Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2017 sorted by title, page: 1

» A Mixed Radiometric Normalization Method for Mosaicking of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery
Abstract:
A new mixed radiometric normalization (MRN) method is introduced in this paper which aims to eliminate the radiometric difference in image mosaicking. The radiometric normalization methods can be classified as the absolute and relative approaches in traditional solutions. Though the absolute methods could get the precise surface reflectance values of the images, rigorous conditions required for them are usually difficult to obtain, which makes the absolute methods impractical in many cases. The relative methods, which are simple and practicable, are more widely applied. However, the standard for designating the reference image needed for these methods is not unified. Moreover, the color error propagation and the two-body problems are common obstacles for the relative methods. The proposed MRN approach combines absolute and relative radiometric normalization methods, by which the advantages of both can be fully used and the limitations can be effectively avoided. First, suitable image after absolute radiometric calibration is selected as the reference image. Then, the invariant feature probability between the pixels of the target image and that of the reference image is obtained. Afterward, an adaptive local approach is adopted to obtain a suitable linear regression model for each block. Finally, a bilinear interpolation method is employed to obtain the radiometric calibration parameters for each pixel. Moreover, the CIELAB color space is adopted to evaluate the results quantitatively. Experimental results of ZY-3, GF-1, and GF-2 data indicate that the proposed method can eliminate the radiometric differences between images from the same or even different sensors.
Autors: Yongjun Zhang;Lei Yu;Mingwei Sun;Xinyu Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2972 - 2984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mixer Front End for a Four-Channel Modulated Wideband Converter With 62-dB Blocker Rejection
Abstract:
The modulated wideband converter receiver architecture leverages compressive sensing techniques to improve flexibility for cognitive radio applications. We present a prototype integrated circuit that adds signal reception to previously demonstrated signal detection. By refactoring the mixing sequence between signal detection and reception, we enable targeted reception and blocker rejection. We algorithmically design a three-level mixing sequence and additionally employ delay-based harmonic cancellation. When applied together in our 65-nm proof-of-concept integrated circuit, we measure 62 dB of in-band blocker rejection, while receiving up to four channels with independently defined locations anywhere up to 900 MHz.
Autors: Douglas Adams;Yonina C. Eldar;Boris Murmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1286 - 1294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mobile Channel Model for VLC and Application to Adaptive System Design
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a realistic channel model for visible light communication (VLC) assuming a mobile user. Based on non-sequential ray tracing, we first obtain channel impulse responses for each point over the user movement trajectories, and then express path loss and delay spread as a function of distance through curve fitting. Our results demonstrate large variations in received power. In system design, this necessitates the use of adaptive schemes, where transmission parameters can be selected according to channel conditions. To demonstrate the benefits of link adaptation over a mobile VLC channel, we propose an adaptive system with luminary selection and demonstrate improvements in spectral efficiency over non-adaptive systems.
Autors: Farshad Miramirkhani;Omer Narmanlioglu;Murat Uysal;Erdal Panayirci;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1035 - 1038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Model-Based Transit-Time Ultrasonic Gas Flowrate Measurement Method
Abstract:
Based on the transit-time ultrasonic gas flowrate measurement principle, a new model-based time-of-flight (TOF) measurement method is proposed. The proposed TOF measurement method includes two parts, the signal preprocessing and the model-fitting. Zero-phase filtering and independent component analysis with reference (ICA-R) are used to realize the signal preprocessing. The least-squares algorithm is used to implement the model-fitting and hence to obtain the TOF. A new single-acoustic-path ultrasonic gas flowmeter prototype with the inner diameter of 100 mm is developed and experiments are carried out to test the performance of the prototype. Experimental results show that the proposed signal preprocessing can effectively correct the distorted/noise-polluted measurement signal. In addition, the proposed model-based TOF measurement method is effective and can implement TOF measurement with higher repeatability and low standard deviation. For the gas flowrate ranges from 5 to 50 /h, the repeatability error of gas flowrate measurement is less than 1.99% and the maximum relative error of flowrate measurement is less than 3.27%. For the gas flowrate ranges from 50 to 500 /h, the repeatability error of gas flowrate measurement is less than 0.51% and the maximum relative error of flowrate measurement is less than 1.43%.
Autors: Yandan Jiang;Baoliang Wang;Zhiyao Huang;Haifeng Ji;Haiqing Li;Xia Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 879 - 887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modular Power System Planning and Power Flow Simulation Framework for Generating and Evaluating Power Network Models
Abstract:
This work presents a modular power system planning and power flow simulation framework for the generation and evaluation of power network models (PNM) using spatially resolved demand data. It targets users who want to study large-scale power grids having only limited information on the actual power system. Besides creating cost minimal PNMs, users are able to flexibly configure the framework to produce PNMs individually tailored to their specific use cases. Both greenfield and expansion planning are possible. The framework further comprises a built-in ac power flow simulation designed to simulate power flows in large-scale networks. This allows users to conduct a great variety of simulation studies on entire power systems, which would otherwise not be possible without access to comprehensive power grid data. Apart from the presentation of the methodology, this work comprises a demonstration of the power system planning process at the example of Singapore. The investigation shows that the framework is capable of generating a network that matches the topological and electrical metrics of the Singapore power grid.
Autors: David Ciechanowicz;Dominik Pelzer;Benedikt Bartenschlager;Alois Knoll;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2214 - 2224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Criteria Analysis of Techniques and Tools for Tracing Software Requirements
Abstract:
Changes in requirements occur throughout the software process from elicitation and analysis requirements through the operation of the software. Requirements traceability makes it possible to identify the origin and the dependence of the software requirements. Studies show that the tools and current requirements traceability methods are inadequate and hamper the practical use of traceability. In this paper, we carried out analysis of evaluation techniques and requirement traceability tools in order to verify if the techniques are being actually used and are being supported by software tools. As a result, we observed the lack of relationship between the techniques and tools evaluated and that some criteria, such as communication with stakeholders, difficulty, and requirement of stability were little considered in the evaluated tools.
Autors: Telmo Oliveira de Jesus;Michel dos Santos Soares;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 922 - 927
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Variate Predictability Framework to Assess Invasive Cardiac Activity and Interactions During Atrial Fibrillation
Abstract:
Objective: This study introduces a predictability framework based on the concept of Granger causality (GC), in order to analyze the activity and interactions between different intracardiac sites during atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: GC-based interactions were studied using a three-electrode analysis scheme with multi-variate autoregressive models of the involved preprocessed intracardiac signals. The method was evaluated in different scenarios covering simulations of complex atrial activity as well as endocardial signals acquired from patients. Results: The results illustrate the ability of the method to determine atrial rhythm complexity and to track and map propagation during AF. Conclusion: The proposed framework provides information on the underlying activation and regularity, does not require activation detection or postprocessing algorithms and is applicable for the analysis of any multielectrode catheter. Significance: The proposed framework can potentially help to guide catheter ablation interventions of AF.
Autors: Alejandro Alcaine;Michela Masè;Alessandro Cristoforetti;Flavia Ravelli;Giandomenico Nollo;Pablo Laguna;Juan Pablo Martínez;Luca Faes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1157 - 1168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multilayer Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient and Reliable ReRAM Cross-Point Array System
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the 1-selector-1-resistor (1S1R) cross-point resistive random access memory (ReRAM) array because of its high density, fast access time, and ultralow stand-by power. Specifically, we focus on an access scheme where a data line is parallelly accessed from multiple subarrays with multibits accessed per subarray. A direct implementation of such a scheme has high energy efficiency but lower reliability compared with a single bit per subarray baseline scheme. So this paper proposes a low cost multilayer approach to improve energy-efficiency of multibits per access scheme without compromising reliability. At the cell level, we show how proper choices of bit-line and source-line voltage and SET recovery help reduce error rate by ten times. At the system level, we propose a new rotated multiarray access scheme where the average error rate of every accessed data line is one order of magnitude lower than the worst case, making it possible to achieve block failure rate of with a simple Bose, Chaudhuri, and Hocquenghem t = 4 code. We show that for a 1 GB 1S1R ReRAM, the proposed approach can reduce energy by 41% with 2% extra area while maintaining latency and reliability compared with the baseline system.
Autors: Manqing Mao;Pai-Yu Chen;Shimeng Yu;Chaitali Chakrabarti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 25, issue:5, pages: 1611 - 1621
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiobjective Minimax Regret Robust VAr Planning Model
Abstract:
This paper proposes a risk-based mixed integer quadratically-constrained programming model for the long-term VAr planning problem. Risk aversion is included in the proposed model by means of regret-based optimization to quantify the load shedding risk because of a reactive power deficit. The expected operation and expansion costs of new installed reactive power sources and load shedding risk are jointly minimized. Uncertainty in the active and reactive load demands has been included in the model. An -constraint approach is used to characterize the optimal efficient frontier. Also, discrete tap settings of tap-changing transformers are modeled as a set of mixed integer linear equations which are embedded into an ac optimal convex power flow. Computational results are obtained from a realistic South and South–East Brazilian power system to illustrate the proposed methodology. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn.
Autors: Julio López;David Pozo;Javier Contreras;Jose Roberto Sanches Mantovani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1761 - 1771
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multiphase Switched Capacitor Power Amplifier
Abstract:
This paper presents an all-digital multiphase switched capacitor power amplifier (MP-SCPA) implemented in a 130-nm CMOS. Quadrature architectures suffer reduced output power and efficiency owing to the combination of out-of-phase signals. The MP architecture reduces the phase difference between the basis vectors that are combined, and hence the output power and efficiency are greatly improved. Sixteen clocks with identical adjacent phase separations are produced by a phase generator with each phase’s relative amplitude weighted on the top plate of a capacitor array and combined on a common bottom plate, resulting in linear amplification. The MP-SCPA delivers a peak output power of 26 dBm with a peak system efficiency (SE) of 24.9%. When amplifying a long-term evolution signal at 1.85 GHz, the average and the SE are 20.9 dBm and 15.2%, respectively, with an Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) < −30 dBc and error vector magnitude of 3.5% rms using a 2-D digital predistortion.
Autors: Wen Yuan;Jeffrey S. Walling;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1320 - 1330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multitarget Active Backscattering 2-D Positioning System With Superresolution Time Series Post-Processing Technique
Abstract:
An active backscattering 2-D positioning system is studied and demonstrated in this paper. The hardware is based on an investigated principle of switched injection phase locking for wireless ranging. A new post-processing technique and a system modeling for multitarget time-of-arrival (TOA) and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimations are proposed and studied. The technique features a joint singular value decomposition-based ESPRIT algorithm and a matrix diagonalization technique using Moore–Penrose pseudoinverse for model order estimation as well as the TOA/DOA extraction. They make use of the shift invariant property of a backscattered signal in the time-domain. The accuracy and resolution are studied and are shown to be superior to those of the conventional frequency-domain technique using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). Moreover, the proposed algorithms take full advantage of the chirp bandwidth and allow all the targets to operate at the same modulation frequency and arbitrary carrier frequency. These merits avoid a commonly exercised compromise of the FFT method among the resolution, target quantity, signal-to-noise ratio, and other critical specifications. The system is simulated, and the demonstrator is constructed for experimental verifications in both indoor and outdoor environments, with a bandwidth of 600 MHz centered at 5.6 GHz.
Autors: Kuangda Wang;Jian-Feng Gu;Fengchao Ren;Ke Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1751 - 1766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switch Based Power Gating for Effective Stand-by Power Reduction in FinFET Technologies
Abstract:
In this letter, we show that using the experimentally demonstrated nano-electro-mechanical-switches (NEMS) and our design methodology, the standby power dissipation can be reduced to negligible levels in 14-nm bulk FinFET technologies. Using two realistic NEMS structures, demonstrated in the literature for power gating applications, a design window is derived for achieving the targeted specifications without compromising on the performance and area. Cantilever NEMS requires less area as compared with the suspended NEMS, but reliability is a concern. We demonstrate that for a 17-stage ring oscillator circuit, the NEMS power gating will perform better than the FinFET-based power gating when the ratio is less than 0.002.
Autors: Sumit Saha;U. Sajesh Kumar;Maryam Shojaei Baghini;Mayank Goel;V. Ramgopal Rao;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 681 - 684
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Analytical Method for Estimating Antarctic Ice Flow in the 1960s From Historical Optical Satellite Imagery
Abstract:
Ice flow velocity is used to estimate ice mass changes in glaciers and is a significant indicator of the stability of the Antarctica ice sheet in global change studies. The existing regional Antarctica ice flow speed maps are usually derived from radar or optical satellite observations of modern satellites since the 1970s. This paper presents a new analytical photogrammetric method for estimating Antarctica ice flow velocity fields by using film-based stereo ARGON photographs collected in the 1960s. The key of the proposed innovative method is a parallax decomposition that separates the effect of the terrain relief from the ice flow motion. An innovative implementation strategy is developed by using a framework that involves key techniques of hierarchical stereo image matching, ice flow direction determination, parallax decomposition, and ice flow speed estimation. This method is applied in the Rayner glacier in eastern Antarctica by using two sets of ARGON images with a two-month interval in 1963. The produced digital terrain model and speed map achieved a ground position accuracy of 61 m and a speed accuracy of 70 m a-1. A comparison with recent products from 2000 to 2010 shows no significant topographic changes in the study area. Furthermore, the speed around the grounding line remained at the same level, while the speed in the ice shelf front decreased by 73 m a-1. The ice shelf front advanced by approximately 7 km over more than 40 years. Overall, the observation results indicate favorable conditions for the stability of the Rayner glacier-ice shelf system.
Autors: Rongxing Li;Wenkai Ye;Gang Qiao;Xiaohua Tong;Shijie Liu;Fansi Kong;Xuwen Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2771 - 2785
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Comprehensive RSU Installation Strategy for Cost-Efficient VANET Deployment
Abstract:
Recently, studies on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are booming due to their huge potential. The road side unit (RSU) is a key component of the VANET infrastructure connecting mobile vehicles to the rest of the infrastructure. To maximize the availability of RSUs, RSUs should be densely deployed. Otherwise, blind spots may exist in which vehicles lose the connection to the infrastructure. Unfortunately, the massive deployment of RSUs to seamlessly cover the whole area of interest, which could be a vast metropolitan, can be very expensive. As the effectiveness and the benefits of the VANET have yet to be fully proven, such large scale deployment can hardly be a currently viable option. Motivated by this observation, this paper investigates a new strategy of how to best deploy RSUs so that their spatiotemporal coverage is maximized under a limited budget. In detail, for the first time in the literature, we consider an innovative RSU deployment framework, which is a well-balanced combination of three different approaches: deploying RSUs on static locations, public mobile transportation, and fully controllable vehicles owned by the local government. We first introduce a new strategy to abstract a map of city area into a grid graph. Then, we formulate the problem as a new optimization problem and show its NP-hardness. To solve this problem, we transform this problem into another optimization problem. Then, we propose a new polynomial running time approximation algorithm for the problem and show that the performance ratio (the ratio between the quality of an output of the proposed algorithm and the quality of the best possible solution) is at least half of the best possible ratio. We also conduct simulations under various settings to study the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Donghyun Kim;Yesenia Velasco;Wei Wang;R. N. Uma;Rasheed Hussain;Sejin Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4200 - 4211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Four-Degrees-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator
Abstract:
This work reports on the kinematic analyses of a novel robot manipulator composed of a three-degrees-of-freedom parallel manipulator endowed with a central kinematic chain whose function is to provide a yaw freedom to the end-effector platform. Semi-closed form solutions to solve the displacement analysis are easily obtained owing the decoupled motions of the robot. After, the input-output equations of velocity and acceleration are obtained by resorting to the theory of screws. A numerical example is provided in order to show the application of the method. As far as the authors are aware, the combination of an inversion of a zero-torsion mechanism with the architecture of the central kinematic chain here proposed has not been considered in previous works.
Autors: Mario A. Garcia Murillo;Jaime Gallardo Alvarado;Ramon Rodriguez Castro;Luis A. Alcaraz Caracheo;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 928 - 934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Hub for Innovation and Learning [Editorial]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Cristian Quintero;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Load Frequency Control Method of Multi-Area Power System via the Viewpoints of Port-Hamiltonian System and Cascade System
Abstract:
The existed control methods of the multi-area load frequency control (LFC) system fail to decouple the total tie-line power flow. This defect can be addressed as a problem on how to effectively utilize the total tie-line power flow. To improve that defect, the energy and structure of multi-area LFC system have been carefully studied, such that, the energy goes through the systemic cascade parts and the systemic structure matrix is partially skew symmetry. Namely, the energy and structural properties of the multi-area LFC system are similar to the properties of Port-Hamiltonian (PH) system and cascade system. Inspired by the above properties, a new method based on the PH system and cascade system that is proposed to design some PID control laws for the multi-area LFC system successfully works out the aforementioned problem. Compared with the existed PID methods for the multi-area LFC system, the proposed method has two advantages, which are the decoupling of total tie-line power flow and the robust disturbance rejection. At last, simulations results demonstrate the validity and advantages of the proposed method.
Autors: Liangcheng Cai;Zhengyou He;Haitao Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1689 - 1700
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Method to Determine the Activation Time of the Overexcitation Limiter Based on Available Generator Rotor Thermal Capacity for Improving Long-Term Voltage Instability
Abstract:
Voltage stability requires the continuing control of the total system's supply of reactive power during emergency situation. The supply of reactive power, however, can be curtailed by the action of rotor overcurrent protection or overexcitation limiter (OEL) in reducing the rotating unit reactive power output. Practical heat run tests shows that the timing of the activation of the OEL can be very conservative, resulting in earlier than necessary operation and system voltage collapse. Significant benefit can be achieved if the timing of the OEL activation can be delayed, while ensuring sufficient margin is provided to avoid harming the rotor of the synchronous generator. This paper proposes a new thermal-based method to determine the timing of the OEL activation that is based on the thermal capacity of the rotor as the main indicator for limiting the excitation level of the synchronous generator. The proposed thermal-based method is validated using the extensive simulations of a single-machine and the Nordic power system. Simulation studies show that the system voltage collapse can be delayed significantly by delaying the OEL activation without compromising the thermal capacity of the rotor if the proposed OEL setting is used.
Autors: Hadi Lomei;Kashem M. Muttaqi;Danny Sutanto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1711 - 1720
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Metric for Measuring the Security of an Environment: The Secrecy Pressure
Abstract:
Information-theoretical approaches can ensure security, regardless of the computational power of the attackers. Requirements for the application of this theory are: 1) assuring an advantage over the eavesdropper quality of reception and 2) knowing where the eavesdropper is. The traditional metrics are the secrecy capacity or outage, which are both related to the quality of the legitimate link against the eavesdropper link. Our goal is to define a new metric, which is the characteristic of the security of the surface/environment where the legitimate link is immersed, regardless of the position of the eavesdropping node. The contribution of this paper is twofold: 1) a general framework for the derivation of the secrecy capacity of a surface, which considers all the parameters that influence the secrecy capacity and 2) the definition of a new metric to measure the secrecy of a surface: the secrecy pressure. The metric can be also visualized as a secrecy map, analogously to weather forecast. Different application scenarios are shown: from “forbidden zone” to Gaussian mobility model for the eavesdropper. Moreover, the secrecy outage probability of a surface is derived. This additional metric can measure, which is the secrecy rate supportable by the specific environment.
Autors: Lorenzo Mucchi;Luca Ronga;Xiangyun Zhou;Kaibin Huang;Yifan Chen;Rui Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 3416 - 3430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Practical Area Interchange Control Model for Power Flow Studies
Abstract:
This letter proposes a new area interchange control model within the context of Newton-based power flow studies, which considers the violation of the maximum amount of power that can be transferred through tie-lines. The validity and the effectiveness of the proposed approach are numerically demonstrated.
Autors: Jesús A. Sotelo-Martínez;Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2477 - 2478
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A new silicon PV record [News]
Abstract:
There's a new king of silicon solar cells. Researchers at Kaneka Corp., a resin and plastics manufacturer based in Osaka, have come up with a single-crystal heterojunction silicon solar cell that achieves a record-breaking 26.3 percent efficiency-a 0.7 percent increase over the previous record. That may not seem like a lot, but it's really a big step when you consider that the theoretical maximum efficiency for such cells-which make up about one-quarter of annual global production by gigawatts-is just over 29 percent.
Autors: John Boyd;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 54, issue:5, pages: 14 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Sparse Representation Framework for Reconstruction of an Isotropic High Spatial Resolution MR Volume From Orthogonal Anisotropic Resolution Scans
Abstract:
In magnetic resonance (MR), hardware limitations, scan time constraints, and patient movement often result in the acquisition of anisotropic 3-D MR images with limited spatial resolution in the out-of-plane views. Our goal is to construct an isotropic high-resolution (HR) 3-D MR image through upsampling and fusion of orthogonal anisotropic input scans. We propose a multiframe super-resolution (SR) reconstruction technique based on sparse representation of MR images. Our proposed algorithm exploits the correspondence between the HR slices and the low-resolution (LR) sections of the orthogonal input scans as well as the self-similarity of each input scan to train pairs of overcomplete dictionaries that are used in a sparse-land local model to upsample the input scans. The upsampled images are then combined using wavelet fusion and error backprojection to reconstruct an image. Features are learned from the data and no extra training set is needed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated and clinical MR scans. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves promising results in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity image index, intensity profiles, and visualization of small structures obscured in the LR imaging process due to partial volume effects. Our novel SR algorithm outperforms the nonlocal means (NLM) method using self-similarity, NLM method using self-similarity and image prior, self-training dictionary learning-based SR method, averaging of upsampled scans, and the wavelet fusion method. Our SR algorithm can reduce through-plane partial volume artifact by combining multiple orthogonal MR scans, and thus can potentially improve medical image analysis, research, and clinical diagnosis.
Autors: Yuanyuan Jia;Ali Gholipour;Zhongshi He;Simon K. Warfield;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1182 - 1193
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Three-Phase AC–DC–AC Multilevel Converter Based on Cascaded Three-Leg Converters
Abstract:
This paper proposes and investigates a new three-phase ac–dc–ac multilevel conversion system obtained from cascaded three-leg converters. Such configuration presents advantages in terms of reduced switch blocking voltages and consequently lower dc-link voltage rating. Operating principles, a pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique based on vector approach, and a control strategy are presented. The operation with different dc-link voltage values and a balancing method are discussed, and is supported by simulation and experimental results. The PWM technique is able to generate multilevel voltage waveforms, which permits reducing the switching frequency stress leading to reduced semiconductor losses. Simulation results are used to compare the proposed configuration with a conventional solution in terms of harmonic distortion and semiconductor losses. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the studied converter, and were obtained by using a downscaled prototype with insulated gate bipolar transistors with dedicated drives and a digital signal processor with appropriated plug-in boards and sensors.
Autors: Ayslan Caisson Norões Maia;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Gregory Arthur de Almeida Carlos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2210 - 2221
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Transmission Tariff Allocation Model Based on Bilevel Programming
Abstract:
This paper proposes a flow-based approach for the transmission tariff allocation problem based on the notions of long-run marginal cost (LRMC) and nodal exchange factors (NEFs). A worst-case power flow, expressed in terms of NEFs, is formulated to characterize the system state. Additionally, the NEFs optimal values are determined considering a specific criterion to compute tariffs. The resulting problem is formulated as a bilevel program. The upper level is a worst-case power flow that maximizes line flows taking into account the transmission tariffs computed in the lower level. The criterion considered in the lower level aims to minimize the variation range of transmission tariffs, which is particularly desirable to provide incentives for renewable sources installed far away from load centers. The resulting bilevel problem may have multiple solutions. Here, the uniqueness in tariffs is preserved by solving an alternative problem once both the generation dispatch and the variation range of transmission tariffs are known. Numerical results are provided for a 6-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system.
Autors: Érica Telles;Delberis A. Lima;Javier Contreras;Natalia Alguacil;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2204 - 2213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A New Zigzag-Decodable Code with Efficient Repair in Wireless Distributed Storage
Abstract:
A code is said to possess the combination property if source packets are mapped into packets and any out of these packets are able to recover the information of the original packets. While the class of maximum-distance-separable codes are well known to have this property, its decoding complexity is generally high. For this reason, a new class of codes which can be decoded by the zigzag-decoding algorithm is considered. It has a lower decoding complexity at the expense of extra storage overhead in each parity packet. In this work, a new construction of a zigzag decodable code is proposed. The novelty of this new construction lies in the careful selection of the amount of bit-shift of each source packet in obtaining each parity packet. Besides, an efficient on-the-air repair scheme based on physical-layer network coding is designed.
Autors: Mingjun Dai;Chi Wan Sung;Hui Wang;Xueqing Gong;Zexin Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1218 - 1230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Non-Orthogonal Resource Allocation Scheme in Spatial Group Based Random Access for Cellular M2M Communications
Abstract:
Cellular machine-to-machine (M2M) communication can be one of the major candidate technologies to develop an Internet of Things (IoT) platform. A massive number of machine nodes access the cellular networks and typically send/receive small-sized data. In this situation, severe random access (RA) overload and radio resource shortage problems may occur if there is no evolution in the conventional cellular system. Focusing on RA, we need a larger number of preambles, as well as a more efficient resource allocation scheme in order to accommodate a significantly large number of RA requests from machine nodes. In this paper, we propose a non-orthogonal resource allocation (NORA) scheme, combined with our spatial group based RA (SGRA) mechanism, in order to provide a sufficiently large number of preambles at the first step of the RA procedure and non-orthogonally allocate physical uplink shared channel resources at the second step of the RA procedure. As a result, the proposed SGRA-NORA scheme can significantly increase the RA success probability, compared with that of the conventional RA scheme.
Autors: Han Seung Jang;Hong-Shik Park;Dan Keun Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4496 - 4500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Nonbalancing End-Fire Microstrip Dipole With Periodic-Offset DSPSL Substrate
Abstract:
A nonbalancing microstrip dipole with end-fire capability is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a simple microstrip-fed dipole with a periodic-offset double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) substrate, which is used to replace the balun of a conventional end-fire antenna. The periodic-offset DSPSL substrate exhibits phase shift characteristics and excites the odd mode of the microstrip dipole. A director and a truncated ground are used to increase the directivity of the antenna. After placing the DSPSL, the bidirectional radiation pattern is converted to a unidirectional one. The measured and simulated results indicate that the antenna operates at 2.4 GHz. End-fire directional radiation patterns are obtained with this novel periodic substrate. When compared with the original design of the microstrip dipoles, the proposed microstrip dipole uses the periodic-offset DSPSL substrate to replace the balun. The front-to-back ratio is about 10 dB. The design method of the end-fire antenna is a new technique and can be easily applied in other antennas.
Autors: Yuanxin Li;Huansong Xu;Wentao Wu;Zhixi Liang;Shaoyong Zheng;Juhua Liu;Yunliang Long;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2661 - 2665
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel 6-D Pose Detection Method Using Opposing-Magnet Pair System
Abstract:
Magnetic tracking method can achieve wireless tracking and has no line-of-sight problem; therefore, it is a good choice to track micro devices inside human body for minimally invasive examination or operation. In this letter, we propose a novel six-degree-of-freedom (DoF) pose detection method, which is based on multiple magnets tracking method. Two magnets with opposite magnetic moment directions have been combined together to serve as the tracking target. By defining pose parameters based on the position and orientation constrains of the two magnets, 6-DoF pose information can be estimated with the optimization method. Experimental results verified the proposed method. The average position error is 3.5mm and the orientation error is 1.9°.
Autors: Xiaoxiao Qiu;Shuang Song;Max Q.-H. Meng;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2642 - 2643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Approach for the Test of Active Pedestrian Safety Systems
Abstract:
Active pedestrian safety systems are based on a variety of sensor systems and detection algorithm approaches. The activation of, e.g., an emergency brake is a critical decision. Therefore, such applications must be tested very responsibly. This paper shows the characteristic features of pedestrians, presents current test methods, and introduces a novel test system approach and pedestrian dummy, which enables the test of advanced pedestrian detection systems. This includes also detection algorithm approaches including pre-indicators and path prediction for a complex motion pattern. The complex motion pattern can be a walking or a running pedestrian, including velocity and direction changes.
Autors: Igor Doric;Andreas Reitberger;Sebastian Wittmann;Robert Harrison;Thomas Brandmeier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1299 - 1312
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Characterization Method for Accurate Lumped Parameter Modeling of Electret Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvesters
Abstract:
This letter presents a new method for the characterization of electret transducers, which are typically used in electret electrostatic vibration energy harvesters (electret e-VEHs). This is the first method allowing to accurately measure the value of the equivalent voltage source representing the electret in lumped parameter models of a wide range of electret e-VEHs. An accurate value for this parameter is critical for design, analysis, and optimization, given the increasing complexity of e-VEHs electrical interfaces. Until now, there was no universal method allowing the measurement of this parameter, because of practical difficulties with some geometries, and because of charging non-uniformities. In this letter, the new method is presented, with insights on how to maximize the measurement accuracy. It is then applied to a state-of-the art MEMS electret e-VEH.
Autors: Armine Karami;Dimitri Galayko;Philippe Basset;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 665 - 668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Exponential Reaching Law of Discrete-Time Sliding-Mode Control
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel reaching law for discrete-time sliding-mode control is proposed. The reaching law is established based on an exponential term that dynamically adapts to the variation of the switching function. The difference function is also employed to redefine the change rate as the second-order difference of the disturbance. Unlike existing works, the proposed reaching law is able to guarantee smaller width of the quasi-sliding-mode domain (QSMD) while decreasing the reaching time in the same time. The ultimate magnitude of the QSMD in proposed method is of the order O(T3). Moreover, the reaching steps for the system to converge to the sliding surface are obtained and the system dynamics in and out the QSMD are theoretically analyzed. Both numerical simulations and experimental investigations on a piezoelectric actuator are employed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Haifeng Ma;Jianhua Wu;Zhenhua Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3840 - 3850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Fault Location Method and Algorithm for DC Distribution Protection
Abstract:
DC fault current is contributed by various distributed energy resources in dc distribution systems. The tightly coupled dc distribution systems have relatively low line impedance values. The fault current increases fast because of the low impedance. Some converters in dc distribution systems include fault current limiting function. The controlled fault currents at different locations are very close. Thus, it is important to design a reliable and fast fault detection and location method for dc distribution systems. This paper proposes a novel local measurement-based fault location algorithm for tightly coupled dc distribution systems. The proposed fault location algorithm can estimate the equivalent inductance between a protective device and a fault in less than 1 ms. The performance of the developed protection algorithm was validated by numerical simulation and hardware tests.
Autors: Xianyong Feng;Li Qi;Jiuping Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1834 - 1840
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Framework for Fault Diagnosis Using Kernel Partial Least Squares Based on an Optimal Preference Matrix
Abstract:
In the standard kernel partial least squares (KPLS), the mapped data in the feature space need to be centralized before extraction of new score vectors. However, each vector of the centralized variables is often uniformly distributed, and some original features that can reflect the contribution of each variable to fault diagnosis might be lost. As a result, it might lead to misleading interpretations of the principal components and to increasing the false alarm rate for fault detection. To cope with these difficulties, a novel data-driven framework using KPLS based on an optimal preference matrix (OPM) is presented in this paper. In fault monitoring, an OPM is proposed to change the distribution of the variable and to readjust the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. To obtain the OPM, the objective function can be determined in terms of the squared prediction error and Hotelling's T-squared ( ) statistics. Two optimization algorithms, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization algorithm, are extended to maximize effectiveness of the OPM. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed method can overcome the drawback of original features loss of the centralized mapped data in the feature subspace and improve the accuracy of fault diagnosis. Also, few extra computation costs are needed in fault detection. Extensive experimental results on both the Tennessee Eastman benchmark process and the case study of the aluminum electrolytic production process give credible fault diagnosis.
Autors: Jun Yi;Di Huang;Haibo He;Wei Zhou;Qi Han;Taifu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4315 - 4324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Interleaved Nonisolated Ultrahigh-Step-Up DC–DC Converter With ZVS Performance
Abstract:
This paper presents an interleaved nonisolated dc–dc converter with high-voltage gain and zero-voltage switching (ZVS) performance. Both coupled inductor and voltage multiplier cell techniques are used to increase the voltage gain. The ZVS circuit is composed of an active clamp which is in series with the output filter capacitors. This will give rise to further extension of the voltage gain. Applying the interleaving technique at the input of the converter, the ripple of the input current is reduced. Due to the leakage inductances of coupled inductors, the diodes are turned-off under zero-current switching condition. Hence, the reverse current recovery problem is alleviated. The steady-state analysis of the proposed converter is also presented. Finally, a 900-V to 415-W laboratory prototype is implemented to validate the performance of the proposed converter.
Autors: Tohid Nouri;Naser Vosoughi;Seyed Hossein Hosseini;Mehran Sabahi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3650 - 3661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method for Data and Power Transmission Through Metallic Structures
Abstract:
This paper discusses the implementation of a system that utilizes inductive coupling and single-conductor techniques in order to enable power and data transmission through a metallic structure. The power and data transfer occur simultaneously over the same structure. The source of power is connected to a double-ended coil that is coupled with a single-ended resonator through a resonant inductive coupling mechanism. This second coil is attached to the single conductor responsible to transfer power to another device. At the receiver side of the system, a similar couple of coils is used to transmit energy to the receiver device. The system operates according to the Qi standard for wireless power transfer, working at the frequency of 300 kHz. These characteristics ensure the portability, reliability, and interoperability of the system. A model is developed for the proposed system. The system is implemented over several arbitrary metallic structures and different combinations of coils and resonators. The measured power efficiency as high as 75% is achieved. The adaptive matching technique is proposed to maintain the performance of the system over a variety of operating conditions.
Autors: Susanna Vital de Campos de Freitas;Fabiano Cezar Domingos;Rashid Mirzavand;Adam Maunder;Parinaz Naseri;Pedram Mousavi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 4027 - 4036
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Method to Accomplish Simultaneous Multilocation Magnetic Field Measurements Based on Pump-Beam Modulation of an Atomic Magnetometer
Abstract:
Recently, optically pumped atomic magnetometers (OPAMs) replacing superconductive quantum interference device-based magnetometers have attracted a considerable amount of attention. To apply the OPAMs to biomagnetic field measurements, simultaneous multilocation measurements are required. To fulfill the specific requirement, we have developed a hybrid cell, which contains potassium and rubidium atoms. The OPAM with a hybrid cell can enhance the spatial homogeneity due to the suppression of pump-beam absorption. Thus, we can have multiple measurement locations inside a hybrid cell with multiple pump and probe lasers. In this paper, we proposed a novel method to accomplish simultaneous multilocation measurements based on pump-beam modulation. Using two optical choppers, we operated a two-channel OPAM with two modulated pump beams. We investigated the signal strength of the OPAM as a function of modulation frequency and found that the signal strength decreased as the modulation frequency increased. Subsequently, we measured the magnetic field distributions generated from a loop coil to validate the proposed method and could confirm that they showed good agreements with the theoretical values. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method based on pump-beam modulation.
Autors: Yuki Mamishin;Yosuke Ito;Tetsuo Kobayashi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Multi-Degree Freedom Power Pickup Mechanism for Inductively Coupled Power Transfer System
Abstract:
Inductively coupled power transfer (ICPT) technology realizes energy transfer across relatively large air gap with magnetic coupling. However, the flexibility of traditional ICPT system is limited because only one-degree freedom is allowed. This paper proposes the design, simulation, and implementation of a novel multi-degree of freedom power pickup mechanism for ICPT system, which can receive power at arbitrary angle in space. The pickup mechanism is designed of regular tetrahedron structure, and the pickup coils are fixed on its six edges. An optimal winding strategy of the six coils is proposed to increase the output power capacity through theoretical analysis and Maxwell simulation. The experimental results show that the pickup mechanism has a good power pickup capacity, and system efficiency is relatively high at any angle of the pickup mechanism.
Autors: Xin Dai;Lu Li;Xiyu Yu;Yanling Li;Yue Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:5, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Reservation-Based MAC Scheme for Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel medium access control medium access control (MAC) for distributed single-channel cognitive radio networks (CRNs) denominated cognitive radio reservation MAC (C2RMAC). C2RMAC is intended to be adopted by the nonlicensed users and introduces a double stage scheme to schedule each node's transmission. In this way, C2RMAC increases the use of the spectrum left free by the licensed users, when compared with other protocols. An important contribution of this paper is the assumption of a heterogeneous spectrum sensing condition, i.e., the assumption that different nonlicensed users may sense different levels of channel occupancy. We derive an analytical model to compute the performance of the proposed protocol by adopting innovative concepts to tackle the heterogeneous sensing condition. Several simulation results, including the aggregated throughput and the packet service time, evaluate the performance of C2RMAC and successfully validate the proposed model. Finally, C2RMAC is compared with other state-of-the-art cognitive radio MAC protocols, showing the effectiveness of the proposed solution.
Autors: Miguel Luís;Rodolfo Oliveira;Rui Dinis;Luis Bernardo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4327 - 4340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Solar and Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting System With a 3-D Printed Package for Energy Efficient Internet-of-Things Wireless Sensors
Abstract:
This paper discusses the design of a novel dual (solar + electromagnetic) energy harvesting powered communication system, which operates at 2.4 GHz ISM band, enabling the autonomous operation of a low power consumption power management circuit for a wireless sensor, while featuring a very good “cold start” capability. The proposed harvester consists of a dual port rectangular slot antenna, a 3-D printed package, a solar cell, an RF-dc converter, a power management unit (PMU), a microcontroller unit, and an RF transceiver. Each designed component was characterized through simulation and measurements. As a result, the antenna exhibited a performance satisfying the design goals in the frequency range of 2.4–2.5 GHz. Similarly, the designed miniaturized RF-dc conversion circuit generated a sufficient voltage and power to support the autonomous operation of the bq25504 PMU for RF input power levels as low as −12.6 and −15.6 dBm at the “cold start” and “hot start” condition, respectively. The experimental testing of the PMU utilizing the proposed hybrid energy harvester confirmed the reduction of the capacitor charging time by 40% and the reduction of the minimum required RF input power level by 50% compared with the one required for the individual RF and solar harvester under the room light irradiation condition of 334 lx.
Autors: Jo Bito;Ryan Bahr;Jimmy G. Hester;Syed Abdullah Nauroze;Apostolos Georgiadis;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1831 - 1842
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Sound Quality Evaluation Method of the Diagnosis of Abnormal Noise in Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors for Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
A novel sound quality (SQ) evaluation method is developed to diagnose abnormal noise of interior permanent-magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) for electric vehicle (EV). A-weighted sound pressure level (A-W SPL) of noise in IPMSM and six psychoacoustic characteristics, which include sharpness, roughness, loudness, articulation index, tonality, and fluctuation strength, are described through the objective evaluation of SQ. The paired comparison method (PCM) and the grade evaluation method (GEM) are respectively applied in subjective evaluation on relative annoyance and absolute annoyance of IPMSM for EV, and the combined application of these two methods is proposed originally. Finally, the BP neural network model for SQ evaluation of abnormal noise in IPMSM is established, the characteristics, conditions, and influencing factors of abnormal noise are effectively diagnosed. This novel evaluation method effectively solves the problem that the annoyance level is unable to be evaluated through the PCM, and the GEM relies on rich audition experience of evaluation subject. It also improves the accuracy of diagnosis of abnormal noise in IPMSM for EV.
Autors: Conggan Ma;Qing Li;Liwei Deng;Chaoyi Chen;Qinghe Liu;Haibo Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3883 - 3891
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Networks With Noise Uncertainty
Abstract:
This correspondence investigates a joint spectrum sensing scheme in cognitive radio (CR) networks with unknown and dynamic noise variance. A novel Bayesian solution is proposed to recover the dynamic noise variance and detect the occupancy of primary frequency band simultaneously. The states of primary users are detected based on particle filtering technology, and then the noise parameters are tracked by using finite-dimensional statistics for each particle based on marginalized adaptive particle filtering. Simulation results are provided to validate that the proposed method can improve the sensing performance significantly and target the dynamic noise variance accurately.
Autors: Mengwei Sun;Chenglin Zhao;Su Yan;Bin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 4424 - 4429
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Speed–Density Relationship Model Based on the Energy Conservation Concept
Abstract:
This paper makes a basic assumption that energy conservation exists, between psychological potential and a vehicle's kinetic energy, in the driver's psychological field based on the driver's mental activities. A virtual spring is used to describe the storage and release of psychological potential energy. Under the aforementioned conditions, we established a macroscopic traffic flow model with conservation law. Each parameter in the new model is physically meaningful and explicit. Additionally, the model can fit field data consistently well, both in free-flow and congested situations. The results of this paper prove the rationality of the energy conservation concept in traffic flow, which improves the understanding of traffic flow and provides a new theoretical foundation.
Autors: Dianhai Wang;Xiaolong Ma;Dongfang Ma;Sheng Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1179 - 1189
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Tunnel FET Design Through Adaptive Bandgap Engineering With Constant Sub-Threshold Slope Over 5 Decades of Current and High $text{I}_{mathrm {ON}}/text{I}_{mathrm {OFF}}$ Ratio
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel hetero-stacked TFET (HS-TFET) is experimentally demonstrated and optimized for the first time, which can effectively suppress the sub-threshold slope (SS) degradation without leakage current increase through self-adaptively current replenishing with bandgap engineering, greatly alleviating the critical issue of high average SS in conventional TFETs. Based on CMOS-compatible technology, the fabricated HS-TFETs of vertically stacked Si-Si1–xGex source can experimentally achieve superior performance with nearly constant SS over five decades of drain current, high ( @ V), and large ratio (. The proposed device with high process compatibility shows great potentials for future ultra-low power applications.
Autors: Yang Zhao;Chunlei Wu;Qianqian Huang;Cheng Chen;Jiadi Zhu;Lingyi Guo;Rundong Jia;Zhu Lv;Yuchao Yang;Ming Li;Ru Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 38, issue:5, pages: 540 - 543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Novel Two-Compartment Model for Calculating Bone Volume Fractions and Bone Mineral Densities From Computed Tomography Images
Abstract:
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by a degradation of bone structures. Various methods have been developed to diagnose osteoporosis by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of patients. However, BMDs from these methods were not equivalent and were incomparable. In addition, partial volume effect introduces errors in estimating bone volume from computed tomography (CT) images using image segmentation. In this study, a two-compartment model (TCM) was proposed to calculate bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and BMD from CT images. The TCM considers bones to be composed of two sub-materials. Various equivalent BV/TV and BMD can be calculated by applying corresponding sub-material pairs in the TCM. In contrast to image segmentation, the TCM prevented the influence of the partial volume effect by calculating the volume percentage of sub-material in each image voxel. Validations of the TCM were performed using bone-equivalent uniform phantoms, a 3D-printed trabecular-structural phantom, a temporal bone flap, and abdominal CT images. By using the TCM, the calculated BV/TVs of the uniform phantoms were within percent errors of ±2%; the percent errors of the structural volumes with various CT slice thickness were below 9%; the volume of the temporal bone flap was close to that from micro-CT images with a percent error of 4.1%. No significant difference (p >0.01) was found between the areal BMD of lumbar vertebrae calculated using the TCM and measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In conclusion, the proposed TCM could be applied to diagnose osteoporosis, while providing a basis for comparing various measurement methods.
Autors: Hsin-Hon Lin;Shin-Lei Peng;Jay Wu;Tian-Yu Shih;Keh-Shih Chuang;Cheng-Ting Shih;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 36, issue:5, pages: 1094 - 1105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Passive Wireless Tag With Digital Readout Unit for Wide Range Humidity Measurement
Abstract:
Moisture measurement in ppm level is always challenging and costly. Among different technologies available for moisture measurement, the thin film capacitive sensor-based dew point meter offers a low-cost solution. Still, the cost of the dew point meter is high and it suffers from high response time. There is a need of wireless moisture measurement in ppm level that is not available with the commercial meter according to our knowledge. This paper deals with development of a low-cost passive wireless tag for capacitive type sensors. The tag can be energized by any 13.56-MHz commercial tag reader from a distance of 1 cm (approx). The tag is capable of transmitting sensor data at 2.4-GHz ISM band up to a distance of 12 m. An efficient algorithm has been developed to reduce the power consumption. The prototype system has been tested with two custom designed capacitive sensors to measure humidity over a wide range. Both sensors, having a highly stable hygroscopic film of Al2O3, are fabricated in the lab. Finally, a low-cost (approximately U.S. $250) digital hygrometer to measure trace moisture has been developed. The performances of the digital hygrometer have been compared with the commercial dew point meter, and accuracy is found to be nearly 1% in the range of 6.5–127-ppm moisture. The system can be employed for contactless measurement with any capacitive sensor in the range of 50–3200 pF.
Autors: Asim Siddiqui;Rahat Mahboob;Tarikul Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 1013 - 1020
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physically Reconfigurable Structurally Embedded Vascular Antenna
Abstract:
This paper discusses the fabrication, operation, and physical reconfiguration of a structurally embedded vascular antenna. The antenna is a thin-wire dipole that meanders with rotational symmetry according to a sinusoid with power-series growth. It is formed from two curvilinear vascular networks embedded into a structural composite panel and connected to a conductive vertical interconnect structure and SubMiniature Version A-connected parallel-strip transmission line for excitation and measurement. The pressure-driven flow of a liquid metal alloy within the vascular network enables the physical reconfiguration of the meandering dipole with the primary goal of dynamically tuning the matched impedance bandwidth of the fundamental dipole mode by symmetrically lengthening the conductive pathways forming the dipole. Details regarding the design, fabrication, simulation, and measurement of the meandering dipole antenna are provided along with a linearly expanding dipole for comparison.
Autors: Gregory H. Huff;Hong Pan;Darren J. Hartl;Geoffrey J. Frank;Robyn L. Bradford;Jeffrey W. Baur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2282 - 2288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Physics-Based Compact Model for Symmetrical Double-Gate Polysilicon Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
A physics-based compact model for double-gate polysilicon thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a doped channel is proposed in this paper. Through the effective charge density approach, the electrostatic potential is solved explicitly from the Poisson’s equation without using the conventional regional approach. The resulting single-piece electrostatic potential equation, which does not consist of the intermediate parameter, offers clear physics meaning and good accuracy, particular when the TFT operates in the transition region. The TFT’s drain current model is then developed by integrating the electrostatic potential equation analytically with the Pao-Sah equation. Finally, the model is verified by numerical and experimental data. Such a compact model is highly suitable for circuit simulations.
Autors: Fei Yu;Wanling Deng;Junkai Huang;Xiaoyu Ma;Juin J. Liou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 2221 - 2227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A pNML Compact Model Enabling the Exploration of Three-Dimensional Architectures
Abstract:
In nano magnetic logic (NML), single-domain nanomagnets enable logic operations. Binary information can be encoded thanks to its bistable magnetization. Many implementations are currently discussed in literature, among them one promising candidate is perpendicular-nano magnetic logic (pNML). It features several advantages like the controllability of the switching mechanism, the simplicity of design, and the natural predisposition of being integrated in three-dimensional (3-D) architectures. Here we show how this technology can be adopted in the design of 3-D logic architectures. Physical equations and quantities have been gathered from experimental demonstrations of pNML devices; formulas have then been fitted and implemented in VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language). In this paper, we present an analysis of pNML circuits: initially a Multiplexer has been manufactured and characterized, then our compact model has been tested through simulations. Moreover, the MUX has adopted to design a generic n-bit accumulator. Our results demonstrate that the compact model makes it possible to perform fast simulations, while maintaining a fine level of accuracy. Thanks to its flexibility, novel materials, geometric variations, and other technological improvements can be easily integrated in order to be tested at circuit level. We anticipate our essay to be a starting point for the exploration of large 3-D digital circuits.
Autors: G. Turvani;F. Riente;E. Plozner;M. Vacca;M. Graziano;S. Breitkreutz-v. Gamm;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 431 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Potential Field-Based Model Predictive Path-Planning Controller for Autonomous Road Vehicles
Abstract:
Artificial potential fields and optimal controllers are two common methods for path planning of autonomous vehicles. An artificial potential field method is capable of assigning different potential functions to different types of obstacles and road structures and plans the path based on these potential functions. It does not, however, include the vehicle dynamics in the path-planning process. On the other hand, an optimal path-planning controller integrated with vehicle dynamics plans an optimal feasible path that guarantees vehicle stability in following the path. In this method, the obstacles and road boundaries are usually included in the optimal control problem as constraints and not with any arbitrary function. A model predictive path-planning controller is introduced in this paper such that its objective includes potential functions along with the vehicle dynamics terms. Therefore, the path-planning system is capable of treating different obstacles and road structures distinctly while planning the optimal path utilizing vehicle dynamics. The path-planning controller is modeled and simulated on a CarSim vehicle model for some complicated test scenarios. The results show that, with this path-planning controller, the vehicle avoids the obstacles and observes road regulations with appropriate vehicle dynamics. Moreover, since the obstacles and road regulations can be defined with different functions, the path-planning system plans paths corresponding to their importance and priorities.
Autors: Yadollah Rasekhipour;Amir Khajepour;Shih-Ken Chen;Bakhtiar Litkouhi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1255 - 1267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Approach to Robust Fault Detection for a Class of Nonlinear Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a probabilistic approach to fault detection (FD) for nonlinear systems subject to -norm bounded unknown input. The major contribution is to design an evaluation function for robust FD in a unified framework of -norm estimation of unknown input and determine a threshold based on probabilistic analysis of FD performance. The problem of robust FD is first formulated as to find a minimal estimation of the -norm of unknown input including unknown initial state. It is shown that such an estimation leads to a unified design of evaluation function for FD using extended Kalman filter or optimization-based FD filter. Based on this, a probabilistic approach to threshold determination and FD performance verification is proposed. In particular, if the -norm boundedness of unknown input is not available, a choice of threshold can be made in the framework of probabilistic analysis for achieving a tradeoff between false alarm rate and FD rate. Finally, a nonlinear UAV control system model is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and show the feasibility of practical application.
Autors: Maiying Zhong;Ligang Zhang;Steven X. Ding;Donghua Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3930 - 3939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Fusion Framework for 3-D Reconstruction Using Heterogeneous Sensors
Abstract:
This letter proposes a framework to perform 3-D reconstruction using a heterogeneous sensor network, with potential use in augmented reality, human behavior understanding, smart-room implementations, robotics, and many other applications. We fuse orientation measurements from inertial sensors, images from cameras and depth data from Time of Flight sensors within a probabilistic framework in a synergistic manner to obtain robust reconstructions. A fully probabilistic method is proposed to efficiently fuse the multi-modal data of the system.
Autors: Hadi Aliakbarpour;João F. Ferreira;V. B. Surya Prasath;Kannappan Palaniappan;Guna Seetharaman;Jorge Dias;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2640 - 2641
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Probabilistic Joint Sparse Regression Model for Semisupervised Hyperspectral Unmixing
Abstract:
Semisupervised hyperspectral unmixing finds the ratio of spectral library members in the mixture of hyperspectral pixels to find the proportion of pure materials in a natural scene. The two main challenges are noise in observed spectral vectors and high mutual coherence of spectral libraries. To tackle these challenges, we propose a probabilistic sparse regression method for linear hyperspectral unmixing, which utilizes the implicit relations of neighboring pixels. We partition the hyperspectral image into rectangular patches. The sparse coefficients of pixels in each patch are assumed to be generated from a Laplacian scale mixture model with the same latent variables. These latent variables specify the probability of existence of endmembers in the mixture of each pixel. Experiments on synthetic and real hyperspectral images illustrate the superior performance of the proposed method over alternatives.
Autors: Seyyede Fatemeh Seyyedsalehi;Hamid R. Rabiee;Ali Soltani-Farani;Ali Zarezade;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 592 - 596
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Quick Take on Windows Security Evolution
Abstract:
An informal analysis of changes in configuration options and default settings in recent Windows operating systems reveals how security concerns have changed over time. The results are both reassuring and alarming.
Autors: Hal Berghel;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 120 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Radio Resource Virtualization-Based RAT Selection Scheme in Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In the future heterogeneous wireless networks, heterogeneity of radio resources from different radio access technologies (RATs) still exists. The heterogeneity, especially for networks with the coexistence of non-orthogonal and orthogonal resources, makes the radio resources difficult to be uniformly measured, and thus hinders the efficient utilization of radio resources. To overcome this limitation, this letter firstly proposes a radio resource virtualization approach in heterogeneous networks. Based on the accumulated historical data of resource utilization information, heterogeneous radio resources are virtualized into normalized resources using deep learning method. Secondly, the consumption difference of virtualized resources under different situations of network load and user demand is modeled. Moreover, aiming at efficiently utilizing radio resources and reducing access blocking rate, a RAT selection scheme based on the radio resource virtualization is proposed. Through simulation, the validity of the proposed scheme is evaluated.
Autors: Shaoshuai Fan;Hui Tian;Weidong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 1147 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Real-Time Markov Chain Driver Model for Tracked Vehicles and Its Validation: Its Adaptability via Stochastic Dynamic Programming
Abstract:
The design of an energy management strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle typically requires an estimate of requested power from the driver. If the driving cycle is not known a priori, stochastic methods, such as a Markov chain driver model (MCDM), must be employed. For tracked vehicles, the steering power, which is related to vehicle angular velocity, is a significant component of the driver demand. In this paper, a three-dimensional (3-D) MCDM incorporating angular velocity for a tracked vehicle is proposed. Based on the nearest-neighborhood method, an online transition probability matrix (TPM)-updating algorithm is implemented for the 3-D MCDM. Simulation results show that the TPM is able to update online and adapt to the changing driving conditions. Moreover, the adaptability of the online TPM updating algorithm to the change in driving is validated via a stochastic dynamic programming approach for a series hybrid tracked vehicle. Results show that the online updating for the MCDM's TPM is competent for adapting to the changing driving conditions.
Autors: Yuan Zou;Zehui Kong;Teng Liu;Dexing Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 66, issue:5, pages: 3571 - 3582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Reliable and Efficient Distributed Service Composition Approach in Pervasive Environments
Abstract:
The global, ubiquitous usage of smart handsets and diverse wireless communication tools calls for a meticulous reexamination of complex and dynamic service componentization and remote invocation. In order to satisfy ever-increasing service requirements and enrich users’ experiences, efficient service composition approaches, which leverage the computing resources on nearby devices to form an on-demand composite service, should be developed. This is especially true for situations that are confronted with limited local computing capacity and device mobility. For any mobile pervasive environment, execution reliability and latency of the composite service are major concerns that impact users’ satisfaction. In this paper, we propose a novel three-staged approach which takes reliability and latency into account to solve a distributed service composition efficiently. First, the graph of the functional process description is decomposed into multiple path structures through a graph-traversing algorithm. Second, messages are forwarded among the network nodes (i.e., intelligent handsets) to search for the sub-solutions for these path structures. Finally, an efficient combinatorial optimization algorithm computes the optimal service composition by the selection from these sub-solutions. This approach is validated extensively in static and mobile environments, and the results show the effectiveness and outperformance of this approach over existing approaches.
Autors: Chenyang Liu;Jian Cao;Jie Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:5, pages: 1231 - 1245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review of Flexible OLEDs Toward Highly Durable Unusual Displays
Abstract:
Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are remarkably promising display devices that can function in mechanically flexible configurations on a plastic substrate due to various compelling properties, including organic constituents, ultrathin and simple structure, and low-temperature fabrication. In spite of successful demonstrations of flexible OLEDs, some technical issues of containing relatively thick transparent electrodes made of ceramic materials and an unstable flexible encapsulation system have impeded reaching high levels of reliability and durability toward full commercialization. This review covers recent developments in structure designs for highly durable flexible OLEDs, ranging from alternative transparent electrodes to thin-film encapsulation layers, in which solution concepts for the existing critical issues of flexible OLEDs are addressed. Emerging unusual substrates and their application strategies are additionally introduced to find intimations of future display technologies and hence to disclose nonclassic flexible OLEDs.
Autors: Sung-Min Lee;Jeong Hyun Kwon;Seonil Kwon;Kyung Cheol Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1922 - 1931
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review of Microwave Wireless Techniques for Human Presence Detection and Classification
Abstract:
Developments in microwave and millimeter-wave systems have enabled remote sensing techniques traditionally used in long-range applications to be employed in the relatively closer range applications of detection and classification of human presence and measurement of human properties. This paper reviews the techniques used in microwave remote sensing of humans and discusses prominent examples of experimental systems from the literature. Radar techniques have been developed for measuring the time-varying scattering returns from the various parts of the human body during motion, which are used for human presence detection and the classification of human activities. The effects of breathing and heartbeat are also detectable using Doppler radar techniques, which is applicable to medical applications as well as search-and-rescue and security. Recent developments in distributed radars have enabled the direct measurement of the angular velocity of moving people, and passive systems have also been developed which provide a complementary detection mode that can aid in detection and classification of humans.
Autors: Jeffrey A. Nanzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1780 - 1794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A review of the techniques used by utilities to measure the water content of transformer insulation paper
Abstract:
Cellulosic insulation materials are very widely used in power transformers, in designs up to 1,500 MVA [1]. Cellulosic insulation is formed of either wood, pressboard, or Kraft paper. The wood and thick sections of pressboard are used to manufacture the base of the transformer; pressboard is also used for the spacers and barriers of the windings, and the paper is wrapped around the current carrying conductors. The water content of this cellulosic insulation must be monitored, because if it becomes too high, a transformer can fail on overload, and will reach the end of its functional life sooner because the paper insulation will age faster [2]. Eventually, the paper will become brittle, and will either tear or lift off the conductor. The water content of paper (WCP) is the ratio of the mass of adsorbed water to the mass of dry paper, usually expressed as a percentage. Water can migrate out of the wood and pressboard and around the system, eventually increasing the WCP. If the WCP becomes too high, the transformer may be dried out by the relevant utility [3].
Autors: Daniel Martin;Tapan Saha;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 8 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Review on Recent Progress of Portable Short-Range Noncontact Microwave Radar Systems
Abstract:
This paper reviews recent progress of portable short-range noncontact microwave radar systems for motion detection, positioning, and imaging applications. With the continuous advancements of modern semiconductor technologies and embedded computing, many functionalities that could only be achieved by bulky radar systems in the past are now integrated into portable devices with integrated circuit chips and printed circuits boards. These portable solutions are able to provide high motion detection sensitivity, excellent signal-to-noise ratio, and satisfactory range detection capability. Assisted by on-board signal processing algorithms, they can play important roles in various areas, such as health and elderly care, veterinary monitoring, human-computer interaction, structural monitoring, indoor tracking, and wind engineering. This paper reviews some system architectures and practical implementations for typical wireless sensing applications. It also discusses potential future developments for the next-generation portable smart radar systems.
Autors: Changzhi Li;Zhengyu Peng;Tien-Yu Huang;Tenglong Fan;Fu-Kang Wang;Tzyy-Sheng Horng;José-María Muñoz-Ferreras;Roberto Gómez-García;Lixin Ran;Jenshan Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1692 - 1706
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Capacitive Digital Read-Out Circuit for a Scalable Tactile Skin
Abstract:
This paper presents a robust, capacitive digital read-out circuit (ROC) for sensitive skin applications in humanoid robots. The ROC can be calibrated to null the parasitic effects of transducer variation due to physical assembly. A prototype is fabricated in a 130 nm RFCMOS process, with an active area of and 1.84 power consumption at and 1ms read-out rate. The ROC output is robust to and temperature variations in a range and (25–53) °C. Furthermore, it can provide up to 200m power supply sine wave rejection in the range 50Hz–5MHz at , for an output standard deviation lower than one LSB. Owing to its features and its digital modularity, the ROC was co-designed with a scalable and modular Multi-Walled Carbon NanoTube (MW-CNT) Nano composite transducer, to achieve tunable output sensitivity by adjusting the sensor nominal capacitance and the reference capacitance. The maximum sensitivity of 5.23 fF per LSB was reached when both match. The ROC was then validated with the MW-CNT nanocomposite sensor which exhibits a piecewise behaviour. 5.3 and 7.1 ENOB were extrapolated in the low-load and medium-load regions, respectively. Besides the major advantage of tunable sensitivity, the presented ROC features the lowest acquisition time and one o- the most compact sizes among the state-of-the-art ROCs. Moreover, process voltage and temperature (PVT) robust output and ultra-low power consumption make this solution very attractive to replicate human physiology at robotic-level.
Autors: Alessia Damilano;Paolo Motto Ros;Alessandro Sanginario;Alessandro Chiolerio;Sergio Bocchini;Ignazio Roppolo;Candido Fabrizio Pirri;Sandro Carrara;Danilo Demarchi;Marco Crepaldi;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2682 - 2695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Linear Approach for Offering Strategy of a Hybrid Electric Energy Company
Abstract:
This paper presents a new approach for determining the day-ahead bidding strategies of a large-scale hybrid electric energy company. The company has both energy generation and energy retailing businesses in a competitive electricity market. Demand response programs are also considered in the retail side of the company in order to hedge the risk of participation in wholesale market. This paper introduces a max-min bilevel mathematical programming with equilibrium constraint model for offering a strategy that manages the risk of uncertain forecasted rivals’ bids by robust optimization. The max-min bilevel model is converted to its equivalent single-level optimization using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions. The duality theory is utilized to find the equivalent ordinary maximization model of the max-min problem. Strong duality theory and big M method are also used to linearize the final model of offering strategy. Applicability of the proposed approach is shown by implementing it on the IEEE 118-bus test system.
Autors: Mostafa Kazemi;Hamidreza Zareipour;Mehdi Ehsan;William D. Rosehart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 1949 - 1959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Magnetic Polarity Self-Sensing Method for Start Up of PM Synchronous Machine in Fanlike System
Abstract:
In the field of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) self-sensing control, the initial rotor position estimation is always important, for which the rotor magnetic polarity estimation is particularly a major task. This paper presents a robust rotor polarity estimation method based on the comprehensive utility of both magnetic saturation effect and rotor angular acceleration. The method can be used for the PMSM system for the fan or pumplike applications. In the method, pulsating-voltage-vector injection is used to track the -axis and measure the incremental inductance variation of the estimated -axis. The magnetic saturation effect is magnified by exciting a sinusoidal low-frequency -axis current rather than the traditional dc current. The angular acceleration is then measured by exciting a positive ramp -axis current. Both the incremental inductance variation and the angular acceleration contain the rotor polarity information. In this paper, these two methods are combined, as the latter method is to confirm the estimation of the former method. Thus, a robust self-sensing startup is guaranteed. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Wei Sun;Jian-Xin Shen;Meng-Jia Jin;He Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2169 - 2177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Mode-Matching Algorithm for the Analysis of Triaxial Well-Logging Tools in Anisotropic Geophysical Formations
Abstract:
In this paper, a new pseudoanalytical axial mode-matching formulation is introduced to provide a flexible technique for analyzing direction well-logging tools in anisotropic formations. The presented technique does not rely on spatial discretization as former well-known methods. In this problem, a number of coil antennas with arbitrary relative tilt angle with respect to the symmetry axis are used to radiate electromagnetic fields in a cylindrically layered medium with both axial and radial stratifications, composed of a metallic mandrel, a borehole, and a surrounding layered earth formation. This configuration corresponds to that of triaxial well-logging tools used for oil and gas exploration. Our approach combines closed-form solutions of Maxwell's equations for uniaxially anisotropic media in cylindrical coordinates with the generalized scattering matrix (GSM) at each axial discontinuity based on the mode-matching technique. The electromagnetic field from the tilted-coil source is represented by a set of modal coefficients that, after computation using GSM matrices, are used to extract the transimpedances of the well-logging tool.
Autors: Guilherme S. Rosa;José R. Bergmann;Fernando L. Teixeira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2534 - 2545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Prony Method Against Synchrophasor Measurement Noise and Outliers
Abstract:
This letter presents a novel robust prony method for power system oscillatory modes monitoring that is immune to synchrophasor measurement noise and outliers. The conventional least squares for polynomial coefficients estimation is reformulated as a structural weighted total least square (WTLS) estimation problem to mitigate the impact of measurement noise. To enhance the robustness of WTLS for handling gross measurement errors, i.e., outliers, Huber type M-estimator is advocated and solved by means of an iteratively reweighted regression algorithm. Numerical results on the simplified realistic WECC 179-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Autors: Junbo Zhao;Gexiang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 32, issue:3, pages: 2484 - 2486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Russian Tragedy
Abstract:
Despite its success, there seems to be a gap between the Russian software industry and its Western counterparts. The web extra at https://youtu.be/QpLvVw0Z4rM is an audio recording of author David Alan Grier reading his Global Code column, in which he discusses Russian software industry.
Autors: David Alan Grier;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 132 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Routing on-Chip Network
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new nonblocking self-routing network, called a multi-root binary tree, which may be used to interconnect the cores in multicore chips. The multi-root binary tree network differs from other binary tree-based networks in that the cores are placed at the roots rather than the leaves or the interior nodes of the trees. The self-routing property of a multi-root binary tree is built on the concept of replication and clustering. A new replication and clustering method, called the triangular shift pairing is given to connect the cores together over dedicated paths. It is shown that connecting cores in clusters requires at least columns of pairings for an -core network in a grid layout model and triangular shift wiring method matches this lower bound. The replication and clustering concept leads to a simple self-routing scheme that pairs cores by decoding both unicast and multicast connection requests using -bit cluster address bits. In particular, it is established that cores can identify the cluster with which they pair with other cores using simple modulo addition of their own ids and addresses of the targeted cores in single bit-decoding steps. It is also shown that, if connection requests are uniformly distributed among the cores then blocking due to target c nflicts can be avoided if cores serve connection requests at a small multiple of the frequencies with which they receive them.
Autors: A. Yavuz Oruç;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 28, issue:5, pages: 1229 - 1239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Wetting Paper Electrode for Ubiquitous Bio-Potential Monitoring
Abstract:
This paper aims to develop a flexible and cost-effective dry electrode with low and stable contact impedance. With these benefits, the electrode can be practically used in ubiquitous bio-potential monitoring with similar signal-to-noise ratio as commercial wet electrode. A self-wetting electrode is developed by the aid of moisture naturally created by skin under the electrode. It consists of a layer of ethylcellulose fiber paper coated with PEDOT/PSS (PCwPEDOT) and a thin layer of parylene. PCwPEOT, which has a large contact area composed of micro-scale fibers, is a 30- flexible membrane that acts as the electrode material. A 3- parylene bonding at the backside of PCwPEOT, as a high-performance vacuum membrane, can collect moisture or sweat naturally evaporating from the skin and store it in the PCwPEDOT layer. This design increases the humidity of skin, especially the water content in the corneum, acting as electrolyte containing ions, increases effective contact area between electrode and skin, and decreases the impedance of the electrode. With an environmentally friendly and cost-effective fabrication process, the 33- thickness of electrode is light and flexible. It can be tailored to proper size according to the application. It achieves lower contact impedance compared with dry electrodes with a similar structure. Its recording performance is comparable to commercial patch electrode. The proposed electrode provides high-quality signals, and comfortable user experience in bio-potential recording. It is feasible for developing a long-term wearable system for bio-potential monitoring.
Autors: Xuhong Guo;Weihua Pei;Yijun Wang;Qi Gong;He Zhang;Xiao Xing;Yuxing Xie;Qiang Gui;Hongda Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2654 - 2661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sensitivity Matrix-Based Temperature-Augmented Probabilistic Load Flow Study
Abstract:
This paper proposes a hybrid method for probabilistic load flow (PLF) study to analyze the influence of uncertain photovoltaic generations and load demands on transmission system performance. Besides, the paper focuses on accurate approximation of multimodal distributions of result variables in a temperature-augmented PLF model without using any series expansion methods. The effect of uncertain ambient temperature on result variables is discussed. Multiple correlation cases between the input bus powers are considered. The performance of the proposed method is investigated on modified New England 39-bus power system. The results are compared with four well-established analytical methods and Monte Carlo simulation. The effect of multiple input correlations on probability distributions of result variables is analyzed.
Autors: B Rajanarayan Prusty;Debashisha Jena;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2506 - 2516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sentiment Analysis System to Improve Teaching and Learning
Abstract:
Natural language processing and machine learning can be applied to student feedback to help university administrators and teachers address problematic areas in teaching and learning. The proposed system analyzes student comments from both course surveys and online sources to identify sentiment polarity, the emotions expressed, and satisfaction versus dissatisfaction. A comparison with direct-assessment results demonstrates the system's reliability.
Autors: Sujata Rani;Parteek Kumar;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 36 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Picosecond Pulse Generator Based on a Pair of Step Recovery Diodes
Abstract:
A picosecond pulse generator based on a pair of step recovery diodes (SRDs) is proposed. This generator leverages the transient response of the SRD p-n junction, and provides pulsewidth tunability via a resistor. We first explain the operation principle of the device, by decomposing the pulse generation into different phases, and then demonstrate an experimental prototype with two different pulse values.
Autors: Lianfeng Zou;Shulabh Gupta;Christophe Caloz;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 27, issue:5, pages: 467 - 469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Source-Model Technique for Analysis of Waveguiding Across an Array of Arbitrary Smooth Cylinders Partially Buried in a Penetrable Substrate
Abstract:
A computational technique for modal analysis of an array of penetrable cylinders with smooth arbitrary cross section is described. The cylinders are partially buried between two penetrable half-space media, as may occur in fabricated device. Our suggested method is a rigorous full-wave frequency-domain source-model technique. The corner-like intersections of the cylinders with the substrate and superstrate are addressed with particular care, by intricately locating properly modulated fictitious sources, so that the rapid spatial variations of the fields can be effectively modeled. The spurious-free modal analysis scheme is sped up with an efficient serial mode-tracking scheme, which is based on the physical perturbation theory. The respective software tool is robust to the choice of materials, geometric parameters, and wavelength. Sample results are presented for circular and triangle-like cylinders. We demonstrate a red shift of the cut-off frequency of these potential waveguides as they are more deeply buried in a high refractive index medium, yet in general, the eigenmodes change rapidly but not necessarily monotonously as a function of the burial depth.
Autors: Dana Szafranek;Yehuda Leviatan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2748 - 2753
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Space-Time RLS Algorithm for Adaptive Equalization: The Camera Communication Case
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel space-time recursive least-squares adaptive algorithm, which performs filter coefficients updates in space and postponed filtering in time. The algorithm is used for intersymbol interference suppression in optical camera communications, which is a subgroup of visible light communication systems. Optical camera communications uses image sensor receivers, as those available in smartphones, tablets, and laptops, to detect changes in light intensity in order to allow data transmission. The achievable data transmission rate of optical camera communication systems is nowadays constrained by the frame-per-second rate achieved by those devices, so that the spatial dimension, e.g., multiple-input multiple-output techniques, are typically exploited. Spatial intersymbol interference could arise and image blurring can be an issue especially when the link distance grows and/or when the receiver is in mobility. We present here a semiblind spatial fractionally spaced equalizer that uses a novel space-time recursive least-square adaptive algorithm to counteracts the blur introduced by the optical channel. Numerical results show how the bit error rate can be drastically reduced in both motion and out-of-focus blur scenarios.
Autors: Stefano Pergoloni;Mauro Biagi;Stefania Colonnese;Roberto Cusani;Gaetano Scarano;
Appeared in: Journal of Lightwave Technology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 35, issue:10, pages: 1811 - 1820
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sparsity-Based Variational Approach for the Restoration of SMOS Images From L1A Data
Abstract:
The Surface Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission senses ocean salinity and soil moisture by measuring Earth's brightness temperature using interferometry in the L-band. These interferometry measurements known as visibilities constitute the SMOS L1A data product. Despite the L-band being reserved for Earth observation, the presence of illegal emitters causes radio frequency interference (RFI) that masks the energy radiated from the Earth and strongly corrupts the acquired images. Therefore, the recovery of brightness temperature from corrupted data by image restoration techniques is of major interest. In this paper, we propose a variational model to recover superresolved, denoised brightness temperature maps by decomposing the images into two components: an image T that models the Earth's brightness temperature and an image O modeling the RFIs.
Autors: Javier Preciozzi;Andrés Almansa;Pablo Musé;Sylvain Durand;Ali Khazaal;Bernard Rougé;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 2811 - 2826
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A ST-CRF Map-Matching Method for Low-Frequency Floating Car Data
Abstract:
Integrating raw Global Position System (GPS) trajectories with a road network is often referred to as a map-matching problem. However, low-frequency trajectories (e.g., one GPS point for every 1–2 min) have raised many challenges to existing map-matching methods. In this paper, we propose a novel and global spatial–temporal map-matching method called spatial and temporal conditional random field (ST-CRF), which is based on insights relating to: 1) the spatial positioning accuracy of GPS points with the topological information of the underlying road network; 2) the spatial–temporal accessibility of a floating car; 3) the spatial distribution of the middle point between two consecutive GPS points; and 4) the consistency of the driving direction of a GPS trajectory. We construct a conditional random field model and identify the best matching path sequence from all candidate points. A series of experiments conducted for real environments using mass floating car data collected in Beijing and Shanghai shows that the ST-CRF method not only has better performance and robustness than other popular methods (e.g., point-line, ST-matching, and interactive voting-based map-matching methods) in low-frequency map matching but also solves the “label-bias” problem, which has long existed in the map matching of classical hidden Markov-based methods.
Autors: Xiliang Liu;Kang Liu;Mingxiao Li;Feng Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1241 - 1254
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stable Analytical Framework for Isometric Shape-from-Template by Surface Integration
Abstract:
Shape-from-Template (SfT) reconstructs the shape of a deforming surface from a single image, a 3D template and a deformation prior. For isometric deformations, this is a well-posed problem. However, previous methods which require no initialization break down when the perspective effects are small, which happens when the object is small or viewed from larger distances. That is, they do not handle all projection geometries. We propose stable SfT methods that accurately reconstruct the 3D shape for all projection geometries. We follow the existing approach of using first-order differential constraints and obtain local analytical solutions for depth and the first-order quantities: the depth-gradient or the surface normal. Previous methods use the depth solution directly to obtain the 3D shape. We prove that the depth solution is unstable when the projection geometry tends to affine, while the solution for the first-order quantities remain stable for all projection geometries. We therefore propose to solve SfT by first estimating the first-order quantities (either depth-gradient or surface normal) and integrating them to obtain shape. We validate our approach with extensive synthetic and real-world experiments and obtain significantly more accurate results compared to previous initialization-free methods. Our approach does not require any optimization, which makes it very fast.
Autors: Ajad Chhatkuli;Daniel Pizarro;Adrien Bartoli;Toby Collins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 39, issue:5, pages: 833 - 850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A State-Dependent Updating Period for Certified Real-Time Model Predictive Control
Abstract:
In this paper, a state-dependent control updating period strategy is proposed for use in interrupted implementation of real-time Model Predictive Control (MPC). The strategy can be used as soon as a certification bound is available for the underlying optimization algorithm. Moreover, a new fast-Gradient based certifiable algorithm is proposed with the associated certification bounds for convex generally constrained optimization problems.
Autors: Mazen Alamir;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 62, issue:5, pages: 2464 - 2469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study of Injection Locking in Dual-Band CMOS Frequency Dividers
Abstract:
We present a study of dual-band injection locking frequency dividers (ILFDs), based on a nonlinear analysis. We develop a quasi-normal model of these dividers suitable for applying the method of averaging, which allowed us to derive in a simple and expressive manner the first-approximation equations for the amplitudes and phases of the locked modes, both in transient and in steady state. The phase equations have the same form of the Adler’s equation, and represent the generalization of that well-known equation to higher-order frequency dividers. These equations allowed us to derive the locking ranges in a simple explicit form, useful for design purposes. The theoretical results are validated by Spice simulations, and by measurements on a circuit prototype.
Autors: Antonio Buonomo;Alessandro Lo Schiavo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1225 - 1234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study of the Mesh Topology in a ZigBee Network for Home Automation Applications
Abstract:
Technological advances allowed in recent years the development of numerous applications and systems that improve people's lives in various sectors, especially the home automation. Already the wireless communication has become dominant in the data transmission segment to allow greater adaptability and flexibility in access to multiple devices among users, and networks based on wireless protocols (IEEE 802.11) widely used. However other protocols such as ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) appear quite attractive relative to price, power consumption, and reduced implementation of electronic projects. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the mesh topology operating modes in a ZigBee network. Results showed that there is a performance difference between the operation modes of the mesh topology. In the residential environment were carried out communication tests between the ZigBee network devices, where the results were acceptable to the tested environment. Distances and response times between the ZigBee network devices were within the minimum quality requirements for the operation of home automation project.
Autors: Carlos Alexandre Gouvea da Silva;Edson Leonardo dos Santos;Allan Christian Krainski Ferrari;Horacio Tertuliano dos Santos Filho;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 935 - 942
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Study on the Effects of Release Area on the Quality Factor of Contour-Mode Resonators by Laser Doppler Vibrometry
Abstract:
Through the use of a laser Doppler vibrometer, it is shown that a 31% variation in quality factor can occur due to the effect of undercutting of the device layers outside of the anchors of a 220-MHz aluminum nitride contour-mode resonator. This undercutting is a result of the isotropic etch process used to release the device from the substrate. This paper shows that the variation in is a function of the release distance, , between the active region of the resonator and the edge of this released region. This paper also determined a design modification that eliminated this issue and achieved a of 3048, which is independent of .
Autors: Brian Gibson;Kamala Qalandar;Cristian Cassella;Gianluca Piazza;Kimberly L. Foster;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 898 - 904
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sub-1 V, 120 nW, PVT-Variation Tolerant, Tunable, and Scalable Voltage Reference With 60-dB PSNA
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel low-power process, voltage and temperature (PVT)-variation tolerant voltage reference generator that can be easily redesigned across various CMOS technologies. The proposed circuit architecture can be used in standalone analog integrated circuits that may not require nano-scale technologies as well as system-on-a-chip applications that need analog circuits in a much lower technology node due to their dominant digital counterparts. The reference generator implements weighted averaging of a PTAT (proportional to absolute temperature) and a CTAT (complementary to absolute temperature) voltage at zero temperature coefficient (ZTC) point. PVT-variation tolerant behavior is achieved by using an on-chip shift register based switching circuit that adjusts the bias current of a key transistor in the circuit. The proposed reference generator is fabricated in 180 nm mixed-mode CMOS technology and also designed in 65 and 28 nm technologies using foundry provided models. For a temperature range from to 75 °C at 1.8 V supply, the measured tuned output voltage varies by only % across chips, which is significantly lower than all previously reported works.
Autors: Baibhab Chatterjee;Nirmoy Modak;Anvesha Amaravati;Deep Mistry;Devarshi Mrinal Das;Maryam Shojaei Baghini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 406 - 410
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Subthreshold Voltage Reference With Scalable Output Voltage for Low-Power IoT Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a subthreshold voltage reference in which the output voltage is scalable depending on the number of stacked PMOS transistors. A key advantage is that its output voltage can be higher than that obtained with conventional low-power subthreshold voltage references. The proposed reference uses native NMOS transistors as a current source and develops a reference voltage by stacking one or more PMOS transistors. The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage is compensated by setting the size ratio of the native NMOS and stacked pMOS transistors to cancel temperature dependence of transistor threshold voltage and thermal voltage. Also, the transistor size is determined considering the trade-off between diode current between n-well and p-sub and process variation. Prototype chips are fabricated in a 0.18- CMOS process. Measurement results from three wafers show inaccuracy of ±1.0% from 0 °C to 100 °C after a single room-temperature trim. The proposed voltage reference achieves a line sensitivity of 0.31%/V and a power supply rejection of −41 dB while consuming 35 pW from 1.4 V at room temperature.
Autors: Inhee Lee;Dennis Sylvester;David Blaauw;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 52, issue:5, pages: 1443 - 1449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Successful Approach to the 2016 RobotX Challenge
Abstract:
Discover how the University of Florida's team prepared for the most difficult collegiate-level robotic competition. The Web extra at https://youtu.be/ODmYL8SQcN8 showcases the development of the NaviGator Autonomous Maritime System for participation in the 2016 Maritime RobotX Challenge in Hawaii.
Autors: Andrew C. Gray;Eric M. Schwartz;
Appeared in: Computer
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 50, issue:5, pages: 106 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Supervisory Power Management System for a Hybrid Microgrid With HESS
Abstract:
This paper proposes a supervisory power management system (PMS) for a grid interactive microgrid with a hybrid energy storage system. The key feature of the proposed PMS is reduced number of sensors required to implement the PMS. The PMS considers renewable power variation, grid availability, electricity pricing, and changes in local loads. It can detect the operating mode of system without measuring load currents and powers. A single-phase voltage source converter (VSC) transfers real power between dc grid and utility grid besides offering ancillary services such as harmonic mitigation, reactive power support, and unity power factor at the point of common coupling (PCC). In the proposed system, a better dc-link voltage regulation is achieved and the usage of supercapacitors reduces the current stress on the battery. The PMS also addresses extreme operating conditions such as load shedding, off-maximum power point tracking operation of photovoltaic, elimination of critical oscillation of hybrid energy storage systems power, islanded operation, and resynchronization with grid. The performance of the proposed PMS is verified by digital simulation and experimental studies.
Autors: Srikanth Kotra;Mahesh Kumar Mishra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3640 - 3649
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Survey on the Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Intersections and Merging at Highway On-Ramps
Abstract:
Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) have the potential to improve safety by reducing and mitigating traffic accidents. They can also provide opportunities to reduce transportation energy consumption and emissions by improving traffic flow. Vehicle communication with traffic structures and traffic lights can allow individual vehicles to optimize their operation and account for unpredictable changes. This paper summarizes the developments and the research trends in coordination with the CAVs that have been reported in the literature to date. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.
Autors: Jackeline Rios-Torres;Andreas A. Malikopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 1066 - 1077
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A System Concept for Online Calibration of Massive MIMO Transceiver Arrays for Communication and Localization
Abstract:
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques are being considered for the fifth generation (5G) mobile communication systems in order to deliver high multiplexing gain. However, hardware impairments like quadrature imbalance in mixers violate the requirement for channel reciprocity and may change, e.g., with temperature or while aging. In addition, advanced wireless localization techniques and the generation of predefined beam patterns require knowledge about all antenna phase center positions and the time and phase delay of all transmit and receive channels. Thus, an efficient online compensation method is needed that scales well for very large numbers of transceiver modules. We propose to extend the transmitter with a small measurement feature at the transmitter output based on one uncalibrated power detector per module as well as a single, external four-element backscatter array for the entire matrix. These enhancements facilitate a fast and efficient iterative calibration, which recognizes and mitigates all major error sources. Beside optimal communication throughput and energy efficiency, it thereby brings localization capabilities to mobile networks as an additional major benefit. For verification, a system of multiple cost-efficient 5.8-GHz massive MIMO transceivers with 150-MHz bandwidth and a backscatter array has been implemented. Measurement results demonstrate the capability of the proposed concept to efficiently compensate major error sources as well as its robustness.
Autors: Patrick Gröschel;Shahram Zarei;Christian Carlowitz;Melanie Lipka;Erik Sippel;Arslan Ali;Robert Weigel;Robert Schober;Martin Vossiek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 1735 - 1750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A System for Profiling and Monitoring Database Access Patterns by Application Programs for Anomaly Detection
Abstract:
Database Management Systems (DBMSs) provide access control mechanisms that allow database administrators (DBAs) to grant application programs access privileges to databases. Though such mechanisms are powerful, in practice finer-grained access control mechanism tailored to the semantics of the data stored in the DMBS is required as a first class defense mechanism against smart attackers. Hence, custom written applications which access databases implement an additional layer of access control. Therefore, securing a database alone is not enough for such applications, as attackers aiming at stealing data can take advantage of vulnerabilities in the privileged applications and make these applications to issue malicious database queries. An access control mechanism can only prevent application programs from accessing the data to which the programs are not authorized, but it is unable to prevent misuse of the data to which application programs are authorized for access. Hence, we need a mechanism able to detect malicious behavior resulting from previously authorized applications. In this paper, we present the architecture of an anomaly detection mechanism, DetAnom, that aims to solve such problem. Our approach is based the analysis and profiling of the application in order to create a succinct representation of its interaction with the database. Such a profile keeps a signature for every submitted query and also the corresponding constraints that the application program must satisfy to submit the query. Later, in the detection phase, whenever the application issues a query, a module captures the query before it reaches the database and verifies the corresponding signature and constraints against the current context of the application. If there is a mismatch, the query is marked as anomalous. The main advantage of our anomaly detection mechanism is that, in order to build the application profiles, we need neither any previous knowledge of application vuln- rabilities nor any example of possible attacks. As a result, our mechanism is able to protect the data from attacks tailored to database applications such as code modification attacks, SQL injections, and also from other data-centric attacks as well. We have implemented our mechanism with a software testing technique called concolic testing and the PostgreSQL DBMS. Experimental results show that our profiling technique is close to accurate, requires acceptable amount of time, and the detection mechanism incurs low runtime overhead.
Autors: Lorenzo Bossi;Elisa Bertino;Syed Rafiul Hussain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 43, issue:5, pages: 415 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Systematic Approach to Clustering Whole Trajectories of Mobile Objects in Road Networks
Abstract:
Most of mobile object trajectory clustering analysis to date has been focused on clustering the location points or sub-trajectories extracted from trajectory data. This paper presents TraceMob, a systematic approach to clustering whole trajectories of mobile objects traveling in road networks. TraceMob as a whole trajectory clustering framework has three unique features. First, we design a quality measure for the distance between two whole trajectories. By quality, we mean that the distance measure can capture the complex characteristics of trajectories as a whole including their varying lengths and their constrained movement in the road network space. Second, we develop an algorithm that transforms whole trajectories in a road network space into multidimensional data points in a euclidean space while preserving their relative distances in the transformed metric space. This transformation enables us to effectively shift the clustering task for whole mobile object trajectories in the complex road network space to the traditional clustering task for multidimensional data in a euclidean space. Third, we develop a cluster validation method for evaluating the clustering quality in both the transformed metric space and the road network space. Extensive experimental evaluation with trajectories generated on real road network maps of different cities shows that TraceMob produces higher quality clustering results and outperforms existing approaches by an order of magnitude.
Autors: Binh Han;Ling Liu;Edward Omiecinski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 936 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tale of Three Programs
Abstract:
A look at the generation of prime numbers offers a cautionary tale about the perils of premature optimization.
Autors: Gerard J. Holzmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 34, issue:3, pages: 23 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Therapeutic Wireless Capsule for Treatment of Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage by Balloon Tamponade Effect
Abstract:
Objective: Wireless capsule endoscope (WCE) is a revolutionary approach to diagnose small bowel pathologies. Currently available WCEs are mostly passive devices with image capturing function only, while on-going efforts have been placed on robotizing WCEs or to enhance them with therapeutic functions. In this paper, the authors present a novel inflatable WCE for haemostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts by balloon tamponade effect. Methods: The proposed wireless capsule consists of a balloon that can be inflated using the endothermic reaction of acid and base. When the balloon reached a precalculated pressure level, it is able to stop at a bleeding site in the bowel, and achieve haemostasis by tamponade effect. The prototype is 14 mm in diameter, with three sections of 13, 35, and 12 mm in length, respectively. The three sections are linked together with flexible joints and enclosed in a silicone balloon. The prototypes were tested in ex vivo porcine intestine models. Results: In the ten ex vivo trials conducted, the inflatable wireless capsule achieved average balloon pressure of 46.0 mmHg and withstood average maximum longitudinal pulling force at 1.46 N. An in vivo study was carried out as a proof-of-concept for treating bleeding in a porcine model. The proposed inflatable WCE succeeded in the animal test by controlling haemostasis within 5 min. No rebleeding was observed in the next 20 min. Conclusion: The results suggested that the inflatable capsule with a real-time bleeding detection algorithm can be implemented. Moreover, the proposed inflatable WCE prototype can achieve haemorrhage control in the lower GI. Significance: To our best knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated the potential to treat GI haemorrhage by an inflatable WCE. The proposed capsule enables the development of a closed-loop system based on a body sensor network to provi- e early treatment of GI bleeding for p-medicine.
Autors: Billy H. K. Leung;Carmen C. Y. Poon;Ruikai Zhang;Yali Zheng;Cecilia K. W. Chan;Philip W. Y. Chiu;James Y. W. Lau;Joseph J. Y. Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 1106 - 1114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Thickness Measurement System for Metal Films Based on Eddy-Current Method With Phase Detection
Abstract:
This paper proposes a high-speed measurement system for the thickness of metal films based on the eddy-current method. Theoretical derivation shows the effects of film thickness on the impedance of the sensor coil. In a voltage division circuit, the thickness information is converted to the phase difference of two measured signals. The tangent value of the phase difference is proportional to thickness h, which is a result that has been verified theoretically and experimentally. The prototype used in this paper can cover a measurement range of 10 μm–0.5 mm for copper films, and can achieve a high measurement speed (up to excitation frequency) without a complex demodulation circuit. The measurement error caused by the temperature variation is roughly –0.2%/°C. The influence of external magnetic field on the prototype is also tested. The entire sensor size can be easily controlled in 50 × 50 × 30 mm3 as a handheld device. The instrument can meet many industrial requirements for both online measurement and postinspection.
Autors: Wei Li;Yang Ye;Kang Zhang;Zhihua Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 64, issue:5, pages: 3940 - 3949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Three-Year Feedback Study of a Remote Laboratory Used in Control Engineering Studies
Abstract:
This paper discusses the results of a feedback study for a remote laboratory used in the education of control engineering students. The goal is to show the effectiveness of the remote laboratory on examination results. To provide an overview, the two applications of the remote laboratory are addressed: 1) the Stewart platform, and 2) the quadruple water tank system. Combining both applications allows a broad spectrum of practical examples featuring challenging control aspects such as multiple-input–multiple-output control, decoupling, non-minimum phase systems, open-loop unstable systems, and PID control design. The remote laboratory feedback study was performed using a five-point Likert-type scale survey to elicit the students’ level of satisfaction with the laboratory. Three years of student examination results were also studied to compare performance before and after integrating the remote laboratory. In the first of these years there was no use of the remote laboratory. In the second year, the remote laboratory was introduced on a voluntary basis, and in the third year the remote laboratory was obligatory. Student feedback indicates that the remote laboratory needs further development to counter its limitations. A major conclusion of the survey was that there is keen interest in the remote laboratory to provide practical experience in the training of a control engineer. It can be concluded that the remote laboratory has a positive effect on student examination results.
Autors: Amélie Chevalier;Cosmin Copot;Clara Ionescu;Robin De Keyser;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 60, issue:2, pages: 127 - 133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Time-Harmonic Inverse Design of Uniplanar RF Coil for Unilateral NMR Sensors
Abstract:
A time-harmonic inverse method was employed to design a uniplanar radio-frequency (RF) coil for unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (UNMR) sensors to improve coil sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In the design, an ideal current density was calculated on a planar surface and generated a specified magnetic field, which was perpendicular and correlated with a given in-homogenous main magnetic field with a constant linear static gradient in the region of interest. The basic functions of the current density were represented by a Fourier series, and a simple matrix inversion approach was utilized to obtain the corresponding current coefficients. Stream function techniques were then used to implement this theoretical current density into an RF coil. A uniplanar RF coil for a UNMR sensor was designed and constructed, and the results were presented.
Autors: Zhonghua He;Wei He;Jiamin Wu;Zheng Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2696 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Traceback Attack on Freenet
Abstract:
Freenet is a popular peer to peer anonymous content-sharing network, with the objective to provide the anonymity of both content publishers and retrievers. Despite more than a decade of active development and deployment and the adoption of well-established cryptographic algorithms in Freenet, it remains unanswered how well the anonymity objective of the initial Freenet design has been met. In this paper we develop a traceback attack on Freenet, and show that the originating machine of a content request message in Freenet can be identified; that is, the anonymity of a content retriever can be broken, even if a single request message has been issued by the retriever. We present the design of the traceback attack, and perform both experimental and simulation studies to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of the attack. For example, with randomly chosen content requesters (and random contents stored in the Freenet testbed), Emulab-based experiments show that, for to percent of the content request messages, we can identify their originating machines. We also briefly discuss potential solutions to address the developed traceback attack. Despite being developed specifically on Freenet, the basic principles of the traceback attack and solutions have important security implications for similar anonymous content-sharing systems.
Autors: Guanyu Tian;Zhenhai Duan;Todd Baumeister;Yingfei Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 294 - 307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Transformerless Bipolar/Unipolar High-Voltage Pulse Generator With Low-Voltage Components for Water Treatment Applications
Abstract:
Pulsed electric field is a commonly used and effective disinfection method in drinking water treatment applications. In this paper, a transformerless unipolar/bipolar high-voltage pulse generator is presented with well-regulated pulsed output voltage for drinking water treatment via underwater pulsed corona discharge. The proposed high-voltage pulse generator is fed from a relatively low-voltage dc supply. Then, capacitor–diode voltage multiplier centrally fed from a dc–dc boost converter is used to elevate the input voltage to a proper high-voltage level. Finally, a modular multilevel converter is employed to chop the elevated voltage into unipolar or bipolar pulsed output voltage (based on the user selection). The suggested arrangement provides a high-voltage gain with relatively low-voltage components, i.e., neither high-voltage nor series-connected components are needed in the proposed approach. A comparison between the proposed approach and the other Marx-Based pulse generators has been held to show the merits of the proposed approach. A detailed design of the generator passive components and semiconductor devices has been presented. Simulation and experimental results are presented for the unipolar as well as the bipolar pulsed output to validate the proposed concept.
Autors: Ahmed A. Elserougi;Mazen Faiter;Ahmed M. Massoud;Shehab Ahmed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 2307 - 2319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Triband Low-Profile High-Gain Planar Antenna Using Fabry–Perot Cavity
Abstract:
A triband antenna with high gain and low profile is proposed. This antenna is based on the concept of Fabry–Perot cavity antenna (FPCA) and three resonances are obtained by employing two frequency selective surface (FSS) layers. Two FSS layers lead to two resonant frequencies by making each FSS layer satisfy the resonant condition of Fabry–Perot cavity. The third resonant frequency is obtained by exploiting the combined effects of the two FSS layers together. The operating principle of this proposed antenna is explained and the achievable frequency range is investigated. It is shown that the proposed method enables all three resonant frequencies to be independently tuned within certain frequency range. Because of the 0° reflection phase of the combined-FSSs, the present antenna has a low profile. To verify the design concept, one C-/X-/Ku-band FPCA is designed, fabricated and tested. Experimental results agree well with the simulated results. High gain with good impedance matching in three bands is obtained, which reaches a peak gain of 13.4 dBi at 5.2 GHz, 18.9 dBi at 9.7 GHz, and 20 dBi at 14.6 GHz. The overall height of the proposed antenna is approximately 0.36 wavelength at its lowest operating frequency.
Autors: Fan Qin;Steven Gao;Qi Luo;Gao Wei;Jiadong Xu;Jianzhou Li;Changying Wu;Chao Gu;Chunxu Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2683 - 2688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Triple Band Frequency Selective Surface Design for GSM Systems by Utilizing a Novel Synthetic Resonator
Abstract:
In this communication, a novel triple band frequency selective surface (FSS) designed for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSMs) frequency bands is presented. Unit cell of the proposed FSS consists of one rectangular-shaped resonator designed for 942 MHz and one synthetic resonator designed for both of 1842 and 2142 MHz frequencies. A novel technique is introduced to design a synthetic resonator in which two loop-shaped resonators intersect to each other resulting a unique resonator operating at two frequencies. The proposed design has the advantages of separating two very closely spaced frequency bands as in GSM systems with a narrow notch between the two frequencies of 1842 and 2142 MHz. Furthermore, a very low-frequency response sensitivity to the oblique incidence angles is achieved by using a miniaturized single synthetic resonator for the two frequencies in a single layer. Good agreement is observed between the measured and simulated results. A minimum of 20-dB attenuation for the transmission coefficient is achieved in all downlink frequency ranges of GSM system with a good stability against the oblique angle of incidence for both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations.
Autors: M. Kartal;J. J. Golezani;B. Doken;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 65, issue:5, pages: 2724 - 2727
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unified Detail-Preserving Liquid Simulation by Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Modeling
Abstract:
Traditional methods in graphics to simulate liquid-air dynamics under different scenarios usually employ separate approaches with sophisticated interface tracking/reconstruction techniques. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach which is easy and effective to produce a variety of liquid-air interface phenomena. These phenomena, such as complex surface splashes, bubble interactions, as well as surface tension effects, can co-exist in one single simulation, and are created within the same computational framework. Such a framework is unique in that it is free from any complicated interface tracking/reconstruction procedures. Our approach is developed from the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method with the mean field model, which provides a unified framework for interface dynamics but is numerically unstable under turbulent conditions. Considering the drawbacks of the existing approaches, we propose techniques to suppress oscillations for significant stability enhancement, as well as derive a new subgrid-scale model to further improve stability, faithfully preserving liquid-air interface details without excessive diffusion by taking into account the density variation. The whole framework is highly parallel, enabling very efficient implementation. Comparisons with the related approaches show superiority on stable simulations with detail preservation and multiphase phenomena simultaneously involved. A set of animation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.
Autors: Yulong Guo;Xiaopei Liu;Xuemiao Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 23, issue:5, pages: 1479 - 1491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Vehicle Routing Problem Solved Through Some Metaheuristics Procedures: A Case Study
Abstract:
This study presents a Vehicle Routing Problem solved through some metaheuristics procedures. A two-phase methodology was used for that: 1) defining clusters of demand points to be served, as a Facilities Location Problem (FLP); and 2) defining routes to be developed within each cluster, as a Traveling Salesman Problem Asymmetric (TSPA). For a clearer understanding, the methodology was applied to a fast transportation company, referred here as ABC, located in the district Cidade Industrial of Curitiba (CIC), in Curitiba city, in Parana State, Brazil. The metaheuristics Simulated Annealing (SA), Tabu Search (TS) and a Hybrid Algorithm (HA) were used in the first phase (FLP) and also in the second phase (TSPA). Two scenarios were evaluated, with variations of the group number. In the first scenario, the goal was to form five groups of demand points, in order to compare with the company real situation (actual scenario). In the second scenario, the goal was to form three clusters. BT and SA metaheuristics presented the best results for the 1st. and 2nd. scenarios.
Autors: Julio Cesar Ferreira;Maria Teresinha Arns Steiner;Mariana Siqueira Guersola;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 15, issue:5, pages: 943 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Very-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Inductive Sensor System for Workpiece Recognition Using the Magnetic Polarizability Tensor
Abstract:
The automatic recognition of a metal component or workpiece currently relies on optical techniques and image matching. It is not possible to distinguish workpieces with different materials. In this paper, a novel electromagnetic inductive sensor array similar to those used in the electromagnetic tomography has been designed to address this problem. Furthermore, instead of reconstructing the full magnetic polarizability tensor, we have proposed a partial tensor approach, which shows that a 2-D tensor is capable of distinguishing the material difference and recognising the geometric dominance of workpieces with experimental data. In addition, it has been found that the phase of the tensor is strongly linked to the materials properties while the magnitude of the tensor eigenvalues implies the basic geometry of workpiece.
Autors: Yang Tao;Wuliang Yin;Wenbo Zhang;Yifei Zhao;Christos Ktistis;Anthony J. Peyton;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: May 2017, volume: 17, issue:9, pages: 2703 - 2712
Publisher: IEEE
 

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