Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 04-2016 sorted by title, page: 0

» 16QAM Vector Millimeter-Wave Signal Generation Based on Phase Modulator With Photonic Frequency Doubling and Precoding
Abstract:
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a method to generate a frequency-doubling photonic 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16QAM) vector millimeter-wave (mm-wave) signal by using a single phase modulator (PM) with an amplitude and phase precoding technique. The PM is driven by a 2-Gbaud 16QAM-modulated precoded vector signal at 20 GHz. We transmit the generated optical radio-frequency (RF) signal at 40 GHz over 22-km single-mode fiber, and after heterodyne beating in a single-ended photodiode, a 40-GHz electrical vector mm-wave signal displaying regular 16QAM modulation can be generated with a bit error ratio (BER) of less than the hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of . To our knowledge, this is the first time that high-order QAM vector mm-wave signal generation based on a single has been demonstrated.
Autors: Zhao, L.;Yu, J.;Chen, L.;Min, P.;Li, J.;Wang, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 8, issue:2, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2D Images Recorded With a Single-SidedPub _newline Magnetic Particle Imaging Scanner
Abstract:
Magnetic Particle Imaging is a new medical imaging modality, which detects superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The particles are excited by magnetic fields. Most scanners have a tube-like measurement field and therefore, both the field of view and the object size are limited. A single-sided scanner has the advantage that the object is not limited in size, only the penetration depth is limited. A single-sided scanner prototype for 1D imaging has been presented in 2009. Simulations have been published for a 2D single-sided scanner and first 1D measurements have been carried out. In this paper, the first 2D single-sided scanner prototype is presented and the first calibration-based reconstruction results of measured 2D phantoms are shown. The field free point is moved on a Lissajous trajectory inside a area. Images of phantoms with a maximal distance of 10 mm perpendicular to the scanner surface have been reconstructed. Different cylindrically shaped holes of phantoms have been filled with undiluted Resovist. After the measurement and image reconstruction of the phantoms, particle volumes could be distinguished with a distance of 2 mm and 6 mm in vertical and horizontal direction, respectively.
Autors: Graefe, K.;von Gladiss, A.;Bringout, G.;Ahlborg, M.;Buzug, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 35, issue:4, pages: 1056 - 1065
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Display by Referenceless Phase Holography
Abstract:
Referenceless phase holography (RELPH) is a new method for generating full optical wavefields with predetermined intensity and phase. The method is based on the interference of two mutually coherent phase fields modulated by two spatial light modulators of the liquid crystal on silicon type. Contrary to classical holography, this approach does not reconstruct twin images, thus it is a promising candidate for future holographic 3-D TV. After introduction into the theory of RELPH, the technical realization is discussed and the first results are presented.
Autors: Kreis, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 685 - 693
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D IC Interconnect Capacitance Extraction Using Dual Discrete Geometric Methods With Prism Elements
Abstract:
The dual discrete geometry methods (DGMs) in terms of scalar potential using prism elements are employed in 3-D interconnect capacitance extraction of integral circuits. The energy complementarity property of the dual methods is explored to speed up the extraction. The dual DGMs work on the mutually orthogonal primal-dual mesh doublets, i.e., dual Delaunay–Voronoi mesh complex. As the orthogonal dual mesh is built based on the circumcenter of the primal mesh, the stability of the dual DGM heavily depends on the quality of the mesh. Elements with circumcenter dropping outside of the elements inevitably appear in the nonstructured prismatic meshes, due to the complicated structures in practical problems. The impact of these elements on the stability of the DGM is discussed. Comprehensive comparison between dual DGMs and dual finite-element methods (FEMs) and other golden references is performed. The dual DGM in terms of scalar potential has a reduced number of unknowns and simpler forms and works without extra links as required in the dual FEM in terms of vector potential. Capacitance extraction examples, such as a CMOS inverter and multilayer crossover parallel wires, are studied. The results demonstrate the energy bounds of dual DGMs and the improvement of accuracy with reduced cost.
Autors: Xu, X.;Ren, Z.;Qu, H.;Ren, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1524 - 1534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Surface-Integrated Touch-Sensor System for Automotive HMI Applications
Abstract:
In the automotive industry, control panels and décor elements are designed as separate components which are geometrically and discretely combined. This considerably limits the technical variations of the design and the compactness of the construction. In this paper, the fusion of the control panel and the decorative surface to create a functional 3-D surface is presented. The approach is based on the integration of a touch sensor-based control and sensor module into a free-form decorative surface. For this purpose, an automotive-suitable touch sensor foil is used, made by silver paste screen printing technology. This highly sensitive touch sensor, which immediately reacts to the user's touch by a visible feedback, creates an impression of excellent quality. The integration of this sensor module into the decorative surface combined with display elements is done by an innovative connection concept. Herewith, the limits of the decorative surface are compensated for and the touch sensor performances, as well as the transmittance properties, are reproducible and robust. The sensor module has a local interconnect network-bus interface and meets the automotive requirements.
Autors: Miedl, F.;Tille, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 787 - 794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 43 Years of Fun Basic Plasma Physics Experiments
Abstract:
This paper presents an overview of some of the most enjoyable low-temperature plasma experiments I have carried out with my students over the course of my career. It begins with the connection between solitons and the Schrödinger equation, and continues with the discovery of cylindrical solitons. From moving structures, we progress to stable ones: sheaths and double layers. How can we measure double-layer potentials? This question leads to the development of emissive probe techniques. From there, we move on to the Bohm criterion and the first measurements of the full plasma potential variations of sheaths and presheaths in a single-species plasma, and later in two-ion-species plasmas. Finally, our recent measurements of double layers and presheaths in uniform helicon plasma are presented.
Autors: Hershkowitz, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 44, issue:4, pages: 347 - 363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» mDASH: A Markov Decision-Based Rate Adaptation Approach for Dynamic HTTP Streaming
Abstract:
Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) has recently been widely deployed in the Internet. It, however, does not impose any adaptation logic for selecting the quality of video fragments requested by clients. In this paper, we propose a novel Markov decision-based rate adaptation scheme for DASH aiming to maximize the quality of user experience under time-varying channel conditions. To this end, our proposed method takes into account those key factors that make a critical impact on visual quality, including video playback quality, video rate switching frequency and amplitude, buffer overflow/underflow, and buffer occupancy. Besides, to reduce computational complexity, we propose a low-complexity sub-optimal greedy algorithm which is suitable for real-time video streaming. Our experiments in network test-bed and real-world Internet all demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method in both objective and subjective visual quality.
Autors: Zhou, C.;Lin, C.;Guo, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 738 - 751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Alterdroid: Differential Fault Analysis of Obfuscated Smartphone Malware
Abstract:
Malware for smartphones has rocketed over the last years. Market operators face the challenge of keeping their stores free from malicious apps, a task that has become increasingly complex as malware developers are progressively using advanced techniques to defeat malware detection tools. One such technique commonly observed in recent malware samples consists of hiding and obfuscating modules containing malicious functionality in places that static analysis tools overlook (e.g., within data objects). In this paper, we describe Alterdroid, a dynamic analysis approach for detecting such hidden or obfuscated malware components distributed as parts of an app package. The key idea in Alterdroid consists of analyzing the behavioral differences between the original app and a number of automatically generated versions of it, where a number of modifications (faults) have been carefully injected. Observable differences in terms of activities that appear or vanish in the modified app are recorded, and the resulting differential signature is analyzed through a pattern-matching process driven by rules that relate different types of hidden functionalities with patterns found in the signature. A thorough justification and a description of the proposed model are provided. The extensive experimental results obtained by testing Alterdroid over relevant apps and malware samples support the quality and viability of our proposal.
Autors: Suarez-Tangil, G.;Tapiador, J.E.;Lombardi, F.;Di Pietro, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 789 - 802
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.5 V 1.28-MS/s 4.68-fJ/Conversion-Step SAR ADC With Energy-Efficient DAC and Trilevel Switching Scheme
Abstract:
This paper describes a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an energy-efficient trilevel alternate switching capacitive digital-to-analog converter (CDAC). The switching scheme of this CDAC preserves the features of the asymmetric-switching CDAC. By narrowing and smoothing the dynamic variation of DAC voltage, the switching scheme diminishes the dynamic offset effect induced by the asymmetric-switching CDAC. The CDAC reduces the capacitor requirement by almost fourfold and improves the average switching energy efficiency by almost 86.5% when compared with the conventional switching CDACs. This SAR ADC was implemented using the 90-nm CMOS technology, and its measured performances were as follows: 1) spurious free dynamic range of 56.98 dB; 2) signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 68.79 dB; and 3) power dissipation of 3.45 at an operation of 0.5 V and 1.28 MS/s. The ADC achieves a figure-of-merit of 4.68-fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Lin, K.-T.;Cheng, Y.-W.;Tang, K.-T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1441 - 1449
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 nW–1 µW Power Management IC With Integrated Battery Management and Self-Startup for Energy Harvesting Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10 nW–1 µW power management IC with 3.2 nW quiescent power consumption for solar energy harvesting applications. The chip integrates a switch matrix that can be configured as a buck or a boost dc–dc converter using a single inductor as well as output voltage regulation logic, battery management block, and self-startup. The control circuit of the converter is designed in an asynchronous fashion that scales the effective switching frequency of the converter with the level of power transferred. The on-time of the converter switches adapts dynamically to the input and output voltages for peak-current control and zero-current switching. For input power of 500 nW, the proposed chip achieves an efficiency of 82%, including the control circuit overhead, while charging the energy storage device at 3 V from 0.5 V input. In buck mode, it achieves a peak efficiency of 87% and maintains efficiency greater than 80% for output power of 50 nW–1 µW with input voltage of 3 V and output voltage of 1 V.
Autors: El-Damak, D.;Chandrakasan, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 943 - 954
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10 nW–1 Power Management IC With Integrated Battery Management and Self-Startup for Energy Harvesting Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10 nW–1 power management IC with 3.2 nW quiescent power consumption for solar energy harvesting applications. The chip integrates a switch matrix that can be configured as a buck or a boost dc–dc converter using a single inductor as well as output voltage regulation logic, battery management block, and self-startup. The control circuit of the converter is designed in an asynchronous fashion that scales the effective switching frequency of the converter with the level of power transferred. The on-time of the converter switches adapts dynamically to the input and output voltages for peak-current control and zero-current switching. For input power of 500 nW, the proposed chip achieves an efficiency of 82%, including the control circuit overhead, while charging the energy storage device at 3 V from 0.5 V input. In buck mode, it achieves a peak efficiency of 87% and maintains efficiency greater than 80% for output power of 50 nW–1 with input voltage of 3 V and output voltage of 1 V.
Autors: El-Damak, D.;Chandrakasan, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 943 - 954
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-bit 3.4 MS/s Two-Step Cyclic Time-Domain ADC in 0.18- CMOS
Abstract:
Two two-step cyclic time-domain analog-to-digital converters (TADCs) in a 0.18- CMOS process are presented. The proposed TADC uses a voltage-to-time converter (VTC) with a 12-dB gain amplifier, and a time amplifier to achieve a 12-bit resolution. Only linear gain calibration is needed for the TADC. The first TADC achieves a spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.5-dB and a signal-to-noise-plus distortion ratio (SNDR) of 64.3 dB. Its power consumption and area are 3 mW and 0.61 mm2, respectively. The noise analysis for each TADC building block is presented. The calculated results are verified by the transient noise analysis tool in HSPICE. To verify the noise analysis further, a second TADC is fabricated using the VTC with the device size scaled down by a factor of 4 based on the noise analysis. The second TADC achieves an SFDR of 66.8 dB and an SNDR of 59.1 dB. Its power consumption and area are 2.9 mW and 0.61 mm2, respectively.
Autors: Chen, L.-J.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1470 - 1483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2- 45-nV/√Hz Readout Front End With Multiple-Chopping Active-High-Pass Ripple Reduction Loop and Pseudofeedback DC Servo Loop
Abstract:
This brief presents an ultra-low-power low-noise chopped capacitively coupled instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) that is suitable for neural recording applications. An active high-pass filter is embedded in the ripple reduction loop (RRL) to suppress the residual noise and relax the capacitor size. Multiple chopping is employed to further reduce the residual output ripple due to the RRL offsets. A dc servo loop (DSL) using a 14-nA pseudofeedback amplifier is proposed to achieve a subhertz high-pass corner while using only a 15-pF on-chip capacitor. The complete CCIA is implemented in a standard 0.18- CMOS process. It occupies an area of 0.23 mm2 (including the DSL) and consumes 1.7 from a 1.25-V supply, achieving a noise efficiency factor of 2.9 that compares favorably with the state of the art.
Autors: Wu, J.;Law, M.-K.;Mak, P.-I.;Martins, R.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 351 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.7 mW/Channel 48–1000 MHz Direct Sampling Full-Band Cable Receiver
Abstract:
A direct sampling full-band capture (FBC) receiver for cable and digital TV applications is presented. It consists of a 0.18 μm BiCMOS low-noise amplifier (LNA) and a 28 nm CMOS direct RF sampling receiver based on a 2.7 GS/s analog-to-digital converter (ADC) embedded in a system-on-chip (SoC). Digital signal processing (DSP) plays critical roles to assist analog circuits in providing functionalities and enhancing performances, including digital automatic gain control (AGC), digital phase-locked loop (PLL), and digital ADC compensation. The receiver is capable of receiving 158 256 QAM channels from 48 to 1000 MHz simultaneously, achieving up to 10 Gb/s data throughput for data and video while exceeding Data over cable service interface specification (DOCSIS) and Society of Cable Telecommunications Engineers (SCTE) requirements. The CMOS receiver occupies area while consuming 300 mW. The LNA consumes 130 mW and occupies area. The total power dissipation from the receiver is 2.7 mW per 6 MHz channel when capturing the entire cable spectrum.
Autors: Wu, J.;Cusmai, G.;Chou, A.W.-T.;Wang, T.;Shen, B.;Periasamy, V.;Hsieh, M.-H.;Chen, C.-Y.;He, L.;Tan, L.K.;Padyana, A.;Yang, V.C.-H.;Unruh, G.;Wong, J.K.L.;Hung, B.J.-J.;Brandolini, M.;Lin, M.S.-T.;Chen, X.;Ding, Y.;Ko, Y.-J.;Shin, Y.;Hung, A.H.T;Chen
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 845 - 859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 28 nm Configurable Memory (TCAM/BCAM/SRAM) Using Push-Rule 6T Bit Cell Enabling Logic-in-Memory
Abstract:
Conventional content addressable memory (BCAM and TCAM) uses specialized 10T/16T bit cells that are significantly larger than 6T SRAM cells. A new BCAM/TCAM is proposed that can operate with standard push-rule 6T SRAM cells, reducing array area by 2–5× and allowing reconfiguration of the SRAM as a CAM. In this way, chip area and overall capacitance can be reduced, leading to higher energy efficiency for search operations. In addition, the configurable memory can perform bit-wise logical operations: “AND” and “NOR” on two or more words stored within the array. Thus, the configurable memory with CAM and logical function capability can be used to off-load specific computational operations to the memory, improving system performance and efficiency. Using a 6T 28 nm FDSOI SRAM bit cell, the 64×64 (4 kb) BCAM achieves 370 MHz at 1 V and consumes 0.6 fJ/search/bit. A logical operation between two 64 bit words achieves 787 MHz at 1 V.
Autors: Jeloka, S.;Akesh, N.;Sylvester, D.;Blaauw, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 1009 - 1021
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3.8 mW/Gbps Quad-Channel 8.5–13 Gbps Serial Link With a 5 Tap DFE and a 4 Tap Transmit FFE in 28 nm CMOS
Abstract:
This paper presents a quad-lane serial transceiver that supports virtually all data center communication standards around 8.5–13 Gbps, implemented in 28 nm CMOS technology. The transmitter consists of 20:2 mux followed by a half-rate source-series terminated (SST) driver embedded with a 4 tap FFE and an analog equalizer. The receiver has an adaptive CTLE, 5 tap DFE, and fully digital CDR followed by 2:20 demux. At 13 Gbps, the transceiver can equalize 35 dB Nyquist loss at BER of 10-12. At 1.0 V supply, the transceiver consumes 49 mW/lane at 13 Gbps rate with full equalization capability. An LC VCO-based fractional PLL provides the clocking to quad TX/RX lanes using a low-power inductively tuned clock routing channel. The transceiver architecture not only enables the baud rate operation from 8.5 to 13 Gbps but also supports a wide range of oversampled subrates. This work represents the lowest reported power in its class to date, and the transceiver is suitable for many applications due to its comprehensive flexibility and power efficiency.
Autors: Kocaman, N.;Ali, T.;Rao, L.P.;Singh, U.;Abdul-Latif, M.;Liu, Y.;Hafez, A.A.;Park, H.;Vasani, A.;Huang, Z.;Iyer, A.;Zhang, B.;Momtaz, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 881 - 892
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40-nm 16-Mb Contact-Programming Mask ROM Using Dual Trench Isolation Diode Bitcell
Abstract:
A 16-Mb mask read-only memory (ROM) chip based on a novel diode structure is proposed. The diodes are constructed by buried n-type implantation layer and heavily doped p-type diffusion layer. With dual-trench isolation process and borderless contact scheme, the diode array can realize ultrahigh density. The fabricated mask ROM chip using 40-nm CMOS bulk technology is wired with three levels of metal, only two levels for diode arrays. The effective diode size is as small as 0.017 , which is the smallest bitcell of commercial mask ROM products in the world, to our best knowledge. The physical array density can achieve approximately 0.0225 mm/Mb. Test results indicate that chip standby leakage current is at 25 °C and at 85 °C with 2.5 V supply voltage. Array standby leakage is /Mb at 25 °C and /Mb at 85 °C with 2.5 V supply voltage.
Autors: Ye, Y.;Kang, Y.;Zhang, C.;Chan, Y.;Wu, H.;Lee, S.;Song, Z.;Chen, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1333 - 1341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-D Localization Method for a Magnetically Manipulated Untethered Robot Using a 2-D Array of Hall-Effect Sensors
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new 5-D localization method for an untethered meso-scale magnetic robot, which is manipulated by a computer-controlled electromagnetic system. The developed magnetic localization setup is a 2D array (8 × 8) of mono-axial Hall-effect sensors, which measure the perpendicular magnetic fields at their given positions. We introduce two steps for localizing a magnetic robot more accurately. First, the dipole-modeled magnetic field of the electromagnet is subtracted from the measured data in order to determine the robot's magnetic field. Second, the subtracted magnetic field is twice differentiated in the perpendicular direction of the array, so that the effect of the electromagnetic field in the localization process is minimized. Five variables regarding the position and orientation of the robot are determined by minimizing the error between the measured magnetic field and the modeled magnetic field in an optimization method. The resulting position error is 2.1 ± 0.8 mm and angular error is 6.7 ± 4.3° within the applicable range (5 cm) of magnetic field sensors at 200 Hz. The proposed localization method would be used for the position feedback control of untethered magnetic devices or robots for medical applications in the future.
Autors: Son, D.;Yim, S.;Sitti, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 708 - 716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-Gb/s 2.67-mW/Gb/s Digital Clock and Data Recovery With Hybrid Dithering Using a Time-Dithered Delta–Sigma Modulator
Abstract:
A digital clock and data recovery (CDR) employing a time-dithered delta–sigma modulator (TDDSM) is presented. By enabling hybrid dithering of a sampling period as well as an output bit of the TDDSM, the proposed CDR enhances the resolution of digitally controlled oscillator, removes a low-pass filter in the integral path, and reduces jitter generation. Fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, the proposed CDR operates at 5-Gb/s data rate with for PRBS 31. The CDR consumes 13.32 mW at 5 Gb/s and achieves 2.14 and 29.7 ps of a long-term rms and peak-to-peak jitter, respectively.
Autors: Lee, T.;Kim, Y.-H.;Sim, J.;Park, J.-S.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1450 - 1459
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 520k (18900, 17010) Array Dispersion LDPC Decoder Architectures for NAND Flash Memory
Abstract:
Although Latin square is a well-known algorithm to construct low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes for satisfying long code length, high code-rate, good correcting capability, and low error floor, it has a drawback of large submatrix that the hardware implementation will be suffered from large barrel shifter and worse routing congestion in fitting NAND flash applications. In this paper, a top-down design methodology, which not only goes through code construction and optimization, but also hardware implementation to meet all the critical requirements, is presented. A two-step array dispersion algorithm is proposed to construct long LDPC codes with a small submatrix size. Then, the constructed LDPC code is optimized by masking matrix to obtain better bit-error rate (BER) performance and lower error-floor. In addition, our LDPC codes have a diagonal-like structure in the parity-check matrix leading to a proposed hybrid storage architecture, which has the advantages of better area efficiency and large enough data bandwidth for high decoding throughput. To be adopted for NAND flash applications, an (18900, 17010) LDPC code with a code-rate of 0.9 and submatrix size of 63 is constructed and the field-programmable gate array simulations show that the error floor is successfully suppressed down to BER of . An LDPC decoder using normalized min-sum variable-node-centric sequential scheduling decoding algorithm is implemented in UMC 90-nm CMOS process. The postlayout result shows that the proposed LDPC decoder can achieve a throughput of 1.58 Gb/s at six iterations with a gate count of 520k under a clock frequency of 166.6 MHz. It meets the throughput requirement of both NAND flash memories with Toggle double data rate 1.0 and open NAND flash interface 2.3 NAND interfaces.
Autors: Ho, K.-C.;Chen, C.-L.;Chang, H.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1293 - 1304
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid NRZ/Multi-Tone I/O With Crosstalk and ISI Reduction for Dense Interconnects
Abstract:
A low-power four-channel hybrid NRZ/multi-tone transceiver for multi-drop bus (MDB) memory interfaces is designed and fabricated in 40 nm CMOS technology. The proposed system achieves 1 pJ/bit power efficiency, while communicating over an MDB channel with 45 dB loss at 3 GHz. The multi-tone (MT) nature of the proposed transceiver helps to control the intersymbol interference (ISI) and reduce the far-end crosstalk (FEXT), which results in a very energy-efficient implementation. The core size area is and for the TX and RX blocks (including the clock unit), respectively.
Autors: Gharibdoust, K.;Tajalli, A.;Leblebici, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 992 - 1002
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A A Integrated Current-Sensing System With % Gain Error and 16 μA Offset From to
Abstract:
This paper presents an integrated current-sensing system (CSS) that is intended for the use in battery-powered devices. It consists of a on-chip metal shunt resistor, a switched-capacitor (SC) ADC, and a dynamic bandgap reference (BGR) that provides the ADC’s reference voltage and also senses the shunt’s temperature. The CSS is realized in a standard CMOS process, occupies and draws from a 1.5 V supply. Extensive measurements were made on 24 devices, 12 of which were directly bonded to a printed-circuit board (PCB) and 12 of which were packaged in a standard HVQFN plastic package. For currents ranging from to A and over a temperature range of to , they exhibit a maximum offset of and a maximum gain error of . This level of accuracy represents a significant improvement on the state of the art, and was achieved by the use of an accurate shunt temperature compensation scheme, a low-leakage sampling scheme, and several dynamic error correction techniques.
Autors: Heidary Shalmany, S.;Draxelmayr, D.;Makinwa, K.A.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 800 - 808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bang Bang Phase-Locked Loop Using Automatic Loop Gain Control and Loop Latency Reduction Techniques
Abstract:
This paper presents a digital bang–bang phase-locked loop (DBPLL) that employs automatic loop gain control and loop latency reduction techniques to enhance the jitter performance. Due to noise filtering properties, a DBPLL has an optimal loop gain which gives rise to the best jitter performance, taking into account external and internal noise sources. By using the automatic loop gain control technique, the DBPLL can automatically attain this loop gain in background to minimize the jitter. This paper also exploits time-series analysis to analyze the DBPLL. In particular, the closed-form gain of a bang–bang phase detector (BBPD) is first derived, taking into account reference clock noise and oscillator noise simultaneously. The chip was fabricated in a 40 nm CMOS process. This DBPLL achieves fs integrated rms jitter and dBc reference spurs. It consumes 3.8 mW from a 1.1 V supply while operating at 3.96 GHz. This translates to an figure-of-merit (FOM) of dB.
Autors: Kuan, T.- K.;Liu, S.- I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 821 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bidirectional Neural Interface Circuit With Active Stimulation Artifact Cancellation and Cross-Channel Common-Mode Noise Suppression
Abstract:
This work presents a bidirectional neural interface circuit that enables simultaneous recording and stimulation with a stimulation artifact cancellation circuit. The system employs a common average referencing (CAR) front-end circuit to suppress cross-channel environmental noise to further facilitate use in clinical environment. This paper also introduces a new range-adapting (RA) SAR ADC to lower the system power consumption. A prototype is fabricated in CMOS and characterized and tested in vivo in an epileptic rat model. The prototype attenuates stimulation artifacts by up to 42 dB and suppresses cross-channel noise by up to 39.8 dB. The measured power consumption per channel is 330 nW, while the area per channel is 0.17 mm.
Autors: Mendrela, A.E.;Cho, J.;Fredenburg, J.A.;Nagaraj, V.;Netoff, T.I.;Flynn, M.P.;Yoon, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 955 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Biologically Inspired Automatic System for Media Quality Assessment
Abstract:
Photo aesthetic quality evaluation is a challenging task in artificial intelligence systems. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired aesthetic descriptor that mimicks humans sequentially perceiving visually/semantically salientIn general, visually salient regions are perceived by low-level visual features, such as the high contrast between the foreground and the background objects; while semantically salient regions are perceived by high-level visual features such as human faces.regions in a photo. In particular, a weakly supervised learning paradigm is developed to project the local image descriptors into a low-dimensional semantic space. Then, each graphlet can be described by multiple types of visual features, both in low-level and in high-level. Since humans usually perceive only a few salient regions in a photo, a sparsity-constrained graphlet ranking algorithm is proposed that seamlessly integrates both the low-level and the high-level visual cues. Top-ranked graphlets are those visually/semantically prominent local aesthetic descriptors in a photo. They are sequentially linked into a path that simulates humans actively viewing process. Finally, we learn a probabilistic aesthetic measure based on such actively viewing paths (AVPs) from the training photos. Experimental results show that: 1) the AVPs are 87.65% consistent with real human gaze shifting paths, as verified by the eye-tracking data and 2) our aesthetic measure outperforms many of its competitors.
Autors: Zhang, L.;Hong, R.;Nie, L.;Hong, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 894 - 902
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A c-mu Rule for Two-Tiered Parallel Servers
Abstract:
The c-mu rule is known to be optimal in many queueing systems with memoryless service and inter-arrival times. We establish a c-m rule for a parallel flexible server system with two tiers. Multiple job classes arrive and wait in separate queues. The first tier contains classes that can only be served by one server each, and the second tier contains a class that can be served by all servers. The c-mu preferences give priority to the first tier. Sequencing decisions are made to minimize linear holding costs.
Autors: Saghafian, S.;Veatch, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 61, issue:4, pages: 1046 - 1050
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cell Outage Management Framework for Dense Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a novel cell outage management (COM) framework for heterogeneous networks with split control and data planes—a candidate architecture for meeting future capacity, quality-of-service, and energy efficiency demands. In such an architecture, the control and data functionalities are not necessarily handled by the same node. The control base stations (BSs) manage the transmission of control information and user equipment (UE) mobility, whereas the data BSs handle UE data. An implication of this split architecture is that an outage to a BS in one plane has to be compensated by other BSs in the same plane. Our COM framework addresses this challenge by incorporating two distinct cell outage detection (COD) algorithms to cope with the idiosyncrasies of both data and control planes. The COD algorithm for control cells leverages the relatively larger number of UEs in the control cell to gather large-scale minimization-of-drive-test report data and detects an outage by applying machine learning and anomaly detection techniques. To improve outage detection accuracy, we also investigate and compare the performance of two anomaly-detecting algorithms, i.e., -nearest-neighbor- and local-outlier-factor-based anomaly detectors, within the control COD. On the other hand, for data cell COD, we propose a heuristic Grey-prediction-based approach, which can work with the small number of UE in the data cell, by exploiting the fact that the control BS manages UE-data BS connectivity and by receiving a periodic update of the received signal reference power statistic between the UEs and data BSs in its coverage. The detection accuracy of the heuristic data COD algorithm is further improved by exploiting the Fourier series of the residual error that is inherent to a Grey prediction model. Our COM framework integrates these two COD algorithms with a cell outage compensation (COC) algorit- m that can be applied to both planes. Our COC solution utilizes an actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm, which optimizes the capacity and coverage of the identified outage zone in a plane, by adjusting the antenna gain and transmission power of the surrounding BSs in that plane. The simulation results show that the proposed framework can detect both data and control cell outage and compensate for the detected outage in a reliable manner.
Autors: Onireti, O.;Zoha, A.;Moysen, J.;Imran, A.;Giupponi, L.;Imran, M.;Abu Dayya, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 2097 - 2113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Chemistry-Inspired Workflow Management System for Decentralizing Workflow Execution
Abstract:
With the recent widespread adoption of service-oriented architecture, the dynamic composition of services is now a crucial issue in the area of distributed computing. The coordination and execution of composite Web services are today typically conducted by heavyweight centralized workflow engines, leading to an increasing probability of processing and communication bottlenecks and failures. In addition, centralization induces higher deployment costs, such as the computing infrastructure to support the workflow engine, which is not affordable for a large number of small businesses and end-users. In a world where platforms are more and more dynamic and elastic as promised by cloud computing, decentralized and dynamic interaction schemes are required. Addressing the characteristics of such platforms, nature-inspired analogies recently regained attention to provide autonomous service coordination on top of dynamic large scale platforms. In this paper, we propose an approach for the decentralized execution of composite Web services based on an unconventional programming paradigm that relies on the chemical metaphor. It provides a high-level execution model that allows executing composite services in a decentralized manner. Composed of services communicating through a persistent shared space containing control and data flows between services, our architecture allows to distribute the composition coordination among nodes. A proof of concept is given, through the deployment of a software prototype implementing these concepts, showing the viability of an autonomic vision of service composition.
Autors: Fernandez, H.;Tedeschi, C.;Priol, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 213 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Class-Information-Based Sparse Component Analysis Method to Identify Differentially Expressed Genes on RNA-Seq Data
Abstract:
With the development of deep sequencing technologies, many RNA-Seq data have been generated. Researchers have proposed many methods based on the sparse theory to identify the differentially expressed genes from these data. In order to improve the performance of sparse principal component analysis, in this paper, we propose a novel class-information-based sparse component analysis (CISCA) method which introduces the class information via a total scatter matrix. First, CISCA normalizes the RNA-Seq data by using a Poisson model to obtain their differential sections. Second, the total scatter matrix is gotten by combining the between-class and within-class scatter matrices. Third, we decompose the total scatter matrix by using singular value decomposition and construct a new data matrix by using singular values and left singular vectors. Then, aiming at obtaining sparse components, CISCA decomposes the constructed data matrix by solving an optimization problem with sparse constraints on loading vectors. Finally, the differentially expressed genes are identified by using the sparse loading vectors. The results on simulation and real RNA-Seq data demonstrate that our method is effective and suitable for analyzing these data.
Autors: Liu, Jin-Xing;Xu, Y.;Gao, Ying-Lian;Zheng, Chun-Hou;Wang, D.;Zhu, Q.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 392 - 398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combinational-Logic Method for Electric Vehicle Drivetrain Fault Diagnosis
Abstract:
This paper presents a combinational-logic-based approach for identifying faults that could occur in the drivetrain of an electric vehicle (EV). A real-time simulation model of an EV is used to study the behavior of available sensor signals and control commands, with specific measured quantities, during vehicle operation. Those quantities could be, but are not limited to, mean values of the phase currents, DC bus current, traction motor speed (if available), in addition to control command quantities. Focus is given to these quantities which are abundant in vehicle inverters and controllers for no added sensing costs. Those quantities carry information of offsets and disturbances that could occur under faulty operating conditions compared to nominal operation, and are thus observed and studied under these conditions. Using such information, a method is developed using simple combinational logic and thresholds to diagnose a fault occurring at any time during a vehicle drive cycle. By combining features of measured quantities that behave similarly irrespective of when the fault occurs during a driving cycle, the proposed method is fault-time-insensitive. The proposed method is presented and validated by real-time simulations to capture over 20 different faults injected at different drive cycle times and in different drivetrain components—electric machine, inverter, transmission, and sensors. Results show that the proposed method is able to robustly and successfully diagnose different faults irrespective of when would they occur.
Autors: Ulatowski, A.;Bazzi, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 1796 - 1807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Fault-Tolerant and Predictive Control for Network-Based Industrial Processes
Abstract:
This paper investigates the tracking and optimization problems for a class of industrial processes by utilizing output feedback fault-tolerant control (FTC) and predictive compensation strategy. At device layer, the tracking problem for device layer subsystems which subject to random failures and random network-induced delays is investigated. These two different random processes are modeled as Markovian chains. Device layer controllers are designed to guarantee the tracking performance at H disturbance attenuation level. At operation layer, a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy is proposed to stabilize the upper operation layer system. Then by considering the effect of radial basis function (RBF) performance index and random packet dropout phenomena, a predictive compensator is designed to guarantee the input-to-state practical stability (ISpS) of the resulting system. In addition, networked flotation processes are considered in the simulation part, and the simulation results further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Wang, T.;Gao, H.;Qiu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 2529 - 2536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Model-Based and Intelligent Method for Small Fault Detection and Isolation of Actuators
Abstract:
This paper proposes a combined method to detect and isolate small faults of actuators in closed-loop control systems. The fault with some tiny magnitude (not larger than the magnitude of disturbances) is mainly considered for the nonlinear system subjected to model uncertainties, disturbances, and noises. The basic idea of our study is to use model-based method to decouple the possible disturbances and isolate faults, and then, appeal to computing intelligence to further reduce the influence of remaining model uncertainties. Specifically, the proposed approach is an extension of the observer-based method with artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling technique to enhance the performance of the diagnosis system. With the decision logic considered, the small faults of actuators can be detected successfully. This method is applied to a satellite attitude control system and the effectiveness is shown.
Autors: Cheng, Y.;Wang, R.;Xu, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 2403 - 2413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer on a Silicon Optical Bench With an Electrothermal MEMS Mirror
Abstract:
This paper reports a compact Fourier transform spectrometer system with a large-stroke electrothermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) mirror and other optical components all integrated on a micromachined silicon optical bench with the footprint of 2 cm cm. The linear optical path difference (OPD) scan range generated by the MEMS mirror reaches up to 450 , and the tilting of the mirror plate is reduced down to <±0.002° by using a new open-loop control method. A spectral resolution of 40 cm, or 1.1 nm at 532 nm, has been achieved. The overall size of the system is reduced dramatically and the performance is improved significantly compared with the prior work. [2015-0298]
Autors: Wang, W.;Chen, J.;Zivkovic, A.S.;Tanguy, Q.A.A.;Xie, H.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 347 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Wideband SIW-Fed Dielectric Antenna With End-Fire Radiation Pattern
Abstract:
In this communication, a triangular-shaped dielectric antenna fed by substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) is proposed and researched. The effect of the extended substrate’s length on performance of the proposed antenna is first researched. In order to reduce sidelobe level (SLL) at high frequency as well as increase the adjustability of the proposed antenna while maintaining its planar structure, air vias are periodically perforated into the loaded substrate to modify the permittivity. The variation trend of modifying permittivity with changing performance of the proposed antenna is studied, followed by analyzing function of the transition stage(s) of the extended substrate. Through optimizing the dielectric length and modifying the diameters of air vias to change the permittivity, the proposed antenna with wide operating bandwidth and low SLL can be realized. Measured results indicate that the proposed antenna works from 17.6 to 26.7 GHz, which almost covers the whole band. Besides, stable end-fire radiation patterns in the whole operating band are obtained. Moreover, at least 8.3-dBi peak gains with low SLL are achieved as well.
Autors: Cai, Y.;Qian, Z.;Zhang, Y.;Cao, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1502 - 1507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparator-Based Rail Clamp
Abstract:
A comparator-based rail clamp for handling electrostatic discharge (ESD) events is presented. The new circuit technique allows the use of a time constant that can be much smaller than a traditional and inverter-based clamp. The new clamp is more area-efficient and dissipates ESD events with little residual energy. The design is able to support applications with power-ON time slower than , is immune to latch-ON, and recovers very quickly if falsely triggered. Experimental results and performance comparisons with the traditional circuit are presented.
Autors: Venkatasubramanian, R.;Oertle, K.;Ozev, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1493 - 1502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of AC and HVDC Options for the Connection of Offshore Wind Generation in Great Britain
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparison of two forms of cable connection of a distant offshore wind farm to a transmission system: AC and HVDC. The requirements of relevant industry standards in Great Britain (GB) that drive a connection design and, hence, its costs are highlighted along with an analysis of the ways in which AC cable connections might be made to comply while facilitating the export of active power. Dynamic studies investigating responses to grid-side short-circuit faults show that, in the particular scenarios studied, an AC connection of a wind farm in place of a large synchronous generator is marginally detrimental while an HVDC connection is beneficial. A comparison of costs shows that the crossover distance at which HVDC is cheaper than AC for wind farms of different sizes occurs at longer distances than have hitherto commonly been assumed, and AC connections benefit from reactive compensation not only at the point of common coupling and wind farm end, but also at the connection midpoint.
Autors: Elliott, D.;Bell, K.R.W;Finney, S.J.;Adapa, R.;Brozio, C.;Yu, J.;Hussain, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 798 - 809
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison Study for DNA Motif Modeling on Protein Binding Microarray
Abstract:
Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) are relatively short (5-15 bp) and degenerate. Identifying them is a computationally challenging task. In particular, protein binding microarray (PBM) is a high-throughput platform that can measure the DNA binding preference of a protein in a comprehensive and unbiased manner; for instance, a typical PBM experiment can measure binding signal intensities of a protein to all possible DNA k-mers (10). Since proteins can often bind to DNA with different binding intensities, one of the major challenges is to build TFBS (also known as DNA motif) models which can fully capture the quantitative binding affinity data. To learn DNA motif models from the non-convex objective function landscape, several optimization methods are compared and applied to the PBM motif model building problem. In particular, representative methods from different optimization paradigms have been chosen for modeling performance comparison on hundreds of PBM datasets. The results suggest that the multimodal optimization methods are very effective for capturing the binding preference information from PBM data. In particular, we observe a general performance improvement if choosing di-nucleotide modeling over mono-nucleotide modeling. In addition, the models learned by the best-performing method are applied to two independent applications: PBM probe rotation testing and ChIP-Seq peak sequence prediction, demonstrating its biological applicability.
Autors: Wong, Ka-Chun;Li, Y.;Peng, C.;Wong, Hau-San;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 261 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Magnet Defect Fault Analysis of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors
Abstract:
In this paper, magnet defect faults and their corresponding reflections on permanent-magnet (PM) motor stator variables are investigated. An analytical approach based on a partitioned magnetic equivalent circuit is developed to determine the influence of magnet defect faults on PM motor variables. Due to the flexibility of the proposed method, the effect of each rotor magnets on each stator coil can be calculated to obtain the induced back electromotove force under faulty cases and observe the fault-related signatures in the frequency spectrum. The proposed tool significantly reduces the computational burden and provides sufficient accuracy, which significantly eases to simulate several magnet fault scenarios and examine detailed topology dependence relations in shorter time. Different cases, including various numbers and locations of defected magnets, winding configurations, and crack direction effects, are studied to understand the magnet defect influences comprehensively. The experiments and simulations are carried out at different speeds and load conditions to fully characterize the fault signatures. Comparative 2-D finite-element simulations and experimental results justify the theoretical magnet defect fault analysis and show the efficacy of the proposed approach.
Autors: Zafarani, M.;Goktas, T.;Akin, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 1331 - 1339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Concept for Docking a UUV With a Slowly Moving Submarine Under Waves
Abstract:
Docking an unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) with a submerged submarine in littoral waters in high sea states requires more dexterity than either the submarine or streamlined UUV possess. The proposed solution uses an automated active dock to correct for transverse relative motion between the vehicles. Acoustic, electromagnetic, and optical sensors provide position sensing redundancy in unpredictable conditions. The concept is being evaluated by building and testing individual components to characterize their performance, errors, and limitations, and then simulating the system to establish its viability at low cost.
Autors: Watt, G.D.;Roy, A.R.;Currie, J.;Gillis, C.B.;Giesbrecht, J.;Heard, G.J.;Birsan, M.;Seto, M.L.;Carretero, J.A.;Dubay, R.;Jeans, T.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 41, issue:2, pages: 471 - 498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Configurable Parallel Hardware Architecture for Efficient Integral Histogram Image Computing
Abstract:
Integral histogram image can accelerate the computing process of feature algorithm in computer vision, but exhibits high computation complexity and inefficient memory access. In this paper, we propose a configurable parallel architecture to improve the computing efficiency of integral histogram. Based on the configurable design in the architecture, multiple integral objects for integral histogram image, such as image intensity, image gradient, and local binary pattern, are well supported. Meanwhile, by means of the proposed strip-based memory partitioning mechanism, this architecture processes the integral histogram quickly with maximal parallelism in a pipeline manner. Besides, in this architecture, the proposed data correlation memory compression mechanism effectively solves the expansion problem of integral histogram memory caused by storing the histogram data. It fully reduces the data redundancy in the integral histograms, and saves a lot of memory resources. Experiments using Cyclone IV-based field-programmable gate array platform and 65-nm technology-based postsynthesis show that our architecture improves the average computing speed by 8.6 times with high power efficiency compared with the state-of-the-art works.
Autors: Yin, S.;Ouyang, P.;Chen, T.;Liu, L.;Wei, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1305 - 1318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Corner-Free Truncation Strategy in Three-Dimensional FDTD Computation
Abstract:
The corner-free truncation (CFT) strategy is proposed to improve the efficiency of numerical simulation in computational electrodynamics. The spherical boundary, namely the CFT strategy, is built up in the Cartesian coordinate system, which has been implemented via making use of the impedance-matched layer. The proposed CFT strategy is used for terminating computational domain of the conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) to absorb the outward electromagnetic waves. Moreover, based on the proposed boundary, the computation becomes simpler. The original FDTD computational domain is reduced to be nearly a half, and the computational resource is saved significantly, both of which are due to the fact that no curvilinear model is applied in truncating the boundary. The numerical simulations of target scattering problems have been achieved to validate the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Zhang, Y.;Feng, N.;Zheng, H.;Liu, H.;Zhu, J.;Liu, Q.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 512 - 522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Driven Bias-Correction-Method-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Approach for Electric Vehicle Applications
Abstract:
Due to the inconsistent and varied characteristics of lithium-ion battery (LiB) cells, battery pack modeling remains a challenging problem. To model the operation of each cell in the battery pack, considerable work effort and computation time are needed. This paper proposes a data-driven bias-correction-based LiB modeling method, which can significantly reduce the computation work and remain good model accuracy.
Autors: Gong, X.;Xiong, R.;Mi, C.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 1759 - 1765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deadline-Constrained 802.11 MAC Protocol With QoS Differentiation for Soft Real-Time Control
Abstract:
As one of the most widely used wireless network technologies, IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) have found a dramatically increasing number of applications in soft real-time networked control systems (NCSs). To fulfill the real-time requirements in such NCSs, most of the bandwidth of the wireless networks need to be allocated to high-priority data for periodic measurements and control with deadline requirements. However, existing quality of service (QoS)-enabled 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocols do not consider the deadline requirements explicitly, leading to unpredictable deadline performance of NCS networks. Consequentially, the soft real-time requirements of the periodic traffic may not be satisfied, particularly under congested network conditions. This paper makes two main contributions to address this problem in wireless NCSs. A deadline-constrained MAC protocol with QoS differentiation is presented for IEEE 802.11 soft real-time NCSs. It handles periodic traffic by developing two specific mechanisms, a contention-sensitive backoff mechanism and an intra-traffic-class QoS differentiation mechanism. A theoretical model is established to describe the deadline-constrained MAC protocol and evaluate its performance of throughput, delay, and packet-loss ratio in wireless NCSs. Numerical studies are conducted to validate the accuracy of the theoretical model and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new MAC protocol.
Autors: Tian, G.;Camtepe, S.;Tian, Yu-Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 544 - 554
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decision-Tree-Based Perceptual Video Quality Prediction Model and Its Application in FEC for Wireless Multimedia Communications
Abstract:
With the exponential growth of video traffic over wireless networked and embedded devices, mechanisms are needed to predict and control perceptual video quality to meet the quality of experience (QoE) requirements in an energy-efficient way. This paper proposes an energy-efficient QoE support framework for wireless video communications. It consists of two components: 1) a perceptual video quality model that allows the prediction of video quality in real-time and with low complexity, and 2) an application layer energy-efficient and content-aware forward error correction (FEC) scheme for preventing quality degradation caused by network packet losses. The perceptual video quality model characterizes factors related to video content as well as distortion caused by compression and transmission. Prediction of perceptual quality is achieved through a decision tree using a set of observable features from the compressed bitstream and the network. The proposed model can achieve prediction accuracy of 88.9% and 90.5% on two distinct testing sets. Based on the proposed quality model, a novel FEC scheme is introduced to protect video packets from losses during transmission. Given a user-defined perceptual quality requirement, the FEC scheme adjusts the level of protection for different components in a video stream to minimize network overhead. Simulation results show that the proposed FEC scheme can enhance the perceptual quality of videos. Compared to conventional FEC methods for video communications, the proposed FEC scheme can reduce network overhead by 41% on average.
Autors: Hameed, A.;Dai, R.;Balas, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 764 - 774
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Deep-Intelligence Framework for Online Video Processing
Abstract:
Video data has become the largest source of big data. Owing to video data's complexities, velocity, and volume, public security and other surveillance applications require efficient, intelligent runtime video processing. To address these challenges, a proposed framework combines two cloud-computing technologies: Storm stream processing and Hadoop batch processing. It uses deep learning to realize deep intelligence that can help reveal knowledge hidden in video data. An implementation of this framework combines five architecture styles: service-oriented architecture, publish-subscribe, the Shared Data pattern, MapReduce, and a layered architecture. Evaluations of performance, scalability, and fault tolerance showed the framework's effectiveness. This article is part of a special issue on Software Engineering for Big Data Systems.
Autors: Zhang, W.;Xu, L.;Li, Z.;Lu, Q.;Liu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 44 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DGTD Scheme for Modeling the Radiated Emission From DUTs in Shielding Enclosures Using Near Electric Field Only
Abstract:
To meet the electromagnetic interference regulation, the radiated emission from device under test such as electronic devices must be carefully manipulated and accurately characterized. Instead of resorting to the direct far-field measurement, in this paper, a novel approach is proposed to model the radiated emission from electronic devices placed in shielding enclosures by using the near electric field only. Based on the Schelkkunoff's equivalence principle and Raleigh-Carson reciprocity theorem, only the tangential components of the electric field over the ventilation slots and apertures of the shielding enclosure are sufficient to obtain the radiated emissions outside the shielding box if the inside of the shielding enclosure was filled with perfectly electric conductor (PEC). In order to efficiently model wideband emission, the time-domain sampling scheme is employed. Due to the lack of analytical Green's function for arbitrary PEC boxes, the radiated emission must be obtained via the full-wave numerical methods by considering the total radiated emission as the superposition between the direct radiation from the equivalent magnetic currents in free space and the scattered field generated by the PEC shielding box. In this study, the state-of-the-art discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method is utilized, which has the flexibility to model irregular geometries, keep high-order accuracy, and more importantly involves only local operations. For open-region problems, a hybridized DGTD and time-domain boundary integration method applied to rigorously truncate the computational domain. To validate the proposed approach, several representative examples are presented and compared with both analytical and numerical results.
Autors: Li, P.;Shi, Y.;Jiang, L.J.;Bagci, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 457 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Directional Protection Scheme for HVDC Transmission Lines Based on Reactive Energy
Abstract:
High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission-line protection is becoming increasingly desirable with the expanding worldwide popularity of HVDC technologies in recent years. This paper proposes a transmission-line backup protection scheme based on the integral of reactive power for HVDC systems. The directional characteristics of reactive power flow are theoretically analyzed for internal and external faults, and these characteristics are used to construct a directional protection scheme. The Hilbert transform is adopted to calculate the reactive power, which ensures a continuous output of calculation results and improves the reliability of the protection. A bipolar 12-pulse HVDC test system based on the CIGRE benchmark is modeled using PSCAD/EMTDC, and extensive simulations of various fault situations are conducted to test the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed protection scheme correctly identifies internal and external faults and performs well with different fault distances and fault resistances. Furthermore, the proposed protection is insensitive to the sampling frequency, making it practical for future applications.
Autors: Luo, S.;Dong, X.;Shi, S.;Wang, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 559 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Filtering Scheme to Mitigate Harmonics in Residential Distribution Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel scheme to mitigate harmonic distortions in modern residential distribution systems. The scheme deploys multiple low-voltage filters in randomly selected locations of a distribution system. The main challenges of such a distributed filtering scheme, cost of installation and hardware, are solved through an innovative filter configuration and installation concept, namely, the filter is a 240 V device that can be easily plugged into the sockets of utility revenue meters. Analytical, simulation, and economic studies have been conducted to understand the filter design parameters, performance characteristics, and cost implications. As an example application, the scheme is evaluated for mitigating an actual harmonic-caused telephone interference problem. The results show that the proposed scheme can be a promising option to reduce the harmonic distortions in selected areas of a distribution system.
Autors: Bagheri, P.;Xu, W.;Ding, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 648 - 656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Band Low-Profile Aperture Antenna With Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Grooves
Abstract:
This communication presents a new dual-band low-profile aperture antenna with relatively high gain using substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) corrugated structures. It consists of a cavity excited by a transmission line and four SIW grooves that produce good reflection coefficient and enhanced gain. By designing corrugated structure using constructive superposition of electric fields of patch and grooves, the antenna with high performance in both bands is achieved. In the proposed structure, three simple printed circuit boards (PCBs) for implementing a resonant transmission line and specific SIW structures are employed instead of waveguide feeder and grooves on metallic plate in conventional corrugated antennas. Removing the metallic plate reduces the weight and cost of the structure and provides ease of fabrication. Dual-band characteristic is achieved using resonant slot (cavity) and resonant transmission line. Fabrication results show that the SIW grooves significantly increase the antenna gain with respect to the simple slot antenna.
Autors: Honari, M.M.;Mirzavand Boroujeni, R.;Saghlatoon, H.;Mousavi, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1561 - 1566
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Polarization Slotted Waveguide Array Antenna With Polarization-Tracking Capability and Reduced Sidelobe Level
Abstract:
This communication presents an innovative dual-polarization antenna working at Ku band () based on slotted waveguide array (SWGA) technology. The proposed solution allows to simultaneously generate two orthogonal circular polarizations that are combined to generate two orthogonal linear polarizations with polarization-tracking capabilities and very low cross-polarization level thanks to the symmetry of the structure. The antenna is composed of two interleaved slotted ridge waveguide arrays connected to a polarizer, realized with an array of triangular-base ridged cavities. Slots, located at the waveguide centerline, are excited by means of posts avoiding offsets and leading to a regular grid arrangement. Radiating elements are placed in a triangular lattice to minimize the azimuth sidelobe level and provide high EIRP levels.
Autors: Vincenti Gatti, R.;Rossi, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1567 - 1572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Multiagent Genetic Algorithm for Gene Regulatory Network Reconstruction Based on Fuzzy Cognitive Maps
Abstract:
In order to reconstruct large-scale gene regulatory networks (GRNs) with high accuracy, a robust evolutionary algorithm, a dynamic multiagent genetic algorithm (dMAGA), is proposed to reconstruct GRNs from time-series expression profiles based on fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) in this paper. The algorithm is labeled as dMAGAFCM-GRN. In dMAGAFCM-GRN, agents and their behaviors are designed with the intrinsic properties of GRN reconstruction problems in mind. All agents live in a lattice-like environment, and the neighbors of each agent are changed dynamically according to their energy in each generation. dMAGAFCM-GRN can learn continuous states directly for FCMs from data. In the experiments, the performance of dMAGAFCM-GRN is validated on both large-scale synthetic data and the benchmark DREAM3 and DREAM4. The experimental results show that dMAGAFCM-GRN is able to effectively learn FCMs with 200 nodes; that is, 40 000 weights need to be optimized. The systematic comparison with five existing algorithms shows that dMAGAFCM-GRN outperforms all other algorithms and can approximate the time series with high accuracy.
Autors: Liu, J.;Chi, Y.;Zhu, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 419 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dynamic Network Modeling-Based Approach for Traffic Observability Problem
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel approach for studying the observability problem on a general topology of a traffic freeway network. We develop a new framework, which investigates observability in terms of flow and routing information on the network arcs. We utilize lumped-parameter-based ordinary differential equation (ODE) setting to model traffic dynamics on a network arc and then combine it with the ODE model of routing dynamics to develop a state-space model for the network. We then linearize the network dynamics about steady-state flow, calculate the observability matrix, and apply the rank condition test on it. Some of the problems addressed in the paper include the following: identification of essential and redundant measurements in the context of observability, and verification of the sufficiency of a given set of states for the observability of the system. In particular, three different observability problems are formulated and solved using the proposed framework. The methodology is then illustrated by its application on carefully chosen network examples from the commonly encountered traffic freeway scenarios. A theorem and a corollary providing a necessary condition for observability are also proved. Finally, a conjecture based on the observations from the solved network examples is provided.
Autors: Agarwal, S.;Kachroo, P.;Contreras, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 1168 - 1178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fabry–Pérot Antenna With Two-Dimensional Electronic Beam Scanning
Abstract:
A novel fixed-frequency electronically steerable Fabry–Pérot Antenna (FPA) with electronic two-dimensional (2-D) (azimuth and elevation) steering capability is presented. The configuration is based on a centrally fed Fabry–Pérot cavity (FPC) loaded with a tunable high impedance surface (HIS). Varactor diodes are used to electronically tune the HIS reflection coefficient, forming four azimuthal sectors that are independently controlled by four control signals, respectively. It is demonstrated that this simple configuration generates a pencil beam that can be pointed to eight discrete azimuthal directions, whereas continuous elevation scanning is also attained simultaneously for each azimuthal direction by controlling the leaky-wave propagation constant. The theory, simulation analysis, and experimental results obtained from a prototype operating at 5.5 GHz are presented to validate the antenna design.
Autors: Guzman-Quiros, R.;Weily, A.R.;Gomez-Tornero, J.L.;Guo, Y.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1536 - 1541
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Family of Fault-Tolerant Efficient Indirect Topologies
Abstract:
On the one hand, performance and fault-tolerance of interconnection networks are key design issues for high performance computing (HPC) systems. On the other hand, cost should be also considered. Indirect topologies are often chosen in the design of HPC systems. Among them, the most commonly used topology is the fat-tree. In this work, we focus on getting the maximum benefits from the network resources by designing a simple indirect topology with very good performance and fault-tolerance properties, while keeping the hardware cost as low as possible. To do that, we propose some extensions to the fat-tree topology to take full advantage of the hardware resources consumed by the topology. In particular, we propose three new topologies with different properties in terms of cost, performance and fault-tolerance. All of them are able to achieve a similar or better performance results than the fat-tree, providing also a good level of fault-tolerance and, contrary to most of the available topologies, these proposals are able to tolerate also faults in the links that connect to end nodes.
Autors: Bermudez, D.;Gomez Requena, C.;Gomez, M.;Lopez, P.;Duato, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 927 - 940
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexible Piezoelectric Pulsewave Energy Harvester for Application to High-Efficiency Multi-Functional Skin Patches
Abstract:
A piezoelectric pulsewave energy harvester composed of flexible three-layers generates electrical power from human arterial pulsewaves. We present the simple structure and novel fabrication process of the flexible three-layers, having a silver inter-electrode layer between a P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer and a polyimide support layer. The triple functions and the purposes of the silver inter-electrode layer are designed, acting as an electrode for piezoelectric poling, an electrode for piezoelectric energy harvesting, as well as an etch stop barrier for window patterning on the polyimide support layer. We also developed special processes for the window patterning on the polyimide support layer with the polyimide residue removal on the silver electrode, thereby increasing the piezoelectric energy generation efficiency and support flexibility, as well as achieving an electric contact to the silver electrode through the patterned window. The fabricated energy harvester generates from the human pulsewave in the range of BPM, where the effect of window formation is demonstrated to increase energy efficiency and flexibility in the amount of 45% and 8%, respectively. The flexible energy harvester is capable to integrate additional physiological sensors for the applications to the multi-functional self-powered skin patches. [2015-0194]
Autors: Yoon, S.;Sim, J.K.;Cho, Y.-H.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 25, issue:2, pages: 388 - 393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Flexure-Based Kinematically Decoupled Micropositioning Stage With a Centimeter Range Dedicated to Micro/Nano Manufacturing
Abstract:
Precision positioning stages with large strokes and high positioning accuracy are attractive for high-performance micro/nano manufacturing. This paper presents the dynamic design and characteristic investigation of a novel XY micropositioning stage. First, the mechanism of the stage was introduced. The XY stage was directly driven by two linear motors, and the X- and Y-axes kinematic decoupling was realized through a novel flexible decoupling mechanism based on the flexure hinges and preloaded spring. The dynamic model of the XY stage was established, and the influences of the rotational stiffness of the flexure hinge and the initial positions of the working table on the dynamic rotation of the positioning stage were investigated. The stiffness and geometric parameters of the flexure hinges were determined at the condition that the angular displacements of the working table were within ±0.5° with a motion stroke of ±25 mm. Finally the stage performance was investigated through simulation and experiments, and the X- and Y-axes step responses, the rotation angle, and positioning accuracy of the stage were obtained. The results show that the stage exhibits good performance and can be used for micro/nano manufacturing.
Autors: Wang, F.;Liang, C.;Tian, Y.;Zhao, X.;Zhang, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 1055 - 1062
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Forward Collision Warning Algorithm With Adaptation to Driver Behaviors
Abstract:
Significant effort has been made on designing user-acceptable driver assistance systems. To adapt to driver characteristics, this paper proposes a forward collision warning (FCW) algorithm that can adjust its warning thresholds in a real-time manner according to driver behavior changes, including both behavioral fluctuation and individual difference. This adaptive FCW algorithm overcomes the limit of traditional FCW with fixed risk evaluation models and fixed triggering thresholds by continuously monitoring driver braking behaviors in multiple lanes. A real-time identification algorithm for the warning thresholds is designed by using the recursive least squares method. Based on naturalistic experimental data, offline simulations show that this algorithm can match driver behavioral fluctuation and individual difference in long-time driving condition, and as time goes on, the adaptability to driver behavior is gradually improved, thus decreasing the false-alarm rate of FCW.
Autors: Wang, J.;Yu, C.;Li, S.E.;Wang, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 17, issue:4, pages: 1157 - 1167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Dynamic Network Architecture and Topology Optimization
Abstract:
A new paradigm in wireless network access is presented and analyzed. In this concept, certain classes of wireless terminals can be turned temporarily into an access point (AP) anytime while connected to the Internet. This creates a dynamic network architecture (DNA) since the number and location of these APs vary in time. In this paper, we present a framework to optimize different aspects of this architecture. First, the dynamic AP association problem is addressed with the aim to optimize the network by choosing the most convenient APs to provide the quality-of-service (QoS) levels demanded by the users with the minimum cost. Then, an economic model is developed to compensate the users for serving as APs and, thus, augmenting the network resources. The users' security investment is also taken into account in the AP selection. A preclustering process of the DNA is proposed to keep the optimization process feasible in a high dense network. To dynamically reconfigure the optimum topology and adjust it to the traffic variations, a new specific encoding of genetic algorithm (GA) is presented. Numerical results show that GA can provide the optimum topology up to two orders of magnitude faster than exhaustive search for network clusters, and the improvement significantly increases with the cluster size.
Autors: Shafigh, A.S.;Lorenzo, B.;Glisic, S.;Perez-Romero, J.;DaSilva, L.A.;MacKenzie, A.B.;Roning, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 717 - 730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Framework for Practical Dynamic Software Updating
Abstract:
Dynamic software updating (DSU) enables a program to be patched on the fly without being shutdown. This paper addresses the practicality problem of the recent research on DSU systems, and presents Replus, a new DSU system that balances practicality and functionality. Replus aims to retain backward binary compatibility and support multi-threaded programs. In addition, it does not require customers to have developer-level software knowledge. More importantly, without specific compiler support, Replus can patch programs that are difficult to be updated at runtime, as well as programs that may incur an indefinite delay in DSU. The key technique of our solution is to update the stack elements for the patched program using two new mechanisms: Immediate Stack Updating, which immediately updates the stack of a thread, and timely stack updating, which only updates the stack frames of the necessary functions without affecting others. Replus also develops an Instruction Level Updating mechanism, which is more efficient for certain security patches. We used popular server applications as test suites to evaluate the effectiveness of Replus. The experimental results demonstrated that Replus can successfully update all the test suites with negligible impact on application performance.
Autors: Chen, G.;Jin, H.;Zou, D.;Liang, Z.;Zhou, B.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 27, issue:4, pages: 941 - 950
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Frequency-Independent Method for Computing the Physical Optics-Based Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From a Hyperbolic Surface
Abstract:
In this communication, we propose a frequency-independent approach, the numerical steepest descent path (NSDP) method, for computing the physical optics scattered electromagnetic field on the quadratic hyperbolic surface. Due to the highly oscillatory nature of the physical optics integral, the proposed method relies on deforming the integration path of the integral into the NSDP on the complex plane. Numerical results for the PO-based EM fields from the hyperbolic surface illustrate that the proposed NSDP method is frequency independent in computational cost and error controllable in accuracy.
Autors: Wu, Y.;Chew, W.;Jin, Y.;Jiang, L.;Ye, H.;Sha, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1546 - 1552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fully Integrated Point-of-Load Digital System Supply With PVT Compensation
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully integrated process, supply voltage, and temperature compensated supply (PVTCS) for a point-of-load digital system. Through adding the appropriate weighted threshold voltage variation from the pMOS ( and the nMOS ( diodes to the reference voltage of a high-speed low-dropout voltage regulator, the supply of the digital circuit becomes adaptive, and hence, it minimizes the speed deviation in the context of PVT variations. Validated in a UMC 65-nm CMOS process, the simulation and the measurement results of an inverter chain-based oscillator have validated the effectiveness of PVTCS. It can significantly reduce the delay variations with respect to the uncompensated supply counterpart. The same goes for a sample critical path-based oscillator with extensive simulation results. Therefore, the proposed circuit is useful for the digital point-of-load application, with the key technical merit of PVT compensation without encountering the potential latch-up problem from the reported methods.
Autors: Tan, X.L.;Chan, P.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:4, pages: 1421 - 1429
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fuzzy-Based Building Automation Control System: Optimizing the Level of Energy Performance and Comfort in an Office Space by Taking Advantage of Building Automation Systems and Solar Energy
Abstract:
Building automation systems (BASs) are the key to improving the energy performance of buildings as well as the occupants' comfort. There is a need to build a knowledge base on the matter and to grow suitable algorithms for a smart management of intelligent buildings. Therefore, fuzzy logic is a valuable candidate for developing robust algorithms. The scope of this article is to validate a fuzzy-logic approach with the ability to optimize the level of energy performance and comfort in an office space by taking advantage of BASs and solar energy. In BASs, dynamic elements, e.g., dynamic facade and luminaires, can exploit daylight and solar gain based on the condition that well-programmed integrated multicriteria decision-making methods are used. In this article, a virtual model of a smart office room (SOR) equipped with dynamic shading, lighting, and an air-conditioning control system was studied, and four different scenarios were considered: control versus no control, economy versus comfort mode, fluorescent versus light-emitting diode (LED), and dimming versus switching. Both economy and comfort mode showed a better energy performance than the noncontrolled scenarios. In conclusion, the proposed model is a valuable tool for optimizing comfort features and energy demand.
Autors: Martirano, L.;Parise, G.;Parise, L.;Manganelli, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 10 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generalization of Majorization that Characterizes Shannon Entropy
Abstract:
We introduce a binary relation on the finite discrete probability distributions, which generalizes notions of majorization that have been studied in quantum information theory. Motivated by questions in thermodynamics, our relation describes the transitions induced by bistochastic maps in the presence of additional auxiliary systems, which may become correlated in the process. We show that this relation is completely characterized by Shannon entropy , which yields an interpretation of in resource-theoretic terms, and admits a particularly simple proof of a known characterization of in terms of natural information-theoretic properties.
Autors: Mueller, M.P.;Pastena, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 1711 - 1720
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generative Probabilistic Model and Discriminative Extensions for Brain Lesion Segmentation— With Application to Tumor and Stroke
Abstract:
We introduce a generative probabilistic model for segmentation of brain lesions in multi-dimensional images that generalizes the EM segmenter, a common approach for modelling brain images using Gaussian mixtures and a probabilistic tissue atlas that employs expectation-maximization (EM), to estimate the label map for a new image. Our model augments the probabilistic atlas of the healthy tissues with a latent atlas of the lesion. We derive an estimation algorithm with closed-form EM update equations. The method extracts a latent atlas prior distribution and the lesion posterior distributions jointly from the image data. It delineates lesion areas individually in each channel, allowing for differences in lesion appearance across modalities, an important feature of many brain tumor imaging sequences. We also propose discriminative model extensions to map the output of the generative model to arbitrary labels with semantic and biological meaning, such as “tumor core” or “fluid-filled structure”, but without a one-to-one correspondence to the hypo- or hyper-intense lesion areas identified by the generative model. We test the approach in two image sets: the publicly available BRATS set of glioma patient scans, and multimodal brain images of patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke. We find the generative model that has been designed for tumor lesions to generalize well to stroke images, and the extended discriminative -discriminative model to be one of the top ranking methods in the BRATS evaluation.
Autors: Menze, B.;Van Leemput, K.;Riklin Raviv, T.;Geremia, E.;Gruber, P.;Wegener, S.;Weber, M.;Szekely, G.;Ayache, N.;Golland, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 35, issue:4, pages: 933 - 946
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Generator-Matrix-Based Approach for Adaptively Generating Cut-Inducing Redundant Parity Checks
Abstract:
A generator matrix (GM)-based approach for adaptively deriving cut-inducing redundant parity checks (RPCs) during the adaptive linear programming decoding algorithm is presented. More precisely speaking, if the decoder gets stuck in a non-integral pseudocodeword, then the resulting RPCs are likely to provide violated forbidden-set inequalities that can separate this non-integral optimal solution from the feasible region. The described approach can be viewed as a GM-based counterpart of the approach proposed by Zhang and Siegel in 2012. For binary linear codes of low rate, while providing the same error-correcting performance, our approach requires much less computational time compared to its analogue.
Autors: Falsafain, H.;Mousavi, S.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 640 - 643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Density Metal-Fuse Technology Featuring a 1.6 V Programmable Low-Voltage Bit Cell With Integrated 1 V Charge Pumps in 22 nm Tri-Gate CMOS
Abstract:
The first metal-fuse technology in 22 nm tri-gate high-k metal-gate CMOS technology is presented. The memory technology offerings in high-volume manufacturing include a 2.2 V programmable high-density and a 1.6 V programmable low-voltage (LV) 1T1R bit cell. The LV operability of the technology allows the fuse arrays to be coupled with power delivery circuits operating at standard logic voltage levels. A charge pump voltage doubler operating on a 1 V voltage rail is demonstrated in this paper with healthy fusing yield.
Autors: Kulkarni, S.H.;Chen, Z.;Srinivasan, B.;Pedersen, B.;Bhattacharya, U.;Zhang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 1003 - 1008
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Efficiency Current-Fed Semi-Dual-Active Bridge DC–DC Converter for Low Input Voltage Applications
Abstract:
A current-fed semi-dual-active bridge (S-DAB) dc-dc converter with symmetrical dual-pulse width modulation (PWM) and phase shifted control was proposed. All the power switches can achieve zero voltage switching (ZVS) and the output side diodes can achieve zero current switching (ZCS) naturally. The converter has lower conduction loss, lower peak current, and higher efficiency. The typical operating modes were analyzed. The parameter optimal design criterion was given to achieve soft switching and circulation loss reduction. Simulation and experimental results for a 1-kW prototype were made to verify the effectiveness of the proposed topology employing the proposed control.
Autors: Sha, D.;You, F.;Wang, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 2155 - 2164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Gain 1.75-GHz Dual-Inductor Transimpedance Amplifier With Gate Noise Suppression for Fast Radiation Detection
Abstract:
High-speed pulse-shape analysis can allow one to extract the physical parameters that govern radiation interaction. This brief presents a transimpedance preamplifier that can replace conventional configurations that contain a charge-sensitive preamplifier and shaping amplifier chain, particularly for high-speed radiation measurement systems. A transimpedance amplifier is a primary circuit of the preamplifier design based on a feedback structure with cascade inverting amplifiers and a feedback resistor, but it incorporates a bandwidth and gain enhancement technique that utilizes a series circuit at the input of the amplifier. This configuration is designed to reduce the size, power consumption, and complexity of the front-end circuitry traditionally used in radiation measurements while enhancing pulse-shape analyses by preserving the temporal information of the carriers following radiation impingement. The preamplifier implemented in the 180-nm CMOS process exhibits an 83- transimpedance gain and a 1.75-GHz bandwidth while consuming 48.6 mW using a 1.8-V supply.
Autors: Kwon, I.;Kang, T.;Wells, B.T.;DAries, L.;Hammig, M.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 356 - 360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Precision Frequency Measurement Algorithm for FID Signal of Proton Magnetometer
Abstract:
The accuracy of measuring a magnetic field using a proton magnetometer depends on the accuracy of frequency measurement of the free induction decay (FID) signal generated by the proton magnetometer. Increasing the accuracy of frequency measurement could increase the accuracy of measuring magnetic fields. In this paper, we propose a multichannel frequency measurement to improve the accuracy after analyzing the error sources of existing frequency measurements based on the FID signal. In addition, we describe the basic principle of the proposed method and the formula for the calculation of the measured FID signal frequency and error in detail. Moreover, we implement a prototype device using the multichannel frequency measurement and compare the test results before and after using the proposed method. Finally, the indoor and outdoor experimental data in the case of using the prototype device are compared with those in the case of a very high-precision overhauser magnetometer. The comparisons indicate that the proposed method improves the accuracy of the FID signal frequency measurement, and therefore, improves the accuracy of magnetic field measurement.
Autors: Dong, H.;Liu, H.;Ge, J.;Yuan, Z.;Zhao, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 898 - 904
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A High-Throughput Automated Microinjection System for Human Cells With Small Size
Abstract:
This paper presents the development of an automated microinjection system with high productivity for small cells. Compared with many existing microinjection systems that are primarily designed for relatively large-scaled biological samples, the reported technology will enable an automated injection into the cells with a diameter smaller than 25 μm, which is the typical size of many human cells. Microfluidic technology has been used to design a vacuum-based cell-holding device for immobilizing cells. The cell holder employs hundreds of regular-shaped channels, and each channel is occupied by one cell. The vision-based position-tracking method is used to recognize and position the target cells automatically, in which the cell position is measured by edge template-matching method, and a bright field image is used to simplify the recognition process. A 3-DOF microrobotic system mounted with a micropipette is used to conduct cell injection task with the speed of 35 cells/min and the precision of 0.2 μm. Injection experiments on human foreskin fibroblast and human embryonic stem cell-derived ventricular cardiomyocyte were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed system. More than 1000 cells were injected with fluorescent markers. Experimental results showed that the developed injection system exhibits high productivity and accuracy, and results in a good cell survival rate after injection.
Autors: Chow, Y.T.;Chen, S.;Liu, C.;Liu, C.;Li, L.;Kong, C.W.;Cheng, S.H.;Li, R.A.;Sun, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 838 - 850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Highly Efficient Plasmonic Lens Based on a Single Annular Ring With Cross Section of an Asymmetric Slot
Abstract:
A simplified plasmonic lens composed of a single concentric annular ring with cross section of an asymmetric slot is proposed and investigated. By adding an auxiliary nanocavity under the primary annular slot, unidirectional plasmonic waves are efficiently launched to the inward direction and focused to a hot spot in the center. Due to the asymmetric slot, high excitation efficiency for unidirectional inward focusing can be achieved by numerically optimizing the geometric parameters of the single annular ring using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structure can decrease background noises and prevent crosstalks of nearby components in optical networks. This advantage for the plasmonic lens would dramatically increase the integration level of future nanophotonic circuits and devices.
Autors: Zhong, Y.;Wen, J.;Chen, J.;Zhu, L.;Gao, X.;Tao, C.;Zhang, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 8, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Historical Perspective on the Development of the Allan Variances and Their Strengths and Weaknesses
Abstract:
Over the past 50 years, variances have been developed for characterizing the instabilities of precision clocks and oscillators. These instabilities are often modeled as nonstationary processes, and the variances have been shown to be well-behaved and to be unbiased, efficient descriptors of these types of processes. This paper presents a historical overview of the development of these variances. The time-domain and frequency-domain formulations are presented and their development is described. The strengths and weaknesses of these characterization metrics are discussed. These variances are also shown to be useful in other applications, such as in telecommunication.
Autors: Allan, D.W.;Levine, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 513 - 519
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid AMOLED Driver IC for Real-Time TFT Nonuniformity Compensation
Abstract:
An active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display driver IC, enabling real-time thin-film transistor (TFT) nonuniformity compensation, is presented with a hybrid driving method to satisfy fast driving speed, high TFT current accuracy, and a high aperture ratio. The proposed hybrid column-driver IC drives a mobile UHD AMOLED panel, with one horizontal time of at a scan frequency of 60 Hz, simultaneously senses the TFT current for back-end TFT variation compensation. Due to external compensation, a simple 3T1C pixel circuit is employed in each pixel. Accurate current sensing and high panel noise immunity is guaranteed by a proposed current-sensing circuit. By reusing the hybrid column-driver circuitries, the driver embodies an 8 bit current-mode ADC to measure OLED – transfer characteristic for OLED luminance-degradation compensation. Measurement results show that the hybrid driving method reduces the maximum current error between two emulated TFTs with a 60 mV threshold voltage difference under 1 gray-level error of 0.94 gray level (37 nA) in 8 bit gray scales from 12.82 gray level (501 nA). The circuit-reused current-mode ADC achieves 0.56 LSB DNL and 0.75 LSB INL.
Autors: Bang, J.-S.;Kim, H.-S.;Kim, K.-D.;Kwon, O.-J.;Shin, C.-S.;Lee, J.;Cho, G.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 966 - 978
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Evolutionary Hyper-Heuristic Approach for Intercell Scheduling Considering Transportation Capacity
Abstract:
The problem of intercell scheduling considering transportation capacity with the objective of minimizing total weighted tardiness is addressed in this paper, which in nature is the coordination of production and transportation. Since it is a practical decision-making problem with high complexity and large problem instances, a hybrid evolutionary hyper-heuristic (HEH) approach, which combines heuristic generation and heuristic selection, is developed in this paper. In order to increase the diversity and effectiveness of heuristic rules, genetic programming is used to automatically generate new rules based on the attributes of parts, machines, and vehicles. The new rules are added to the candidate rule set, and a rule selection genetic algorithm is developed to choose appropriate rules for machines and vehicles. Finally, scheduling solutions are obtained using the selected rules. A comparative evaluation is conducted, with some state-of-the-art hyper-heuristic approaches which lack some of the strategies proposed in HEH, with a meta-heuristic approach that is suitable for large scale scheduling problems, and with adaptations of some well-known heuristic rules. Computational results show that the new rules generated in HEH have similarities to the best-performing human-made rules, but are more effective due to the evolutionary processes in HEH. Moreover, the HEH approach has advantages over other approaches in both computational efficiency and solution quality, and is especially suitable for problems with large instance sizes.
Autors: Li, D.;Zhan, R.;Zheng, D.;Li, M.;Kaku, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 1072 - 1089
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm for the Realistic Hybrid Flowshop Rescheduling Problem in Steelmaking Systems
Abstract:
In this study, we propose a hybrid fruit fly optimization algorithm (HFOA) to solve the hybrid flowshop rescheduling problem with flexible processing time in steelmaking casting systems. First, machine breakdown and processing variation disruptions are considered simultaneously in the rescheduling problem. Second, each solution is represented by a fruit fly with a well-designed solution representation. Third, two novel decoding heuristics considering the problem characteristics, which can significantly improve the solution quality, are developed. Several routing and scheduling neighborhood structures are proposed to balance the exploration and exploitation abilities. Finally, we propose an effective HFOA with well-designed smell and vision search procedures. In addition, an iterated greedy (IG) local search is embedded in the proposed algorithm to further enhance its exploitation ability. The proposed algorithm is tested on sets of instances generated from industrial data. Through comprehensive computational comparisons and statistical analyses, the performance of the proposed HFOA algorithm is favorably compared against several algorithms in terms of both solution quality and efficiency.
Autors: Li, J.-Q.;Pan, Q.-K.;Mao, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 932 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Hybrid Physics-Based and Data Driven Approach to Optimal Control of Building Cooling/Heating Systems
Abstract:
This work integrates a physics-based model with a data driven time-series model to forecast and optimally manage building energy. Physical characterization of the building is partially captured by a collection of zonal energy balance equations with parameters estimated using a least squares estimation (LSE) technique and data initially generated from the EnergyPlus building model. A generalized Cochran–Orcutt estimation technique is adopted to describe the data generated from these simulations. The combined forecast model is then used in a model predictive control (MPC) framework to manage heating and cooling set points. This work is motivated by the practical limitations of simulation-based optimizations. Once the forecast model is established capturing sufficient statistical variability and physical behavior of the building, there will be no more need to run EnergyPlus in the optimization routine.
Autors: Vaghefi, S.A.;Jafari, M.A.;Zhu, J.;Brouwer, J.;Lu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 600 - 610
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Limb Compliant Sensing Strategy for Robot Collision Reaction
Abstract:
This paper introduces a compliant limb sensor (CLS) concept for collision detection during robot-human contact. The CLS consists of an external rigid shell compliantly connected to the robot link with collision inferred from measured shell displacements. Measuring displacement of a rigid shell allows customizable compliance and high sampling rates due to the small number of required sensors. The proposed sensor is prototyped for the planar case using LED/light-to-voltage (LTV) sensors for shell pose measurement and foam as the compliant link between the shell and base. A physically motivated model for the output of LED/LTV sensor pairs is formulated for the estimation of the shell pose. Voltage measurements of redundant LTVs and a calibrated shell model are used with an iterative optimization routine to estimate the shell pose at high frequencies. Sensor performance is tested using five trajectories: rest, compression, shear, rotation, and arbitrary motion. Experiments confirmed that the CLS can sense the presence, direction, and intensity of impact. The potential application of the proposed sensor to safety in physical human-robot interaction is discussed. The novel sensing methodology also enables a new method of 3-D human-computer interaction due to the ability to modify the compliance and operating range of the CLS.
Autors: Miyata, C.;Chisholm, K.;Baba, J.;Ahmadi, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 674 - 682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Linear General Type-2 Fuzzy-Logic-Based Computing With Words Approach for Realizing an Ambient Intelligent Platform for Cooking Recipe Recommendation
Abstract:
This paper addresses the need to enhance transparency in ambient intelligent environments by developing more natural ways of interaction, which allow the users to communicate easily with the hidden networked devices rather than embedding obtrusive tablets and computing equipment throughout their surroundings. Ambient intelligence vision aims to realize digital environments that adapt to users in a responsive, transparent, and context-aware manner in order to enhance users’ comfort. It is, therefore, appropriate to employ the paradigm of “computing with words” (CWWs), which aims to mimic the ability of humans to communicate transparently and manipulate perceptions via words. One of the daily activities that would increase the comfort levels of the users (especially people with disabilities) is cooking and performing tasks in the kitchen. Existing approaches on food preparation, cooking, and recipe recommendation stress on healthy eating and balanced meal choices while providing limited personalization features through the use of intrusive user interfaces. Herein, we present an application, which transparently interacts with users based on a novel CWWs approach in order to predict the recipe's difficulty level and to recommend an appropriate recipe depending on the user's mood, appetite, and spare time. The proposed CWWs framework is based on linear general type-2 (LGT2) fuzzy sets, which linearly quantify the linguistic modifiers in the third dimension in order to better represent the user perceptions while avoiding the drawbacks of type-1 and interval type-2 fuzzy sets. The LGT2-based CWWs framework can learn from user experiences and adapt to them in order to establish more natural human–machine interaction. We have carried numerous real-world experiments with various users in the University of Essex intelligent flat. The comparison analysis between interval type-2 fuzzy sets and LGT2 fuzzy sets demonstrat- s up to 55.43% improvement when general type-2 fuzzy sets are used than when interval type-2 fuzzy sets are used instead. The quantitative and qualitative analysis both show the success of the system in providing a natural interaction with the users for recommending food recipes where the quantitative analysis shows the high statistical correlation between the system output and the users’ feedback; the qualitative analysis presents social science evaluation confirming the strong user acceptance of the system.
Autors: Bilgin, A.;Hagras, H.;van Helvert, J.;Alghazzawi, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 24, issue:2, pages: 306 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Local Search-Based GeneSIS algorithm for the Segmentation and Classification of Remote-Sensing Images
Abstract:
A local search-based version of the so-called genetic sequential image segmentation (GeneSIS) algorithm is presented in this paper, for the classification of remotely sensed images. The new method combines the properties of the GeneSIS framework with the principles of the region growing segmentation algorithms. Localized GeneSIS operates on a fine-segmented image obtained after preliminary watershed transformation. Segmentation proceeds by iterative expansions emanating from object cores, i.e., connected components of marked watersheds. At each expansion trial, the process involves three successively performed operations: 1) generation of the object's neighborhood to a specified order; 2) local exploration of the neighborhood through an evolutionary algorithm to identify the best expansion to be merged; and 3) rearrangement of the object neighborhoods. We propose two priority strategies for the selection of the objects to be expanded and two different modes of operation performing either supervised or semisupervised segmentation of the image. The combination of the priority strategies and segmentation modes lead to four different implementations of localized GeneSIS. Due to the local search approach adopted here, the resulting algorithms have considerably lower execution times, while at the same time, they provide comparable classification accuracies compared to those produced by previous GeneSIS variants. Experimental analysis is conducted using a hyperspectral forest image, a multispectral agricultural image, and the Pavia Centre image over an urban area. Comparative results are also provided with existing segmentation algorithms.
Autors: Mylonas, S.K.;Stavrakoudis, D.G.;Theocharis, J.B.;Zalidis, G.C.;Gitas, I.Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 9, issue:4, pages: 1470 - 1492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Logic Resistive Memory Chip for Embedded Key Storage With Physical Security
Abstract:
A 64-kB logic resistive random access memory (RRAM) chip for physically secure key storage is presented. The chip has security features of resisting fully invasive attacks such as deprocessing and microscopy observation, resisting side-channel attacks by providing symmetrical power and timing read signals, resisting malicious writing by a reduced write protection scheme with feedback, and resisting data interception attack across pin boundary by the ability of on-chip integration with logic platform. The chip is fabricated in a 0.13- standard logic process and implemented as the key storage for a demonstrative information security platform with a MIPS-based cryptoprocessor. Experiments of reverse engineering and mechanism investigation proved the fully invasive attack-resistant features, and experiments emulating side-channel attacks revealed no difference between 0 and 1. Experiments also showed that the information security platform could correctly encrypt and decrypt with the RRAM key storage. The proposed chip has obvious advantage on area, power, and security features for embedded key storage compared with its Antifuse counterpart.
Autors: Xie, Y.;Xue, X.;Yang, J.;Lin, Y.;Zou, Q.;Huang, R.;Wu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 336 - 340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Complexity Scheme for Passive UWB-RFID: Proof of Concept
Abstract:
Passive UWB-RFID technology represents an emerging solution capable of guaranteeing extremely low energy consumption and high-accuracy localization at the same time. One of the most critical tasks is the acquisition of the tag code at reader side, which can be complex, time- and resource-consuming when multiple UWB tags are deployed. This letter proposes a simple and effective approach, based on a specific assignment strategy of the tag code, which drastically simplifies code acquisition by guaranteeing high tag detection performance. A real system implementation adopting this strategy is shown to prove its feasibility in terms of real-time multiple tags detection and localization.
Autors: Guidi, F.;Decarli, N.;Dardari, D.;Natali, F.;Savioli, E.;Bottazzi, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 676 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Dimensional Approximation For Competence In Bacillus Subtilis
Abstract:
The behaviour of a high dimensional stochastic system described by a chemical master equation (CME) depends on many parameters, rendering explicit simulation an inefficient method for exploring the properties of such models. Capturing their behaviour by low-dimensional models makes analysis of system behaviour tractable. In this paper, we present low dimensional models for the noise-induced excitable dynamics in Bacillus subtilis, whereby a key protein ComK, which drives a complex chain of reactions leading to bacterial competence, gets expressed rapidly in large quantities (competent state) before subsiding to low levels of expression (vegetative state). These rapid reactions suggest the application of an adiabatic approximation of the dynamics of the regulatory model that, however, lead to competence durations that are incorrect by a factor of 2. We apply a modified version of an iterative functional procedure that faithfully approximates the time-course of the trajectories in terms of a two-dimensional model involving proteins ComK and ComS. Furthermore, in order to describe the bimodal bivariate marginal probability distribution obtained from the Gillespie simulations of the CME, we introduce a tunable multiplicative noise term in a two-dimensional Langevin model whose stationary state is described by the time-independent solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation.
Autors: Nguyen, A.;Prugel-Bennett, A.;Dasmahapatra, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 13, issue:2, pages: 272 - 280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low Ripple Switched-Capacitor Voltage Regulator Using Flying Capacitance Dithering
Abstract:
In this work, a switched-capacitor voltage regulator (SCVR) that dithers flying capacitance to reduce output voltage ripple is presented, and the benefits of such ripple reduction are investigated. In the proposed technique, SC converters are designed to run at the maximum available frequency, and the flying capacitance for different phases is adjusted according to load current change through comparators and a digital controller. The proposed technique is demonstrated in a 65 nm test chip consisting of a 40-phase SCVR with 4b capacitance modulation (CM) and a 2:1 conversion ratio. On-chip circuits for ripple measurement and load performance monitoring were included to accurately assess the magnitude and impact of ripple reduction. Measurement results show that at a 2.3 V input, an on-chip ripple magnitude of 6–16 mV at 1 V output is achieved for 11–142 mA load. Peak efficiency is 70.8% at a power density of .
Autors: Bang, S.;Seo, J.-S.;Chang, L.;Blaauw, D.;Sylvester, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 919 - 929
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complexity Cyclostationary Spectrum Sensing for Interference Avoidance in Femtocell LTE-A-Based Networks
Abstract:
This paper focuses on a new spectrum sensing algorithm based on the exploitation of the primary signal cyclostationarity property, which is used to avoid the intercell interference in a heterogeneous Long-Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) network. The performance of the proposed spectrum sensing method will be evaluated by means of a suitable analytical approach whose accuracy will be validated by comparing analytical predictions with simulation results under different communication channel propagation conditions. Furthermore, it will be shown that the proposed approach requires the lowest computational complexity among the cyclostationarity-based methods and allows better performance, even in the case of noise uncertainty, in terms of false alarm, detection probability, and deflection coefficient.
Autors: Tani, A.;Fantacci, R.;Marabissi, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 65, issue:4, pages: 2747 - 2753
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Complexity Real-Time 3-D Sonar Imaging System With a Cross Array
Abstract:
The development of real-time 3-D underwater imaging is restricted by the huge hardware cost and the computational burden associated with a large number of transducers. In this paper, a low-complexity real-time 3-D sonar imaging system with a cross array is proposed. The low complexity, in both hardware cost and computational load, is achieved by an innovative method of signal processing in the far field and the advantages of the cross array in minimal transducer numbers. The method consists of two parts: a multifrequency (MF) algorithm for the transmitting process and a parallel subarray (PS) algorithm for the receiving beamforming. The MF algorithm solves the real-time problem of the cross array by reducing the scanning time that is proportional to the number of transmissions. The PS algorithm improves the computational efficiency using a two-stage parallel and pipeline framework. The PS algorithm is an approximate method, and its precision is analyzed in this paper. The computational efficiency of the proposed method is compared with the direct method (DM) beamforming in both cross and planar arrays. A prototype, based on the innovative method, was designed and tested in pool and lake trials. The results demonstrate that the low-complexity system can satisfy the real-time requirement of 3-D underwater imaging applications with an acceptable imaging quality.
Autors: Liu, X.;Zhou, F.;Zhou, H.;Tian, X.;Jiang, R.;Chen, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 41, issue:2, pages: 262 - 273
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Cost Metal-Only Reflectarray Using Modified Slot-Type Phoenix Element With 360° Phase Coverage
Abstract:
A novel slot-type phoenix element is proposed for low-cost metal-only reflectarray designs. Due to its unique rebirth capability, a full 360° phase coverage is obtained by the proposed phasing element, which can effectively resolve the phase range limitation commonly seen in slot-type metal-only reflectarray elements. A Ku-band offset-fed reflectarray prototype with a circular aperture of 516 mm in diameter is designed, fabricated, and tested for verification. The measured gain is 33.9 dBi at 12.5 GHz with the aperture efficiency of 53.8%, and the 1-dB gain bandwidth is 12.8%. The proposed metal-only reflectarray achieves good radiation performance and is suitable for high-gain antenna applications with stringent requirements on cost and/or working environment.
Autors: Deng, R.;Yang, F.;Xu, S.;Li, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1556 - 1560
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Incremental Delta–Sigma ADC for CMOS Image Sensors
Abstract:
This brief presents a second-order incremental delta–sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for CMOS image sensors (CISs). The ADC that employs a cascade of integrators with a feedforward architecture uses only one operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) by sharing the OTA between the first and second stages of the modulator. Further power and area savings are achieved by using a self-biasing amplifier and the proposed level-shifting technology, which allows active signal summation at the quantizer input node without using an additional OTA. Fabricated in the 0.18- CIS process, the 10-bit ADC occupies a die area of 0.002 mm2 and consumes 29.5 from a 1.8-V supply. The measured differential nonlinearity and integral nonlinearity are less than +0.22/−0.2 and +0.71/−0.89 LSB, respectively. Operating at 20 MS/s, the ADC provides signal-to-noise-distortion ratios of 57.7 and 62.3 dB for signal bandwidths of 156.25 and 78.125 kHz, respectively.
Autors: Lee, I.;Kim, B.;Lee, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 371 - 375
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Power Video Recording System With Multiple Operation Modes for H.264 and Light-Weight Compression
Abstract:
An increasing demand for mobile video recording systems makes it important to reduce power consumption and to increase battery lifetime. The H.264/AVC compression is widely used for many video recording systems because of its high compression efficiency; however, the complex coding structure of H.264/AVC compression requires large power consumption. A light-weight video compression (LWC), based on discrete wavelet transform and set partitioning in hierarchical trees, consumes less power than H.264/AVC compression thanks to its relatively simple coding structure, although its compression efficiency is lower than that of H.264/AVC compression. This paper proposes a low-power video recording system that combines both the H.264/AVC encoder with high compression efficiency and LWC with low power consumption. The LWC is used to compress video data for temporal storage while the H.264/AVC encoder is used for permanent storage of data when some events are detected. For further power reduction, a down-sampling operation is utilized for permanent data storage. For an effective use of the two compressions with the down-sampling operation, an appropriate scheme is selected according to the proportion of long-term to short-term storage and the target bitrate. The proposed system reduces power consumption by up to 72.5% compared to that in a conventional video recording system.
Autors: Kim, H.;Rhee, C.E.;Lee, Hyuk-Jae;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 603 - 613
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Low-Profile Paper Substrate-Based Dual-Band FSS for GSM Shielding
Abstract:
A low profile dual-band frequency selective surface (FSS) for shielding the GSM applications is presented in this paper. The proposed FSS contains the unit cell made of modified double square loop elements with paper as its substrate. The overall thickness of the proposed FSS measures only 0.55 mm. The FSS offers band stop response at 930 and 1720 MHz with 18 dB shielding effectiveness for a bandwidth of 100 and 173 MHz, respectively, thus shielding the GSM signals. Additionally, the modified double square loop element-based FSS is symmetrical providing the advantage of polarization independency. It also exhibits angular stability up to 60° for both the horizontal polarized electric field (TE mode) and vertically polarized electric field (TM mode). A prototype of the proposed dual-band low profile FSS is fabricated. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results and are found to be in congruence with each other.
Autors: Sivasamy, R.;Murugasamy, L.;Kanagasabai, M.;Sundarsingh, E.F.;Gulam Nabi Alsath, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 611 - 614
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Mathematical Framework to Analyze the Achievable Resolution From Microwave Tomography
Abstract:
A mathematical framework is proposed to investigate how different parameters affect the achievable resolution from microwave tomography (MWT). This framework attempts to incorporate multiple scattering events within the object of interest (OI) into its analysis by taking into account the effect of the induced total field within the OI. To this end, a linearized operator, which maps the OI’s permittivity profile to the measured data, is first constructed. The framework then revolves around the number of the right singular vectors of this operator, and their spatial frequency contents that can be utilized in reconstruction. Furthermore, this framework is used to introduce the “best” possible reconstruction that can be achieved in a given MWT system when imaging a typical OI. This concept can then provide some insights and guidelines for MWT system design.
Autors: Bayat, N.;Mojabi, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 64, issue:4, pages: 1484 - 1489
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Metastability Error Detection and Reduction Technique for Partially Active Flash ADCs
Abstract:
A metastability error detection and reduction technique for partially active analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is presented. It detects the metastability condition by comparing the coarse ADC output with a predefined voltage level. The metastability of the proposed comparator-based and prior logic gate-based metastability detectors (MDs) is analyzed. The metastable probability of the MD is shown to be critical for reducing the ADC metastability rate. A 5-b partially active flash ADC with the proposed MD is fabricated in 0.13- CMOS. Measurement results show that the proposed technique reduces the ADC metastability error rate significantly, from to , which is consistent with the theoretical analysis.
Autors: Yang, X.;Cui, G.;Zhang, Y.;Ren, J.;Liu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 63, issue:4, pages: 331 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Miniaturized Flexible Frequency Selective Surface for X-Band Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel and miniaturized band-stop frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented. This FSS provides effective shielding in X-band, with attenuation of at least 56 dB. The proposed FSS provides 3-dB fractional bandwidth of 48% which is necessary to cover X-band. Moreover, the proposed design is polarization independent as it provides a stable frequency response at normal and oblique angles of incidences for both perpendicular TE and parallel TM wave modes. The copolarized and cross-polarized scattering parameter S21 is analyzed at the selected band-stop/notch frequencies. More importantly, the proposed FSS is suitable for conformal applications and hence finds wider employability. A prototype of the proposed FSS is fabricated and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.
Autors: Nauman, M.;Saleem, R.;Rashid, A.K.;Shafique, M.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 419 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Modulation Strategy for a Three-Level Inverter Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) Drive
Abstract:
In this paper, two modulation strategies called Mod-1 and Mod-2 are compared for a three-level diode neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM) drive. These modulation strategies do not operate at a fixed switching frequency. A new modulation strategy which operates at a fixed switching frequency is proposed called Mod-3. The SynRM suffers from a poor power factor which makes it harder to archive capacitor voltage balancing for a three-level NPC inverter. These modulation strategies are of the nearest three vector (NTV) family. Mod-1 and Mod-3 choose certain vector states to achieve capacitor voltage balancing, whereas Mod-2 strategy makes use of the inverter vector state’s dwell time. The parameters of interest are the torque ripple, the neutral point (NP) voltage ripple, the inverter efficiency, and the -axis current ripple. Though lower torque ripple and better power quality are registered on Mod-2 strategy. Mod-1 strategy has 14% improvement in inverter efficiency at lower modulation index (). Mod-2 strategy has 11% more NP voltage ripple at a modulation index of 0.4. One of the disadvantages of Mod-1 strategy is the varying switching frequency. Mod-3 scheme produced higher inverter efficiency, better balancing of the capacitor voltages, and guaranteed fixed inverter switching frequency. The disadvantage with Mod-3 strategy is that it generated higher torque ripple, -axis current ripple, and current total harmonic distortion when compared to Mod-1 and Mod-2 at the same load conditions.
Autors: Masisi, L.;Pillay, P.;Williamson, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 52, issue:2, pages: 1874 - 1881
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multi-Site Joint Replication of a Design Patterns Experiment Using Moderator Variables to Generalize across Contexts
Abstract:
Context. Several empirical studies have explored the benefits of software design patterns, but their collective results are highly inconsistent. Resolving the inconsistencies requires investigating moderators—i.e., variables that cause an effect to differ across contexts. Objectives. Replicate a design patterns experiment at multiple sites and identify sufficient moderators to generalize the results across prior studies. Methods. We perform a close replication of an experiment investigating the impact (in terms of time and quality) of design patterns (Decorator and Abstract Factory) on software maintenance. The experiment was replicated once previously, with divergent results. We execute our replication at four universities—spanning two continents and three countries—using a new method for performing distributed replications based on closely coordinated, small-scale instances (“joint replication”). We perform two analyses: 1) a post-hoc analysis of moderators, based on frequentist and Bayesian statistics; 2) an a priori analysis of the original hypotheses, based on frequentist statistics. Results. The main effect differs across the previous instances of the experiment and across the sites in our distributed replication. Our analysis of moderators (including developer experience and pattern knowledge) resolves the differences sufficiently to allow for cross-context (and cross-study) conclusions. The final conclusions represent 126 participants from five universities and 12 software companies, spanning two continents and at least four countries. Conclusions. The Decorator pattern is found to be preferable to a simpler solution during maintenance, as long as the developer has at least some prior knowledge of the pattern. For Abstract Factory, the simpler solution is found to be mostly equivalent to the pattern solution. - bstract Factory is shown to require a higher level of knowledge and/or experience than Decorator for the pattern to be beneficial.
Autors: Krein, J.;Prechelt, L.;Juristo, N.;Nanthaamornphong, A.;Carver, J.;Vegas, S.;Knutson, C.;Seppi, K.;Eggett, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 42, issue:4, pages: 302 - 321
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Multipath Extraction-Based CSI Acquisition Method for FDD Cellular Networks With Massive Antenna Arrays
Abstract:
Unlocking the true potential of massive antenna arrays for cellular networks operating in frequency division duplex (FDD) mode is a challenging task as inadequate channel state information (CSI) by conventional limited-size UE feedback forces crude beamforming in downlink. This paper develops a new technique for the CSI acquisition problem of FDD massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks based on estimating the reciprocal characteristics of the multipath channel directly from uplink, while merely the nonreciprocal properties of the dominant propagation paths are estimated and fed back from UE. The main benefits of this technique over compressive-sensing methods include allowing single-beam pilot transmission during downlink training and relaxed UE-side computational complexity, as the full knowledge of CSI vector is no longer required at UE. The design can be accomplished by measuring the direction-of-arrival information and average powers of the dominant paths from uplink, indicating the target dominant paths to corresponding UEs, estimating and subsequently signaling the random phase information of the target paths from each UE, and reconstructing the aggregate CSI vector at eNB. The numerical evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism offers promising potential for reliable FDD operation in next generation cellular networks equipped with massive antenna arrays.
Autors: Ugurlu, U.;Wichman, R.;Ribeiro, C.;Wijting, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Apr 2016, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 2940 - 2953
Publisher: IEEE
 

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