA-MRAM design and application.
Autors: Wang Kang;Yi Ran;Youguang Zhang;Weifeng Lv;Weisheng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 387 - 395
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Parameter Extraction of CMOS On-Chip Spiral Inductors With Ground Shields
Abstract:
A new simple -equivalent model with parameter extraction method is presented in this letter, to develop accurate models for spiral inductors on low-resistance CMOS substrate with ground shield structure. C-L-R network is introduced to model the ground loop in the lower metal strips, replacing the conventional C-R-C network. This model contains only ten frequency-independent components with explicit physical meaning, which has fewer elements and is easy to be extracted. Frequency responses of the extracted results are in excellent agreement with the measurements and EM simulations of inductors with different ground shields and layout designs up to 40 GHz. This proves the validity of the proposed model and parameter extraction method. Finally, extracted results of the inductors with different ground shields are compared and investigated.
Autors: Bowen Ding;Shengyue Yuan;Chen Zhao;Tong Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 431 - 433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Fading Channels With Binary Erasure Finite-State Markov Channels
Abstract:
Finite-state Markov channels (FSMCs) are commonly used to characterize the memory of binary (binary-input, binary-output) discrete fading channels (DFCs). This paper proposes a new FSMC model, called the ternary Markov channel (TMC), to characterize ternary (binary-input, ternary-output) discrete channels with memory and soft-information. The TMC is used to model a DFC with the simplest soft-decision quantizer that labels low reliable received symbols as erasure symbols. This paper also proposes an enumerative technique to analytically evaluate the performance of a linear block code over the TMC. A new recurrence expression is developed for calculating the probability of codeword error for bounded distance error and erasure decoding.
Autors: Igor Moreira;Cecilio Pimentel;Felipe P. Barros;Daniel P. B. Chaves;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4429 - 4434
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Nanoelectromechanical Switches With Random Surface Roughness
Abstract:
Surface roughness is an important physical feature of nanometer-scale electromechanical (NEM) devices but typically is not considered in their numerical analysis. In this paper, computer simulations of a single-pole double-throw NEM switch with surface roughness are presented. Roughness is shown to modify the eigenfrequencies of the system, and also to make it possible for the switch to not close successfully. The importance of avoiding a free-standing cantilever is demonstrated.
Autors: Daniel Connelly;Tsu-Jae King Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2409 - 2416
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of CMOS Devices and Circuits on Flexible Ultrathin Chips
Abstract:
The field of flexible electronics is rapidly evolving. The ultrathin chips are being used to address the high-performance requirements of many applications. However, simulation and prediction of changes in response of device/circuit due to bending induced stress remains a challenge as of lack of suitable compact models. This makes circuit designing for bendable electronics a difficult task. This paper presents advances in this direction, through compressive and tensile stress studies on transistors and simple circuits such as inverters with different channel lengths and orientations of transistors on ultrathin chips. Different designs of devices and circuits in a standard CMOS 0.18- technology were fabricated in two separated chips. The two fabricated chips were thinned down to using standard dicing-before-grinding technique steps followed by post-CMOS processing to obtain sufficient bendability (20-mm bending radius, or 0.05% nominal strain). Electrical characterization was performed by packaging the thinned chip on a flexible substrate. Experimental results show change of carrier mobilities in respective transistors, and switching threshold voltage of the inverters during different bending conditions (maximum percentage change of 2% for compressive and 4% for tensile stress). To simulate these changes, a compact model, which is a combination of mathematical equations and extracted parameters from BSIM4, has been developed in Verilog-A and compiled into Cadence Virtuoso environment. The proposed model predicts the mobility variations and threshold voltage in compressive and tensile bending stress conditions and orientations, and shows an agreement with the experimental measurements (1% for compressive and 0.6- ; for tensile stress mismatch).
Autors: Anastasios Vilouras;Hadi Heidari;Shoubhik Gupta;Ravinder Dahiya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2038 - 2046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of FinFET Parasitic Source/Drain Resistance With Polygonal Epitaxy
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce a new compact model of the parasitic resistance of a FinFET with a hexagonal-shaped raised source–drain (S/D) structure. In contrast to previous models that divided the extrinsic S/D region into three parts, we redefined the region boundaries and modeled them as a series connection of accumulation resistance, gradient resistance, bulk resistance, and contact resistance. The newly added bulk resistance model accounts for the highly doped silicon region. We also significantly improved the contact resistance model to reflect the contact area and contact resistivity for better accuracy in the raised S/D region. We validated the accuracy of our model by varying the gate voltage, doping diffusion length, epitaxy silicon height, and contact resistivity, finding the model errors to be within 2% of the 3-D technology CAD device simulation results.
Autors: JungHun Kim;Hai Au Huynh;SoYoung Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2072 - 2079
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of the Change of Impedance of an Eddy Current Probe Due to Small Changes in Host Conductivity
Abstract:
Two different approximation techniques for predicting the response of an eddy current coil in the presence of small changes in conductivity were developed. The small changes in conductivity are the result of changes in the orientation of individual anisotropic crystals in a polycrystalline aggregate. Orientation information from electron backscatter diffraction was imported directly into the modeling domain and the simulations were run to map orientations into an approximated eddy current response. These approximated responses were compared with experimental data obtained with commercially available eddy current equipment, and the approximations were found to be in good agreement with experiment. Further verification was performed with other existing numerical and analytical models to demonstrate the accuracy of the approximations made in deriving the eddy current response. This paper shows these results and demonstrates the viability of using low-fidelity approximations in predicting the eddy current response when the change in conductivity is low.
Autors: Matthew R. Cherry;Shamachary Sathish;Ryan D. Mooers;Adam L. Pilchak;Ramana Grandhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Via Resistance for Advanced Technology Nodes
Abstract:
We investigate the dependence of Cu via resistance on via dimensions, shape, misalignment, and Co via prefill level by means of a novel resistivity model, calibrated to actual wires on silicon and integrated into the Synopsys Raphael tool. For this paper, we consider the case of 16 and 12nm self-aligned vias, which are representative for the 7 and 5nm logic technology nodes, respectively. Process emulations are performed by using the Synopsys Sentaurus Process Explorer tool in order to generate 3-D models of the investigated via structures. Finally, via resistance is extracted through current simulations in Raphael, that is, by taking into account the actual conductive path from the wires into the via. We predict that via resistance could increase by more than a factor of 2 from node to node. We show that chamfered vias can exhibit up to 56% less resistance than standard (87° tapered) vias because of the larger cross section at the via top. For the same reason, via resistance sensitivity to via width variations along the direction of the connecting (i.e. upper) wire is smaller for chamfered vias. As far as via misalignment to the connected (i.e. lower) wire is concerned, we demonstrate that in the range of interest, the induced resistance increase is not severe (e.g. 20% or lower), and in particular, via resistance is not inversely proportional to the contact area between the via and the connected wire. If side contact to the connected wire is enabled upon misalignment, the via resistance increase is further reduced. If vias are fully self-aligned, that is, self-aligned to both connecting and connected wires, the impact of misalignment can be neutralized in a certain range by properly oversizing the via mask in the direction along the connecting wire. Finally, we show that Co via prefill can enable a substantial reduction (up to 45%) of via resistance for chamfered vias, where the bottom ba- rier surface can be significantly increased when raised to the via top by means of the prefill step.
Autors: Ivan Ciofi;Philippe J. Roussel;Yves Saad;Victor Moroz;Chia-Ying Hu;Rogier Baert;Kristof Croes;Antonino Contino;Kevin Vandersmissen;Weimin Gao;Philippe Matagne;Mustafa Badaroglu;Christopher J. Wilson;Dan Mocuta;Zsolt Tőkei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2306 - 2313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Dual-Slope Behavior of in-Quad EL-FEXT in Twisted Pair Quad Cables
Abstract:
It is well known that the ratio between received crosstalk and received signal in telephony cabling increases with the frequency until both levels become about equal. Transmission systems like VDSL and G.fast are designed to cope with that. But the awareness that the increase of EL-FEXT (equal level – far end cross talk) becomes much stronger above a certain frequency (increases with 40 dB instead of 20 dB per decade) was raised only recently in ITU and BBF standardization bodies for G.fast. This second order effect became known under the name “dual slope” effect, was initially not well understood, and resulted in a number of conjectured explanations. This paper demonstrates that this second order effect in far end crosstalk between opposite wire pairs in the same quad is deterministic in nature. It is caused by the interaction of the twist in a quad and its metallic surroundings (e.g., shield). The twist of these quads reduces this second order crosstalk effect significantly, but what remains causes a slope of 40 dB/decade. This paper shows via a model that this second order effect scales linearly with the cable length and twist length, and validates that via measurements. It quantifies how sensitive this effect is to cable design parameters like twist length and capacitance to shield. In addition, an extension is proposed to a commonly used simplified system model for describing the far end cross talk as a function of the frequency and cable length.
Autors: Rob F. M. van den Brink;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2153 - 2163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison of Control Techniques for Energy Storage Systems
Abstract:
This paper describes the modeling and formulation of a variety of deterministic techniques for energy storage devices, namely the PI, H-infinity, and sliding mode controllers. These techniques are defined based on a general, yet detailed, energy storage device model, which is accurate for transient stability analysis. The paper also presents a thorough statistical comparison of the performance and robustness of the considered control techniques, using stochastic dynamic models and a variety of disturbances and scenarios. The case study is based on a 1479-bus model of the all-island Irish transmission system and an energy storage device actually installed in the system.
Autors: Álvaro Ortega;Federico Milano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2445 - 2454
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modernizing the Grid: Challenges and Opportunities for a Sustainable Future
Abstract:
In Addition To Their Age, Particularly in large metropolitan areas, electric power systems throughout the industrialized world face challenges brought on by new technology trends, environmental concerns, evolving weather patterns, a multiplicity of consumer needs, and regulatory requirements. New technology trends include the development of more efficient, reliable, and cost-effective renewable generation and distributed energy resources (DERs), energy storage technologies, and electric vehicles (EVs), along with monitoring, protection, automation, and control devices and communications that offer significant opportunities for realizing a sustainable energy future. The medium- to long-term vision for the electrical grid is to transition away from carbon-based fuels toward increased penetration of renewable DERs and use of energy storage and electric transportation.
Autors: Julio Romero Aguero;Erik Takayesu;Damir Novosel;Ralph Masiello;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 74 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular and Asynchronous Backpressure in Multihop Networks: Model and Optimization
Abstract:
It is well known that backpressure routing and scheduling can achieve optimal operation in multihop networks. However, the joint routing and scheduling nature of backpressure imposes challenges for practical implementation since many off-the-shelf network nodes cannot be easily changed to match the synchronous scheduling and routing functionality of backpressure. Toward this end, we propose a two-tier data queue structure to separate routing from scheduling and design a novel modular and asynchronous backpressure (MAB) based on the Lyapunov optimization technique. In MAB, source rate control, routing selection, and session scheduling can be asynchronously and independently implemented, which performs at the transport/network/link layer, respectively. Thus, MAB is readily deployed with current infrastructure, and all network nodes can easily employ MAB partially or fully. Simulation results show that MAB maintains optimal performance of the classic backpressure.
Autors: Weiqiang Xu;Fansong Sun;Qingjiang Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4486 - 4491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monitoring Physiological Variables of Mining Workers at High Altitude
Abstract:
Miners working at high altitude must handle extreme climatic and physiological hazards without specialized medical supervision. For this reason, the mining industry is constantly looking for improvements to existing occupational safety and health programs in order to enhance working conditions for people and equipment. This paper presents the design and implementation of a continuous monitoring device to measure the physiological variables of miners at high altitudes (>2000 m.a.s.l.). Extreme environmental conditions are detrimental for human health; therefore, a continuous control of the workers’ vital signs is necessary. The proposed system includes physiological variables such as electrocardiogram, respiratory activity, and body temperature, and environmental variables such as ambient temperature and relative humidity. The noninvasive sensors of the proposed system are embedded all throughout a T-shirt (first layer of protecting clothing) to achieve a functional device and maximum comfort for the users. The device is able to continuously calculate heart and respiration rate, and establish a wireless data transmission to a central monitoring station.
Autors: Pablo Aqueveque;Christopher Gutiérrez;Francisco Saavedra Rodríguez;Esteban J. Pino;Anibal S. Morales;Eduardo P. Wiechmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2628 - 2634
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Morphing Origami Conical Spiral Antenna Based on the Nojima Wrap
Abstract:
A two-arm Nojima origami conical spiral antenna (CSA) is designed. The antenna is based on the origami Nojima wrap pattern that enables the antenna to morph from a planar dipole to a conical spiral. The design equations of the Nojima origami CSA are presented and its performance is studied using simulations and measurements. The reflection coefficient, input impedance, gain, and axial ratio of this antenna are investigated over a wide frequency band. The radiation patterns of this antenna are also examined. A prototype of an origami Nojima CSA with 1.5 turns is manufactured and measured.
Autors: Shun Yao;Xueli Liu;Stavros V. Georgakopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2222 - 2232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Morphology, Structure, and Gas Sensing Performance of Conductive Polymers and Polymer/Carbon Black Composites Used for Volatile Compounds Detection
Abstract:
In this paper, we present fabrication, characterization, and sensing performance of four sensor elements, including two conducting polymers (polypyrrole and polyaniline), and two polymer/carbon black (CB) composites consisting ethyl cellulose (EC) and poly(caprolactone) (PCL). The identifications of four different vapors (methanol, ethanol, acetone, and ammonia) by these four sensors have been successfully demonstrated by using the principal component analysis. The sensing mechanisms of the examined sensors were investigated and a discussion on the similarity of gas sensor responses and the creep behavior has also been given. It was found that the response/recovery behavior of gas sensors can be presented by the Kelvin–Voigt rheological model. The effect of CB content on polymer/carbon sensor performance was investigated in the range of 15–20 wt. %. The increase of CB wt. %, led to increase the sensor response. The morphology of the produced EC/CB and PCL/CB composite sensors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Polyaniline indicated the highest response to ammonia due to effect of -phenylene resonance on deprotonation process. The PCL/CB sensor response was more pronounced as compared with EC/CB, due to its higher porous structure.
Autors: Farnoosh Miramirkhani;Amir H. Navarchian;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:10, pages: 2992 - 3000
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion and Switching of Dual-Vortex Cores in Elliptical Permalloy Nanodisk Stimulated by a Gaussian Magnetic Field Pulse
Abstract:
Magnetic nanostructures have potential applications in ultrahigh-density magnetic storage. In this paper, the dynamics of the dual magnetic vortices in elliptical Permalloy nanodisk are investigated using micromagnetic modeling. Under the stimulation of the short-axis (-axis) Gaussian field pulse and long-axis (-axis) constant field, the equilibrium positions of dual-vortex cores can be driven away from the initial positions. The displacement in the -direction is proportional to the magnitude of the -axis constant field. The displacement in the -direction exhibit periodic reliance on the pulsewidth of the -axis Gaussian field pulse. The threshold value of pulse strength for dual-vortex motion increases with the magnitude of the -axis constant field. The mechanism of polarity and chirality switching in dual-vortex cores are studied through analyzing the trajectories of vortex cores in the annihilation and nucleation processes. The switching of polarity exhibits an oscillatory dependence on the pulsewidth and strength. The minimum pulse strength required for chirality switching is 120 mT, while the corresponding pulsewidth is influenced by the -axis constant field. This paper provides insights on the magnetization dynamics of nanostructures containing dual vortices subject to external excitations.
Autors: X. Li;Y. Zhou;T. Zeng;K. -W. Lin;P. T. Lai;Philip W. T. Pong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion Classification-Based Fast Motion Estimation for High-Efficiency Video Coding
Abstract:
High efficiency video coding (HEVC), the latest video coding standard, is becoming popular due to its excellent coding performance. However, the significant gain in performance is achieved at the cost of substantially higher encoding complexity than its precedent H.264/AVC, in which motion estimation (ME) is the most time-consuming module that effectively removes temporal redundancy. Test zone search (TZS) is adopted as the default fast ME method in the reference software of HEVC; however, its computational complexity is still too high for real-time applications. Several fast ME algorithms have been recently proposed to further reduce ME complexity; however, these approaches typically lead to non-negligible performance loss. To address this problem, this paper proposes a motion classification-based fast ME algorithm. By exploring the motion relationship of neighboring blocks and the coding cost characteristic, the prediction unit (PU) is first categorized into one of three classes, namely, motion-smooth PU, motion-medium PU and motion-complex PU. Then different search strategies are carefully designed for PUs of each class according to their respective motion and content characteristics. Furthermore, a fast search priority-based partial internal termination scheme is presented to rapidly skip impossible positions that speeds up cost computation during the ME process. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves as much as 12.47% and 20.25% reductions in total encoder complexity when compared with TZS under low delay P and random access configuration, respectively, with negligible rate-distortion degradation; thus, it outperforms state-of-the-art fast ME algorithms in terms of both coding performance and complexity reduction.
Autors: Rui Fan;Yongfei Zhang;Bo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 19, issue:5, pages: 893 - 907
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MoZo: A Moving Zone Based Routing Protocol Using Pure V2V Communication in VANETs
Abstract:
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are an emerging field, whereby vehicle-to-vehicle communications can enable many new applications such as safety and entertainment services. Most VANET applications are enabled by different routing protocols. The design of such routing protocols, however, is quite challenging due to the dynamic nature of nodes (vehicles) in VANETs. To exploit the unique characteristics of VANET nodes, we design a moving-zone based architecture in which vehicles collaborate with one another to form dynamic moving zones so as to facilitate information dissemination. We propose a novel approach that introduces moving object modeling and indexing techniques from the theory of large moving object databases into the design of VANET routing protocols. The results of extensive simulation studies carried out on real road maps demonstrate the superiority of our approach compared with both clustering and non-clustering based routing protocols.
Autors: Dan Lin;Jian Kang;Anna Squicciarini;Yingjie Wu;Sashi Gurung;Ozan Tonguz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1357 - 1370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MPPT in Wireless Sensor Nodes Supply Systems Based on Electromagnetic Vibration Harvesters for Freight Wagons Applications
Abstract:
The starting point for the proper design of an efficient wireless sensor node (WSN) supply system that is based on the adoption of a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (REVEH) is represented by the choice of a REVEH with a proper resonance frequency. But further likewise important design guidelines need to be also taken into account especially if, as in the case of freight wagons applications, vibrations are nonsinusoidal and their characteristics change with time. In this paper, the guidelines leading to the development of a smart power electronics interface between the REVEH and the WSN are provided with reference to freight wagons applications. In particular, for the most widely used double stage ac/dc architecture for REVEH applications, such guidelines not only allow the choice of the proper dc/dc converter topology, but they also allow the development of a suitable maximum power point tracking control strategy that allows to avoid the waste of energy and the consequent necessity to oversize the REVEH.
Autors: Marco Balato;Luigi Costanzo;Massimo Vitelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3576 - 3586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MRCP-RM: A Technique for Resource Allocation and Scheduling of MapReduce Jobs with Deadlines
Abstract:
Resource allocation and scheduling on clouds are required to harness the power of the underlying resource pool such that the service provider can meet the quality of service requirements of users, which are often captured in service level agreements (SLAs). This paper focuses on resource allocation and scheduling on clouds and clusters that process MapReduce jobs with SLAs. The resource allocation and scheduling problem is modelled as an optimization problem using constraint programming, and a novel MapReduce Constraint Programming based Resource Management algorithm (MRCP-RM) is devised that can effectively process an open stream of MapReduce jobs where each job is characterized by an SLA comprising an earliest start time, a required execution time, and an end-to-end deadline. A detailed performance evaluation of MRCP-RM is conducted for an open system subjected to a stream of job arrivals using both simulation and experimentation on a real system. The experiments on a real system are performed on a Hadoop cluster (deployed on Amazon EC2) that runs our new Hadoop Constraint Programming based Resource Management algorithm (HCP-RM) that incorporates a technique for handling data locality. The results of the performance evaluation demonstrate the effectiveness of MRCP-RM/HCP-RM in generating a schedule that leads to a low proportion of jobs missing their deadlines (P) and also provide insights into system behaviour and performance. In the simulation experiments, it is observed that MRCP-RM achieves on average an 82 percent lower P compared to a technique from the existing literature when processing a synthetic workload from Facebook. Furthermore, in the experiments performed on a Hadoop cluster deployed on Amazon EC2, it is observed that HCP-RM achieved on average a 63 percent lower P compared to an EDF-Scheduler for a wide variety of workload and system parameters experimented with.
Autors: Norman Lim;Shikharesh Majumdar;Peter Ashwood-Smith;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1375 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Agent-Based Technique for Fault Location, Isolation, and Service Restoration
Abstract:
This paper proposes a communication-assisted fault localization, isolation, and restoration method for microgrids based on a multi-agent system. The proposed system comprises distributed agents, located in the middle and at the two ends of a protection section, which will detect a fault through phase angle comparison of current signals at both sides of a given distribution line. The agents then send trips signal to corresponding circuit breakers accordingly. The importance of the proposed protection technique is twofold. First, it eliminates the use of voltage transformers and thus reduces costs. Second, it does not require transfer of data along long distances, which decreases the delay time for fault isolation. Power restoration processes following the fault clearance considering voltage, frequency, and power flow constraints in the microgrid under study were also performed. Simulation of the proposed protection methodology was presented followed by experimental verification. The experimental results showed excellent agreement with the simulated protection scheme.
Autors: Hany F. Habib;Tarek Youssef;Mehmet H. Cintuglu;Osama A. Mohammed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1841 - 1851
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Bit Flipping Decoding of LDPC Codes for NAND Storage Systems
Abstract:
This letter presents a new multi-bit flipping decoding algorithm for low-density parity-check codes, which can enhance hard-information-based decoding performance for NAND storage systems. Since the conventional enhancement techniques developed for bit-flipping decoding require soft information, the long latency taken to generate the soft information, makes it hard to apply them to practical NAND storage systems. The proposed algorithm requires only hard information and achieves the better performance than previous hard-information-based algorithms. The proposed method flips multiple bits in each iteration, but the maximum number of bits to be flipped in an iteration is restricted to prevent overcorrection. To relax the hardware complexity of sorting, in addition, an efficient approximation method is proposed, reducing the hardware complexity of a 512-input sorter by 48.3% without degrading the performance noticeably.
Autors: Jaehwan Jung;In-Cheol Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 979 - 982
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Hop Cooperative Relaying With Energy Harvesting From Cochannel Interferences
Abstract:
A novel multi-hop cooperative relaying transmission is proposed, where neither the source nor the relays have constant power supplies but rather scavenge energy from cochannel interferences (CCIs) and then use it for subsequent data transmission. The results show that, larger CCIs, usually detrimental to system performance, offer higher transmit power to each node and benefit improving system performance. Given a prescribed end-to-end (e2e) outage threshold, this letter identifies the largest number of hops that energy harvesting from CCIs can support. Moreover, the e2e outage probability is shown to be dominated by the quality of the desired channels along with the relaying link, almost regardless of the CCIs.
Autors: Erhu Chen;Minghua Xia;Daniel B. da Costa;Sonia Aïssa;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1199 - 1202
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Indenter Device for in Vivo Biomechanical Tissue Measurement
Abstract:
Biomechanical tissue properties have been hypothesized to play a critical role in the quantification of prosthetic socket production for individuals with limb amputation. In this investigation, a novel indenter platform is presented and its performance evaluated for the purposes of residual-limb tissue characterization. The indenter comprised 14 position- and force-controllable actuators that circumferentially surround a biological residuum to form an actuator ring. Each indenter actuator was individually controllable in position ( accuracy) and force (330 mN accuracy) at a PC controller feedback rate of 500 Hz, allowing for a range of measurement across a residual stump. Data were collected from 162 sensors over an EtherCAT fieldbus to characterize the mechanical hyperviscoelastic tissue response of two transtibial residual-limbs from a study participant with bilateral amputations. At five distinct anatomical locations across the residual-limb, force versus deflection data—including hyperviscoelastic tissue properties—are presented, demonstrating the accuracy and versatility of the multi-indenter platform for residual-limb tissue characterization.
Autors: Arthur Petron;Jean-François Duval;Hugh Herr;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 426 - 435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Level Random Walk for Software Test Suite Reduction
Abstract:
Software testing is important and time-consuming. A test suite, i.e., a set of test cases, plays a key role in validating the expected program behavior. In modern test-driven development, a test suite pushes the development progress. Software evolves over time; its test suite is executed to detect whether a new code change adds bugs to the existing code. Executing all test cases after each code change is unnecessary and may be impossible due to the limited development cycle. On the one hand, multiple test cases may focus on an identical piece of code; then several test cases cannot detect extra bugs. On the other hand, even executing a test suite once in a large project takes around one hour [1]; frequent code changes require much time for conducting testing. For instance, in Hadoop, a framework of distributed computing, 2,847 version commits are accepted within one year from September 2014 with a peak of 135 commits in one week [2].
Autors: Zongzheng Chi;Jifeng Xuan;Zhilei Ren;Xiaoyuan Xie;He Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 24 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Linear Probabilistic Energy Flow Analysis of Integrated Electrical and Natural-Gas Systems
Abstract:
The deep interdependence between electrical and gas systems entails a potential threat to the security (or reliability) of both systems. It is imperative to investigate the impacts of massive uncertainties on the overall secure and economical operation of both systems. In this paper, a probabilistic energy flow framework of integrated electrical and gas systems is initially proposed considering correlated varying energy demands and wind power. Three aspects of couplings between electrical and gas systems are considered: gas-fired generators, electric-driven compressors, and energy hubs integrated with power to gas (P2G) units. Furthermore, a multilinear method is specially designed to produce a deterministic energy flow solution for each sample generated by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Finally, test results have verified that the proposed multilinear MCS method prevails over the nonlinear MCS. In addition, P2G effectively benefits the operation of both electrical and gas networks.
Autors: Sheng Chen;Zhinong Wei;Guoqiang Sun;Kwok W. Cheung;Yonghui Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1970 - 1979
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Method Data Delivery for Green Sensor-Cloud
Abstract:
Delivering sensory data to users anytime and anywhere if there is network connection, sensor-cloud (SC), which integrates WSNs and cloud computing, is attracting growing interest from both academia and industry. This article discusses the potential applications and recent work about SC and observes two issues regarding green SC. Further, motivated by solving these two issues, this article proposes a Multi-Method Data Delivery (MMDD) scheme for SC users. MMDD strategically incorporates four kinds of delivery: delivery from cloud to SC users; delivery from WSN to SC users; delivery from SC users to SC users; and delivery from cloudlet to SC users. Compared to exclusive data delivery from cloud to SC users, evaluation results show that MMDD could achieve lower delivery cost or less delivery time for SC users.
Autors: Chunsheng Zhu;Victor C. M. Leung;Kun Wang;Laurence T. Yang;Yan Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 176 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Scenario Parameter Estimation for Synchronous Generation Systems
Abstract:
Parameter estimation of synchronous generation systems is vital to the validation of power system dynamic analysis. Compared with the substantially investigated single-scenario parameter estimation, multi-scenario estimation is more advantageous in terms of estimation accuracy. This study proposes a systematic method for solving the challenges of implementing multi-scenario parameter estimation through four crucial steps. First, a novel method using trajectory sensitivity is proposed for multi-scenario parameter identifiability analysis. Scenarios are then ranked based on the scenario identifiability index with respect to the identifiable parameters. Third, a scenario decomposition strategy is developed by using the reduced-space interior point method to accelerate the parameter estimation procedure. Finally, a method based on Chi-square test is proposed for bad scenario detection and identification. In the case study, numerical experiments and field measurements are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Zexiang Zhu;Guangchao Geng;Quanyuan Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1851 - 1859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids
Abstract:
In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit is taken as an agent and it schedules its own frequency reference given of the real power droop controller according to the SoC values of all other DES units. Further, to obtain the average SoC value of DES, the dynamic average consensus algorithm is utilized by each agent. A generalized small-signal model of the proposed frequency scheduling for the proposed frequency scheduling is developed in order to verify the stability of the control system and to guide control parameters design. The convergence characteristics for the dynamic consensus adopted in the multiagent system are also analyzed to choose the proper control parameter. Experimental results verified the effectiveness, the robustness against communication topology changes, and capability of “plug & play” for the proposed multiagent system through different case studies.
Autors: Chendan Li;Ernane Antônio Alves Coelho;Tomislav Dragicevic;Josep M. Guerrero;Juan C. Vasquez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2369 - 2381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiband and Broadband Wireless Power Transfer Systems Using the Conformal Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance Method
Abstract:
Novel multiband and broadband wireless power transfer (WPT) systems based on conformal strongly coupled magnetic resonance (CSCMR) are presented in this paper. An analytical model for CSCMR systems is developed in order to study their performance. Optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed and their performance is validated using simulations and measurements. A broadband CSCMR system, which exhibits seven times broader bandwidth than conventional SCMR and CSCMR systems operating at the same frequency, is designed and prototyped.
Autors: Hao Hu;Stavros V. Georgakopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3595 - 3607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidimensional Optical Sensing and Imaging System (MOSIS): From Macroscales to Microscales
Abstract:
Multidimensional optical imaging systems for information processing and visualization technologies have numerous applications in fields such as manufacturing, medical sciences, entertainment, robotics, surveillance, and defense. Among different three-dimensional (3-D) imaging methods, integral imaging is a promising multiperspective sensing and display technique. Compared with other 3-D imaging techniques, integral imaging can capture a scene using an incoherent light source and generate real 3-D images for observation without any special viewing devices. This review paper describes passive multidimensional imaging systems combined with different integral imaging configurations. One example is the integral-imaging-based multidimensional optical sensing and imaging systems (MOSIS), which can be used for 3-D visualization, seeing through obscurations, material inspection, and object recognition from microscales to long range imaging. This system utilizes many degrees of freedom such as time and space multiplexing, depth information, polarimetric, temporal, photon flux and multispectral information based on integral imaging to record and reconstruct the multidimensionally integrated scene. Image fusion may be used to integrate the multidimensional images obtained by polarimetric sensors, multispectral cameras, and various multiplexing techniques. The multidimensional images contain substantially more information compared with two-dimensional (2-D) images or conventional 3-D images. In addition, we present recent progress and applications of 3-D integral imaging including human gesture recognition in the time domain, depth estimation, mid-wave-infrared photon counting, 3-D polarimetric imaging for object shape and material identification, dynamic integral imaging implemented with liquid-crystal devices, and 3-D endoscopy for healthcare applications.
Autors: Bahram Javidi;Xin Shen;Adam S. Markman;Pedro Latorre-Carmona;Adolfo Martínez-Uso;José Martinez Sotoca;Filiberto Pla;Manuel Martínez-Corral;Genaro Saavedra;Yi-Pai Huang;Adrian Stern;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 850 - 875
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multidisciplinary Learning through Implementation of the DVB-S2 Standard
Abstract:
Telecommunication standards are documents that contain consolidated knowledge about communication systems and implementation best practices. They are created based on long consensus processes in order to meet practical constraints. This article describes how the DVB-S2 standard is used in the electrical engineering curricula at KU Leuven within a design and implementation course called EAGLE. The goal of the course is to teach third-year Bachelor students how to apply the abstract knowledge gathered in the theoretical courses (control theory, communication theory, software, and hardware) to the design of a complex and real engineering project. Based on their progress during the academic year, we illustrate how standards can be used to teach a broad skill set and act as an accelerator to abstract system implementation complexity. We give an overview of the objectives of the EAGLE project and the relevance of the DVB-S2 standard, the design and implementation task that the students need to accomplish, and how they finally learn to master the complexity of a real communication standard, VHDL coding, and system verification and integration.
Autors: Yuri Murillo;Bertold Van den Bergh;Jona Beysens;Alexander Bertrand;Wim Dehaene;Panagiotis Patrinos;Tinne Tuytelaars;Ruth Vazquez Sabariego;Marian Verhelst;Patrick Wambacq;Sofie Pollin;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 124 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifrequency Radar Imagery and Characterization of Hazardous and Noxious Substances at Sea
Abstract:
The increase in maritime traffic, particularly the transport of hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs), requires advanced methods of identification and characterization in environmental chemical spills. Knowledge about HNS monitoring using radar remote sensing is not as extensive as for oil spills; however, any progress on this issue would likely advance the monitoring of both chemical and oil-related incidents. To address the need for HNS monitoring, an experiment was conducted in May 2015 over the Mediterranean Sea during which controlled releases of HNS were imaged by a multifrequency radar system. The aim of this experiment was to establish a procedure for collecting evidence of illegal maritime pollution by noxious liquid substances using airborne radar sensors. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of radar imagery to detect and characterize chemicals at sea. A normalized polarization difference parameter is introduced to quantify both the impacts of released product on the ocean surface and the relative concentration of the substance within the spill. We show that radar imagery can provide knowledge of the involved HNS. In particular, one can distinguish a product that forms a film on the top of the sea surface from another that mixes with seawater, the information that is critical for efficient cleanup operations.
Autors: Sébastien Angelliaume;Brent Minchew;Sophie Chataing;Philippe Martineau;Véronique Miegebielle;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 3051 - 3066
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilevel Reduced Controlled Switches AC–DC Power Conversion Cells
Abstract:
This paper presents multilevel ac–dc single-phase power conversion cells for applications in which the regenerative operation is either not required or prohibited. The ac primary power source is a single phase from a permanent magnet generator or from an electrical grid. The cells are composed of two h-bridges in cascade: 1) an unidirectional high-voltage h-bridge with two controlled switches; and 2) two power diodes, processing the active power, and a low-voltage h-bridge with four controlled switches and a floating capacitor. These cells can be part of multiphase systems, in which it is required one cell for each phase. Some examples of application for three-phase systems are given, exploring different ways of connection between the single-phase cells. Simulation and experimental results regarding the proposed cells and conventional h-bridge based ac–dc converters are shown for validation and comparison purposes.
Autors: João Paulo Ramos Agra Méllo;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Italo Roger Ferreira Moreno Pinheiro da Silva;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2233 - 2244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal Imaging Based on Digital Holography
Abstract:
Digital holography provides a method of the 3-D recording and numerical reconstruction by a simple optical system and a computer. Quantitative measurement and numerical refocusing are major characteristics. So far, many physical parameters such as amplitude, phase, polarization, fluorescence, and spectra can be obtained independently. Recently, multimodal imaging that can obtain simultaneously two or more physical parameters by combining digital holographic microscope and other optical microscopes such as a fluorescence optical microscope and a Raman scattering microscope has emerged. In this review, physical parametric imaging techniques based on digital holography are presented and then these techniques are enhanced to develop multimodal imaging based on digital holography.
Autors: Osamu Matoba;Xiangyu Quan;Peng Xia;Yasuhiro Awatsuji;Takanori Nomura;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 105, issue:5, pages: 906 - 923
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimodal KB Harvesting for Emerging Spatial Entities
Abstract:
New entities are being created daily. Though the novelty of these entities naturally attracts mentions, due to lack of prior knowledge, it is more challenging to collect knowledge about such entities than pre-existing entities, whose KBs are comprehensively annotated through LBSNs and EBSNs. In this paper, we focus on knowledge harvesting for emerging spatial entities (ESEs), such as new businesses and venues, assuming we have only a list of ESE names. Existing techniques for knowledge base (KB) harvesting are primarily associated with information extraction from textual corpora. In contrast, we propose a multimodal method for event detection based on the complementary interaction of image, text, and user information between multi-source platforms, namely Flickr and Twitter. We empirically validate our harvesting approaches improve the quality of KB with enriched place and event knowledge.
Autors: Jinyoung Yeo;Hyunsouk Cho;Jin-Woo Park;Seung-Won Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 1073 - 1086
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimode Interference Power-Splitter Using InP-Based Deeply Etched Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide
Abstract:
The present study proposes a novel nanoscale multimode interference (MMI) power splitter utilizing an InP-based hybrid plasmonic waveguide at an optical communication wavelength. The layer stack has the potential to realize monolithic integrated hybrid plasmonic passive and active components. The 1 × 2, 1 × 3, and 2 × 2 MMI power splitters were simulated and optimized using a three-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The effect of MMI length, width, and wavelength on optical power transmission was investigated. Transmission was higher than 90% at 1.55 μm wavelengths. This study also presents an ultracompact shallow to deep transition between shallow-etched conventional waveguide and a hybrid plasmonic waveguide on an InP-substrate. It was shown that shallow to deep transition with a length of 2 μm has a coupling efficiency of 87.5%.
Autors: Mahmoud Nikoufard;Masoud Kazemi Alamouti;Soheil Pourgholi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 477 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Beampattern Optimization in Collaborative Beamforming via NSGA-II With Selective Distance
Abstract:
Collaborative beamforming is usually characterized by high, asymmetrical sidelobe levels due to the randomness of node locations. Previous works have shown that the optimization methods aiming to reduce the peak sidelobe level (PSL) alone do not guarantee the overall sidelobe reduction of the beampattern, especially when the nodes are random and cannot be manipulated. Hence, this paper proposes a multiobjective amplitude and phase optimization technique with two objective functions: PSL minimization and directivity maximization, in order to improve the beampattern. A novel selective Euclidean distance approach in the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is proposed to steer the candidate solutions toward a better solution. Results obtained by the proposed NSGA with selective distance (NSGA-SD) are compared with the single-objective PSL optimization performed using both GA and particle swarm optimization. The proposed multiobjective NSGA provides up to 40% improvement in PSL reduction and 50% improvement in directivity maximization and up to 10% increased performance compared to the legacy NSGA-II. The analysis of the optimization method when considering mutual coupling between the nodes shows that this improvement is valid when the inter-node Euclidean separations are large.
Autors: Suhanya Jayaprakasam;Sharul Kamal Abdul Rahim;Chee Yen Leow;Tiew On Ting;Akaa A. Eteng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2348 - 2357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Multiobjective Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Problem With Sequence Dependent Setup Times
Abstract:
The multiobjective permutation flow shop scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times has been an object of investigations for decades. This widely studied problem from the scheduling theory links the sophisticated solution algorithms with the moderate real world applications. This paper presents a novel multiobjective discrete artificial bee colony algorithm based decomposition, called MODABC/D, to solve the sequence dependent setup times multiobjective permutation flowshop scheduling problem with the objective to minimize makespan and total flowtime. First, in order to make the standard artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the scheduling problem, a discrete artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to solve the problem based on the perturbation operation. Then, a problem-specific solution builder heuristic is used to initialize the population to enhance the quality of the initial solution. Finally, a further local search method are comprised of a single local search procedures based on the insertion neighborhood structures to find the better solution for the nonimproved individual. The performance of the proposed algorithms is tested on the well-known benchmark suite of Taillard. The highly effective performance of the multiobjective discrete artificial bee colony algorithm-based decomposition is compared against the state of art algorithms from the existing literature in terms of both coverage value and hypervolume indicator.
Autors: Xiangtao Li;Shijing Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 149 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Solutions of Optimal PMU Placement Using Exponential Binary PSO Algorithm for Smart Grid Applications
Abstract:
For smart grid execution, one of the most important requirements is fast, precise, and efficient synchronized measurements, which are possible by phasor measurement unit (PMU). To achieve fully observable network with the least number of PMUs, optimal placement of PMU (OPP) is crucial. In trying to achieve OPP, priority may be given at critical buses, generator buses, or buses that are meant for future extension. Also, different applications will have to be kept in view while prioritizing PMU placement. Hence, OPP with multiple solutions (MSs) can offer better flexibility for different placement strategies as it can meet the best solution based on the requirements. To provide MSs, an effective exponential binary particle swarm optimization (EBPSO) algorithm is developed. In this algorithm, a nonlinear inertia-weight-coefficient is used to improve the searching capability. To incorporate previous position of particle, two innovative mathematical equations that can update particle's position are formulated. For quick and reliable convergence, two useful filtration techniques that can facilitate MSs are applied. Single mutation operator is conditionally applied to avoid stagnation. The EBPSO algorithm is so developed that it can provide MSs for various practical contingencies, such as single PMU outage and single line outage for different systems.
Autors: Tapas Kumar Maji;Parimal Acharjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2550 - 2559
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Frequency DBIM-TwIST Algorithm for Microwave Breast Imaging
Abstract:
A novel distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) algorithm is proposed for microwave breast imaging based on the two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding method. We show that this implementation is more flexible and robust than using traditional Krylov subspace methods such as the CGLS as solvers of the ill-posed linear problem. This paper presents several strategies to increase the algorithm’s robustness: a hybrid multifrequency approach to achieve an optimal tradeoff between imaging accuracy and reconstruction stability; a new approach to estimate the average breast tissues properties, based on sampling along their range of possible values and running a few DBIM iterations to find the minimum error; and finally, a new regularization strategy for the DBIM method based on the norm and the Pareto curve. We present reconstruction examples which illustrate the benefits of these optimization strategies, which have resulted in a DBIM algorithm that outperforms our previous implementations for microwave breast imaging.
Autors: Zhenzhuang Miao;Panagiotis Kosmas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2507 - 2516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiport Interferometer-Enabled 2-D Angle of Arrival (AOA) Estimation System
Abstract:
A systematic scheme for finding the direction of arrival (DOA) or 2-D angle of arrival (AOA) of an electromagnetic beam is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. This system estimates the respective angle of propagation vector of an incoming plane wave in either horizontal or vertical plane. It consists of three main parts, namely, an antenna, a multiport wave interferometric receiver or phase discriminator, and a signal processor. The antenna is composed of four receiving elements located in the same plane, which is arranged in a diamond-shaped configuration. The received signals manifest relative phase differences that contain information about the beam’s DOA. With the proposed eight-port junction topology, the interferometer extracts these informative phase differences and leaves them for a simple signal processing algorithm to estimate the two angles. The theoretical analysis of the proposed scheme is presented along with system-level simulation results for the proof of concept. In addition, an appropriate calibration technique is formulated to deal with nonidealities and consecutive errors in practice. One of the main applications of such a system is related to the angular detection of an antenna-to-antenna misalignment in pencil beam millimeter-wave systems. Therefore, implementation of the presented system scheme for millimeter wave applications is briefly discussed for its prototyping over 60-GHz range (V-band). Finally, the performance of the prototype system is assessed through a set of system-level measurements. Excellent results are obtained, thus validating the outstanding functionality of the proposed system. Simplicity, low cost, compact size, and operational accuracy make this system a superior candidate for 2-D angle detection applications.
Autors: Jaber Moghaddasi;Tarek Djerafi;Ke Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1767 - 1779
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Simulation of Power System Transients Based on the Matrix Exponential Function
Abstract:
Power system electro-magnetic transient programs (EMTP) have been popular among researchers and practitioners due to their detailed component modeling and high simulation accuracy for complex system operations. Despite broad applications in simulations with wide range of timescales, the small discretization step of these programs makes their use very time-consuming for system studies with long time span. Facing the increasingly complex power system transient characteristics and simulation demands, a multiscale algorithm that integrates the simulations of the electromagnetic and slower electromechanical transients is desirable. The multiscale simulation algorithm preserves the high fidelity of the EMTP and attains higher efficiency for the overall transient simulation. In this paper, we achieve this goal by exploiting the unique properties of the matrix exponential function. The proposed algorithm is capable of utilizing large step sizes to speed up the simulation of slow dynamics, whereas the fast transients are accurately reconstructed through efficient dense output mechanism, which is built upon the matrix exponential function computation. Numerical studies including a large-scale wind farm simulation are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed multiscale algorithm.
Autors: Chengshan Wang;Xiaopeng Fu;Peng Li;Jianzhong Wu;Liwei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1913 - 1926
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multisensor Coupled Spectral Unmixing for Time-Series Analysis
Abstract:
We present a new framework, called multisensor coupled spectral unmixing (MuCSUn), that solves unmixing problems involving a set of multisensor time-series spectral images in order to understand dynamic changes of the surface at a subpixel scale. The proposed methodology couples multiple unmixing problems based on regularization on graphs between the time-series data to obtain robust and stable unmixing solutions beyond data modalities due to different sensor characteristics and the effects of nonoptimal atmospheric correction. Atmospheric normalization and cross calibration of spectral response functions are integrated into the framework as a preprocessing step. The proposed methodology is quantitatively validated using a synthetic data set that includes seasonal and trend changes on the surface and the residuals of nonoptimal atmospheric correction. The experiments on the synthetic data set clearly demonstrate the efficacy of MuCSUn and the importance of the preprocessing step. We further apply our methodology to a real time-series data set composed of 11 Hyperion and 22 Landsat-8 images taken over Fukushima, Japan, from 2011 to 2015. The proposed methodology successfully obtains robust and stable unmixing results and clearly visualizes class-specific changes at a subpixel scale in the considered study area.
Autors: Naoto Yokoya;Xiao Xiang Zhu;Antonio Plaza;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2842 - 2857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multispectral and Hyperspectral Image Fusion Using a 3-D-Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a method using a 3-D convolutional neural network to fuse together multispectral and hyperspectral (HS) images to obtain a high resolution HS image. Dimensionality reduction of the HS image is performed prior to fusion in order to significantly reduce the computational time and make the method more robust to noise. Experiments are performed on a data set simulated using a real HS image. The results obtained show that the proposed approach is very promising when compared with conventional methods. This is especially true when the HS image is corrupted by additive noise.
Autors: Frosti Palsson;Johannes R. Sveinsson;Magnus O. Ulfarsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 639 - 643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistage Robust Unit Commitment With Dynamic Uncertainty Sets and Energy Storage
Abstract:
The deep penetration of wind and solar power is a critical component of the future power grid. However, the intermittency and stochasticity of these renewable resources bring significant challenges to the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Motivated by these challenges, we present a multistage adaptive robust optimization model for the unit commitment (UC) problem, which models the sequential nature of the dispatch process and utilizes a new type of dynamic uncertainty sets to capture the temporal and spatial correlations of wind and solar power. The model also considers the operation of energy storage devices. We propose a simplified and effective affine policy for dispatch decisions, and develop an efficient algorithmic framework using a combination of constraint generation and duality-based reformulation with various improvements. Extensive computational experiments show that the proposed method can efficiently solve multistage robust UC problems on the Polish 2736-bus system under high dimensional uncertainty of 60 wind farms and 30 solar farms. The computational results also suggest that the proposed model leads to significant benefits in both costs and reliability over robust models with traditional uncertainty sets as well as deterministic models with reserve rules.
Autors: Álvaro Lorca;Xu Andy Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1678 - 1688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Interference Analysis of FBMC-Based Return Channel for Bidirectional T-DMB System
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate an effective scheme for implementing the return channel by exploiting the guard band between orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) blocks for uplink transmission, which enables guaranteeing compatibility with legacy systems. In order to resolve the interference problem between the conventional broadcast channel and the return channel, we employ the filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) system. Toward this goal, the mutual interference between the return and OFDM channels is derived as a closed form through numerical analysis. Based on the mutual interference analysis and the channel condition, an adaptive modulation scheme is applied to increase data throughput. Through the simulation, it can be seen that more than 350 (500) kb/s/Channel can be achieved for the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 20 dB (30 dB) when the quality of service constraint is lower than a bit error rate of ( ). Consequently, the additional throughput above can be achieved in a given resource without the adverse effect to the legacy systems.
Autors: Hojae Lee;Beom Kwon;Donghyun Jeon;Seonghyun Kim;Sanghoon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3829 - 3842
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Outage Probability
Abstract:
The performance of any multiuser wireless communications system is strongly affected by interference. Consequently, the design of such systems must comply with some outage probability criteria. Although interference occurs in a mutual entangled basis, with wireless devices interfering with each other, outage is commonly considered on an individual per-device basis. This approach, however, is a simplified solution to a more intricate multidimensional and system-wide problem, in which several mutually interfering devices may be experiencing an outage simultaneously. The true outage probability across several devices is given by a set of mutual entangled boundary conditions to be fulfilled. This paper presents useful novel formulations for outage probability in multiuser wireless settings, here named mutual outage probability (MOP), for the interference-limited environment. Several scenarios are envisaged, in which some signals are in outage, whereas others are not and still for some others these conditions are irrelevant, all at the same time. We introduce a general framework for calculating the MOP, and present closed-form formulas for the Rayleigh case. Finally, we illustrate the practical use of these formulations in a call admission control application.
Autors: Flavio du Pin Calmon;Álvaro Augusto Machado de Medeiros;Michel Daoud Yacoub;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3138 - 3150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Best Decision [Memoirs]
Abstract:
Reports on the author's work with the IEEE P1584 Working Group to make the workplace a safer place.
Autors: Wei-Jen Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 80 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My First Lecture and Other Lessons in Teaching
Abstract:
I recently started teaching a course on programmable system-on-chip design for senior undergraduates and full-time and parttime master's degree students. The undergraduate students come from the Bachelor in Computer Engineering program while the master's degree students are in the Master in Embedded Systems program. At the time you are reading this article, it will have been almost two months since my first lecture.
Autors: Sharad Sinha;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 30 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My L-3 Internship: The Power of Positivity
Abstract:
Ever since I was a little girl, I've known that my sole purpose was to accomplish one very simple goal: to enjoy life and be happy. So far, I've found happiness with a lot of different things; whether it be from dance, music, or going on adventures. But what trumps all of these activities is my mission: I want to live a life where I'll know that I have made a positive impact on the lives of other people. I am currently at the point in my life where I need to make some clear choices for what I would like to pursue with my career. I knew that one of the best ways for me to find some direction would be to gain as much hands-on experience as I could through projects and internships.
Autors: Hamna Kahn;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 36 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanocrystalline CopperNickelZinc Ferrite: Efficient Sensing Materials for Ethanol and Acetone at Room Temperature
Abstract:
Nanostructured CuNiZnFe2O4 in varied molar concentrations is synthesized by the rate-controlled co-precipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern and the analysis of their micrographs have confirmed the Single-phase structure of the prepared samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy study reveals the surface morphology of the samples with nanosized grains and open pores. The average grain size of both the prepared samples is found to be 24 and 25 nm, which is obtained by the histogram analysis of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrographs. The dc magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies together reveal that both the samples are magnetically well ordered at the room temperature with superparamagnetic relaxation due to finite size effect. The ethanol and acetone sensing characteristics of the prepared samples are studied at room temperature by conductive measurements. The maximum sensitivity of 77% is observed for 500 ppm of acetone vapor by Cu0.5Ni0.25Zn0.25Fe2O4 (CNZ1), whereas a sensitivity of 75% is observed for 500 ppm of ethanol vapor by Cu0.25Ni0.5Zn0.25Fe2O4 (CNZ2). Moreover, a quick and good response of acetone vapors by CNZ1 and ethanol vapor by CNZ2 within 10 min is also noticeable. The sensor responses are quite stable and highly reproducible.
Autors: Chandra Mukherjee;R. Mondal;S. Dey;S. Kumar;Jayoti Das;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2662 - 2669
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NaPer: A TSV Noise-Aware Placer
Abstract:
Through-silicon-via (TSV)-to-TSV coupling issue can degrade the signal integrity in 3-D integrated circuit designs. This paper develops a 3-D partitioning-based force-directed placer, NaPer, to reduce the total coupling noise between TSVs and alleviate the maximum coupling noise between them. We introduce two denoise forces: TSV decoupling force and TSV density force. The TSV decoupling force is determined by the coupling noise between TSVs for separating strong coupling TSVs, and the TSV density force is determined by the TSV density for evenly distributing TSVs. The experimental results show that NaPer can effectively reduce 15.0% total TSV coupling noise and 42.7% maximum TSV coupling noise on average with only 4.5% wirelength overhead. Besides, NaPer also shows great performance in wirelength that is competitive to the state-of-the-art 3-D placer.
Autors: Yu-Min Lee;Kuan-Te Pan;Chun Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1703 - 1713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nasal Patches and Curves for Expression-Robust 3D Face Recognition
Abstract:
The potential of the nasal region for expression robust 3D face recognition is thoroughly investigated by a novel five-step algorithm. First, the nose tip location is coarsely detected and the face is segmented, aligned and the nasal region cropped. Then, a very accurate and consistent nasal landmarking algorithm detects seven keypoints on the nasal region. In the third step, a feature extraction algorithm based on the surface normals of Gabor-wavelet filtered depth maps is utilised and, then, a set of spherical patches and curves are localised over the nasal region to provide the feature descriptors. The last step applies a genetic algorithm-based feature selector to detect the most stable patches and curves over different facial expressions. The algorithm provides the highest reported nasal region-based recognition ranks on the FRGC, Bosphorus and BU-3DFE datasets. The results are comparable with, and in many cases better than, many state-of-the-art 3D face recognition algorithms, which use the whole facial domain. The proposed method does not rely on sophisticated alignment or denoising steps, is very robust when only one sample per subject is used in the gallery, and does not require a training step for the landmarking algorithm.
Autors: Mehryar Emambakhsh;Adrian Evans;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 995 - 1007
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near Optimal Control Based on the Tensor-Product Technique
Abstract:
This brief investigates the near optimal control problem and targets at the rigid body attitude dynamic system that are characterized by its typical nonlinearity. In order to apply the linear matrix inequality-based optimization, a second-order linear-parameter-varying model is specifically derived from the attitude system by means of the tensor-product transformation. Furthermore, an adaptive attitude tracking control law is designed to achieve both the offline optimization and online control simplification. The final control law is provided in a combined form. As a result, the dynamic response of the system mainly depends on the near optimal virtual controller and the stability can be further guaranteed by the adaptive tracking controller. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Xiangdong Liu;Xing Xin;Zhen Li;Zhen Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 560 - 564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing for 5G with SDN/NFV: Concepts, Architectures, and Challenges
Abstract:
The fifth generation of mobile communications is anticipated to open up innovation opportunities for new industries such as vertical markets. However, these verticals originate myriad use cases with diverging requirements that future 5G networks have to efficiently support. Network slicing may be a natural solution to simultaneously accommodate, over a common network infrastructure, the wide range of services that vertical- specific use cases will demand. In this article, we present the network slicing concept, with a particular focus on its application to 5G systems. We start by summarizing the key aspects that enable the realization of so-called network slices. Then we give a brief overview on the SDN architecture proposed by the ONF and show that it provides tools to support slicing. We argue that although such architecture paves the way for network slicing implementation, it lacks some essential capabilities that can be supplied by NFV. Hence, we analyze a proposal from ETSI to incorporate the capabilities of SDN into the NFV architecture. Additionally, we present an example scenario that combines SDN and NFV technologies to address the realization of network slices. Finally, we summarize the open research issues with the purpose of motivating new advances in this field.
Autors: Jose Ordonez-Lucena;Pablo Ameigeiras;Diego Lopez;Juan J. Ramos-Munoz;Javier Lorca;Jesus Folgueira;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 80 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing in 5G: Survey and Challenges
Abstract:
5G is envisioned to be a multi-service network supporting a wide range of verticals with a diverse set of performance and service requirements. Slicing a single physical network into multiple isolated logical networks has emerged as a key to realizing this vision. This article is meant to act as a survey, the first to the authors� knowledge, on this topic of prime interest. We begin by reviewing the state of the art in 5G network slicing and present a framework for bringing together and discussing existing work in a holistic manner. Using this framework, we evaluate the maturity of current proposals and identify a number of open research questions.
Autors: Xenofon Foukas;Georgios Patounas;Ahmed Elmokashfi;Mahesh K. Marina;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 94 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Slicing to Enable Scalability and Flexibility in 5G Mobile Networks
Abstract:
We argue for network slicing as an efficient solution that addresses the diverse requirements of 5G mobile networks, thus providing the necessary flexibility and scalability associated with future network implementations. We elaborate on the challenges that emerge when designing 5G networks based on network slicing. We focus on the architectural aspects associated with the coexistence of dedicated as well as shared slices in the network. In particular, we analyze the realization options of a flexible radio access network with focus on network slicing and their impact on the design of 5G mobile networks. In addition to the technical study, this article provides an investigation of the revenue potential of network slicing, where the applications that originate from this concept and the profit capabilities from the network operator�s perspective are put forward.
Autors: Peter Rost;Christian Mannweiler;Diomidis S. Michalopoulos;Cinzia Sartori;Vincenzo Sciancalepore;Nishanth Sastry;Oliver Holland;Shreya Tayade;Bin Han;Dario Bega;Danish Aziz;Hajo Bakker;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 72 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Utility Maximization in Wireless Networks Over Fading Channels With Uncertain Distribution
Abstract:
In this the network utility maximization problem is investigated for wireless networks when only channel mean and variance are known. Due to the randomness of wireless channel, link outage will happen and a traffic flow’s rate will gradually decrease along its routing path. When only channel mean and variance are known, channel distribution is uncertain and it is harder to control the rate loss caused by link outage. We take into account this feature of rate loss and target at maximizing the network utility of multiple traffic flows’ rates at their destinations. An optimization problem is formulated, which is non-convex. Global optimal solution is achieved with the aid of bilevel optimization method and monotonic optimization method. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Autors: Song Jin;Rongfei Fan;Gongpu Wang;Xiangyuan Bu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1107 - 1110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Virtualization in Spectrum Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks
Abstract:
The recent decade has witnessed an evolution toward virtualization of everything for the IT industry. Resources, from utility resources to networking components and functions, are abstracted as logical or virtual services. Virtualization results in elastic, agile, and automated resource provision, and facilitates the resource pricing in a pay-as-you-go model. Among this wave, the optical community has made parallel efforts in virtualizing resources in optical networks including both optical node and link resources. A virtualized optical network can not only seamlessly support automated resource provision, but also supply high-bandwidth any-to-any connectivity for network virtualization. In this paper, we overview the motivations and architecture for optical-based network virtualization. Among candidate optical networking paradigms, we argue that spectrum-sliced elastic optical path (SLICE) networks can be considered as a promising substrate choice, and study the key enabling problem, namely optical virtual network embedding over SLICE networks (OVNE-SLICE). We prove the NP-completeness of the OVNE-SLICE problem, and propose two mathematical models for this problem based on a concept named path-channel. The models are evaluated in our simulation, and compared with alternative models proposed in the literature.
Autors: Yang Wang;Zachary McNulty;Hung Nguyen;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1962 - 1970
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Based Data-Driven Filtering With Bounded Noises and Packet Dropouts
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the problem of a network-based data-driven filter design for discrete-time linear systems with bounded noises and packet dropouts. One favorable feature is that the designed filter can be directly employed without identifying the unknown system model. To compensate the negative effects of packet dropouts, an output predictor is first designed to reconstruct the missing data based on the received outputs and the inputs of the system. The asymptotic convergence of the output prediction error is established, of which the rate can be adjusted by the parameter. Then utilizing the predicted outputs and the received measurements, an almost-optimal data-driven filter with tractability is proposed within the set membership (SM) framework and the bound on the worst case estimation error is derived. Finally, two illustrative examples, including a comparison example and an application example, are presented to show the advantages of the proposed design and the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Autors: Yuanqing Xia;Li Dai;Wen Xie;Yulong Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4257 - 4265
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network-Centric Versus User-Centric Multihoming Strategies in LTE/WiFi Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the interworking between multiple wireless access networks and study the multihomed users’ performance for different fourth-generation (4G)/WiFi multihoming techniques. We specifically compare two points of view for multihoming: network centric—wherein the scheduler is controlled by the network—versus user centric—where each user chooses a splitting policy for its packets. In the former, we study two proportional fairness strategies: a global one applied to the whole network and a local one applied to each wireless access network apart. In the user-centric approach, we study user policies based on the information received from the network and consider two variants: a simple one in which the user has only information on the peak rates of the radio interfaces and an optimized selfish policy in which the user receives complete information on the interfaces peak rates and traffic intensities. We then prove that this optimal selfish strategy achieves a global optimum for the system. Our numerical results show that network-centric strategies are better than user-centric ones in terms of achievable throughput but are worse in terms of computational complexity.
Autors: Ghina Dandachi;Salah Eddine Elayoubi;Tijani Chahed;Nada Chendeb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4188 - 4199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networked Control Under Random and Malicious Packet Losses
Abstract:
We study cyber security issues in networked control of a linear dynamical system. Specifically, the dynamical system and the controller are assumed to be connected through a communication channel that face malicious attacks as well as random packet losses due to unreliability of transmissions. We provide a probabilistic characterization for the link failures which allows us to study combined effects of malicious and random packet losses. We first investigate almost sure stabilization under an event-triggered control law, where we utilize Lyapunov-like functions to characterize the triggering times at which the plant and the controller attempt to exchange state and control data over the network. We then provide a look at the networked control problem from the attacker's perspective and explore malicious attacks that cause instability. Finally, we demonstrate the efficacy of our results with numerical examples.
Autors: Ahmet Cetinkaya;Hideaki Ishii;Tomohisa Hayakawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2434 - 2449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Networks on Chips: 15 Years Later
Abstract:
The authors of a Computer article from 2002 reflect on their proposal to use networks on chips to address scalable communications on silicon VLSI chips.
Autors: Giovanni De Micheli;Luca Benini;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 10 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neuro-Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Tracking Control of Lagrange Systems Pursuing Targets With Unknown Trajectory
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the problem of steering Lagrange system to track targets with unknown trajectory in the presence of modeling uncertainties and actuation faults. Artificial neural network technique is employed to reconstruct the behavior of the targets with unknown trajectory, with which robust adaptive fault-tolerant tracking control algorithms are developed. The developed control scheme is able to cope with unknown desired trajectory, attenuate modeling uncertainties and accommodate actuation faults. The proposed control scheme is shown to be able to maintain close target tracking despite actuation ineffectiveness and desired trajectory uncertainty. The benefits and feasibility of the developed control are also confirmed by simulations.
Autors: Yongduan Song;Junxia Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3913 - 3920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Active Capacitor Voltage Balancing Method for Flying Capacitor Multicell Converter Based on Logic-Form-Equations
Abstract:
This paper presents a new active capacitor voltage balancing control method for the flying capacitor multicell (FCM) converters which is fully implemented using logic-form equations. The proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control technique, measures output current and flying capacitor (FC) voltages to generate the switching states in order to produce the required output voltage level and to balance FCs’ voltages at their reference values. Output voltage of the FCM converter controlled with proposed active capacitor voltage balancing method can be modulated with any pulse width modulation (PWM) technique such as the phase-shifted-carrier PWM or level-shifted-carrier PWM. An advantage of the proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control method is its simplicity as it does not require any complex computations and tedious optimization calculations. Simulation results and experimental measurements of a three-cell four-level and four-cell five-level FCM converters are presented to verify the performance of the proposed active capacitor voltage balancing control technique.
Autors: Arash Khoshkbar Sadigh;Vahid Dargahi;Keith A. Corzine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3467 - 3478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New and Optimized Magnetization Scheme for the Baby Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector at J-PARC
Abstract:
The Baby-MIND (magnetized iron neutrino detector) collaboration is building a muon detector to be installed downstream of the WAGASCI experiment at J-PARC (Japan). Due to the challenging timeline and space constraints for the installation in the ND280 pit, an innovative magnetization scheme has been developed for the iron plates. The magnetization scheme optimizes flux return for minimum stray field and operating current, while maximizing the useful tracking area with T. The 33 iron plates of the detector are individually magnetized by coils wound on their surface by “sewing” an aluminum conductor through slits cut in the plates. In this paper, we present the details of the magnetization scheme and coil winding procedure as well as the results of magnetization tests performed on a prototype module and the first eighteen detector plates.
Autors: Gabriella Rolando;Philippe Benoit;Alain Blondel;Alexey Dudarev;Etam Noah;Helder Pais Da Silva;Mark Rayner;Herman H. J. ten Kate;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Beamforming Designs for Joint Spatial Division and Multiplexing in Large-Scale MISO Multi-User Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we study a joint spatial division multiplexing (JSDM) beamforming scheme, which enables large-scale spatial multiplexing gains for massive multi-input multi-output downlink systems. In contrast to the conventional JSDM, which employs a block diagonalization method as a pre-beamformer, we aim to maximize sum-rate by applying minimum-mean-squared error (MMSE) approaches when designing a pre-beamformer and a multi-user precoder sequentially. First, to suppress inter-group interference, we design the pre-beamformer, which minimizes an upper bound of the sum mean-squared-error in the large-scale array regime. Then, to mitigate same-group interference, we present the multi-user precoder based on the weighted MMSE (WMMSE) optimization method, which requires the same channel state information overhead as the conventional JSDM. Also, in order to reduce the computational complexity, we compute deterministic equivalents of the WMMSE beamforming parameters to generate the beamformers by employing asymptotic results of large system analysis. Through simulation results, we confirm that the proposed two-step beamforming methods bring substantial performance gains in terms of sum-rate over the conventional JSDM schemes especially in a low and medium signal-to-noise ratio regime with comparable complexity.
Autors: Younghyun Jeon;Changick Song;Sang-Rim Lee;Seungjoo Maeng;Jaehoon Jung;Inkyu Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3029 - 3041
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Design of a Variable Impedance Based on Polarized Diodes at Microwave Frequency
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a new variable impedance termination consisting of two polarized diodes. To generate a complex-valued impedance, two controlled current sources polarize the diodes, which are interconnected with a Wilkinson power divider through transmission lines of different electric lengths. Because of the reduced number of diodes, this structure presents low power consumption and simple control. We validated the proposed design by implementing a prototype at the operating frequency of 1575.42 MHz. Mapping the measured results in the Smith chart, the impedance can produce reflection coefficients with full-phase coverage within the circle of magnitude 0.35 over a frequency range of 1.5–1.6 GHz.
Autors: Alejandro J. Venere;Martín Hurtado;Ramón Lopéz La Valle;Carlos H. Muravchik;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 470 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Directions in Navigation and Positioning: Signal processing-enabled technologies pinpoint people, places, and things [Special Reports]
Abstract:
In an era of same-day product deliveries, interplanetary space probes, and autonomous vehicles, transporting something—or someone—from here to there quickly, directly, and precisely is becoming increasingly important. An array of navigation and positioning technologies are now available to help guide and locate vehicles, people, and almost endless number of objects. The satellite-based global positioning system (GPS), for instance, now lies at the heart of an almost endless array of location, navigation, timing, mapping, and tracking tools. Real-time location system (RTLS) technologies, meanwhile, rely on resources such as GPS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near-field communication (NFC), and radio-frequency identification (RFID) to detect the current location of a target, which may be anything from a vehicle to an item in a manufacturing plant to a person.
Autors: John Edwards;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 10 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New for IMS2017: Exhibitor Workshops
Abstract:
Provides a notice of upcoming conference events of interest to practitioners and researchers.
Autors: Bryan Wu;Susie Horn;Lee Wood;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 68 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Hybrid Surface–Volume Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor for Ozone Generation
Abstract:
Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is the most efficient way used in industry for ozone generation. In the last decades, many papers were published on such DBD-based ozone generators. Several geometric configurations can be used to generate ozone. They can be classified into two types depending on the discharge form: volume DBD, which is the common one in ozone industry, and surface DBD. Many studies have been conducted to analyze the ozone generation efficiency of both reactors to get maximum ozone production with the lowest possible power consumption. The aim of this paper is to carry out an experimental analysis of a patent-pending new reactor, of hybrid configuration, in which occur simultaneously a volume and a surface DBD. The hybrid reactor comprises a ground stainless steel cylindrical electrode, within which is placed a glass tube separated by an interval of 1 mm in which the volume DBD occurs. A second mesh stainless steel electrode connected to the high voltage is placed inside the glass tube wherein the surface discharge occurs. The obtained results showed a clear superiority of the hybrid reactor compared with both volume and surface DBD in terms of the ozone concentration. The difference in the ozone concentration reaches up to 50% compared with the volume DBD and 30% compared with the surface DBD.
Autors: Kamel Nassour;Mostefa Brahami;Said Nemmich;Nacera Hammadi;Noureddine Zouzou;Amar Tilmatine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2477 - 2484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Normal Mode dv/dt Filter With a Built-In Resistor Failure Detection Circuit
Abstract:
Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) will soon be replaced by wide band gap devices (SiC and GaN) as the choice for power semiconductor switch in voltage source inverters. These devices have extremely fast rise time and fall time compared with IGBT devices. The high dv/dt of pulse-width modulation outputs create excessive voltage stress in the insulation system of ac motors due to voltage reflection issues associated with motors at large distances from the drive. In many oil field applications, the distance between the motor and the variable frequency drive approaches 300 m. In walking rig applications, it is common to use multiple smaller sized conductors per phase, bunched together, to achieve the desired ampacity. This practice results in higher than usual value of the cable parasitic capacitance. Traditional dv/dt filters used for mitigating over-voltage at motor terminals have been found to be inadequate in reducing the over voltage at the motor terminals in such oil field installations. The damping resistor often experiences high voltage and gets damaged. A new dv/dt filter suitable for use with high power ac motors at distances nearing 300 m with a built-in resistor failure detection circuit is proposed here. Test results are given to demonstrate its efficacy.
Autors: Mahesh M. Swamy;Mark A. Baumgardner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2149 - 2158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Propeller-Type Tribocharging Device With Application to the Electrostatic Separation of Granular Insulating Materials
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is the development and functional optimization of a new propeller-type aerodynamic tribocharging device with application in the field of electrostatic separation. The originality of the system consists of its modular structure: one or several propellers can be stacked in the same device to provide appropriate tribocharging conditions to a wide variety of granular mixtures containing two or more of insulating materials. The study is conducted with samples of the following various insulating materials: polycarbonate, polyamide, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, polyvinyl chloride, and high-impact polystyrene, grain sizes up to 4 mm in diameter, for several values of the propeller rotation speed, and of the mass of the particles in the tribocharging device, the wall of which are made of acetate, Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), or aluminum. The efficiency of the device is tested by processing the charged granular mixture in a metal-belt conveyor-type electrostatic separator. The aluminum-wall device enables better charging that PMMA and acetate. The mass introduced in the device has no significant effect on the outcome of the process, but the speed of the propellers does. Successful separation of a mixture of three insulating materials is reported.
Autors: Djamel Eddine Fekir;Mohamed Miloudi;Farid Miloua;Karim Medles;Lucian Dascalescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2416 - 2422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Newly Elected CIS Administrative Committee Members (2017-2019) [Society Briefs]
Abstract:
Presents a listing of newly elected CIS administrative committee members.
Autors: Pablo A. Estevez;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 11 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NLMS Algorithm Based on a Variable Parameter Cost Function Robust Against Impulsive Interferences
Abstract:
The conventional step-size scaler (SSS) normalized least-mean-square algorithm is robust against impulsive noise. However, the constant parameter in the SSS needs to be controlled to satisfy the conflicting requirements of fast convergence rate and low steady-state misadjustment. Therefore, to address this problem, an adaptive approach for the parameter in the cost function is proposed in this brief. The proposed approach is then tested in system identification and acoustic echo-cancelation scenarios, which have demonstrated that the proposed approach is effective and robust against non-Gaussian impulsive interferences.
Autors: Fuyi Huang;Jiashu Zhang;Sheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 600 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» No Downlink Pilots Are Needed in TDD Massive MIMO
Abstract:
We consider the Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output downlink with maximum-ratio and zero-forcing processing and time-division duplex operation. To decode, the users must know their instantaneous effective channel gain. Conventionally, it is assumed that by virtue of channel hardening, this instantaneous gain is close to its average and hence that users can rely on knowledge of that average (also known as statistical channel information). However, in some propagation environments, such as keyhole channels, channel hardening does not hold. We propose a blind algorithm to estimate the effective channel gain at each user, that does not require any downlink pilots. We derive a capacity lower bound of each user for our proposed scheme, applicable to any propagation channel. Compared with the case of no downlink pilots (relying on channel hardening), and compared with training-based estimation using downlink pilots, our blind algorithm performs significantly better. The difference is especially pronounced in environments that do not offer channel hardening.
Autors: Hien Quoc Ngo;Erik G. Larsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 2921 - 2935
Publisher: IEEE
 

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