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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 05-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» ...but iQueue provides competition
Abstract:
Indianapolis International Airport (IND) lost its Registered Traveler programme when Verified Identity Pass went bankrupt and took Clear with it. Now the programme is up and running again - but not using Clear's service.
Autors: [No author name available]
Appeared in: Biometric Technology Today
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 0.18 μm CMOS integrated circuit design for impedance-based structural health monitoring
Abstract:
Piezoelectric materials constitute a class of intelligent materials that are helpful for monitoring the structural integrity. The principle of the piezoelectric impedance-based structural health monitoring technique is to measure the electrical impedance of a piezoelectric patch attached to a structure in a certain frequency range. Electrical impedance variations indicate physical changes in the structure due to the coupling between the electrical impedance and the mechanical impedance. Traditional methods use an impedance analyser that increases the inspection cost. The objective of this work is to introduce an electronic circuit for the piezoelectric impedance-based structural health monitoring. The circuit can monitor the electrical impedance variations of a piezoelectric patch attached to a structure. The frequency range is from 7.47 to 277.29 kHz. This frequency range covers the sensitive range of the piezoelectric structural integrity. The power consumption of the circuit is 18.15 mW. The chip area is 1.03 mm x 2.30 mm. The cost of the final design will be much lower than that of an impedance analyser. Using a wireless communication circuit, a sensor network might be established in the future.
Autors: Wang, S.;Zhao, Z.;You, C.;
Appeared in: IET Circuits, Devices & Systems
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 4, issue:3, pages: 227 - 238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-Point RANSAC for extended Kalman filtering: Application to real-time structure from motion and visual odometry
Abstract:
Random sample consensus (RANSAC) has become one of the most successful techniques for robust estimation from a data set that may contain outliers. It works by constructing model hypotheses from random minimal data subsets and evaluating their validity from the support of the whole data. In this paper we present a novel combination of RANSAC plus extended Kalman filter (EKF) that uses the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesize stage. This allows the minimal sample size to be reduced to one, resulting in large computational savings without the loss of discriminative power. 1-Point RANSAC is shown to outperform both in accuracy and computational cost the joint compatibility branch and bound (JCBB) algorithm, a gold-standard technique for spurious rejection within the EKF framework. Two visual estimation scenarios are used in the experiments: first, six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion estimation from a monocular sequence (structure from motion). Here, a new method for benchmarking six-DOF visual estimation algorithms based on the use of high-resolution images is presented, validated, and used to show the superiority of 1-point RANSAC. Second, we demonstrate long-term robot trajectory estimation combining monocular vision and wheel odometry (visual odometry). Here, a comparison against global positioning system shows an accuracy comparable to state-of-the-art visual odometry methods. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Autors: Javier Civera, Oscar G. Grasa, Andrew J. Davison, J. M. M. Montiel
Appeared in: Journal of Field Robotics
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» 1550 nm band optical input module with superconducting single-flux-quantum circuit
Abstract:
We developed an optical input module with a superconducting single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuit for application of ultrafast photonic networks in the near future. The optical input module, consisting of a built-in photodiode (PD) with a coplanar waveguide transmission line, was fabricated on an InP substrate and flip-chip bonded with the SFQ circuit on a Si substrate. The fabricated PD showed photosensitivities of more than 0.2 A/W for the wavelength range 1480 to 1530 nm at 4.2 K. SFQ pulses were generated by less than 1 mW optical pulse input.
Autors: Shinada, Satoshi;Terai, Hirotaka;Wang, Zhen;Wada, Naoya;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 96, issue:18, pages: 182504 - 182504-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 160-GHz Passively Mode-Locked AlGaInAs 1.55- m Strained Quantum-Well Compound Cavity Laser
Abstract:
The first demonstration of harmonic mode-locked operation from a monolithic semiconductor laser comprising a compound cavity formed by twin deeply etched intracavity reflectors based on 1.55- AlGaInAs strained quantum-well material is presented. Nearly transform-limited Gaussian pulses are generated at 160-GHz repetition rate with a 1.67-ps pulse duration.
Autors: Hou, L.;Stolarz, P.;Dylewicz, R.;Haji, M.;Javaloyes, J.;Qiu, B.;Bryce, A. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 727 - 729
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1901 Transmission Line the great Carquinez Straits crossing [History]
Abstract:
AT THE DAWN OF THE LAST century, electric power was widely recognized as having the potential to significantly improve the quality of life and the productivity of the American economy. As power systems began being installed, power companies soon encountered the situation where sources of generation were located long distances from where the power was needed. The need to transmit power over longer distances was the key factor that resulted in alternating current (ac) prevailing over direct current (dc) in the famous Edison versus Westinghouse “Battle of the Currents.”
Autors: Drew, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 8, issue:3, pages: 80 - 88
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D green's functions for semi-infinite orthotropic piezothermoelastic plane
Abstract:
Green's functions play an important role in electroelastic analyses of piezoelectric media. However, most works available on the topic are for the case of uniform temperature. Based on the compact 2-D general solution of orthotropic piezothermoelectric material, which is expressed in harmonic functions, and employing the trial-and-error method, the 2-D Green's function for a steady line heat source in a semi-infinite piezothermoelectric plane is presented by four newly induced harmonic functions. All components of the coupled field are expressed in terms of elementary functions and are convenient to use. Numerical results are given graphically by contours.
Autors: Su-Ming Xiong;Peng-Fei Hou;Shi-You Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1003 - 1010
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20-Gb/s 850-nm Oxide VCSEL Operating at 25 C–70 C
Abstract:
We report a small aperture 850-nm oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at 20 Gb/s (pseudorandom bit sequence 31) 25 C–70 C with 5 dB extinction ratio. The VCSEL is designed to target anticipated 20-Gb/s transceiver module requirements, and is fabricated using production equipment including metal–organic chemical vapor deposition reactors for the growth of GaAs–AlGaAs epitaxy. We have characterized small signal modulation response properties in detail and obtained good agreement with finite element VCSEL simulation results. Preliminary accelerated lifetime testing indicated that the wear out lifetime would exceed 10 years for 70 C operations.
Autors: Ji, C.;Wang, J.;Soderstrom, D.;Giovane, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 22, issue:10, pages: 670 - 672
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 24-Bit 5.0 GHz Direct Digital Synthesizer RFIC With Direct Digital Modulations in 0.13 m SiGe BiCMOS Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a 24-bit 5.0 GHz ultrahigh-speed direct digital synthesizer (DDS) with direct digital modulation capabilities used in a pulse compression radar. This design represents the first DDS RFIC in over-GHz output frequency range with direct digital modulation capabilities. It adopts a ROM-less architecture and has the capabilities for direct digital frequency and phase modulation with 24 bit and 12 bit resolution, respectively. The DDS includes a 24-bit ripple carry adder (RCA) accumulator for phase accumulation, a 12-bit RCA for phase modulation and a 10-bit segmented sine-weighted digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for phase-to-amplitude conversion (PAC) as well as digital-to-analog conversion. The DDS core occupies and consumes 4.7 W of power with a single 3.3 V power supply. This 24-bit DDS has more than 20,000 transistors and achieves a maximum clock frequency of 5.0 GHz. The measured worst case SFDR is 45 dBc under a 5.0 GHz clock frequency and within a 50 MHz bandwidth. At 1.246258914 GHz output frequency, the 50 MHz narrowband SFDR is measured as 82 dBc. The best Nyquist band SFDR is 38 dBc with a 469.360351 MHz output using a 5.0 GHz clock frequency. This DDS was developed in a 0.13 SiGe BiCMOS technology with and tested in a CLCC-68 package.
Autors: Geng, X.;Dai, F. F.;Irwin, J. D.;Jaeger, R. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 944 - 954
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D numerical modeling for axisymmetrical piezoelectric structures: application to high-frequency ultrasonic transducers
Abstract:
The transient analysis of piezoelectric transducers is often performed using finite-element or finite-difference time-domain methods, which efficiently calculate the vibration of the structure but whose numerical dispersion prevents the modeling of waves propagating over large distances. A second analytical or numerical simulation is therefore often required to calculate the pressure field in the propagating medium (typically water) to deduce many important characteristics of the transducer, such as spatial resolutions and side lobe levels. This is why a hybrid algorithm was developed, combining finite- difference and pseudo-spectral methods in the case of 2-D configurations to simulate accurately both the generation of acoustic waves by the piezoelectric transducer and their propagation in the surrounding media using a single model. The algorithm was redefined in this study to take all three dimensions into account and to model single-element transducers, which usually present axisymmetrical geometry. This method was validated through comparison of its results with those of finite-element software, and was used to simulate the behavior of planar and lens-focused transducers. A high-frequency (30 MHz) transducer based on a screen-printed piezoelectric thick film was fabricated and characterized. The numerical results of the hybrid algorithm were found to be in good agreement with the experimental measurements of displacements at the surface of the transducer and of pressure radiated in water in front of the transducer.
Autors: Filoux, E.;Calle, S.;Lou-Moeller, R.;Lethiecq, M.;Levassort, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1188 - 1199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 300-mm Production-Worthy Magnetically Enhanced Non-Bosch Through-Si-Via Etch for 3-D Logic Integration
Abstract:
We report a process development route toward 300-mm production-worthy non-Bosch through-silicon-via (TSV) etch with critical dimensions between 1–5 and aspect ratios up to 20:1 for 3-D logic applications. The etch development was performed on an experimental alpha-tool: a magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma etcher with a dipole ring magnet that aims to capture the strengths (anisotropicity, profile uniformity) while eliminating the weaknesses (scalloping, undercut, residues) of a nominal Bosch process. Key factors contributing to the control of sidewall taper and roughness, etched TSV volume and depth, mask undercut, local bowing effects, and within wafer (WIW) center-to-edge depth and profile uniformity were evaluated. TSVs with nominal sizes of , and with less than 1% WIW nonuniformity, negligible silicon scalloping/mask undercut, and good profile anisotropicity were developed. Up to and void-free Cu-filled TSVs were demonstrated with both vertical TSVs and tapered TSVs.
Autors: Teh, W. H.;Caramto, R.;Chidambaram, T.;Wang, W.;Arkalgud, S. R.;Saito, T.;Maruyama, K.;Maekawa, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 293 - 302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 48 cycles-per-macro block deblocking filter accelerator for high-resolution H.264/AVC decoding
Abstract:
This study presents a high-throughput deblocking filter accelerator with 48 cycles-per-macro-block processing capability for H.264. This innovation is achieved by considering both luminance data and chrominance data at the same time in arranging the filtering schedule. Cooperating with the filtering schedule, the proposed quadruple-filter-based architecture can simultaneously compute filtering of four edges. Besides, interleaved memory organisation is adopted to eliminate all the data conflicts. This design keeps the data scanning order compliant with that recommended for data communication between modules in H.264 systems. Hence, no interfacing overhead is required for reordering the input and output data. After being implemented by using a 0.18-mm CMOS technology, this work can achieve the real-time performance requirement of 6 K (6000 x 4000@30 fps) application when operated at 135MHz frequency at a cost of 41.6 K gates along with 640 bytes single-port SRAM. Compared with previous works, the proposed design not only achieves higher real-time performance requirements but also possesses higher hardware computing efficiency.
Autors: Chen, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IET Circuits, Devices & Systems
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 4, issue:3, pages: 196 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 90° polarization rotator using a bilayered chiral metamaterial with giant optical activity
Abstract:
A bilayered chiral metamaterial is proposed to realize a 90° polarization rotator, whose giant optical activity is due to the transverse magnetic dipole coupling among the metallic wire pairs of enantiomeric patterns. By transmission through this thin bilayered structure of less than λ/30 thick, a linearly polarized wave is converted to its cross polarization with a resonant polarization conversion efficiency of over 90%. It is demonstrated that the chirality in the propagation direction makes this efficient cross-polarization conversion possible.
Autors: Ye, Yuqian;He, Sailing;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 96, issue:20, pages: 203501 - 203501-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Calibration of Heterogeneous Acquisition Systems: The Monitoring System of a Photovoltaic Plant
Abstract:
This paper deals with the metrological management of an acquisition system that has been developed for monitoring an experimental photovoltaic (PV) plant. The acquisition system has been conceived for comparing the performance of different PV technologies and for verifying the nominal specifications of the PV modules. For these reasons, the traceability of the monitoring system has to be ensured, and therefore, it must be periodically calibrated. A remotely exercised procedure is proposed for the calibration of the acquisition system, which is based on a calibrator specifically designed for this application. This calibrator has the capability to act as a reference for heterogeneous quantities, including electrical quantities, temperature, and solar irradiance. The architecture of this calibrator is described, and experimental results for the preliminary characterization of the prototype are described.
Autors: Carullo, A.;Corbellini, S.;Luoni, A.;Neri, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 1098 - 1103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nd3+-sensitized upconversion white light emission of Tm3+/Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in β-YF3 nanocrystals embedded transparent glass ceramics
Abstract:
Red (Ho3+:5F55I8), green (Ho3+:5S2,5F45I8), and blue (Tm3+:1D23F4 and 1G43H6) upconversion emissions were simultaneously generated in the transparent glass ceramics containing Nd3+/Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+-YF3 nanocrystals under 796 nm excitation. It was experimentally evidenced that Yb3+ ions acted as the bridging centers to prompt energy transfer from Nd3+ to Tm3+ and Ho3+. With appropriately optimizing the contents and relative ratios of the doped rare earth species, luminescence of various colors, including bright white light, was easily tuned in the glass ceramics. The related upconversion mechanisms were proposed.
Autors: Lin, Hang;Chen, Daqin;Yu, Yunlong;Shan, Zhifa;Huang, Ping;Wang, Yuansheng;Yuan, Junlin;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 107, issue:10, pages: 103511 - 103511-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 33S nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological samples obtained with a laboratory model 33S cryogenic probe
Abstract:
33S nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is limited by inherently low NMR sensitivity because of the quadrupolar moment and low gyromagnetic ratio of the 33S nucleus. We have developed a 10 mm 33S cryogenic NMR probe, which is operated at 9–26 K with a cold preamplifier and a cold rf switch operated at 60 K. The 33S NMR sensitivity of the cryogenic probe is as large as 9.8 times that of a conventional 5 mm broadband NMR probe. The 33S cryogenic probe was applied to biological samples such as human urine, bile, chondroitin sulfate, and scallop tissue. We demonstrated that the system can detect and determine sulfur compounds having SO42- anions and SO3- groups using the 33S cryogenic probe, as the 33S nuclei in these groups are in highly symmetric environments. The NMR signals for other common sulfur compounds such as cysteine are still undetectable by the 33S cryogenic probe, as the 33S nuclei in these compounds are in asymmetric environments. If we shorten the rf pulse width or decrease the rf coil diameter, we should be able to detect the NMR signals for these compounds.
Autors: Hobo, Fumio;Takahashi, Masato;Saito, Yuta;Sato, Naoki;Takao, Tomoaki;Koshiba, Seizo;Maeda, Hideaki;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 81, issue:5, pages: 054302 - 054302-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» C-axis critical current of a PrFeAsO0.7 single crystal
Abstract:
The c-axis transport properties of a high-pressure synthesized PrFeAsO0.7 single crystal are studied using s-shaped junctions. Resistivity anisotropy of about 120 detected at 50 K shows the presence of strong anisotropy in the electronic states. The obtained critical current density for the c-axis of 2.9×105 A/cm2 is two orders of magnitude larger than that in Bi2Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+δ. The appearance of a hysteresis in the current-voltage curve below Tc is the manifestation of the intrinsic Josephson effect similar to that in cuprate superconductors. The suppression of the critical current-normal resistance (IcRn) product is explained by an inspecular transport in s±-wave pair potential.
Autors: Kashiwaya, H.;Shirai, K.;Matsumoto, T.;Shibata, H.;Kambara, H.;Ishikado, M.;Eisaki, H.;Iyo, A.;Shamoto, S.;Kurosawa, I.;Kashiwaya, S.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 96, issue:20, pages: 202504 - 202504-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : Its Band Offset and Application to Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor
Abstract:
We report on the band alignment of and the dc characteristics of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). By comparing the forward and reverse Gummel plot, we found a potential spike existing at the InGaPSb/GaAs interface. Through a flatband extrapolation from the currents of the forward and reverse Gummel plot and the energy gap determined from photoluminescence, we concluded that is in a type-I band alignment. The conduction-band offset and valence-band offset are 0.12 and 0.35 eV, respectively. As a result of the type-I band alignment, the InGaPSb/GaAs HBTs showed a more significant thermal degradation of the current gain than the control InGaP/GaAs HBT. The thermal behavior is beneficial to ruggedness.
Autors: Chin, Y.-C.;Lin, H.-H.;Huang, C.-H.;Tseng, M.-N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 31, issue:5, pages: 434 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.18- m CMOS RF Transceiver With Self-Detection and Calibration Functions for Bluetooth V2.1 EDR Applications
Abstract:
An RF front-end transceiver is implemented in standard 0.18- m CMOS for V2.1 Bluetooth applications. All signal detection and gain calibrations are realized without the need of baseband control, but using an incoming Gaussian frequency-shift keying signal detection mechanism, auto low-noise amplifier gain mode selection, and autogain calibration with a combined programmable gain amplifier/received-signal-strength indicator function. Moreover, a simple control interface between transceiver and baseband is designed. The differential error vector magnitude performance of the transmitter is less than 6%, and a less than 7.5-dB system noise figure is achieved in the receiver. Continuous current consumptions in receiver and transmitter are 32 and 42 mA, respectively, with a 1.8-V internal regulator voltage.
Autors: Hu, W.-Y.;Lin, J.-W.;Tien, K.-C.;Hsieh, Y.-H.;Chen, C.-L.;Tso, H.-T.;Shih, Y.-S.;Hu, S.-C.;Chen, S.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1367 - 1374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5–11 GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier Using Dual-Channel Shunt Technique
Abstract:
A 0.5–11 GHz CMOS low noise amplifier (LNA) is proposed, with a new dual-channel shunt technique implemented, where one channel uses inductive-series peaking to provide flat gain over 0.5 to 11 GHz, and another channel adopts resistive feedback to realize wideband input impedance matching. The LNA was fabricated using the TSMC 0.18 CMOS process, achieving a maximum power gain of 10.2 dB. Its input return loss is better than 9 dB over a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.5–11 GHz at a power consumption of 14.4 mW. The measured noise figure is from 3.9 to 4.5 dB, and the IIP3 is 9.1 dBm at 6 GHz. The overall chip size is about 0.54 .
Autors: Lai, Q.-T.;Mao, J.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 280 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.27 GHz, All-Digital Spread Spectrum Clock Generator/Synthesizer in 65 nm CMOS
Abstract:
Spread spectrum clocking is an effective solution to reduce the electromagnetic interference produced by digital chips, using a clock signal with a frequency that is intentionally swept (frequency modulated) within a certain frequency range, with a predefined modulation profile.
Autors: De Caro, D.;Romani, C. A.;Petra, N.;Strollo, A. G. M.;Parrella, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 1048 - 1060
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.6–3.2-GHz Sixth-Order 13.1-dBm OIP3 Linear Phase - Filter for Fiber-Optic EDC Receivers
Abstract:
A sixth-order low-pass - filter for fiber-optic electrical dispersion compensation receivers cascades three biquads permitting a reduction of group delay variation down to 10 ps. A cutoff frequency is tuned from 1.6 to 3.2 GHz by using two methods, namely, changing and switching a CMOS varactor's polarity. Output third-order intercept point reaches 13.1 dBm and total harmonic distortion is below 40 dB at 0.9 output. The continuous time filter is implemented in a 0.18- m SiGe process, it occupies 0.17 mm on a 3.2 3.7 mm test chip and consumes 0.3 W from a 3.3-V supply.
Autors: Baranauskas, D.;Zelenin, D.;Bussmann, M.;Elahmadi, S.;Edwards, J.;Gill, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1314 - 1322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-bit Charge-Redistribution ADC Consuming 1.9 W at 1 MS/s
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10 bit successive approximation ADC in 65 nm CMOS that benefits from technology scaling. It meets extremely low power requirements by using a charge-redistribution DAC that uses step-wise charging, a dynamic two-stage comparator and a delay-line-based controller. The ADC requires no external reference current and uses only one external supply voltage of 1.0 V to 1.3 V. Its supply current is proportional to the sample rate (only dynamic power consumption). The ADC uses a chip area of approximately . At a sample rate of 1 MS/s and a supply voltage of 1.0 V, the 10 bit ADC consumes 1.9 and achieves an energy efficiency of 4.4 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: van Elzakker, M.;van Tuijl, E.;Geraedts, P.;Schinkel, D.;Klumperink, E. A. M.;Nauta, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 1007 - 1015
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results—Part I
Abstract:
This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort—the design of an “Introduction to Mechatronics” course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers in relation to the evolving global economy is discussed. The second and third phases of this effort included development of two advanced mechatronics courses and the formulation of a mechatronics curriculum, which will be addressed in a companion paper, “A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results—Part II” (IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 53, no. 2, May 2010).
Autors: Das, S.;Yost, S. A.;Krishnan, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 194 - 201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 19.4 dBm, Q-Band Class-E Power Amplifier in a 0.12 SiGe BiCMOS Process
Abstract:
A Q-band, Class-E power amplifier has been designed and fabricated in a 0.12 SiGe BiCMOS technology. The amplifier was designed for high output power using on-chip power combining networks. It operates respectively from a 1.2 V supply for peak efficiency and a 2.4 V supply for maximum power and occupies an area of 0.801 . A peak PAE of 18% is measured for an output power of 11.3 dBm at 45 GHz and a maximum of 19.4 dBm is measured at 42 GHz with a PAE of 14.4%. The power amplifier operates from 42 to 50 GHz.
Autors: Kalantari, N.;Buckwalter, J. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 283 - 285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4 GHz SiGe HBT High Voltage/High Power Amplifier
Abstract:
Two- and three- stage high voltage/high power (HiVP) amplifiers have been designed, implemented, and measured using a 0.12 SiGe HBT process. The HiVP is a circuit configuration that allows for very large output voltage swings, leading to high output power when used in a power amplifier. This letter describes the first implementation of a HiVP circuit using Silicon Germanium (SiGe) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs). The intent of this letter is 1) to illustrate practical design steps for implementing a HiVP circuit in silicon-based technologies and 2) to report measurements of this HiVP implementation in 0.12 SiGe. At 2.4 GHz, and are achieved for the two- and three-stage SiGe-HBT HiVP amplifiers, respectively.
Autors: Farmer, T. J.;Darwish, A.;Zaghloul, M. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 286 - 288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20-Gb/s Transformer-Based Current-Mode Optical Receiver in 0.13- CMOS
Abstract:
A 20-Gb/s current-mode optical receiver is realized in a 0.13- CMOS process, which consists of a common-gate transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with on-chip transformers, a six-stage postamplifier (PA) with an offset cancellation network, and an output buffer. The transformer-based inductive peaking technique is exploited in the TIA to isolate the parasitic capacitances at high-impedance nodes and, hence, to enlarge the bandwidth. The PA incorporates source degeneration and interleaving active feedback techniques to achieve wide bandwidth and flat frequency response so as not to degrade the operation speed of the whole optical receiver. Measured results demonstrate 60- transimpedance gain, 12.6-GHz bandwidth even with 0.4-pF large input parasitic capacitance, 13-dBm sensitivity for a bit error rate, and 38.3-mW power consumption from a single 1.2-V supply.
Autors: Han, J.;Choi, B.;Seo, M.;Yun, J.;Lee, D.;Kim, T.;Eo, Y.;Park, S. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 348 - 352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 20-Gb/s Transmitter With Adaptive Preemphasis in 65-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A 20-Gb/s transmitter with two-tap adaptive preemphasis is presented. For the channels with different lengths, the tap coefficients are adjusted by detecting the propagation time through a channel. This adaptive transmitter is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology. The maximum power consumption from a 1.2-V supply is 58.8 mW, and the chip area occupies . For a 2-m coaxial copper cable with a 12.78-dB loss, the measured root mean square and peak-to-peak jitter of the recovered data are 2.56 and 18.67 ps, respectively, for a 20-Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence of . The measured bit error rate is less than .
Autors: Kao, S.-Y.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 319 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-bit phase shifter with high-power capacity based on composite right/left-handed transmission line
Abstract:
A miniaturized 3-bit phase shifter with high power-handling capacity is designed based on the use of a single composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH-TL) unit cell. PIN diodes mounted on the fingers of the CRLH-TL unit cell are used as switches to control the phase shift of the input signal. Different phase shifts are achieved by using different states of the switches determined by the 3 controlling bits of the phase shifter. The surface current flowing through each of the switches is only a fraction of the total current through the device, so the power handled by each of the PIN diodes is much smaller than the total power through the device. The phase shifter is designed to provide a phase-shift range from 0° to 157.5° at a step 22.5° and operate in the frequency band from 9 to 10 GHz. Simulation results and measurement results of the prototype agree closely and show that the phase shifter has much higher power-handling capacities than that of the PIN diode and low insertion losses across the operating frequency band. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1778-1782, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25346
Autors: J. Zhang, S.W. Cheung, T. I. Yuk
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A 300–800 MHz Tunable Filter and Linearized LNA Applied in a Low-Noise Harmonic-Rejection RF-Sampling Receiver
Abstract:
A multiband flexible RF-sampling receiver aimed at software-defined radio is presented. The wideband RF sampling function is enabled by a recently proposed discrete-time mixing downconverter. This work exploits a voltage-sensing LNA preceded by a tunable LC pre-filter with one external coil to demonstrate an RF-sampling receiver with low noise figure (NF) and high harmonic rejection (HR). The second-order LC filter provides voltage pre-gain and attenuates the source noise aliasing, and it also improves the HR ratio of the sampling downconverter. The LNA consists of a simple amplifier topology built from inverters and resistors to improve the third-order nonlinearity via an enhanced voltage mirror technique. The RF-sampling receiver employs 8 times oversampling covering 300 to 800 MHz in two RF sub-bands. The chip is realized in 65 nm CMOS and the measured gain across the band is between 22 and 28 dB, while achieving a NF between 0.8 to 4.3 dB. The IIP2 varies between 38 and 49 dBm and the IIP3 between 14 dBm and 9 dBm, and the third and fifth order HR ratios are more than 60 dB. The LNA and downconverter consumes 6 mW, and the clock generator takes 12 mW at 800 MHz RF.
Autors: Ru, Z.;Klumperink, E. A. M.;Saavedra, C. E.;Nauta, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 45, issue:5, pages: 967 - 978
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gb/s Transmitter With a TDR-Based Self-Calibration of Preemphasis Strength
Abstract:
This brief presents a differentially terminated CML transmitter with a self-calibration scheme based on time-domain reflectometry for preemphasis strength control. Without any handshaking or receiver mode control, the transmitter measures the time of flight by applying the same step input on the two transmission lines of the differential link. Since the receiver does not change its configuration, the proposed scheme greatly simplifies the preemphasis adaptation. To verify the calibration scheme, the proposed transmitter is fabricated in a 0.18- CMOS. For various lengths of the microstrip line on the printed circuit board up to 80 cm, the tested transmitter greatly improves signal integrity and shows clear eye diagrams at 5 Gb/s.
Autors: Seo, Y.-H.;Kim, Y.-S.;Park, H.-J.;Sim, J.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 379 - 383
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-Gb/s Inductorless CMOS Adaptive Equalizer for PCI Express Generation II Applications
Abstract:
This brief presents a 5-Gb/s adaptive equalizer that compensates for the PCI Express channel loss of 14 dB at 2.5 GHz. This equalizing filter uses low-voltage zero generators (LVZGs) to generate high-frequency gain boosting without inductors. The spectrum-balancing technique eliminates the need for a slicer. The power detector combines current steering techniques and a preamplifier circuit to enhance the voltage swing. This design consumes 17.6 mW (excluding the output buffers) at a 1.6-V supply voltage with an output swing of 560 mV (p-p). The area occupied is 0.1 (including output buffers), and the output peak-to-peak jitter is 0.28 UI. The equalizer achieves high-frequency compensation, small area, and low power consumption.
Autors: Cheng, K.-H.;Tsai, Y.-C.;Wu, Y.-H.;Lin, Y.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 324 - 328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 56-GHz LC-Tank VCO With 17% Tuning Range in 65-nm Bulk CMOS for Wireless HDMI
Abstract:
A voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with a central frequency of 56 GHz and a 17% tuning range is presented. The oscillation frequency is tuned both by an analog input and by a 3-bit digital control bus using the same type of differential varactors. It achieves a record figure of merit, considering tuning range of 186.8 dBc/Hz and is able to address the full wireless high-definition multimedia interface band . The VCO is implemented in a 65-nm bulk CMOS process and dissipates 15 mW from a 1.2-V supply. Both fixed and parameterized electromagnetic models for inductors, interconnection structures, and transmission lines have been embedded in the classical design flow including layout verification and extraction, resulting in a very high level of simulation accuracy.
Autors: Gonzalez, J. L.;Badets, F.;Martineau, B.;Belot, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1359 - 1366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 9-kV Normally-on Vertical-Channel SiC JFET for Unipolar Operation
Abstract:
A normally-on 9-kV (at 0.1- drain leakage) active-area vertical-channel SiC JFET (VJFET) is fabricated with no e-beam lithography, no epitaxial regrowth, and a three-step junction-termination-extension edge termination, which is connected to the gate bus through an ion-implanted sloped extension. The VJFET exhibits low leakage currents and a sharp onset of gate-voltage breakdown occurring at 80 V. To lower resistance, the VJFET is designed to be very normally-on, which minimizes the channel resistance contribution. At a gate bias of 0 V, the VJFET's drain current is 73 mA with a forward drain voltage drop of 5 V (240 ), a specific on-state resistance of 104 , and a current gain of . Operating at a unipolar gate bias of 2.5 V lowers the on-state resistance to 96 and raises the drain-current output to 79.3 mA, with the current gain being relatively high at . Thus, this 9-kV VJFET is capable of efficient power switching operation with high current gain at a low unipolar resistance.
Autors: Veliadis, V.;Stewart, E. J.;Hearne, H.;Snook, M.;Lelis, A.;Scozzie, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 31, issue:5, pages: 470 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 90-nm CMOS Power Amplifier for 802.16e (WiMAX) Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we demonstrate a single-stage 90-nm CMOS power amplifier (PA) for 2.3–2.7-GHz WiMAX (802.16e) band applications. An integrated balun is used to match the output to 50- load. The PA gain and saturated power are 18 and 32 dBm, respectively, working from a 3.3-V supply, with a peak power-added efficiency of 48%. A digital-predistortion technique is used to enhance the PA linearity. The measured error vector magnitude for a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signal is improved from 24 to 30 dB at 25-dBm output power. Compliance with the 802.16e standard 10-MHz WiMAX mask and Federal Communications Commission regulations is demonstrated at 25 dBm of output power with power efficiency of 25% and with a measured second harmonic level of 31 dBm/MHz. Using a crest factor reduction technique, mask compliance is achieved at 27 dBm with tradeoff on dB, sufficient for quadrature phase-shift keying.
Autors: Degani, O.;Cossoy, F.;Shahaf, S.;Cohen, E.;Kravtsov, V.;Sendik, O.;Chowdhury, D.;Hull, C. D.;Ravid, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1431 - 1437
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A band-notched CPW fed antenna with ring ground for ultra-wideband applications
Abstract:
A new CPW-fed antenna with band-notched is proposed for ultra-wideband antenna applications. It consists of a ring strip connecting with two triangle patches as the ground and a rectangular patch connecting with a strip as the radiator and feeding line. A narrow slot is embedded in the radiator to obtain notched-band characteristics within bandwidth of 5-6 GHz. Simulated results gotten by FDTD method are given and compared with the experimental results. Measured results show that the antenna can cover a bandwidth from 2.5 to 10.7 GHz for VSWR < 2 except the notched-band. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1691-1694, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25333
Autors: Qingxin Guo, Zengrui Li, Junhong Wang, Jilong Ju
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A beam-switchable coupled feeding network in X-band
Abstract:
An antenna feeding network is proposed for a driving system.It consists of branch line couplers, Wilkinson power dividers, and asymmetric delay lines. Using an orthogonal beam property and an antenna sharing technique, its radiation patterns are measured at 10 GHz. The measured beam coverage angle was 70° (-35° to +35°) in the five input ports by using eight radiating elements. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1865-1868, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25313
Autors: Yun-Taek Im, Jee-Hoon Lee, Yong-Woo Jeong, Sang-Ik Lee, Seong-Ook Park
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Bidirectional TX/RX Four-Element Phased Array at 60 GHz With RF-IF Conversion Block in 90-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
A 60-GHz four-element bidirectional phased-array transmitter/receiver (TX/RX) chip with a two bit phase shifter (PS) and IF converter to/from 12 GHz, using a 90-nm CMOS process, is described. The array features 7-dB gain, measured noise figure of 9 dB, IP1dB of 19 dBm for RX, and output of 3.5 dBm for TX, drawing 60 mA from a 1.3-V supply. The rms amplitude and phase error of the PS is 0.7 dB and 2 max, respectively, from 57 to 66 GHz. This new architecture, together with the compact layout, decreases chip size by a factor of 2, compared to a separate TX and RX design. The use of passive PSs and combiners reduces the current consumption and minimizes temperature variation. An additional rms error of 0.3° and 0.07 dB was measured from 0 C to 80 C. Total die area is 1.6 1 mm and 1.6 0.65 mm with and without an IF converter block, respectively. First pass success was achieved by the closed ground environment design methodology of the passive structures and by proper layout. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a bidirectional 60-GHz array with the lowest reported chip power consumption and size.
Autors: Cohen, E.;Jakobson, G.;Ravid, S.;Ritter, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1438 - 1446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A biologically inspired networking model for wireless sensor networks
Abstract:
Wireless sensor networks have emerged in strategic applications such as target detection, localization, and tracking, where the large scale renders centralized control prohibitive. In addition, the finite batteries of the nodes demand energyaware network control. In this article we propose an energy-efficient topology management model inspired by biological intercell signaling schemes, which allows sensor nodes to form clusters around imminent targets in a purely distributed and autonomous fashion. In particular, nodes in the target vicinity collaborate to form a cluster according to their relative observation quality values, based on a bioinspired lateral induction process. Subsequently, the clustered nodes compete according to their energy levels until some of them gain active status while the rest remain idle, based on a bio-inspired lateral inhibition process. A final phase of the model has the active cluster members compete until one of them becomes the clusterhead, again based on the lateral inhibition process. We examine the behavior of such a network control flow in both finite-size and infinite-size networks. Specifically, we show that the proposed model is inherently stable and discuss its convergence for networks of finite size. Furthermore, we discuss the asymptotic behavior when the number of nodes goes to infinity, where we study the average number of active cluster members.
Autors: Charalambous, C.;Cui, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 6 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bound on Equitable Partitions of the Hamming Space
Abstract:
We denote the set of binary words of length . A partition of with quotient matrix is equitable if for all and , any word in has exactly neighbors in . The equitable partitions of can be obtained from completely regular codes. We derive a bound on equitable partitions of that does not depend on the size of the partition.
Autors: Hyun, J. Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 56, issue:5, pages: 2109 - 2111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A carrier-mobility model for high-k gate-dielectric Ge MOSFETs with metal gate electrode
Abstract:
A mobility model for high-k gate-dielectric Ge pMOSFET with metal gate electrode is proposed by considering the scattering of channel carriers by surface-optical phonons in the high-k gate dielectric. The effects of structural and physical parameters (e.g. gate dielectric thickness, electron density, effective electron mass and permittivity of gate electrode) on the carrier mobility are investigated. The carrier mobility of Ge pMOSFET with metal gate electrode is compared to that with poly-Si gate electrode. It is theoretically shown that the carrier mobility can be largely enhanced when poly-Si gate electrode is replaced by metal gate electrode. This is because metal...
Autors: J.P., Xu , X., Xiao , P.T., Lai
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A class of convergent algorithms for resource allocation in wireless fading networks
Abstract:
Autors: Gatsis, N.;Ribeiro, A.;Giannakis, G.B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 9, issue:5, pages: 1808 - 1823
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class-AB/D Audio Power Amplifier for Mobile Applications Integrated Into a 2.5G/3G Baseband Processor
Abstract:
A filterless class-AB/D audio power amplifier integrated into a feature-rich 2.5G/3G baseband processor in standard 65-nm CMOS technology is designed for direct battery hookup in mobile phone applications. Circuit techniques are used to overcome the voltage limitations of standard MOS transistors for operation at voltage levels of 2.5–4.8 V. Both amplifiers can drive more than 650 mW into an 8- load with maximum distortion levels of 1% and 5% for class-D and class-AB, respectively, all from a 3.6-V power supply. The achieved power-supply-rejection ratios are 72 and 84 dB, respectively. The mono implementation of both amplifiers together is 0.44 .
Autors: Groeneweg, W. H.;Pilloud, B.;Neri, F.;Notermans, G.;Balucani, M.;Helfenstein, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1003 - 1016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS differential fifth-derivative Gaussian pulse generator for UWB applications
Abstract:
A CMOS differential fifth-derivative Gaussian pulse generator is presented for Ultrawideband (UWB) applications. The design exhibits low-power consumption, low-circuit complexity, and precise pulse shape to inherently comply with the FCC spectrum mask for indoor UWB applications without the need for a filter. The proposed differential pulse generator was implemented with a 1.8-V, 0.18-[mu]m CMOS process, but only the positive fifth-derivative Gaussian pulse was measured owing to the limitation of the available testing facilities. The measured pulse has peak-to-peak amplitude of 154 mV and a pulse width of 820 ps. Small core area of the differential pulse generator is only 0.028 mm2 because of its all digital circuit design. The average power dissipation is 1.2 mW with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 50 MHz. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1849-1852, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25342
Autors: Jin He, Y. P. Zhang
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A CMOS/Thin-Film Fluorescence Contact Imaging Microsystem for DNA Analysis
Abstract:
A hybrid CMOS/thin-film microsystem for fluorescence contact imaging is presented. The microsystem integrates a high-performance optical interference filter and a 128 128 pixel active pixel sensor fabricated in a standard 0.35- CMOS technology. The thin-film filter has an optical density greater than 6.0 at the wavelength of interest, providing adequate excitation rejection to the 532-nm solid-state laser. Microsystem performance is experimentally validated by imaging spots of Cyanine-3 fluorophore, conventionally used in DNA detection. The emission intensity as a function of fluorophore concentration is measured with an estimated sensitivity of 5000 . A human DNA microarray has been imaged with the sensor prototype.
Autors: Singh, R. R.;Ho, D.;Nilchi, A.;Gulak, G.;Yau, P.;Genov, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 57, issue:5, pages: 1029 - 1038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Inductive–Capacitive Proximity Sensor for Seat Occupancy Detection
Abstract:
This paper presents a simple and efficient seat occupancy detector. A seat occupancy detector is an integral part of the airbag safety system and, in its simplest form, provides the (occupied or vacant) status of the seat to the airbag control unit. Although the occupancy sensing methods based on a capacitive principle are efficient, they typically require electrodes to be placed in the surface layer of the sitting and backrest areas of the seat. The proposed sensor uses a simple electrode structure, and it is placed below the seat foam in the sitting area of the seat. These features promise a less-expensive sensor as it can be easily manufactured and installed in a seat. The new sensor combines inductive and capacitive proximity sensing principles. The sensor detects the presence of an occupant exploiting the shielding effect of the electric field while its inductive proximity feature senses the presence of conductive objects (e.g., laptop) that may be placed in the seat and helps to achieve reliable occupancy sensing. The measurement system uses a signal conditioning unit based on a carrier frequency principle. A prototype sensing system has been built, and its application as a seat occupancy sensing system in a vehicle has been verified. The developed system successfully senses human proximity and distinguishes it from other conductive objects.
Autors: George, B.;Zangl, H.;Bretterklieber, T.;Brasseur, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 1463 - 1470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Method for Fast Analysis of Signal Propagation, Ground Noise, and Radiated Emission of Multilayer Printed Circuit Boards
Abstract:
This paper presents a method for fast and comprehensive simulation of signal propagation, power/ground noise, and radiated emissions by combining the merits of the physics-based via model, the modal decomposition technique, the contour integral method (CIM), and the equivalence principle. The physics-based via model combined with the modal decomposition technique is an efficient technique for signal integrity analysis of multilayer PCBs and packages. The CIM can be used to calculate the voltage distribution between arbitrarily shaped power planes. Far-field radiation can be obtained by applying the field equivalence principle. In this paper, we integrate the four techniques to analyze all the three effects in a fast, concurrent, and holistic manner. To the best knowledge of the authors, the four techniques are integrated here for the first time. Various structures are simulated and validated with full-wave simulations up to 20 GHz. It is shown that a reduction in simulation time of more than two orders of magnitude is achieved in comparison to a standard full-wave electromagnetic solver.
Autors: Duan, X.;Rimolo-Donadio, R.;Brüns, H.-D.;Schuster, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 487 - 495
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact and Wide-Band Passive Equalizer Design Using a Stub With Defected Ground Structure for High Speed Data Transmission
Abstract:
A compact wide-band passive equalization design using a stub with defected ground structure is proposed. The proposed design, based on reflections under a slow wave effect, compensates for inter-symbol interference with wide bandwidth, compact size, remarkable compensation capability with few manufacturing limitations, and high design flexibility, compared to previous equalization design. Significant improvements in eye-opening and timing jitter are successfully demonstrated for a data rate of 8 Gbps for a 60 cm transmission line on a printed circuit board.
Autors: Shim, Y.;Lee, W.;Song, E.;Cho, J.;Kim, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 20, issue:5, pages: 256 - 258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact DVB-H antenna with varactor-tuned matching circuit
Abstract:
A reconfigurable varactor-based matching circuit is proposed in this article. The introduction of an extra series inductor into the matching circuit reduces the required capacitance ratio of the varactor from 27.9 to 8.2. A meander line DVB-H antenna is designed and fabricated to verify the concept. The dimensions of the prototype antenna are 80 × 10 × 10 mm3, and it can provide better than -10 dB return loss across the 470-770 MHz bandwidth. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1786-1789, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25317
Autors: Yue Li, Zhijun Zhang, Wenhua Chen, Zhenghe Feng, Magdy F. Iskander
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact transmission line with two pairs of composite right/left-handed passbands
Abstract:
A compact transmission line with two pairs of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) passbands is investigated, and its equivalent circuit is proposed. Compared with the conventional CRLH transmission line (CRLH-TL), we use the rectangular patches with meander lines and the T-shaped defected ground structures (T-DGS) to model the other two resonators, which realize the second left- and right-handed bands. The dispersion relations are analytically derived using the equivalent circuit and Bloch-Floquet theory. The five-stage CRLH-TL is fabricated, and the measured results are in agreement with those of simulation. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2010.
Autors: Ling-Ling Deng, Ya-Nan Zhang, Di Wu
Appeared in: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Comparison of Load Models for Composite Reliability Evaluation by Nonsequential Monte Carlo Simulation
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparison of Markov load models for composite reliability evaluation by nonsequential Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed models represent the whole system load curve. The first model (M1) is an aggregated Markov model that represents all different states present in the load curve, without using any clustering technique. The second model (M2) consists of a hybrid Markov model, where all different levels of the load curve are also represented but it tries to preserve some chronology of the load curve. The third model (M3) consists of a non-aggregated Markov model. The frequency and duration (F&D) indices are calculated by the conditional probability method for all models. The indices calculated using these models are compared with the indices obtained when the usual clustered aggregated Markov model (M0) is used. The indices obtained by sequential Monte Carlo simulation with a chronological system load curve are used as comparison reference in order to validate the presented models.
Autors: Veliz, F. F. C.;Borges, C. L. T.;Rei, A. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 649 - 656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Analysis of Bandwidth Request Mechanisms in IEEE 802.16 Networks
Abstract:
The IEEE 802.16 standard is considered to be one of the most promising technologies. Bandwidth reservation is employed to provide quality of service (QoS)-guaranteeing services. A request/grant scheme is defined in the IEEE 802.16 standard. There are two types of bandwidth request (BR) mechanisms, i.e., unicast polling and contention resolution, which are defined in the standard. As specified, connections belonging to scheduling classes of extended real-time polling service, non-real-time polling service, and best effort have options to make BRs via both mechanisms, depending on the scheduling decision made by the base station (BS). However, most research assumes that only one of them is available and do not take both of them into account. A comprehensive study of both mechanisms is critical for the BS to make an appropriate decision for those connections to achieve better system performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze this issue. There are two major contributions presented in this paper. First, a comprehensive study of both BR mechanisms in terms of bandwidth utilization and delay is provided. Additionally, we propose two practical performance objectives: When the expected delay or target bandwidth utilization is given, how does the BS make a scheduling decision such that the performance of the other metric (either delay or bandwidth utilization) is optimized? As our second contribution, we proposed two scheduling algorithms to find the combination of both mechanisms to meet our objectives. The simulation results show that our scheduling algorithms can always help the BS make a scheduling decision to reach better system performance.
Autors: Chuck, D.;Chen, K-Y.;Chang, J. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 2046 - 2056
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A computationally efficient near-optimal algorithm for capacity-maximization based joint transmit and receive antenna selection
Abstract:
This letter presents a computationally efficient joint transmit and receive antenna selection (EJTRAS) algorithm based on a modification of the selection criterion in [1]. We show that the modification allows us to reduce the algorithm¿s computational complexity by a factor of L, where L is the number of selected antennas without sacrificing the performance. Nearoptimal outage and ergodic capacity can therefore be attained with significantly lower complexity as verified by the extensive computer simulations.
Autors: Chiao-En Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 14, issue:5, pages: 402 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computer Model for Teaching the Dynamic Behavior of AC Contactors
Abstract:
ac-powered contactors are extensively used in industry in applications such as automatic electrical devices, motor starters, and heaters. In this work, a practical session that allows students to model and simulate the dynamic behavior of ac-powered electromechanical contactors is presented. Simulation is carried out using a rigorous parametric model of the ac contactor that avoids simplification assumptions and is thoroughly explained. The goal of this practical is to introduce students to the topic of dynamic simulation of real devices. It covers both the transient and the steady-state response of the electromechanical system under study. The proposed methodology is flexible and not particularly time-consuming, and it allows the students easily to change the electromechanical constants of the contactor they are studying. The results of the simulations were compared with experimental data acquired by the students; a close similarity between real and simulated data was observed. The Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Spain, has incorporated the simulation methodology proposed in this paper in a practical session of an electrical engineering course.
Autors: Riba Ruiz, J.-R.;Garcia Espinosa, A.;Romeral, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 248 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A conceptually simple framework for simulating hierarchical MPEG video traffic
Abstract:
This paper presents a methodology to synthesize MPEG-4 video traffic traces with hierarchical levels of compression. In real-time video streaming applications, scalable video transmission is employed to adjust quality of service (QoS) requirements to the available channel bandwidth. The proposed model is a very simple tool to simulate scalable video traffic transmission, in order to evaluate the performance of computer networks under different traffic loads and transport protocols. The MPEG-4 streaming is classically modeled as a self-similar random process, due to the long range dependence of the autocorrelation function. The presented model is based on statistical analysis collected from real...
Autors: Marcelo Eduardo, Pellenz , Richard Demo, Souza
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Condition for Certainty Equivalence Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems
Abstract:
Direct certainty equivalence results for output feedback stabilization of nonlinear systems are proposed. The first result is a simple extension of the indirect approach used in a paper by Praly and Arcak. The second result allows to deal with observers yielding nonuniformly converging estimates with respect to the norm of (a subset of) the system state. Application of these results with the reduced-order observer of Karagiannis are discussed.
Autors: Carnevale, D.;Karagiannis, D.;Astolfi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 55, issue:5, pages: 1180 - 1185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A consensual modeling of the expert systems applied to microwave devices
Abstract:
In this work, a consensual approach is developed for modeling RF/microwave devices. In the proposed method, multiple individual models generated by an expert system ensemble are combined by a consensus rule that results in a consistent and improved generalization outputting with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Here, the expert system ensemble is basically constructed by the competitor and diverse regressors which in our case are back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN), support vector (SV) regression machine, k-nearest neighbor and least squares algorithms that perform generalization independently from each other. In the case of excessive data, to reduce the amount of the data, the expert system ensemble of regressors can be shown to be trained by a subset consisting of the SVs. Main feature of the consensual modeling can be put forward as due to diversity in generalization process of each member of the ensemble, the resulted consensus model will effectively identify and encode more aspects of the nonlinear relationship between the independent and the dependent variables than will a single model. Thus, in the consensual modeling, an enhanced single model is built by combining the most successful sides of the competitor and the diverse contributors. Finally, consensual modeling is demonstrated typically for the two devices: the first is a passive device modeling which is synthesis of the conductor-backed coplanar waveguide with upper shielding and the second is an active device modeling which is the noise modeling of a microwave transistor. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2010.
Autors: F. Güne[scedil], N. T. Tokan, F. Gürgen
Appeared in: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A consistent model for oxide trap profiling with the Trap Spectroscopy by Charge Injection and Sensing (TSCIS) technique
Abstract:
Identifying the trap configuration is essential for understanding non-volatile memory device performance and reliability. In this paper, an accurate approach to determine the trap distribution in the charged layer is presented. The analysis is done by Trap Spectroscopy by Charge Injection and Sensing (TSCIS) technique [1] varying charge injection time and gate voltage independently. Varying time determines the physical charge injection distance. The conversion of time into distance is done based on theoretical modeling simplified to only electron capturing from Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) statistics. Direct tunneling of the electrons from quantized energy levels in inverted Si channels to the oxide traps...
Autors: Moonju, Cho , Robin, Degraeve , Philippe, Roussel , Bogdan, Govoreanu , Ben, Kaczer , ...
Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Continuous-Time Linear System Identification Method for Slowly Sampled Data
Abstract:
Both direct and indirect methods exist for identifying continuous-time linear systems. A direct method estimates continuous-time input and output signals from their samples and then use them to obtain a continuous-time model, whereas an indirect method estimates a discrete-time model first. Both methods rely on fast sampling to ensure good accuracy. In this paper, we propose a more direct method where a continuous-time linear model is directly fitted to the available samples. This method produces an exact model asymptotically, modulo some possible aliasing ambiguity, even when the sampling rate is relatively slow. We also state conditions under which the aliasing ambiguity can be resolved, and we provide experiments showing that the proposed method is a valid option when a slow sampling frequency must be used but a large number of samples is available.
Autors: Marelli, D.;Fu, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 2521 - 2533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Contrast Function for Independent Component Analysis Without Permutation Ambiguity
Abstract:
This brief deals with the problem of blind source separation (BSS) via independent component analysis (ICA). We prove that a linear combination of the separator output fourth-order marginal cumulants (kurtoses) is a valid contrast function for ICA under prewhitening if the weights have the same sign as the source kurtoses. If, in addition, the source kurtoses are different and so are the linear combination weights, the contrast eliminates the permutation ambiguity typical to ICA, as the estimated sources are sorted at the separator output according to their kurtosis values in the same order as the weights. If the weights equal the source kurtoses, the contrast is a cumulant matching criterion based on the maximum-likelihood principle. The contrast can be maximized by means of a cost-efficient Jacobi-type pairwise iteration. In the real-valued two-signal case, the asymptotic variance of the resulting Givens angle estimator is determined in closed form, leading to the contrast weights with optimal finite-sample performance. A fully blind solution can be implemented by computing the optimum weights from the initial source estimates obtained by a classical ICA stage. An experimental study validates the features of the proposed technique and shows its superior performance compared to related previous methods.
Autors: Zarzoso, V.;Comon, P.;Phlypo, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 863 - 868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Controllable Self-Assembly Method for Large-Scale Synthesis of Graphene Sponges and Free-Standing Graphene Films
Abstract:
A simple method to prepare large-scale graphene sponges and free-standing graphene films using a speed vacuum concentrator is presented. During the centrifugal evaporation process, the graphene oxide (GO) sheets in the aqueous suspension are assembled to generate network-linked GO sponges or a series of multilayer GO films, depending on the temperature of a centrifugal vacuum chamber. While sponge-like bulk GO materials (GO sponges) are produced at 40 °C, uniform free-standing GO films of size up to 9 cm2 are generated at 80 °C. The thickness of GO films can be controlled from 200 nm to 1 µm based on the concentration of the GO colloidal suspension and evaporation temperature. The synthesized GO films exhibit excellent transparency, typical fluorescent emission signal, and high flexibility with a smooth surface and condensed density. Reduced GO sponges and films with less than 5 wt% oxygen are produced through a thermal annealing process at 800 °C with H2/Ar flow. The structural flexibility of the reduced GO sponges, which have a highly porous, interconnected, 3D network, as well as excellent electrochemical properties of the reduced GO film with respect to electrode kinetics for the [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox system, are demonstrated.
Autors: Fei Liu, Tae Seok Seo
Appeared in: Advanced Functional Materials
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Convolutional Learning System for Object Classification in 3-D Lidar Data
Abstract:
In this brief, a convolutional learning system for classification of segmented objects represented in 3-D as point clouds of laser reflections is proposed. Several novelties are discussed: 1) extension of the existing convolutional neural network (CNN) framework to direct processing of 3-D data in a multiview setting which may be helpful for rotation-invariant consideration, 2) improvement of CNN training effectiveness by employing a stochastic meta-descent (SMD) method, and 3) combination of unsupervised and supervised training for enhanced performance of CNN. CNN performance is illustrated on a two-class data set of objects in a segmented outdoor environment.
Autors: Prokhorov, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 21, issue:5, pages: 858 - 863
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cost Effective Approach for Online Error Detection Using Invariant Relationships
Abstract:
This paper investigates the use of logic implication checkers for the online detection of errors. A logic implication, or invariant relationship, must hold for all valid input conditions; therefore, any violation of this implication will indicate an error due to an intermittent fault. Techniques are presented to efficiently identify the most useful logic implications to include in checker hardware such that the probability of error detection is maximized while minimizing the additional hardware and delay overhead. Results show that significant error detection is possible—even with only a 10% area overhead—while minimizing impact on delay and power.
Autors: Alves, N.;Buben, A.;Nepal, K.;Dworak, J.;Bahar, R. I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 29, issue:5, pages: 788 - 801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cost-based selective maintenance decision-making method for machining line
Abstract:
Machine line is a type of manufacturing system in which machines are connected in series or in parallel. It is significant to ensure the reliability as well as to reduce the total cost of maintenance and failure losses in the maintenance programs of such systems. Cost-based selective maintenance decision-making, which is the best method for a selected group of machines in machine line is presented under limited maintenance durations. Fault losses and maintenance costs of a single machine under different maintenance actions i.e. minimal repair, preventive maintenance and overhaul on the fault rate of the machine are calculated. An algorithm combining the heuristic rules and tabu search is proposed to solve the presented selective maintenance model. Finally, a case study on the maintenance decision-making problem of a connecting rod machining line in the automobile engine workshop is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method. The end result shows that the fault losses can be further reduced by the optimization of maintenance interval and maintenance duration. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Autors: Haiping Zhu, Fanmao Liu, Xinyu Shao, Qiong Liu, Yuhao Deng
Appeared in: Quality and Reliability Engineering International
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Cost-Effective Atomic Force Microscope for Undergraduate Control Laboratories
Abstract:
This paper presents a simple, cost-effective and robust atomic force microscope (AFM), which has been purposely designed and built for use as a teaching aid in undergraduate controls labs. The guiding design principle is to have all components be open and visible to the students, so the inner functioning of the microscope has been made clear to see. All of the parts but one are off the shelf, and assembly time is generally less than two days, which makes the microscope a robust instrument that is readily handled by the students with little chance of damage. While the scanning resolution is nowhere near that of a commercial instrument, it is more than sufficient to take interesting scans of micrometer-scale objects. A survey of students after their having used the AFM resulted in a generally good response, with 80% agreeing that they had a positive learning experience.
Autors: Jones, C. N.;Goncalves, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 328 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cryogenic electrostatic trap for long-time storage of keV ion beams
Abstract:
We report on the realization and operation of a fast ion beam trap of the linear electrostatic type employing liquid helium cooling to reach extremely low blackbody radiation temperature and residual gas density and, hence, long storage times of more than 5 min which are unprecedented for keV ion beams. Inside a beam pipe that can be cooled to temperatures <15 K, with 1.8 K reached in some locations, an ion beam pulse can be stored at kinetic energies of 2–20 keV between two electrostatic mirrors. Along with an overview of the cryogenic trap design, we present a measurement of the residual gas density inside the trap resulting in only 2×103 cm-3, which for a room temperature environment corresponds to a pressure in the 10-14 mbar range. The device, called the cryogenic trap for fast ion beams, is now being used to investigate molecules and clusters at low temperatures, but has also served as a design prototype for the cryogenic heavy-ion storage ring currently under construction at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics.
Autors: Lange, M.;Froese, M.;Menk, S.;Varju, J.;Bastert, R.;Blaum, K.;Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo;Fellenberger, F.;Grieser, M.;von Hahn, R.;Heber, O.;Kuhnel, K.-U.;Laux, F.;Orlov, D. A.;Rappaport, M. L.;Repnow, R.;Schroter, C. D.;Schwalm, D.;Shornikov, A.;Si
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 81, issue:5, pages: 055105 - 055105-10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Design Approach For Digital Controllers Using Reconfigurable Network-Based Measurements
Abstract:
In this paper, the authors propose and analyze a network-based control architecture for power-electronics-building-block-based converters. The objective of the proposed approach is to distribute the control system to guarantee maximum flexibility in the control of power distribution. In the proposed control system, controller and controlled devices are connected through the network, which affects the measurement and control signals mostly due to delays. The main goal of this work is to outline a design methodology for controllers operating with measurements coming from a network. The approach proposed here assesses the robustness of the control system in the presence of delay and aims to design an optimal controller for robustness against network delays. This methodology is based on uncertainty analysis and assumes that the delays are the main element of uncertainty in the system. The theoretical foundations of this approach are discussed, together with the simulation and implementation of a physical laboratory prototype.
Autors: Rong Liu;Monti, A.;Ponci, F.;Smith, A.H.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 59, issue:5, pages: 1073 - 1081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dielectric corrugated feed horn antenna for satellite communication applications
Abstract:
In this study, a dielectric corrugated antenna, as being a feed horn antenna of the reflector antenna for satellite communication applications, is analyzed. The structure consists of a conical dielectric corrugated antenna terminated with a conductor hyperbolic (convex) plate. The antenna system provides a Gaussian beam within wide frequency bandwidth with its dielectric structure. The antenna is simulated and tested for its return loss and radiation performances, and the satisfactory results are obtained for C band satellite communication applications. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1709-1713, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25350
Autors: M. Secmen, A. Hizal
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Differential Pair-Based Direct Digital Synthesizer MMIC With 16.8-GHz Clock and 488-mW Power Consumption
Abstract:
This paper presents a low-power, high-speed direct digital synthesizer monolithic microwave integrated circuit in a SiGe bipolar technology with 8-bit phase and 6-bit amplitude resolution. The phase-to-amplitude mapping circuit is implemented as a differential pair in saturation. The use of a modern SiGe bipolar technology enables both a low power consumption of 488 mW at a 3.3-V supply and a high clock frequency of 16.8 GHz; here, the maximum output frequency is 8.3344 GHz and the frequency resolution is 65.625 MHz. A spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) between 47–20 dBc is achieved. First Nyquist zone SFDR, narrowband SFDR, and frequency-modulation measurements of the signal are shown and discussed. The chip is fabricated in a 0.35- m 200-GHz SiGe bipolar technology and occupies only 1128 1028 m . The chip is mounted on a printed circuit board for measurement.
Autors: Laemmle, B.;Wagner, C.;Knapp, H.;Jaeger, H.;Maurer, L.;Weigel, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1375 - 1383
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital Frequency Synthesizer for Cognitive Radio Spectrum Sensing Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a wideband digital frequency synthesizer architecture targeted for spectrum sensing applications. The proposed frequency synthesizer architecture is based on digital period synthesis (DPS), which inherently can achieve a wide operational bandwidth, extremely high-frequency resolution, and an instantaneous settling time with low power and area consumption. The performance of DPS and its fundamental limitations are analyzed in this paper. The frequency synthesizer was implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process and it occupies an active area of 0.12 mm . The frequency range of the synthesizer is from 0.1 to 4.267 GHz with a frequency resolution of 0.025–5.38 Hz. In this frequency range, the power consumption is between 3.6–8.4 mW.
Autors: Rapinoja, T.;Stadius, K.;Xu, L.;Lindfors, S.;Kaunisto, R.;Parssinen, A.;Ryynanen, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 58, issue:5, pages: 1339 - 1348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct-Write Approach for Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Deposition
Abstract:
Nanowriting was used to directly pattern carbon nanotube (CNT) catalyst solution with a scanning probe microscope. Glass nanopipettes filled with iron-based catalyst solutions were scanned in predefined patterns using contact mode atomic force microscopy on silicon/silicon dioxide substrates to create nanoscale catalyst surface distributions. Chemical vapor deposition using methane feedstock at 900 C produced single-walled CNTs in the patterned regions. Examination of patterning and growth conditions provided insight into the catalyst nanowriting process and the associated CNT growth. Two-terminal electronic transport measurements of the nanotube samples showed a typical resistance of 1 M . The nanowriting technique allows precise nanoscale catalyst patterns of almost arbitrary geometry to be directly defined for CNT growth in a simple and inexpensive manner suitable for device prototyping and applications.
Autors: Omrane, B.;Papadopoulos, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 9, issue:3, pages: 375 - 380
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discussion on SRAM Circuit Design Trend in Deeper Nanometer-Scale Technologies
Abstract:
This paper compares area scaling capabilities of many kinds of SRAM margin-assist solutions for variability issues, which are based on various efforts by not only the cell topology changes from 6T to 8T and 10T but also incorporation of multiple voltage supply for cell terminal biasing and timing sequence controls of read and write. The various SRAM solutions are analyzed in light of an impact on the required area overhead for each design solution given by ever-increasing random variation , resulting in a slowdown in the SRAM scaling pace. In order to predict the area scaling trends among various SRAM solutions, two different -increasing scenarios of being pessimistic and optimistic are assumed, where becomes mV and suppressed to mV at the 15-nm process node, respectively. As a result, it has been shown that the 6T SRAM cell will be allowed long reign, even in the 15-nm process node, if can be suppressed to mV thanks to effective oxide thickness scaling for the low-standby-power process; otherwise, 10T and 8T with read–modify–write will be needed after becomes and 75 mV, respec- tively.
Autors: Yamauchi, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 18, issue:5, pages: 763 - 774
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A distributed and interactive system to integrated design and simulation for collaborative product development
Abstract:
The goal of applying collaborative product development in industry has raised the need to develop software tools supporting system integration and group collaboration. Current methods and tools mainly focus on the collaborative creation of design components and assemblies. However, few of them support the collaborative work in developing simulation models so that proposed design concepts and solutions can be evaluated by integrating expertise from several disciplines. The purpose of this research is to develop a distributed and interactive system on which designers and experts can work together to create, integrate and run simulations for engineering design. To develop such a...
Autors: Hongwei, Wang , Heming, Zhang
Appeared in: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Publication date: May 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Domain Decomposition Approach for Efficient Electromagnetic Analysis of the Power Distribution Network of Packaged Electronic Systems
Abstract:
A versatile electromagnetic modeling methodology is presented that is most suitable for use in the computer-aided design of the power distribution network (PDN) of packaged electronics. The method is characterized by modeling flexibility and computational efficiency. These attributes stem from the adoption of a modular approach for the development of the model, where the fine-feature, geometric discontinuities in the network, such as pins, vias, and splits in metallization layers, are modeled separately from the solid planar ground and power metallization portions. In this manner, multiport network models of these discontinuities are developed, making possible their expedient insertion in a discrete electromagnetic model for the solid portions of the metallization. The latter is based on a 2-D integral equation model for the cylindrical transverse electromagnetic field behavior between the metallization planes, for which only electrically important features are preserved and modeled. The utilization of a systematic decomposition approach further enhances the modeling versatility of the proposed method and enables the development of a modeling methodology that is suitable for computer-aided iteration in the electromagnetic performance-aware design of multilayer PDNs. Validation studies are used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodology and assess its accuracy as a computer-aided tool for PDN predesign.
Autors: Kollia, V.;Cangellaris, A. C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: May 2010, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 320 - 331
Publisher: IEEE
 

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