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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 04-2013 sorted by title, page: 0
» 135-MHz 258-K Gates VLSI Design for All-Intra H.264/AVC Scalable Video Encoder
Abstract:
To satisfy the video application diversities, an extension of H.264/advanced video coding (AVC), called scalable video coding (SVC), is designed to provide multiple demanded video data via a single video encoder. However, constructed on the fundamental of H.264/AVC, the complexity of SVC is much higher than that of H.264/AVC. In this paper, a VLSI design for all-intra scalable video encoder is proposed to aim at efficient scalable video encoding. First, the memory bandwidth requirements for several encoding methods are analyzed to find out the best encoding method which can achieve best tradeoff between internal memory usage and external memory access. Afterward, an all-intra SVC encoder combined with several advanced techniques, including fast intra prediction algorithm, efficient syntax element encoding approach in context-adaptive variable-length coding, and hardware-efficient techniques, are implemented in a macroblock (MB)-level pipeline to increase data throughput. Implementation results demonstrate that our proposed SVC encoder can process more than 594-k MBs per second, which is equivalent to the summation of 60 high-definition, 1080-p, SD 480-p, and common intermediate format frames under 135-MHz working frequency. The proposed design consumes 258-K gate counts when synthesized by 90-nm CMOS technology.
Autors: Li, G.-L.;Chen, T.-Y.;Shen, M.-W.;Wen, M.-H.;Chang, T.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 21, issue:4, pages: 636 - 647
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2.4-W Narrow-Linewidth Q-Switched -Doped Double-Clad Fiber Laser
Abstract:
A narrow-linewidth 793-nm diode-pumped -doped double-clad silica fiber laser operated at 2 and actively Q-switched with an acousto-optic modulator is reported. Using a fiber Bragg grating as an output coupler, approximately 0.1-nm linewidth at 1996.8-nm pulses is derived at 80-kHz repetition rate. The maximum average output power is above 2 W for 11.6-W absorbed pump power. Less than 150-ns pulse is obtained at the repetition rate of 30 kHz. The laser is a promising seed laser for amplification in a master oscillator power amplifier system.
Autors: Huang, Q.;Yu, T.;Zheng, Y.;Zu, J.;Chen, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 5, issue:2, pages: 1500406 - 1500406
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 200 V Superjunction N-Type Lateral Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor With Improved Latch-Up Characteristics
Abstract:
This paper evaluates the technique used to improve the latching characteristics of the 200 V n-type superjunction (SJ) lateral insulated-gate bipolar transistor (LIGBT) on a partial silicon-on-insulator. SJ IGBT devices are more prone to latch-up than standard IGBTs due to the presence of a strong pnp transistor with the p layer serving as an effective collector of holes. The initial SJ LIGBT design latches at about 23 V with a gate voltage of 5 V with a forward voltage drop of 2 V at 300 . The latch-up current density is 1100 . The latest SJ LIGBT design shows an increase in latch-up voltage close to 100 V without a significant penalty in . The latest design shows a latch-up current density of 1195 . The enhanced robustness against static latch-up leads to a better forward bias safe operating area.
Autors: Tee, E.K.C.;Antoniou, M.;Udrea, F.;Holke, A.;Pilkington, S.J.;Pal, D.K.;Yew, N.L.;Abidin, W.A.B.W.Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1412 - 1415
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2012 Gathering of Region 8 MTT-S Chapter Representatives in Amsterdam [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Autors: Machac, J.;Pasquet, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 114 - 118
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20Gb/s WDM-OFDM-PON over 20-km single fiber uplink transmission using optical millimeter-wave signal seeding with rate adaptive bit-power loading
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Appeared in: Optical Fiber Technology
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3-D Finite-Element Method for Calculating the Ionized Electric Field and the Ion Current of the Human Body Model Under the UHVDC Lines
Abstract:
As ultra-high-voltage direct current (UHVDC) projects are constructed in China, the electromagnetic environment problem is widely concerned. One of the most important problems is the ion-flow field including the human body under the UHVDC lines. But it has not been analyzed sufficiently. In this paper, the 3-D upstream finite-element method, a new method to analyze the 3-D ion-flow field under HVDC lines is proposed and verified by experiments. Then, the method is used to calculate the ionized electric field and the ion current of the human body model under the UHVDC lines. The ionized electric field is significantly distorted by the human body. According to the results, the ionized electric field and the ion current of the human body remarkably increase with the height of the human body model. The results could provide a reference for evaluating the electromagnetic environment and the personal feeling test under the UHVDC lines.
Autors: Zhen, Y.;Cui, X.;Lu, T.;Li, X.;Fang, C.;Zhou, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 965 - 971
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D measurement of structural vibration using digital close-range photogrammetry
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Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3-D Mesh-Based Optical Network-on-Chip for Multiprocessor System-on-Chip
Abstract:
Optical networks-on-chip (ONoCs) are emerging communication architectures that can potentially offer ultrahigh communication bandwidth and low latency to multiprocessor systems-on-chip (MPSoCs). In addition to ONoC architectures, 3-D integrated technologies offer an opportunity to continue performance improvements with higher integration densities. In this paper, we present a 3-D mesh-based ONoC for MPSoCs, and new low-cost nonblocking 4 4, 5 5, 6 6, and 7 7 optical routers for dimension-order routing in the 3-D mesh-based ONoC. Besides, we propose an optimized floorplan for the 3-D mesh-based ONoC. The floorplan follows the regular 3-D mesh topology but implements all optical routers in a single optical layer. The floorplan is optimized to minimize the number of extra waveguide crossings caused when merging the 3-D ONoC to one optical layer. Based on a set of real applications and uniform traffic pattern, we develop a SystemC-based cycle-accurate NoC simulator and compare the 3-D mesh-based ONoC with the matched 2-D mesh-based ONoC and 2-D electronic NoC for performance and energy efficiency. Additionally, we quantitatively analyze thermal effects on the 3-D 8 8 2 mesh-based ONoC.
Autors: Ye, Y.;Xu, J.;Huang, B.;Wu, X.;Zhang, W.;Wang, X.;Nikdast, M.;Wang, Z.;Liu, W.;Wang, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 584 - 596
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Unitary ESPRIT: Accurate attitude estimation for unmanned aerial vehicles with a hexagon-shaped ESPAR array
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Appeared in: Digital Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3-Phase 4-leg unified series-parallel active filter system with ultracapacitor energy storage for unbalanced voltage sag mitigation
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Appeared in: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3.1-10.6GHz ultra-wideband LNA design using dual-resonant broadband matching technique
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Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D face recognition using local binary patterns
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Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D Freehand Gestural Navigation for Interactive Public Displays
Abstract:
Users increasingly expect more-interactive experiences with public displays for applications including learning, gaming, urban visualization, and planning. However, user interaction with applications on public displays is challenging and often doesn't lend itself to established interaction techniques. Navigation using only freehand gestures captured with low-cost devices might often be an appropriate solution. A formal, quantitative lab experiment and an informal, qualitative field study compared freehand gestural interaction with keyboard-and-mouse interaction. No significant difference in navigation performance existed between the two interaction types. However, gestural interaction provided a more natural experience in both personal and public environments.
Autors: Ren, Gang;Li, Chuan;O'Neill, Eamonn;Willis, Phil;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 47 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Stochastic Completion Fields for Mapping Connectivity in Diffusion MRI
Abstract:
The 2D stochastic completion field algorithm, introduced by Williams and Jacobs [1], [2], uses a directional random walk to model the prior probability of completion curves in the plane. This construct has had a powerful impact in computer vision, where it has been used to compute the shapes of likely completion curves between edge fragments in visual imagery. Motivated by these developments, we extend the algorithm to 3D, using a spherical harmonics basis to achieve a rotation invariant computational solution to the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the probability density function underlying the model. This provides a principled way to compute 3D completion patterns and to derive connectivity measures for orientation data in 3D, as arises in 3D tracking, motion capture, and medical imaging. We demonstrate the utility of the approach for the particular case of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, where we derive connectivity maps for synthetic data, on a physical phantom and on an in vivo high angular resolution diffusion image of a human brain.
Autors: MomayyezSiahkal, P.;Siddiqi, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 35, issue:4, pages: 983 - 995
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 40 nm CMOS Ultra-Low Power Integrated Gas Gauge System for Mobile Phone Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully integrated gas gauge system for mobile phone applications. It aims to consume a very small amount of power (less than 5%) compared to the whole system consumption during standby, maintaining a good level of accuracy in measuring battery energy in and out. It does not use any external bulky and expensive components beside the sense resistor and it has been manufactured in a CMOS 40 nm process and successfully validated in the lab.
Autors: Neri, F.;Cimaz, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 836 - 845
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50 mV-Input Batteryless Boost Converter for Thermal Energy Harvesting
Abstract:
A fully electrical startup boost converter for thermal energy harvesting is presented in this paper. The converter is implemented in a 65-nm bulk CMOS technology. With the proposed 3-stage stepping-up architecture, the minimum input voltage for startup is as low as 50 mV while the input voltage required for sustained power conversion is 30 mV. Due to the use of a zero-current-switching (ZCS) converter as the last stage and an automatic shutdown mechanism for the auxiliary converter, conversion efficiency up to 73% is achieved. By incorporating the boost converter and a thermoelectric generator (TEG), a miniaturized module is demonstrated for energy harvesting applications.
Autors: Weng, P.-S.;Tang, H.-Y.;Ku, P.-C.;Lu, L.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 1031 - 1041
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50+ years of intrinsic breakdown
Abstract:
The basic quantum mechanical theory for intrinsic breakdown was developed by von Hippel and Fröhlich over 70 years ago, but only now can we exploit their ideas accurately through the use of computational quantum mechanics. As shown above, von Hippel's low energy criterion for intrinsic breakdown provides remarkably good agreement with measured data for a range of both ionic and covalently bonded materials. We can correlate intrinsic breakdown with both bandgap and phonon cutoff frequency, although the relationships differ for different groups of materials. The challenge going forward is to move from intrinsic breakdown to engineering breakdown through inclusion of effects caused by morphology, chemical impurities (impurity states in the bandgap), and defects such as nanocavities. We believe that inclusion of these phenomena is possible using Monte Carlo computations with parameters computed using first principles methods, and we are pursuing this approach.
Autors: Ying Sun;Bealing, C.;Boggs, S.;Ramprasad, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 8 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 9-(Pyridin-3-yl)-9H-carbazole derivatives as host materials for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes
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Appeared in: Organic Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» RRAM on Flexible Substrate With Excellent Resistance Distribution
Abstract:
Excellent device-to-device distribution was achieved in high-performance resistive random access memory on low-cost flexible plastics, with low 30- switching power (9 at 3 V; at 3 V), cycling endurance, and good retention at 85 . These were ascribed to bulk transport property by tunneling between traps, forming-free resistive switching, and the less destructive low power switching.
Autors: Chou, K.I.;Cheng, C.H.;Zheng, Z.W.;Liu, M.;Chin, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 34, issue:4, pages: 505 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nanowire Embedded Hydrogen Peroxide Monopropellant MEMS Thruster
Abstract:
Feasibility of chemically synthesized nanowire catalyst embedded silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) monopropellant microthruster has been demonstrated. Due to exothermic reaction process, sustenance of thrust generation does not require any heating of propellant thus minimizing electrical power requirement. The thruster device integrates inlet nozzle, microchannel, nanowire embedded reaction chamber, in-plane exit nozzle and a microheater in the silicon layer. Nozzle configuration and catalyst bed was designed using simple analytical equations to achieve complete decomposition of and maximum thrust force by controlling the propellant flow. Simulation of hydrogen peroxide decomposition process was carried out to evaluate the thermo-chemical characteristics. The nanowire has been obtained using a low-cost synthesis process and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Thruster fabrication using micromachining process and its testing have been briefly described. The device is capable to produce 1 mN thrust and specific impulse of 180 s using 50 wt.% concentrated of flow rate 1.25 mg/s with total ignition energy of 44 J required for preheating the catalyst bed. Detailed thrust measurement was carried out with propellant mass flow rate for different throat area of exit nozzle, and the results were interpreted with - heoretical model. [2012-0135]
Autors: Kundu, P.;Sinha, A.K.;Bhattacharyya, T.K.;Das, S.;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 406 - 417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ?-Isometry based shape approximation for image content representation
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Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 0.25 V 460 nW Asynchronous Neural Signal Processor With Inherent Leakage Suppression
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Further power and energy reductions via technology and voltage scaling have become extremely difficult due to leakage and variability issues. In this paper, we present a robust and energy-efficient computation architecture exploiting an asynchronous timing strategy to dynamically minimize leakage and to self-adapt to process variations and different operating conditions. Based on a logic topology with built-in leakage suppression, the prototype asynchronous neural signal processor demonstrates robust sub-threshold operation down to 0.25 V, while consuming only 460 nW in 0.03 in a 65 nm CMOS technology. These results represent a 4.4 reduction in power, a 3.7 reduction in energy and a 2.2 reduction in power density, when compared to the state-of-the-art processors.
Autors: Liu, T.-T.;Rabaey, J.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 897 - 906
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.41 µA Standby Leakage 32 kb Embedded SRAM with Low-Voltage Resume-Standby Utilizing All Digital Current Comparator in 28 nm HKMG CMOS
Abstract:
We propose low-leakage current embedded SRAMs with high-performance for mobile applications. The proposed SRAM has two standby modes depending on temperature; one is a low-voltage resume-standby mode to reduce the standby current more effectively at room temperature, and the other is the conventional resume-standby to reduce effectively at high temperature. These schemes are implemented in a single SRAM macro with an all-digital current comparator (ADCC) that chooses either mode by monitoring automatically. ADCC has a time to digital converter (TDC) which is suitable for leakage measurement. Moreover, the proposed monitoring sequence can compensate the error of the measurement caused by the variation of the MOSFETs. A test chip was fabricated using 28 nm HKMG CMOS technology. The proposed 32 kb SRAM achieves 0.41 standby leakage which is half of the conventional value. This SRAM also realizes a high-speed operation with an access time of 420 ps.
Autors: Maeda, N.;Komatsu, S.;Morimoto, M.;Tanaka, K.;Tsukamoto, Y.;Nii, K.;Shimazaki, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 917 - 923
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.9- A Quiescent Current Output-Capacitorless LDO Regulator With Adaptive Power Transistors in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
An ultra-low quiescent current output-capacitorless low-dropout (OCL-LDO) regulator with adaptive power transistors technique is presented in this paper. The proposed technique permits the regulator to transform itself between 2-stage and 3-stage cascaded topologies with respective power transistor, depending on the load current condition. As such, it enables the OCL-LDO regulator to achieve ultra-low power consumption, high stability and good transient response without the need of off-chip capacitor at the output. The proposed LDO regulator has been implemented and fabricated in a UMC 65-nm CMOS process. It occupies an active area of 0.017 mm . The measured results have shown that the proposed circuit consumes a quiescent current of 0.9 A at no load, regulating the output at 1 V from a voltage supply of 1.2 V. It achieves full range stability from 0 to 100 mA load current at a maximum 100 pF parasitic capacitance load. The measured transient output voltage is 68.8 mV when load current is stepped from 0 to 100 mA in 300 ns with pF. The recovery time is about 6 s. Compared to previously reported counterparts, the proposed OCL-LDO regulator shows a significant improvement in term of OCL-LDO transient figure-of-merit (FOM) as well as balanced performance parameters in terms of PSR, line regulation and load regulation.
Autors: Chong, S.S.;Chan, P.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1072 - 1081
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-bit dual-plate sampling DAC with capacitor reuse on-chip reference voltage generator
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Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 100+ Meter 12 Gb/s/Lane Copper Cable Link Based on Clock-Forwarding
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Active and passive copper cables for data rates exceeding 10 Gb/s are typically limited to less than 20 m. Optical fiber on the other hand offers superior performance for run length greater than 100 m, but is costly. Although 100 m copper link is demonstrated for 10GBASE-T, it utilizes complex symbols at a lower symbol rate across multiple signaling lanes and dissipates substantial power for DSP. In this paper, we propose a 12 Gbps/lane active cable link that extends copper cables 100 meters using low power and area clocked repeaters powered through the cable that could potentially be embedded in the cable. The quality of the clock in such repeaters is the key component in maintaining a clean signal propagation through long distances. This paper introduces an FIR phase filtering technique in combination with an MDLL to deliver a low jitter forward clock. The total jitter at the end of the cable is 4.4 ps RMS. The link has repeating distances of 8 and 16 meters for data and clock, respectively. Each repeater occupies 1 mm of area in a 65-nm CMOS technology and dissipates 48 mW.
Autors: Ali, T.;Drost, R.;Ho, R.;Yang, C.-K.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 1085 - 1098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4 GHz Multi-Channel FBAR-based Transmitter With an Integrated Pulse-Shaping Power Amplifier
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A 2.4 GHz TX in 65 nm CMOS defines three channels using three high- FBARs and supports OOK, BPSK and MSK. The oscillators have 132 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 MHz offset, and are multiplexed to an efficient resonant buffer. Optimized for low output power 10 dBm, a fully-integrated PA implements 7.5 dB dynamic output power range using a dynamic impedance transformation network, and is used for amplitude pulse-shaping. Peak PA efficiency is 44.4% and peak TX efficiency is 33%. The entire TX consumes 440 pJ/bit at 1 Mb/s.
Autors: Paidimarri, A.;Nadeau, P.M.;Mercier, P.P.;Chandrakasan, A.P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 1042 - 1054
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.63 Mbit/s VLSI Implementation of SISO Arithmetic Decoders for High Performance Joint Source Channel Codes
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This paper highlights the implementation challenges faced by the current high performing error resilient joint source channel coding (JSCC) techniques based on the concept of soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoding of arithmetic codes (AC). Further, it proposes several efficient algorithmic and a very large scale integration (VLSI) architectural techniques to improve the throughput performance of SISO for JSCC. The VLSI hardware implementation of the proposed algorithm, when implemented on a 90 nm standard cells technology running at 588 MHz, achieves a decoding throughput of up to 2.63 Mbits/s capable of decoding QCIF format for video conferencing.
Autors: Zezza, S.;Nooshabadi, S.;Masera, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 951 - 964
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.8 GS/s 44.6 mW Time-Interleaved ADC Achieving 50.9 dB SNDR and 3 dB Effective Resolution Bandwidth of 1.5 GHz in 65 nm CMOS
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This paper presents a power- and area-efficient 24-way time-interleaved successive-approximation-register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) that achieves 2.8 GS/s and 8.1 ENOB in 65 nm CMOS. To minimize the power and the area, the capacitors in the capacitive DAC are sized to meet the thermal noise requirements rather than the matching requirements, leading to the LSB capacitance of 50 aF. An on-chip digital background calibration is used to calibrate the capacitor mismatches in individual ADC channels, as well as the inter-channel offset, gain and timing mismatches. Measurement results at the 2.8 GS/s sampling rate show that the ADC chip prototype consumes 44.6 mW of power from a 1.2 V supply while achieving peak SNDR of 50.9 dB and retaining SNDR higher than 48.2 dB across the entire first Nyquist zone with a input signal. The prototype chip occupies an area of 1.03 1.66 , including the pads and the testing circuits. The figure of merit (FoM) of this ADC, calculated with the minimum SNDR in the first Nyquist zone, is 76 fJ/conversion-step.
Autors: Stepanovic, D.;Nikolic, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 971 - 982
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 22 nm All-Digital Dynamically Adaptive Clock Distribution for Supply Voltage Droop Tolerance
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An all-digital dynamically adaptive clock distribution mitigates the impact of high-frequency supply voltage droops on microprocessor performance and energy efficiency. The design integrates a tunable-length delay prior to the global clock distribution to prolong the clock-data delay compensation in critical paths during a droop. The tunable-length delay prevents critical-path timing-margin degradation for multiple cycles after the droop occurs, thus allowing a sufficient response time for dynamic adaptation. An on-die dynamic variation monitor detects the onset of the droop to proactively gate the clock at the end of the tunable-length delay to eliminate the clock edges that would otherwise degrade critical-path timing margin. In comparison to a conventional clock distribution, silicon measurements from a 22 nm test chip demonstrate simultaneous throughput gains and energy reductions of 14% and 3% at 1.0 V, 18% and 5% at 0.8 V, and 31% and 15% at 0.6 V, respectively, for a 10% droop.
Autors: Bowman, K.A.;Tokunaga, C.;Karnik, T.;De, V.K.;Tschanz, J.W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 907 - 916
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2D MEMS grating based CMOS compatible poly-SiGe variable optical attenuator
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Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 2×VDD output buffer with PVT detector for slew rate compensation
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Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 3-D Split Manufacturing Approach to Trustworthy System Development
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Securing the supply chain of integrated circuits is of utmost importance to computer security. In addition to counterfeit microelectronics, the theft or malicious modification of designs in the foundry can result in catastrophic damage to critical systems and large projects. In this letter, we describe a 3-D architecture that splits a design into two separate tiers: one tier that contains critical security functions is manufactured in a trusted foundry; another tier is manufactured in an unsecured foundry. We argue that a split manufacturing approach to hardware trust based on 3-D integration is viable and provides several advantages over other approaches.
Autors: Valamehr, J.;Sherwood, T.;Kastner, R.;Marangoni-Simonsen, D.;Huffmire, T.;Irvine, C.;Levin, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 611 - 615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30-kW High-Power X-band to Ku-band Klystron Frequency Multiplier
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This paper reports the development of an X-band to Ku-band klystron frequency multiplier that can double input frequency and amplify input power simultaneously. A seven-cavity klystron was designed, in which the X-band output section was replaced by a smaller Ku-band one. The electron optics of this new klystron was almost the same with that of an X-band klystron. The experimental results showed that the peak output power of 30 kW can be reached at pulse voltage of 33 kV, with an efficiency value of 15% at 35 kV.
Autors: Fan, J.;Zhang, Y.;Wang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1457 - 1462
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 30-V transmitter front-end IC for ultrasound medical imaging applications
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Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 32 nm 0.58-fJ/Bit/Search 1-GHz Ternary Content Addressable Memory Compiler Using Silicon-Aware Early-Predict Late-Correct Sensing With Embedded Deep-Trench Capacitor Noise Mitigation
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A Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) uses a two-phase search operation where early prediction on its pre-search results prematurely activates the subsequent main-search operation, which is later interrupted only if the final pre-search results contradict the early prediction. This early main-search activation improves performance by 30%, while the low-probability of a late-correct has a negligible impact on power consumption. This Early-Predict Late-Correct (EPLC) sensing with silicon-aware tuning enables a high-performance TCAM compiler implemented in 32 nm High-K Metal Gate SOI process to achieve 1 Gsearch/sec throughput on a 2048x640 bit TCAM instance while consuming only 0.76 W, resulting in an energy efficiency of 0.58-fJ/bit/search. Embedded Deep-Trench (DT) capacitance reduces power supply collapse by 53% while adding only 5% area overhead for a total TCAM area of 1.56 mm .
Autors: Arsovski, I.;Hebig, T.;Dobson, D.;Wistort, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 932 - 939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 7 bit, 3.75 ps Resolution Two-Step Time-to-Digital Converter in 65 nm CMOS Using Pulse-Train Time Amplifier
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In this paper, a novel pulse-train time amplifier is proposed that achieves linear, accurate, and programmable gain for a wide input range. Using the proposed pulse-train time amplifier, a 7-bit two-step TDC is implemented. The proposed TDC employs repetitive pulses with gated delay-lines for a calibration-free and programmable time amplification and quantization. The prototype chip fabricated in 65 nm CMOS process achieves 3.75 ps of time resolution at 200 MS/s while consuming 3.6 mW and occupying 0.02 mm area. Compared to previously reported TDCs, the proposed TDC achieves the fastest conversion rate and the best FoM without any calibration.
Autors: Kim, K.;Kim, Y.-H.;Yu, W.;Cho, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 1009 - 1017
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 94 GHz mm-Wave-to-Baseband Pulsed-Radar Transceiver with Applications in Imaging and Gesture Recognition
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High-resolution mm-wave array beamformers have applications in medical imaging, gesture recognition, and navigation. A scalable array architecture for 3D imaging is proposed in which single-element phase coherent transceiver (TRX) chips, with programmable TX pulse delay capability, are mounted on a common board to realize the array. This paper presents the design of the enabling TRX chip: a highly integrated 94 GHz phase-coherent pulsed-radar with on-chip antennas. The TRX achieves 10 GHz of frequency tuning range and 300 ps of contiguous pulse position control, enabling its usage in the large-array imager with time-domain TX beamforming. The TRX is capable of transmitting and receiving pulses down to 36 ps, translating to 30 GHz of bandwidth. Interferometric measurements show the TRX can obtain single-target range resolution better than 375 m (limited by equipment). Based on delay measurements, the time of arrival rms error would be less than 1.3 ps which, if used in a 3D imaging array, leads to less than 0.36 mm of RMS error in voxel size and position.
Autors: Arbabian, A.;Callender, S.;Kang, S.;Rangwala, M.;Niknejad, A.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 1055 - 1071
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Operational Schmitt Trigger R-to-F Converter for Nanogap-Based Nanosensors Read-Out
Abstract:
We report design and measurements on a CMOS Schmitt Trigger-based quasi-digital resistance-to-frequency converter prototype that can be effectively used as a read-out circuit for nanodevice-based sensors. The readout circuit comprises an operational amplifier and an inverting Schmitt Trigger, achieving an hysteresis scaled to 1 mV-order, hence, increasing frequency compared to a standard Schmitt Trigger RC oscillator. Experimental results obtained through an opto-isolated PCB set-up show maximum 0.8% measurement accuracy and a dynamic range between and . The flexible R-to-F converter occupies silicon area and has a simulated power consumption of at 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Bonanno, A.;Crepaldi, M.;Rattalino, I.;Motto, P.;Demarchi, D.;Civera, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 975 - 988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A background calibration in pipelined ADCs
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A balanced combination of Tikhonov and total variation regularizations for reconstruction of piecewise-smooth signals
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Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Bayesian approach to SAR imaging
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Digital Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A blind scene-based watermarking for video copyright protection
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A bottleneck Steiner tree based multi-objective location model and intelligent optimization of emergency logistics systems
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Built-In Self-Repair Scheme for 3-D RAMs With Interdie Redundancy
Abstract:
3-D integration using through silicon via is an emerging technology for integrated circuit designs. Random access memory (RAM) is one good candidate for the application of 3-D integration technology. However, yield will be a key challenge for the volume production of 3-D RAMs. In this paper, we present yield-enhancement techniques for 3-D RAMs. An interdie redundancy scheme is proposed to improve the yield of 3-D RAMs. Three stacking flows with respect to different bonding technologies for 3-D RAMs with interdie redundancy are proposed as well. Finally, a built-in self-repair (BISR) scheme is proposed to perform the repair of 3-D RAMs with interdie redundancies. The BISR circuits in two stacked dies can work together to allocate interdie redundancies. Simulation results show that the proposed yield-enhancement techniques can effectively improve the yield of 3-D RAMs.
Autors: Chou, C.-W.;Huang, Y.-J.;Li, J.-F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 572 - 583
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Built-In Voltage Measurement Technique for the Calibration of RF Mixers
Abstract:
A built-in technique to measure internal DC voltage levels used for the calibration of radio frequency (RF) mixers is presented in this paper. According to a common alternate test approach, RF mixer calibration is based on the prediction of the circuit's performance characteristics that requires the acquisition of a set of DC voltage observables obtained from specific nodes of the mixer operating in homodyne mode. These observables, however, often correspond to internal nodes where direct access is not always possible. Furthermore, accurate calibration might require a relatively large set of voltage observables whose direct access would lead to a waste of resources and to increased cost. The proposed built-in technique provides digital readings for the DC levels at all nodes of interest through a single interface by exploiting the use of a voltage acquisition circuit implemented by a simple analog to digital converter, which consists of a ring-type voltage controlled oscillator and a counter. A reading correction method to minimize the uncertainty introduced by process variations and device mismatches in the acquisition circuit itself is also described. The efficiency of the proposed technique has been validated by its application to the calibration procedure of a typical differential RF mixer designed in a 0.18- CMOS technology. Simulation results have been obtained and assessed, both for the proposed built-in voltage measurement technique and for the direct voltage measurement approach, in favor of comparison.
Autors: Liaperdos, J.;Arapoyanni, A.;Tsiatouhas, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 732 - 742
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Change Detection Approach to Flood Mapping in Urban Areas Using TerraSAR-X
Abstract:
Very high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors represent an alternative to aerial photography for delineating floods in built-up environments where flood risk is highest. However, even with currently available SAR image resolutions of 3 m and higher, signal returns from man-made structures hamper the accurate mapping of flooded areas. Enhanced image processing algorithms and a better exploitation of image archives are required to facilitate the use of microwave remote-sensing data for monitoring flood dynamics in urban areas. In this paper, a hybrid methodology combining backscatter thresholding, region growing, and change detection (CD) is introduced as an approach enabling the automated, objective, and reliable flood extent extraction from very high resolution urban SAR images. The method is based on the calibration of a statistical distribution of “open water” backscatter values from images of floods. Images acquired during dry conditions enable the identification of areas that are not “visible” to the sensor (i.e., regions affected by “shadow”) and that systematically behave as specular reflectors (e.g., smooth tarmac, permanent water bodies). CD with respect to a reference image thereby reduces overdetection of inundated areas. A case study of the July 2007 Severn River flood (UK) observed by airborne photography and the very high resolution SAR sensor on board TerraSAR-X highlights advantages and limitations of the method. Even though the proposed fully automated SAR-based flood-mapping technique overcomes some limitations of previous methods, further technological and methodological improvements are necessary for SAR-based flood detection in urban areas to match the mapping capability of high-quality aerial photography.
Autors: Giustarini, L.;Hostache, R.;Matgen, P.;Schumann, G.J.-P.;Bates, P.D.;Mason, D.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 51, issue:4, pages: 2417 - 2430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Channel Reuse Strategy with Adaptive Channel Allocation for All-Optical WDM Networks
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Autors:
Appeared in: Optical Switching and Networking
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A charge-based capacitance model for AlGaAs/GaAs HEMTs
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Highlights

Appeared in: Solid-State Electronics
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A class of quaternion valued affine projection algorithms
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Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Closed-Form Solution for Transmission-Line Fault Location Without the Need of Terminal Synchronization or Line Parameters
Abstract:
This letter introduces a novel method for fault location in alternate current transmission lines where neither the line parameters nor terminals synchronization is needed. As opposed to the previous works, it introduces a closed-form solution instead of iterative methods. The results are presented for simulated and real-world problems, indicating that the proposed algorithm attains good performance in the tested cases.
Autors: Vieira, D.A.G.;Oliveira, D.B.;Lisboa, A.C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 1238 - 1239
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Backstepping and Stochastic Small-Gain Approach to Robust Adaptive Fuzzy Output Feedback Control
Abstract:
In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy output feedback control approach is investigated for a class of stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems without the requirement of states measurement. The stochastic nonlinear system addressed in this paper is assumed to possess unstructured uncertainties (unknown nonlinear functions) and, in the presence of unmodeled dynamics, dynamics disturbances. Fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate the unstructured uncertainties, and a fuzzy state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. By combining the backstepping design technique with the stochastic small-gain approach, a new adaptive fuzzy output feedback control approach is developed. It is proved that the proposed control approach can guarantee that the closed-loop system is input-state-practically stability (ISpS) in probability, and the observer errors and the output of the system converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by appropriate choice of the design parameters. Simulation results are included to indicate that the proposed adaptive fuzzy control approach has a satisfactory control performance. In addition, the simulation comparisons with the previous methods show that the proposed adaptive fuzzy control approach has robustness to the dynamical uncertainties.
Autors: Tong, S.;Wang, T.;Li, Y.;Chen, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 314 - 327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparative study of spacecraft attitude determination and estimation algorithms (a cost-benefit approach)
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Aerospace Science and Technology
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A comparative study of the HF sorption and outgassing ability of different Entegris FOUP platforms and materials
Abstract:


Autors:

Graphical abstract

image
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A comparison of two chromosome representation schemes used in solving a family-based scheduling problem
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Comprehensive Crossbar Array Model With Solutions for Line Resistance and Nonlinear Device Characteristics
Abstract:
This paper presents a comprehensive crossbar array model that incorporates line resistance and nonlinear device characteristics. The model can be solved using matrix algebra and is suitable for statistical analysis. The nonlinear device solution enables the assessment of crossbar arrays with diode or nonlinear select devices. The calculation based on this model shows that voltage and current degradation due to line resistance are not negligible even for small crossbar arrays, which constrains feasible array size. Diode and nonlinear select devices significantly improve the sensing margin of reading operation and the voltage window of writing operation. This model provides a quantitative tool for accurate analysis of crossbar arrays and the evaluation of memory select devices.
Autors: Chen, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1318 - 1326
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comprehensive electric field analysis of a multifunctional electrospinning platform
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Journal of Electrostatics
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Comprehensive Multi-Modal NDE Data Fusion Approach for Failure Assessment in Aircraft Lap-Joint Mimics
Abstract:
Multi-modal data fusion techniques are commonly used to enhance decision-making processes. In previous research, a comprehensive structural analysis process was developed for quantizing and evaluating characteristics of defects in aircraft lap-joint mimics using eddy current (EC) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) data collected for structural health monitoring. In this research, a comprehensive multi-modal structural analysis process is presented that includes intra- and inter-modal NDE data fusion based on EC, millimeter wave (MW), and ultrasonic (UT) data obtained from five lap-joint mimic test panels. The process includes defect detection, defect characterization, and finite-element modeling-based simulated fatigue loading for structural analysis. The multi-modal structural analysis process is evaluated using four test panels with corroded patches at different layers of the lap joints and one painted pristine panel used as a reference. The test panels are subjected to two rounds of mechanical loading, preceded by multi-modal NDE data obtained before each round. Different NDE modality combinations are examined for test panel modeling, including: 1) EC, 2) UT, 3) MW, 4) EC and UT, 5) EC and MW, and 6) EC, UT, and MW. Experiments are performed to compare the simulated fatigue loading, based on models determined from the different modality combinations, and the mechanical loading results to find susceptible-to-failure areas in the test panels. Experimental results showed that the EC and UT modality combination yielded a correct vulnerable (crack) location recognition rate of 98.8%, an improvement of 14.7% over any individual modality, demonstrating the potential for multi-modal data fusion for characterizing corrosion and defects.
Autors: De, S.;Gupta, K.;Stanley, R.J.;Ghasr, M.T.;Zoughi, R.;Doering, K.;Van Aken, D.C.;Steffes, G.;O'Keefe, M.;Palmer, D.D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 62, issue:4, pages: 814 - 827
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comprehensive review on the grid integration of doubly fed induction generator
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Comprehensive Scheme for Reliability Centered Maintenance in Power Distribution Systems—Part I: Methodology
Abstract:
Although reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) has proven its noticeable merits in many industries, has not been yet furnished with efficient analytical methods in the power engineering context. The first of this two-paper set presents a practical framework by which the RCM procedure can be implemented in power distribution systems. The proposed algorithm consists of three main stages. The prerequisites of the analysis are outlined in the first stage. In the second stage, an approach is developed to identify the network's critical components, from the reliability point of view. Having practically modeled the components' failure rates, an efficient cost/benefit evaluation approach is then proposed to distinguish a variety of maintenance plans. The optimal set of maintenance strategies is next adopted for implementation. The algorithm is terminated in the third stage by recording both technical and economical outcomes for tuning the forward maintenance activities. The proposed methodology, although tailored to distribution networks, is generic enough to be applied to other power system areas. In the companion paper, the proposed methodology is examined by application to the Birka distribution system of Stockholm City, Sweden, and more practical aspects are discussed.
Autors: Dehghanian, P.;Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.;Aminifar, F.;Billinton, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 761 - 770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comprehensive study on learning to rank for content-based image retrieval
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A computational analysis of a fully-stocked dual-mode ventilated livestock vehicle during ferry transportation
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A computer vision-based system for the automatic detection of lying behaviour of dairy cows in free-stall barns
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Biosystems Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A continuous-time cascaded delta-sigma modulator with PMW-based automatic RC time constant tuning and correlated double sampling
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A control and automation system for wave basins
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Correction of E-model in Quality Estimation of Packetized Speech Signal
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Autors:
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A correlation based method for discrimination between inrush and short circuit currents in differential protection of power transformer using Discrete Wavelet Transform: Theory, simulation and experimental validation
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A critical look at the coordinate measuring technique
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Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Mechatronics
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A data hiding method based on information sharing via PNG images for applications of color image authentication and metadata embedding
Abstract:


Autors:

Highlights

Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Data-Mining Model for Protection of FACTS-Based Transmission Line
Abstract:
This paper presents a data-mining model for fault-zone identification of a flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS)-based transmission line including a thyristor-controlled series compensator (TCSC) and unified power-flow controller (UPFC), using ensemble decision trees. Given the randomness in the ensemble of decision trees stacked inside the random forests model, it provides effective decision on fault-zone identification. Half-cycle postfault current and voltage samples from the fault inception are used as an input vector against target output “1” for the fault after TCSC/UPFC and “ 1” for the fault before TCSC/UPFC for fault-zone identification. The algorithm is tested on simulated fault data with wide variations in operating parameters of the power system network, including noisy environment providing a reliability measure of 99% with faster response time (3/4th cycle from fault inception). The results of the presented approach using the RF model indicate reliable identification of the fault zone in FACTS-based transmission lines.
Autors: Samantaray, S.R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 612 - 618
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A design methodology for optimally folded, pipelined architectures in VLSI applications using projective space lattices
Abstract:


Autors:
Appeared in: Microprocessors and Microsystems
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A detailed study on current-voltage characteristics of Au/n-GaAs in wide temperature range
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Autors:
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Apr 2013
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Differential Coding-Based Scheduling Framework for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks
Abstract:
In wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), visual correlation exists among multiple nearby cameras, thus leading to considerable redundancy in the collected images. This paper proposes a differential coding-based scheduling framework for efficiently gathering visually correlated images. This framework consists of two components including MinMax Degree Hub Location (MDHL) and Maximum Lifetime Scheduling (MLS). The MDHL problem aims to find the optimal locations for the multimedia processing hubs, which operate on different channels for concurrently collecting images from adjacent cameras, such that the number of channels required for frequency reuse is minimized. After associating camera sensors with proper hubs, the MLS problem targets at designing a schedule for the cameras such that the network lifetime of the cameras is maximized by letting highly correlated cameras perform differential coding on the fly. It is proven in this paper that the MDHL problem is NP-complete, and the MLS problem is NP-hard. Consequently, approximation algorithms are proposed to provide bounded performance. Since the designed algorithms only take the camera settings as inputs, they are independent of specific multimedia applications. Experiments and simulations show that the proposed differential coding-based scheduling can effectively enhance the network throughput and the energy efficiency of camera sensors.
Autors: Wang, P.;Dai, R.;Akyildiz, I.F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Apr 2013, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 684 - 697
Publisher: IEEE
 

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