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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 04-2011 sorted by title, page: 0
» "BOC-Gated-PRN" A Multipath Mitigation Technique for BOC(n,n) Waveforms
Abstract:
A new, unambiguous, cost-effective discriminator is introduced that maintains the multipath mitigation property of binary offset carrier (BOC) $(n,n)$ signals such as BOC$(1,1)$. The multipath mitigation performance of different discriminators is evaluated, including the "BOC-PRN $(R{E+L})$" discriminator proposed previously by the authors, and examines the associated noncoherent tracking structures. The new discriminator is based on gating of the correlation reference function and on the concept of BOC-PRN, where the BOC signal is correlated not with itself but with the pseudorandom noise (PRN) code only, and is a compromise between low complexity and high performance in terms of multipath and code tracking.
Autors: Wu, Jinghui;Dempster, Andrew G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 47, issue:2, pages: 1136 - 1153
Publisher: IEEE
 
» "Quality...It's Not an Add-On! [Essay]"
Abstract:
The value of quality for any product cannot be over emphasized. From the inception of a product in Market requirements to Engineering specification, vendor selection and qualification, manufacturing assembly processes, and review of customer satisfaction ratings, quality impacts a company's success or lack thereof. It can't be added on or tested in, quality needs to be involved along the entire development process. Failure to do so practically ensures problems in the field-at the customer's location. You don't want problems coming from that direction, so fix "quality" into the product from the very beginning.
Autors: Floyd, R.E.;Spencer, R.H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 8 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ‘Griffiths phase’ versus chemical disorder in low-doped manganites: La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 crystal revisited
Abstract:
Magnetic properties, electron paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance were studied in the vicinity and above ferromagnetic-paramagnetic (FM-PM) phase transition of the La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 crystal. It appears that complex chemical/structural disorder inherent to manganites influences strongly on both magnetic and resonance properties of this crystal. In particular, it changes the nature of a FM–PM transition to the first- or mixed-order one and induces FM clustering in their PM state. The latter effect results in coexistence of resonance signals, and non-linearity of the PM inverse magnetic susceptibility versus temperature. This model seems to be much more realistic for description of the PM state in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 than an idealized Griffiths phase approach.
Autors: Rozenberg, E.;Auslender, M.;Shames, A.I.;Felner, I.;Mogilyansky, D.;Mukovskii, Ya. M.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07D902 - 07D902-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “In-plane” and “out-of-plane” uniaxial anisotropy of amorphous precursors and nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB alloys
Abstract:
The “in-plane” and “out-of-plane” angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance data demonstrate that both cubic and uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropies are present in FeCuNbSiB nanocrystalline alloys. The intergrain exchange interactions, mediated by the spins of the amorphous ferromagnetic matrix, are unable (able) to average out the local uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Fe3B and Fe2Si nanocrystalline grains and, thereby, lead to the magnetic hardening (softening) in the early stages of nanocrystallization in most of the compositions (remaining ones).
Autors: Basheed, G. A.;Kaul, S. N.;Vazquez, M.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07A321 - 07A321-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-D Transforms for the Motion Compensation Residual
Abstract:
Transforms used in image coding are also commonly used to compress prediction residuals in video coding. Prediction residuals have different spatial characteristics from images, and it is useful to develop transforms that are adapted to prediction residuals. In this paper, we explore the differences between the characteristics of images and motion compensated prediction residuals by analyzing their local anisotropic characteristics and develop transforms adapted to the local anisotropic characteristics of these residuals. The analysis indicates that many regions of motion compensated prediction residuals have 1-D anisotropic characteristics and we propose to use 1-D directional transforms for these regions. We present experimental results with one example set of such transforms within the H.264/AVC codec and the results indicate that the proposed transforms can improve the compression efficiency of motion compensated prediction residuals over conventional transforms.
Autors: Kamisli, F.;Lim, J. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 20, issue:4, pages: 1036 - 1046
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1-Tbyte/s 1-Gbit DRAM Architecture Using 3-D Interconnect for High-Throughput Computing
Abstract:
Aiming to resolve memory bottlenecks in multi-core system, novel 1-Tbyte/s 1-Gbit DRAM architecture based on a multi-core configuration and 3-D interconnects was developed. The DRAM stacked on a multi-core CPU has 512-bit I/Os with through-silicon-via (TSV) distributed in 16 memory cores. Five-stage pipelined architecture in the compact DRAM core was developed to reduce the operation cycle of the data-bus to 2 ns. A low-noise early-bar-write scheme for an 8-ns cycle array operation and 16-Gbit/s I/O circuits on TSV were also developed. The proposed DRAM architecture greatly improves power efficiency. TSV scheme reduces the parasitic capacitance of the interconnects between the DRAM and CPU, and multi-core architecture reduces the length of the data bus on the DRAM. A 1-Gbit DRAM was designed based on the 45-nm stand-alone DRAM process. Chip size is 51.6 mm2 assuming 4F2 memory cells, and the density is about 5 times higher than that of embedded DRAM. Circuit simulations confirmed the 2-ns operation of the data bus, 8-ns operation of the memory array, and 16-Gbit/s operation of I/O circuits. Power consumption is 19.5 W, providing power efficiency of 51.3 Gbyte/s/W, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of conventional DRAMs.
Autors: Sekiguchi, T.;Ono, K.;Kotabe, A.;Yanagawa, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 828 - 837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.2 nm Capacitance Equivalent Thickness gate stacks on Si-passivated GaAs
Abstract:
Experiments to increase the specific capacitance of MOS capacitors consisting of HfO2 on a passivating interfacial layer (IL) of amorphous Si (a-Si) on GaAs are described. XPS analysis of the layers and electrical measurements on the capacitors are combined to study the evolution of the gate-stack during deposition and subsequent heat treatments. It is shown that oxidation of the a-Si IL is a major factor in preventing the attainment of a scaled capacitance equivalent thickness (CET). By controlling the deposition of the layers, the gate metal and the heat treatments, a highly scaled gate stack with a CET of 1.2nm...
Autors: M., El Kazzi , D.J., Webb , L., Czornomaz , C., Rossel , C., Gerl , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 1/f Baseband Noise Suppression in OFDM Systems
Abstract:
The commonly used direct-conversion Radio Frequency (RF) chips exhibit an additive 1/f baseband noise around the DC. The 1/f noise level increases as the transistors inside the RF chip become ever smaller. This type of noise mainly affects the low frequencies and can be very significant for small frequency allocations around the DC in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. In this article we present the effects of such 1/f baseband noise on small frequency allocations for a Long Term Evolution (LTE) User Equipment (UE). We proceed to estimate the 1/f baseband noise. Suppression of the 1/f baseband noise is achieved by subtracting the estimated 1/f baseband noise from the received signal. We show that considerable processing gain is achieved when the 1/f baseband noise suppression is applied.
Autors: Landis, Shay;Bobrovsky, Ben-Zion;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 942 - 947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2-D/3-D Switchable Display by Fresnel-Type LC Lens
Abstract:
We demonstrate a multi-electrode Fresnel-type 2-D/3-D switchable display with electrically controlled birefringence mode liquid crystal (LC) lenses. By applying a discontinuous nonuniform electric field, the display with this structure can form a Fresnel-type refractive-index distribution to generate 3-D images. Compared to a normal LC lens, the Fresnel-type LC lens can achieve faster switching speed for dynamic applications. It can also replace the high sag solid lens for 3-D applications with relatively small cell gap. Furthermore, a Fresnel lens with suitable refractive-index profile is proposed to reduce the crosstalk in the 3-D displays.
Autors: Lu, J.-G.;Sun, X.-F.;Song, Y.;Shieh, H.-P. D.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 215 - 219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2010 EuroSimE international conference on thermal, mechanical and multi-physics simulation and experiments in micro-electronics and micro-systems
Abstract:
Artur, Wymys?owski
Autors: Source: Microelectronics Reliability, In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 2 April 2011
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3-D Video Representation Using Depth Maps
Abstract:
Current 3-D video (3DV) technology is based on stereo systems. These systems use stereo video coding for pictures delivered by two input cameras. Typically, such stereo systems only reproduce these two camera views at the receiver and stereoscopic displays for multiple viewers require wearing special 3-D glasses. On the other hand, emerging autostereoscopic multiview displays emit a large numbers of views to enable 3-D viewing for multiple users without requiring 3-D glasses. For representing a large number of views, a multiview extension of stereo video coding is used, typically requiring a bit rate that is proportional to the number of views. However, since the quality improvement of multiview displays will be governed by an increase of emitted views, a format is needed that allows the generation of arbitrary numbers of views with the transmission bit rate being constant. Such a format is the combination of video signals and associated depth maps. The depth maps provide disparities associated with every sample of the video signal that can be used to render arbitrary numbers of additional views via view synthesis. This paper describes efficient coding methods for video and depth data. For the generation of views, synthesis methods are presented, which mitigate errors from depth estimation and coding.
Autors: Muller, K.;Merkle, P.;Wiegand, T.;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 99, issue:4, pages: 643 - 656
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 380 kV corona ring optimization for AC voltages
Abstract:
This paper presents corona ring optimization for 380 kV V-insulator string composed of glass insulator units. The influence of the corona ring design parameters are examined not only with regard to 3D simulations but also laboratory tests. The purpose of the simulations is to find reasonable corona ring design parameters such as corona ring diameter, corona tube diameter and installation height on the point of effective field regulation around the critical region of the string. Indoor laboratory tests including radio interference voltage levels, corona inception voltages and ac flashover voltages are conducted on the centre phase of a full scaled tower both for experimental based corona ring design as well as verifications of the simulations. After both simulations and experimental based investigations, appropriate corona ring design parameters for the string are determined for effective field regulation, minimum interference level, ac flashover performance and economic point of view.
Autors: Ilhan, S.;Ozdemir, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 408 - 417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D analytical solution for a functionally graded transversely isotropic piezoelectric circular plate under tension and bending
Abstract:
A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of a functionally graded piezoelectric circular plate under tension and bending is carried out. A direct displacement method is developed, with analytical solutions obtained for plate with either free or simply-supported edge conditions. The material properties of the plate can vary arbitrarily along the thickness except that the strain-energy function should be positive definite as required for stable materials and certain integrable conditions are assumed valid during the derivation. The validity of the present solutions is discussed both analytically and numerically. Numerical analyses are made for a specific functionally graded material to show the influence of...
Autors: X.Y., Li , J., Wu , H.J., Ding , W.Q., Chen
Appeared in: International Journal of Engineering Science
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D Floorplanning of Low-Power and Area-Efficient Network-on-Chip Architecture
Abstract:
Network-on-Chip (NoC) architectures have been adopted by chip multiprocessors (CMPs) as a flexible solution to the increasing delay in the deep sub-micron regime. However, the shrinking feature size limits the performance of NoCs due to power and area constraints. In this paper, we propose three 3D floorplanning methods for a Triplet-based Hierarchical Interconnection Network (THIN) which is a new high performance NoC. The proposed floorplanning methods use both Manhattan and Y-architecture routing architectures so as to improve the performance, reduce the power consumption and area requirement of THIN. A cycle accurate simulator was developed based on Noxim NoC simulator and...
Autors: Licheng, Xue , Feng, Shi , Weixing, Ji , Haroon-Ur-Rashid, Khan
Appeared in: Microprocessors and Microsystems
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D Human Posture Segmentation by Spectral Clustering with Surface Normal constraint
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for partitioning human posture represented by 3D point clouds sampled from the surface of human body. The algorithm is formed as a constrained extension of the recently developed segmentation method, spectral clustering (SC). Two folds of merits are offered by the algorithm: 1) as a nonlinear method, it is able to deal with the situation that data (point cloud) are sampled from a manifold (the surface of human body) rather than the embedded entire 3D space; 2) by using constraints, it facilitates the integration of multiple similarities for human posture partitioning, and...
Autors: Jun, Cheng , Maoying, Qiao , Wei, Bian , Dacheng, Tao
Appeared in: Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 3D Images Using CSpace Display for Air Traffic Control Applications
Abstract:
We explore here the capabilities and performance issues encountered when using a novel static volume display, CSpace, for realizing moving images required to deliver real time three-dimensional (3D) visualization and manipulation for Air Traffic Controllers (ATC). The display uses a 2% Erbium-doped sodium–ytterbium–fluoride (NYF) crystal as the image space, and a pair of digital micromirror devices (DMD) to address and render successive slices of the image within the crystal. Display-specific software and digital light processing (DLP) boards provide image data to and control the DMD devices respectively. The ability to render and display moving images quickly enough for applications such as air-traffic control is strongly dependent on several factors, including the speed of the software and hardware components. 3D images of aircraft in the sky and terrain were captured to explore how well the display performed as the time between successive images in a short motion sequence was systematically reduced, and to examine the key factors that control the performance of the display in presenting these images.
Autors: Refai, H. H.;
Appeared in: Journal of Display Technology
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 7, issue:4, pages: 186 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Power Synthesis with Reduction of Near-Field and Dynamic Range Ratio for Conformal Antenna Arrays
Abstract:
A simple method of power synthesis for 3D radiation patterns of conformal antenna arrays is presented. The method enables to synthesize a desired far-field pattern simultaneously controlling the dynamic range ratio (DRR) of the array excitations and the electric field amplitude in a given region of interest close to the antenna. The power synthesis problem is reduced to a field synthesis one by introducing an auxiliary phase pattern, which is incorporated in a cost function together with the desired far-field pattern, the array pattern, the near electric field amplitude, and the array excitations. Such cost function is minimized by iteratively modifying the auxiliary phase pattern and the array excitations. Applications of the proposed method to conformal arrays of different geometries show that accurate results are obtained also in presence of stringent requirements and within acceptable CPU times, even when hundreds of elements are involved.
Autors: Comisso, M.;Vescovo, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 1164 - 1174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D-Aggregate Quantitative Imaging: Experimental Results and Polarization Effects
Abstract:
We present reconstructions of an aggregate of small spheres from experimental scattered fields using a working frequency of 18 GHz. This target presents at the same time a complex 3D shape and a low-contrast permittivity. Concerted experimental and numerical efforts have enabled to obtain accurate reconstructions. In particular, we took into account the real random noise via a Bayesian framework. Reconstructions have been realized with scattered fields measured in different polarization cases: the results are compared and discussed.
Autors: Eyraud, C.;Geffrin, J.-M.;Litman, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 1237 - 1244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D-Interconnect: Visualization of Extrusion and Voids Induced in Copper-Filled Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) at Various Temperatures Using X-ray Microscopy
Abstract:
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Autors: Visualization of voids and copper extrusion in copper-filled through-silicon vias (TSVs) under different annealing conditions is greatly enhanced using X-ray microscopy. In addition, the dimensions of the TSVs after Cu deposition can also be measured
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 53 Gbps Native Composite-Field AES-Encrypt/Decrypt Accelerator for Content-Protection in 45 nm High-Performance Microprocessors
Abstract:
Abstract-This paper describes an on-die, reconfigurable AES encrypt/decrypt hardware accelerator fabricated in 45 nm CMOS, targeted for content-protection in high-performance microprocessors. 100% round computation in native GF(24)2 composite-field arithmetic, unified reconfigurable datapath for encrypt/decrypt, optimized ground & composite-field polynomials, integrated affine/bypass multiplexer circuits, fused Mix/InvMixColumn circuits and a folded ShiftRow datapath enable peak 2.2 Tbps/Watt AES-128 energy efficiency with a dense 2-round layout occupying 0.052 mm2, while achieving: (i) 53/44/38 Gbps AES-128/192/256 performance, 125 mW, measured at 1.1 V, 50 °C, (ii) scalable AES-128 performance up to 66 Gbps, measured at 1.35 V, 50 °C, (iii) wide operating supply voltage range with robust subthreshold voltage performance of 800 Mbps, 409 μW, measured at 320 mV, 50 °C (iv) 37% Sbox delay reduction and 25% area reduction with a compact Sbox layout occupying 759 μm2 (v) 67% reduction in worst-case interconnect length and 33% reduction in ShiftRow wiring tracks and (vi) 43 % reduction in Mix/InvMixColumn area with no performance penalty.
Autors: Mathew, S.K.;Sheikh, F.;Kounavis, M.;Gueron, S.;Agarwal, A.;Hsu, S.K.;Kaul, H.;Anders, M.A.;Krishnamurthy, R.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 767 - 776
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 600-fs Mode-Locked Tm–Ho-Doped Fiber Laser Synchronized to Optical Clock With Optically Driven Semiconductor Saturable Absorber
Abstract:
Using amplitude modulation in a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror induced by optical clock signal, we have synchronized 600-fs pulse train from a mode-locked thulium–holmium fiber laser operating at 1.99 to an external reference source. The optical source based on 1.56- distributed-feedback diode laser driven by the clock signal was used as a seed source. The amplified seed pulses launched into the fiber cavity synchronized the mode-locked pulses through amplitude modulation in the absorber. The synchronization method allows us to operate the mode-locked laser at multiples of cavity harmonics and to increase the repetition rate.Pub _bookmark Command="[Quick Mark]"
Autors: Kivisto, S.;Okhotnikov, O. G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 23, issue:8, pages: 477 - 479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filtering For Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Subject to Quantization and Packet Dropouts
Abstract:
This paper investigates the problem of filtering for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with measurement quantization and packet dropouts. Each output is transmitted via an independent communication channel, and the phenomenon of packet dropouts in transmission is governed by an individual random binary distribution, while the quantization errors are treated as sector-bound uncertainties. Based on a piecewise-Lyapunov function, an approach to the design of -piecewise filter is proposed such that the filtering-error system is stochastically stable with a guaranteed performance. Some slack matrices are introduced to facilitate the filter design procedure by eliminating the coupling between the Lyapunov matrices and the system matrices. The filter parameters can be obtained by solving a set of linear-matrix inequalities (LMIs), which are numerically tractable with commercially available software. Finally, two illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Zhang, C.;Feng, G.;Gao , H.;Qiu, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 353 - 365
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer-Based Forming-Free RRAM Devices With Excellent Uniformity
Abstract:
In this letter, a significantly improved uniformity of device parameters (for cycle-to-cycle uniformity within one device and device-to-device uniformity), such as set voltage, reset voltage, and HRS and LRS resistance distributions, is successfully demonstrated on HfOx/TiOx multilayer (ML)-based resistive switching devices, as compared with HfOx-based single-layer device. In addition, the reported ML devices are free from forming process, which is greatly beneficial from the viewpoint of RRAM circuit operation. It is believed that both the Ti doping effect and the confinement of conduction filament within different dielectrics layers contribute to the improvement.
Autors: Fang, Z.;Yu, H.Y.;Li, X.;Singh, N.;Lo, G.Q.;Kwong, D.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 566 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Fold Cyclotomy and Its Application to Frequency-Hopping Sequences
Abstract:
For an integer , let , be prime powers such that for some integers and . In this paper, the -fold cyclotomy of as a nontrivial generalization of the conventional cyclotomy ( case) and its application to frequency-hopping sequences (FHSs) are presented, where is the finite field with elements. First, the definitions of -fold cyclotomic classes and -fold cyclotomic numbers are given. And then, their basic properties including -fold diagonal sums are derived. Based on them, new optimal FHS sets of length and frequency set size or with respect to the Peng-Fan bound are constructed for a product of distinct odd primes and a divisor of <- - formula formulatype="inline">$N-1$ . Furthermore, new optimal FHSs of length and frequency set size with respect to the Lempel–Greenberger bound are constructed when has at least one prime factor which is 3 modulo 4 and is an even integer. Our constructions give several new optimal parameters not covered in the literature, which are summarized in Table I .
Autors: Chung, J.-H.;Yang, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2306 - 2317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer-Based Forming-Free RRAM Devices With Excellent Uniformity
Abstract:
In this letter, a significantly improved uniformity of device parameters (for cycle-to-cycle uniformity within one device and device-to-device uniformity), such as set voltage, reset voltage, and HRS and LRS resistance distributions, is successfully demonstrated on multilayer (ML)-based resistive switching devices, as compared with -based single-layer device. In addition, the reported ML devices are free from forming process, which is greatly beneficial from the viewpoint of RRAM circuit operation. It is believed that both the Ti doping effect and the confinement of conduction filament within different dielectrics layers contribute to the improvement.
Autors: Fang, Z.;Yu, H. Y.;Li, X.;Singh, N.;Lo, G. Q.;Kwong, D. L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 566 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy study of UCo1-xRuxSn solid solutions
Abstract:
The influence of the substitution of Co for Ru on the magnetic hyperfine fields Bhf on 119Sn nuclei in UCo1-xRuxSn solid solutions was investigated. The compounds were crystallized in a hexagonal crystal structure of the ZrNiAl type. This structure is characterized by two nonequivalent crystal positions of d-metal. It was shown that Bhf measured at 5 K decreases with an increase in Ru content. Such a dependence of Bhf is opposite to the concentration dependence of the uranium magnetic moments. Therefore, the different mechanisms and electron groups are responsible for the formation of the U magnetic moments and the hyperfine magnetic field on the 119Sn nuclei. It has been concluded from analysis of the obtained results that (i) the observed linear reduction of electron polarization on 119Sn nuclei can be explained by the decrease in density of the s-electrons due to the hybridization of the s-electrons of Sn with Ru/Co atoms, and (ii) the Ru/Co atoms in the two crystal positions make significantly different contributions not just to the 5f-d hybridized band but also to the formation of the magnetic hyperfine fields on 119Sn nuclei.
Autors: Krylov, V. I.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07E140 - 07E140-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.4dB noise figure wideband low-noise amplifier using a novel InGaAs/InAlAs/InP device
Abstract:
In this work, the design of a novel low-noise amplifier (LNA) based on 1?m gate-length InGaAs/InAlAs/InP pHEMT transistors is discussed. Designed for radioastronomy applications, this amplifier exploits a common-drain configuration as input stage and a common-source inductive degeneration topology as output stage. It exhibits a maximum gain of 30dB within an input 1dB compression point of -16dBm. The noise figure is 0.4dB with an input return loss greater than -10dB and an output return loss of -12.5dB. The LNA consumes 85mW from a 1.5V power supply.
Autors: Z., Hamaizia , N., Sengouga , M., Missous , M.C.E., Yagoub
Appeared in: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 0.55 V 10 fJ/bit Inductive-Coupling Data Link and 0.7 V 135 fJ/Cycle Clock Link With Dual-Coil Transmission Scheme
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10 fJ/bit inductive-coupling data link operating at 0.55 V supply voltage and a 135 fJ/cycle clock link at 0.7 V supply voltage. A dual-coil transmission scheme reduces the number of stacked transistors in a transmitter, enabling low-voltage and hence low-power operation. A test chip is fabricated in 65 nm CMOS whose nominal supply voltage is 1.2 V. A data rate of 1.1 Gb/s and a clock rate of 3.3 GHz, both with an error rate <; 10-12, are achieved at 0.55 V and 0.7 V supply voltage, respectively.
Autors: Miura, N.;Shidei, T.;Yuan, Y.;Kawai, S.;Takatsu, K.;Kiyota, Y.;Asano, Y.;Kuroda, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 965 - 973
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1-V 4-GHz wide tuning range voltage-controlled ring oscillator in 0.18?m CMOS
Abstract:
A new differential delay cell with complementary current control to extend the control voltage range as well as the operation frequency is proposed for low voltage and wide tuning range voltage-controlled ring oscillator (VCRO). The complementary current control can get rid of the restriction that control voltage is unable to cover the full range of power supply voltage in a conventional VCRO. A three-stage VCRO chip working with 1V power supply voltage is constructed using 0.18?m 1P6M CMOS process for verifying the efficacy of the proposed differential delay cell. Measured results of the VCRO chip show that a wide range...
Autors: Meng-Lieh, Sheu , Yu-Shang, Tiao , Lin-Jie, Taso
Appeared in: Microelectronics Journal
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 1-V, 16.9 ppm/ C, 250 nA Switched-Capacitor CMOS Voltage Reference
Abstract:
An ultra low-power, precise voltage reference using a switched-capacitor technique in 0.35- m CMOS is presented in this paper. The temperature dependence of the carrier mobility and channel length modulation effect can be effectively minimized by using 3.3 and 5 V -type transistors to operate in the saturation and subthreshold regions, respectively. In place of resistors, a precise reference voltage with flexible trimming capability is achieved by using capacitors. When the supply voltage is 1 V and the temperature is 80 C, the supply current is 250 nA. The line sensitivity is 0.76%/V; the PSRR is 41 dB at 100 Hz and 17 dB at 10 MHz. Moreover, the occupied die area is 0.049 mm .
Autors: Hsieh, C.-Y.;Huang, H.-W.;Chen, K.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:4, pages: 659 - 667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.2–1.6-GHz Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide RF MEMS Tunable Filter
Abstract:
This paper presents a high-performance substrate-integrated-waveguide RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) tunable filter for 1.2–1.6-GHz frequency range. The proposed filter is developed using packaged RF MEMS switches and utilizes a two-layer structure that effectively isolates the cavity filter from the RF MEMS switch circuitry. The two-pole filter implemented on RT/Duroid 6010LM exhibits an insertion loss of 2.2–4.1 dB and a return loss better than 15 dB for all tuning states. The relative bandwidth of the filter is 3.7 0.5% over the tuning range. The measured of the filter is 93–132 over the tuning range, which is the best reported in filters using off-the-shelf RF MEMS switches on conventional printed circuit board substrates. In addition, an upper stopband rejection better than 28 dB is obtained up to 4.0 GHz by employing low-pass filters at the bandpass filter terminals at the cost of 0.7–1.0-dB increase in the insertion loss.
Autors: Sekar, V.;Armendariz, M.;Entesari, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 866 - 876
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 112 Mb/s Full Duplex Remotely-Powered Impulse-UWB RFID Transceiver for Wireless NV-Memory Applications
Abstract:
A dual band symmetrical UWB-RFID transceiver for high capacity wireless NV-Memory applications is reported. The circuit exhibits a figure of merit of 58 pJ/b and 48 pJ/b in Tx and Rx respectively, with a 112.5 Mb/s data rate capability. It operates in the 7.9 GHz UWB frequency band for full duplex communication and is remotely powered through a UHF CW signal. The circuit has been implemented in a 0.13 μm 1.2 V CMOS process.
Autors: Pelissier, M.;Jantunen, J.;Gomez, B.;Arponen, J.;Masson, G.;Dia, S.;Varteva, J.;Gary, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 916 - 927
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-GS/s 81-mW 5-bit Time-Interleaved Flash ADC With Background Timing Skew Calibration
Abstract:
This paper presents a 12-GS/s 5-bit time-interleaved flash ADC realized in 65-nm CMOS. To improve the dynamic performance at high input frequencies, a statistics-based background calibration scheme for timing skew is employed. The timing skew is detected in the digital domain through a correlation-based algorithm and minimized by adjusting digitally controlled delay lines. In order to minimize power consumption, we employ near minimum size comparators, whose offset is reduced through foreground calibrated trim-DAC circuitry. With the timing calibration activated, the skew-related impairments are reduced by 12 dB at high input frequencies, resulting in an SNDR of 25.1 dB near Nyquist. The prototype IC consumes 81 mW from a 1.1 V supply, yielding a figure-of-merit of 0.35 pJ/conversion-step at low input frequencies, and 0.46 pJ/conversion-step for inputs near Nyquist.
Autors: El-Chammas, M.;Murmann, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 838 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2 Tb/s 6 4 Mesh Network for a Single-Chip Cloud Computer With DVFS in 45 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A packet-switched 6 × 4 2-D mesh network providing 2 Tb/s of bisectional bandwidth with a per-hop latency of 4-cycles, forms the high performance communication fabric for a Single-Chip Cloud Computer (SCC) with 48 Pentium™ class IA-32 cores. The fabric operates on an independent power supply and frequency domain. The router micro-architecture achieves over 90% network utilization by effective use of a single-cycle Wrapped Wave-Front Allocator (WWFA) and virtual channel (VC) flow control. A router transit latency of 2 ns is achieved through early buffer write, route pre-computation and a single-cycle WWFA implementation. This 640 K transistor, 1.32 mm2 router operates at 2 GHz at 1.1 V while dissipating 550 mW. The 24-node mesh network with 1.28 Tb/s router and 16B, 5.4 mm wide links consumes only 5% of the chip area, 1.2% of the transistors and 10% of total chip power at 1.1 V in a 45 nm nine-metal CMOS process. The router energy efficiency scales from 1.3 Tb/s/W to 7.2 Tb/s/W over a dynamic voltage range from 0.7 V to 1.25 V.
Autors: Salihundam, P.;Jain, S.;Jacob, T.;Kumar, S.;Erraguntla, V.;Hoskote, Y.;Vangal, S.;Ruhl, G.;Borkar, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 757 - 766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 21.5kHz High Optical Resolution Electrostatic Double-layered Vibratory Grating Laser Scanner
Abstract:
This paper presents a 21.5kHz high optical resolution electrostatic double-layered vibratory grating laser scanner with an improved grating platform. Detailed optical characterizations of the prototype scanner is measured and reported. The scanner is capable of scanning a laser beam at about 21.5kHz. The optical resolution of the prototype scanner is measured to be 916 pixels per-unidirectional-scan while scanning in atmosphere. While scanning in vacuum condition, the optical resolution can be estimated to be 1460 pixels per-unidirectional-scan, which is suitable for SXGA (1280×1024) resolution scanned beam displays.
Autors: Yu, Du , Guangya, Zhou , Kelvin K.L., Cheo , Qingxin, Zhang , Hanhua, Feng , ...
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 250 mV, 352 W GPS Receiver RF Front-End in 130 nm CMOS
Abstract:
A fully integrated CMOS GPS receiver RF front-end is presented. Systematic circuit optimizations for ultra-low voltage operation including subthreshold biasing, a novel mixer-VCO interface, and charge neutralization enable the supply voltage to be dramatically reduced as a means to save power. The 250 mV supply is the lowest ever reported for any integrated receiver RF front-end to date. Its 352 μW power consumption represents a three times power savings compared to the prior lowest GPS receiver RF front-ends reported in the literature. The prototype was fabricated in a 1P8M 130 nm CMOS process and includes a variable gain LNA, a quadrature VCO, quadrature mixers, and all required bias circuitry. The system has a measured gain of 42 dB, a noise figure of 7.2 dB, and an oscillator phase noise of - 112.4 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset, resulting in a VCO FoM of 187.4 dBc/Hz.
Autors: Heiberg, A.C.;Brown, T.W.;Fiez, T.S.;Mayaram, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 938 - 949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-DOF Parallel Robot With Spherical Motion for the Rehabilitation and Evaluation of Balance Performance
Abstract:
In this paper a novel electrically actuated parallel robot with three degrees-of-freedom (3 DOF) for dynamic postural studies is presented. The design has been described, the solution to the inverse kinematics has been found, and a numerical solution for the direct kinematics has been proposed. The workspace of the implemented robot is characterized by an angular range of motion of about for roll and pitch when yaw is in the range . The robot was constructed and the orientation accuracy was tested by means of an optoelectronic system and by imposing a sinusoidal input, with a frequency of 1 Hz and amplitude of 10 , along the three axes, in sequence. The collected data indicated a phase delay of 1 and an amplitude error of 0.5%–1.5%; similar values were observed for cross-axis sensitivity errors. We also conducted a clinical application on a group of normal subjects, who were standing in equilibrium on the robot base with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), which was rotated with a tri-axial sinusoidal trajectory with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and amplitude 5 for roll and pitch and 10 for the yaw. The postural configuration of the subjects was recorded with an optoelectronic system. However, due to the mainly technical nature of this paper, only initial validation outcomes are reported here. The clinical application showed that only the tilt and displacement on the sagittal pane of head, trunk, and pelvis in the trials conducted with eyes closed were affected by drift and that the reduction of the - - yaw rotation and of the mediolateral translation was not a controlled parameter, as happened, instead, for the other anatomical directions.
Autors: Patane, F.;Cappa, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 157 - 166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 300-GHz Fundamental Oscillator in 65-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
Fundamental oscillators prove the existence of gain at high frequencies, revealing the speed limitations of other circuits in a given technology. This paper presents an oscillator topology that employs feedback from an output stage to the core, thus achieving a high speed. The behavior of the proposed oscillator is formulated and simulations are used to compare it with the conventional cross-coupled pair circuit. Three prototypes realized in 65-nm CMOS technology operate at 205 GHz, 240 GHz, and 300 GHz, each drawing 3.7 mW from a 0.8-V supply.
Autors: Razavi, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 894 - 903
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 32 32 Pixel Convolution Processor Chip for Address Event Vision Sensors With 155 ns Event Latency and 20 Meps Throughput
Abstract:
This paper describes a convolution chip for event-driven vision sensing and processing systems. As opposed to conventional frame-constraint vision systems, in event-driven vision there is no need for frames. In frame-free event-based vision, information is represented by a continuous flow of self-timed asynchronous events. Such events can be processed on the fly by event-based convolution chips, providing at their output a continuous event flow representing the 2-D filtered version of the input flow. In this paper we present a 32 32 pixel 2-D convolution event processor whose kernel can have arbitrary shape and size up to 32 32. Arrays of such chips can be assembled to process larger pixel arrays. Event latency between input and output event flows can be as low as 155 ns. Input event throughput can reach 20 Meps (mega events per second), and output peak event rate can reach 45 Meps. The chip can be configured to discriminate between two simulated propeller-like shapes rotating simultaneously in the field of view at a speed as high as 9400 rps (revolutions per second). Achieving this with a frame-constraint system would require a sensing and processing capability of about 100 K frames per second. The prototype chip has been built in 0.35 CMOS technology, occupies 4.3 5.4 and consumes a peak power of 200 mW at maximum kernel size at maximum input event rate.
Autors: Camunas-Mesa, L.;Acosta-Jimenez, A.;Zamarreno-Ramos, C.;Serrano-Gotarredona, T.;Linares-Barranco, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:4, pages: 777 - 790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 4-Element Balanced Retrodirective Array for Direct Conversion Transmitter
Abstract:
A phase conjugated array capable of sending two individually modulated signals towards the direction of an interrogator is proposed. Each of the array elements is a dual-fed patch with one input port connected to a 90 phase shifting element and a resistive field effect transistor (FET) mixer and the other port just the mixer alone, making the array a balanced structure. A 4-element working prototype was designed at the center frequency of 5.8 GHz. A linearly polarized retrodirectivity has been experimentally confirmed by measuring bi-static radiation patterns with the interrogating signal coming at 0 , , , , and . A 8.6-dB peak power variation of re-radiation within normal to plane of the array has been shown in the measured mono-static radiation patterns. To test the ability of direct conversion, an active integrated direct conversion receiver employing the same array has been designed to receive and demodulate the response signals from the phase conjugated array. A 5 MHz square and 8 MHz sinusoidal waves as two base-band signals were carried through the phase conjugated array and successfully recovered by the direct conversion receiver.
Autors: Chiu, L.;Xue, Q.;Chan, C. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 1185 - 1190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 40-Stage Synchronous Distributed Energy Railgun
Abstract:
The development process pertaining to the design, fabrication, and testing of a 40-stage free-running arc synchronous distributed energy railgun is presented. Research efforts are still ongoing to suppress the restrike phenomenon that is responsible for causing a velocity ceiling around 6 km/s to exist on plasma armature breech-fed railguns. Numerous solutions have been theorized as viable methods of restrike prevention but lack experimental verification. In collaboration on an AFOSR Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative project, the team at Texas Tech University is responsible for characterizing a functional scale model of a synchronous distributed energy railgun to investigate the effectiveness of a distributed energy scheme to suppress the plasma restrike phenomenon and increase plasma armature railgun performance. The distributed energy scheme is theorized to suppress restrike arc formation because the back-EMF voltage is localized to active stage regions. Synchronous operation refers to the speed of an electromagnetic wave in the transmission line formed by the rails and capacitors being matched to the velocity of the armature. The railgun drives a hypervelocity (8 km/s) plasma armature, with no payload, to emulate the conditions of a high-altitude microsatellite launch while relieving the financial burden of a large stored energy facility. Experimental data collected from a seven-stage prototype distributed energy system are discussed which will mimic the design and operation of the first seven stages associated with the final 40-stage system, which is currently under construction. The data collected from this prototype as well as the final 40-stage system will be analyzed for secondary arc formation in an attempt to verify the distributed energy scheme's success in suppressing restrike formation.
Autors: Karhi, R. W.;Wetz, D. A.;Giesselmann, M.;Mankowski, J. J.;Diehl, J. P.;Kelly, P. M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 39, issue:4, pages: 1192 - 1197
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5 Gb/s Link With Matched Source Synchronous and Common-Mode Clocking Techniques
Abstract:
A 5 Gb/s source-synchronous signaling system was developed utilizing a new clock/data skew minimization technique. The method incorporates a transmit clock delay line and integrating receiver yielding an increased tolerance to high frequency transmit source jitter. The system has the potential to support rapid turn-on without the clock buffer latency of conventional source-synchronous systems. A second method to minimize clock distribution delays with embedded clocking via superposition of clock in the common-mode across two differential pairs was also explored. A test device was fabricated in TSMC's 40 nm LP CMOS process and performance measurements indicate substantial margin improvements, even when the matched source-synchronous system is subjected to realistic source SJ and independent PSIJ noise. Comparable performance was also achieved with embedded common-mode clocking with matched peak swings, indicating it as a potential solution for pin-constrained designs.
Autors: Zerbe, J.;Daly, B.;Lei Luo;Stonecypher, W.;Dettloff, W.;Eble, J.C.;Stone, T.;Jihong Ren;Leibowitz, B.;Bucher, M.;Satarzadeh, P.;Qi Lin;Yue Lu;Kollipara, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 974 - 985
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 530 Mpixels/s 4096x2160@60fps H.264/AVC High Profile Video Decoder Chip
Abstract:
The increased resolution of Quad Full High Definition (QFHD) offers significantly enhanced visual experience. However, the corresponding huge data throughput of up to 530 Mpixels/s greatly challenges the design of real-time video decoder VLSI with the extensive requirement on both DRAM bandwidth and computational power. In this work, a lossless frame recompression technique and a partial MB reordering scheme are proposed to save the DRAM access of a QFHD video decoder chip. Besides, pipelining and parallelization techniques such as NAL/slice-parallel entropy decoding are implemented to efficiently enhance its computational power. The chip supporting H.264/AVC high profile is fabricated in 90 nm CMOS and verified. It delivers a maximum throughput of 4096×2160@60fps, which is at least 4.3 times higher than the state-of-the-art. DRAM bandwidth requirement is reduced by typically 51%, which fits the design into a 64-bit LPDDR SDRAM interface and results in 58% DRAM power saving. Meanwhile, the core energy is saved by 54% by pipelining and parallelization.
Autors: Dajiang Zhou;Jinjia Zhou;Xun He;Jiayi Zhu;Ji Kong;Peilin Liu;Goto, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 777 - 788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 54–862-MHz CMOS Transceiver for TV-Band White-Space Device Applications
Abstract:
A 54–862-MHz single-chip CMOS transceiver with a single LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) fractional- synthesizer is developed for TV-band white-space communications and cognitive radio applications. The transceiver is based on a single-conversion zero-IF architecture with integrated harmonic filtering capability. A combined harmonic rejection mixer and coarse RF tracking filter significantly lessens the in-band harmonic emission problem in the transmitter, as well as the harmonic mixing problem in the receiver. A fractional- phase-locked loop (PLL) with only a single LC VCO and a wideband multimodulus local oscillator (LO) generator seamlessly covers the entire band. A wideband semi-dynamic divide-by-1.5 circuit is adopted in the LO generator to reduce the VCO tuning range requirement by 25 %. A pseudoexponential capacitor bank structure in the LC VCO substantially reduces the and variations across the total band, which is beneficial for maintaining the PLL loop stability and dynamics over the wide band. The transceiver is implemented in 0.18- m CMOS, and operates with a single 1.8-V supply. The transmitter delivers a nominal output power of dBm, and exhibits of dBm, of ${>} +{hbox{15.9}}$ dBm, and error vector magnitude (EVM) of dB for 64-QAM signal. The image and carrier leakage calibration circuits suppress the leakage components below dBc across the entire band. The receiver achieves about 100-dB gain dynamic range, 3.5–6.9-dB noise figure, -dB EVM, and -dBc third/fifth harmonic mixing suppression. The synthesizer and LO generator achieves the integrated phase noise rms degree over the entire band.
Autors: Kim, J.;Lee, S. J.;Kim, S.;Ha, J. O.;Eo, Y. S.;Shin, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 966 - 977
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60 GHz Wideband Quadrature-Balanced Mixer Based on 0.13 RFCMOS Technology
Abstract:
A 60 GHz wideband quadrature-balanced down-conversion mixer employing a new wideband technique with an active feedback has been developed in this work. Fabricated with a 0.13 RFCMOS technology, the mixer exhibits a 3 dB IF bandwidth of 5 GHz with a conversion gain of 2.3 dB for a fixed LO frequency of 60 GHz. The mixer also shows an RF bandwidth of 7 GHz with a peak gain of 5.6 dB at 55 GHz. The circuit draws 10.6 mA from 1.3 V supply.
Autors: Kim, D.-H.;Kim, S.-J.;Rieh, J.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 21, issue:4, pages: 215 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 60-GHz 2-bit Switched-Line Phase Shifter Using SP4T RF-MEMS Switches
Abstract:
This paper presents a -band 2-bit switched-line phase shifter using dc-contact single-pole four-throw (SP4T) RF microelectromechanical systems (RF-MEMS) switches for 60-GHz applications. The design and measurements of the SP4T RF-MEMS switches and the phase shifter are presented. The phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of 2.5 dB in the 55–65-GHz band with a return loss better than 12 dB for each state. The phase error for each state of the switched-line phase shifter is less than 1° at 60 GHz.
Autors: Gong, S.;Shen, H.;Barker, N. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 894 - 900
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 65 nm CMOS Quad-Band SAW-Less Receiver SoC for GSM/GPRS/EDGE
Abstract:
A quad-band 2.5G receiver is designed to replace the front-end SAW filters with on-chip bandpass filters and to integrate the LNA matching components, as well as the RF baluns. The receiver achieves a typical sensitivity of -110 dBm or better, while saving a considerable amount of BOM. Utilizing an arrangement of four baseband capacitors and MOS switches driven by 4-phase 25% duty-cycle clocks, high-Q BPF's are realized to attenuate the 0 dBm out-of-band blocker. The 65 nm CMOS SAW-less receiver integrated as a part of a 2.5G SoC, draws 55 mA from the battery, and measures an out-of-band 1 dB-compression of greater than +2 dBm. Measured as a stand-alone, as well as the baseband running in call mode in the platform level, the receiver passes the 3GPP specifications with margin.
Autors: Mirzaei, A.;Darabi, H.;Yazdi, A.;Zhimin Zhou;Chang, E.;Suri, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 950 - 964
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A balanced composite backward and forward compact waveguide based on resonant metamaterials
Abstract:
A balanced composite backward and forward waveguide is presented by using modified split ring resonators. The forbidden band between the forward and backward guided mode is eliminated. Acoaxial feed method is proposed to excite both the forward and backward guided modes. The passband of the proposed structure ranges from 4.28GHz to 6.83GHz, below the cutoff frequency of the fundamental mode of the hollow waveguide (∼15 GHz). Physical size of the waveguide has been dramatically decreased.
Autors: Tang, Qi;Meng, Fan-Yi;Wu, Qun;Lee, Jong-Chul;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07A319 - 07A319-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A basic study of a triangular magnet chain for locomotion control
Abstract:
This paper introduces a theoretical (magnetic and robotic) and experimental study of a robotic locomotion principle utilizing a triangular artificial magnetic chain with a rotating magnetic field for biomedical applications. A three-axis Helmholtz coil system with external controller (joystick) controls the moving direction of the proposed magnet chain according to changes of the plane of the rotating magnetic field. The proposed magnet chain consists of three NdFeB magnets, and its magnetic property depends on dipoles interaction. Also, motion dynamics bring about a magnetic torque analyzed by robotics. A total magnetic moment on the triangular magnet chain provides magnetic torque in the rotating magnetic field, and a geometric property produces a stable movement for robotic locomotion.
Autors: Kim, Sung Hoon;Hashi, Shuichiro;Ishiyama, Kazushi;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07E318 - 07E318-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Battery-Powered Activity-Dependent Intracortical Microstimulation IC for Brain-Machine-Brain Interface
Abstract:
This paper describes an activity-dependent intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) system-on-chip (SoC) that converts extracellular neural spikes recorded from one brain region to electrical stimuli delivered to another brain region in real time in vivo. The 10.9-mm2 SoC incorporates two identical 4-channel modules, each comprising an analog recording front-end with total input noise voltage of 3.12 μVrms and noise efficiency factor (NEF) of 2.68, 5.9-μW 10-bit successive approximation register analog-to-digital converters (SAR ADCs), 12.4-μW digital spike discrimination processor, and a programmable constant-current microstimulating back-end that delivers up to 94.5 μA with 6-bit resolution to stimulate the cortical tissue when triggered by neural activity. For autonomous operation, the SoC also integrates biasing and clock generation circuitry, frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) transmitter at 433 MHz, and dc-dc converter that generates a power supply of 5.05 V for the microstimulating back-end from a single 1.5-V battery. Measured results from electrical performance characterization and biological experiments with anesthetized rats are presented from a prototype chip fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm two-poly four-metal (2P/4M) CMOS. A noise analysis for the selected low-noise amplifier (LNA) topology is presented that obtains a minimum NEF of 2.33 for a practical design given the technology parameters and power supply voltage. Future considerations in the SoC design with respect to silicon area and power consumption when increasing the number of channels are also discussed.
Autors: Azin, M.;Guggenmos, D.J.;Barbay, S.;Nudo, R.J.;Mohseni, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 731 - 745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bayesian Approach to Diameter Estimation in the Diameter Control System of Silicon Single Crystal Growth
Abstract:
In the diameter control system of silicon single crystal growth, the variation of the diameter of the aperture (i.e., a halo with high brightness, which appears at the junction of a solid crystal and a liquid solution) is consistent with the change in the diameter of the growing crystal. Therefore, the diameter of the aperture can be used as a control variable for adjusting the casting speed and temperature so that the grown silicon single crystal approximates to a perfect cylinder. It is obvious that the measured diameter of the current aperture plays an important role in the diameter control system of silicon single crystal growth. In fact, the obtained aperture image from a charge-coupled device camera is a halo of ellipses instead of circles. To estimate the diameter (or radius) of the elliptical aperture, we propose a Bayesian approach, in which a Bayesian model is derived to define a posterior distribution for the unknown parameters. This distribution is too complicated for analytical extraction of moments to sample directly. An efficient computational algorithm based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo method is derived to estimate the posterior distribution and draw samples from the distribution. Comparing with the classical Hough transform-based algorithm and the direct least-squares fitting method, the proposed algorithm has higher estimation accuracy. Some simulated and experimental examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm's effectiveness.
Autors: Ding Liu;Junli Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1307 - 1315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Biomedical Sensor Interface With a sinc Filter and Interference Cancellation
Abstract:
A compact, low-power, digitally-assisted sensor interface for biomedical applications is presented. It exploits oversampling and mixed-signal feedback to reduce system area and power, while making the system more robust to interferers. Antialiasing is achieved using a charge-sampling filter with a sinc frequency response and programmable gain. A mixed-signal feedback loop creates a sharp, programmable notch for interference cancellation. A prototype was implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. The on-chip blocks operate from a 1.5-V supply and consume between 255 nW and 2.5 μW depending on noise and bandwidth requirements.
Autors: Bohorquez, J.L.;Yip, M.;Chandrakasan, A.P.;Dawson, J.L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 746 - 756
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Car That's Faster Than a Speeding Bullet
Abstract:
In 1997, British Royal Air Force fighter pilot Andy Green broke the world landspeed record at 763 miles per hour (1228 kilometers per hour)-literally faster than some bullets. Now he's gunning for a new record in 2012-driving 1000 mph (1609 km/h) in the new Bloodhound supersonic car.
Autors: Karlin, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 48, issue:4, pages: 23 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Car-Seat Example of Automated Anthropomorphic Testing of Fabrics Using Force-Controlled Robot Motions
Abstract:
For the last years, automation is widely used to relieve humans from repetitive tasks, primarily and firstly within manufacturing. However, for products with less ideal (or hard to model) properties, and when forces depends on human interaction, automated testing has not been explored until now.
Autors: Valera, A.;Benimeli, F.;Solaz, J.;De Rosario, H.;Robertsson, A.;Nilsson, K.;Zotovic, R.;Mellado, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 8, issue:2, pages: 280 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Channel Coding Perspective of Collaborative Filtering
Abstract:
We consider the problem of collaborative filtering from a channel coding perspective. We model the underlying rating matrix as a finite alphabet matrix with block constant structure. The observations are obtained from this underlying matrix through a discrete memoryless channel with a noisy part representing noisy user behavior and an erasure part representing missing data. Moreover, the clusters over which the underlying matrix is constant are unknown. We establish a threshold result for this model: if the largest cluster size is smaller than (where the rating matrix is of size ), then the underlying matrix cannot be recovered with any estimator, but if the smallest cluster size is larger than , then we show a polynomial time estimator with asymptotically vanishing probability of error. In the case of uniform cluster size, not only the order of the threshold, but also the constant is identified.
Autors: Aditya, S. T.;Dabeer, O.;Dey, B. K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2327 - 2341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Chebyshev-Response Step-Impedance Phase-Inverter Rat-Race Coupler Directly on Lossy Silicon Substrate and Its Gilbert Mixer Application
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the analysis and the design methodology of the step-impedance phase-inverter rat-race coupler on a silicon-based process. The issues of impedance limitation and bandwidth are discussed in detail. Our proposed concept utilizes a high silicon dielectric constant, phase-inverter structure, step-impedance technique, and Chebyshev response to make the rat-race coupler more compact ( reduction) and highly balanced over a wide operating bandwidth. Moreover, the inter-digital coplanar stripline used in the step-impedance section effectively reduces the characteristic impedance of the transmission line for large size shrinkage and insertion-loss reduction. The demonstrated step-impedance rat-race coupler directly on silicon substrate has insertion loss from 5 to 15 GHz and small variations in amplitude/phase balance. Compared with our previous work, the proposed rat-race coupler achieves a 3-dB improvement in the insertion loss. Thus, a 0.13- CMOS Gilbert down-converter with a miniature phase-inverter rat-race coupler at the RF path for wideband single-to-differential signal conversion achieves a noise figure of 16 dB.
Autors: Wei, H.-J.;Meng, C.;Yu, S.-W.;Chang, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 882 - 893
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS 6-Bit 16-GS/s Time-Interleaved ADC Using Digital Background Calibration Techniques
Abstract:
An 8-channel 6-bit 16-GS/s time-interleaved analog- to-digital converter (TI ADC) was fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS technology. Each analog-to-digital channel is a 6-bit flash ADC. Its comparators are latches without the preamplifiers. The input-referred offsets of the latches are reduced by digital offset calibration. The TI ADC includes a multi-phase clock generator that uses a delay-locked loop to generate 8 sampling clocks from a reference clock of the same frequency. The uniformity of the sampling intervals is ensured by digital timing-skew calibration. Both the offset calibration and the timing-skew calibration run continuously in the background. At 16 GS/s sampling rate, this ADC chip achieves a signal-to-distortion-plus-noise ratio (SNDR) of 30.8 dB. The chip consumes 435 mW from a 1.5 V supply. The ADC active area is 0.93 × 1.58 mm2.
Autors: Chun-Cheng Huang;Chung-Yi Wang;Jieh-Tsorng Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 46, issue:4, pages: 848 - 858
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Image Sensor With On-Chip Image Compression Based on Predictive Boundary Adaptation and Memoryless QTD Algorithm
Abstract:
This paper presents the architecture, algorithm, and VLSI hardware of image acquisition, storage, and compression on a single-chip CMOS image sensor. The image array is based on time domain digital pixel sensor technology equipped with nondestructive storage capability using 8-bit Static-RAM device embedded at the pixel level. The pixel-level memory is used to store the uncompressed illumination data during the integration mode as well as the compressed illumination data obtained after the compression stage. An adaptive quantization scheme based on fast boundary adaptation rule (FBAR) and differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) procedure followed by an online, least storage quadrant tree decomposition (QTD) processing is proposed enabling a robust and compact image compression processor. A prototype chip including 64 64 pixels, read-out and control circuitry as well as an on-chip compression processor was implemented in 0.35 m CMOS technology with a silicon area of 3.2 and an overall power of 17 mW. Simulation and measurements results show compression figures corresponding to 0.6–1 bit-per-pixel (BPP), while maintaining reasonable peak signal-to-noise ratio levels.
Autors: Chen, S.;Bermak, A.;Wang, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:4, pages: 538 - 547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Instrumentation Amplifier With 90-dB CMRR at 2-MHz Using Capacitive Neutralization: Analysis, Design Considerations, and Implementation
Abstract:
The benefits of using “current feedback” in instrumentation amplifier (IA) design are well known. In this paper, we analyze the mismatch mechanisms, both random and systematic types, which influence the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) performance of the local current feedback IA topology. We derive analytical expressions for the common-mode gain frequency response due to random mismatches (transconductance, drain-source conductance and parasitic capacitance) and verify the integrity of the analysis through simulation. To address the systematic mismatch in the drain capacitance of the input pair transistors, we employ capacitive neutralization and verify its effectiveness in practice from the fabricated IA chip samples in a 0.35- CMOS process technology. The measured average common-mode gain improvement for the 20 fabricated samples employing our neutralization technique is about 20 dB at 2 MHz ( 3 dB bandwidth). When taking into account the differential gain response (33.7 dB), the average CMRR of the neutralized IA at 2 MHz exceeds 90 dB. The IA occupies an area of 0.068 and dissipates 0.85 mW from a 3-V power supply. The circuit is intended for a wideband bioimpedance spectroscopy application.
Autors: Worapishet, A.;Demosthenous, A.;Liu, X.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:4, pages: 699 - 710
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comb-sampling method for enhanced mass analysis in linear electrostatic ion traps
Abstract:
In this paper an algorithm for extracting spectral information from signals containing a series of narrow periodic impulses is presented. Such signals can typically be acquired by pickup detectors from the image-charge of ion bunches oscillating in a linear electrostatic ion trap, where frequency analysis provides a scheme for high-resolution mass spectrometry. To provide an improved technique for such frequency analysis, we introduce the CHIMERA algorithm (Comb-sampling for High-resolution IMpulse-train frequency ExtRAaction). This algorithm utilizes a comb function to generate frequency coefficients, rather than using sinusoids via a Fourier transform, since the comb provides a superior match to the data. This new technique is developed theoretically, applied to synthetic data, and then used to perform high resolution mass spectrometry on real data from an ion trap. If the ions are generated at a localized point in time and space, and the data is simultaneously acquired with multiple pickup rings, the method is shown to be a significant improvement on Fourier analysis. The mass spectra generated typically have an order of magnitude higher resolution compared with that obtained from fundamental Fourier frequencies, and are absent of large contributions from harmonic frequency components.
Autors: Greenwood, J. B.;Kelly, O.;Calvert, C. R.;Duffy, M. J.;King, R. B.;Belshaw, L.;Graham, L.;Alexander, J. D.;Williams, I. D.;Bryan, W. A.;Turcu, I. C. E.;Cacho, C. M.;Springate, E.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 82, issue:4, pages: 043103 - 043103-12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined State-Space Nodal Method for the Simulation of Power System Transients
Abstract:
This paper presents a new solution method that combines state-space and nodal analysis for the simulation of electrical systems. The presented flexible clustering of state-space-described electrical subsystems into a nodal method offers several advantages for the efficient solution of switched networks, nonlinear functions, and for interfacing with nodal model equations. This paper extends the concept of discrete companion branch equivalent of the nodal approach to state-space described systems and enables natural coupling between them. The presented solution method is simultaneous and enables benefitting from the advantages of two different modeling approaches normally exclusive from one another.
Autors: Dufour, C.;Mahseredjian, J.;Bélanger, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 928 - 935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comment on "Performance Analysis of Uplink Cognitive Cellular Networks with Opportunistic Scheduling"
Abstract:
An exact closed-form bit-error-rate (BER) expression is derived for the scheduled cognitive user (CU) in the uplink cellular networks with opportunistic scheduling considered by Li. Simulation results corroborate the theoretical analysis.
Autors: Fan, Lisheng;Lei, Xianfu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 361 - 361
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact model of domain wall propagation for logic and memory design
Abstract:
Current-driven domain wall motion is very promising for low-power, high-density, and high-speed circuits. By combining this shifting scheme with magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) for reading and writing processes, it opens new routes for nonvolatile logic and memory applications that are crucial for the future of spintronics. This paper reports on a compact model for domain wall-MTJ-based circuit design, simulation, and evaluation. It integrates spin transfer torque mechanism for magnetization reversal and domain wall nucleation, current-driven domain wall pinning/motion behaviors, and tunnel resistance theory of MTJ nanopillar, in which the free layer is one storage element of magnetic stripe. This model is programmed with a very flexible structure to achieve the best simulation precision and efficiency, and provide easy parameter configuration interface. It is compatible with classical computer-aided design environment and can be cosimulated directly with CMOS design kits. By using the compact model, we have successfully simulated a domain wall propagation shift register.
Autors: Zhao, W. S.;Duval, J.;Ravelosona, D.;Klein, J.-O.;Kim, J. V.;Chappert, C.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07D501 - 07D501-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge
Abstract:
Uniform and stable discharge plasma requires very short duration pulses with fast rise times. A repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator for the application of gas discharge is presented in this paper. It is constructed with all solid-state components. Two-stage magnetic compression is used to generate a short duration pulse. Unlike in some reported studies, common commercial fast recovery diodes instead of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are used in our experiment that plays the role of SOS. The SOS-like effects of four different kinds of diodes are studied experimentally to optimize the output performance. It is found that the output pulse voltage is higher with a shorter reverse recovery time, and the rise time of pulse becomes faster when the falling time of reverse recovery current is shorter. The SOS-like effect of the diodes can be adjusted by changing the external circuit parameters. Through optimization the pulse generator can provide a pulsed voltage of 40 kV with a 40 ns duration, 10 ns rise time, and pulse repetition frequency of up to 5 kHz. Diffuse plasma can be formed in air at standard atmospheric pressure using the developed pulse generator. With a light weight and small packaging the pulse generator is suitable for gas discharge application.
Autors: Pang, Lei;Zhang, Qiaogen;Ren, Baozhong;He, Kun;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 82, issue:4, pages: 043504 - 043504-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact UWB Antenna for On-Body Applications
Abstract:
A new compact planar ultrawideband (UWB) antenna designed for on-body communications is presented. The antenna is characterized in free space, on a homogeneous phantom modeling a human arm, and on a realistic high-resolution whole-body voxel model. In all configurations it demonstrates very satisfactory features for on-body propagation. The results are presented in terms of return loss, radiation pattern, efficiency, and -field distribution. The antenna shows very good performance within the 3–11.2 GHz range, and therefore it might be used successfully for the 3.1–10.6 GHz IR-UWB systems. The simulation results for the return loss and radiation patterns are in good agreement with measurements. Finally, a time-domain analysis over the whole-body voxel model is performed for impulse radio applications, and transmission scenarios with several antennas placed on the body are analyzed and compared.
Autors: Chahat, N.;Zhadobov, M.;Sauleau, R.;Ito, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 59, issue:4, pages: 1123 - 1131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative 1/f Noise Study of GeOI wafers obtained by the Ge Enrichment Technique & the Smart-Cut Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental investigation of Low Frequency Noise (LFN) measurements on Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) PMOS transistors processed on different wafers. The wafers are obtained by Ge enrichment technique & by Smart CutTM technology. The slow oxide trap densities of back interface are used as a figure of merit to evaluate the process. The Smart CutTM process is evaluated by studying GeOI pMOSFETs, and the enrichment process by studying Si1-xGex (x=25 and 35%) pMOSFETs. The buried oxide is used as a back gate for experimental purposes. The extracted values are of the same order of magnitude for both processes and...
Autors: M., Valenza , J., El Husseini , J., Gyani , F., Martinez , M., Bawedin , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A comparative analysis of Ag and Cu heat sink layers in L10-FePt films for heat-assisted magnetic recording
Abstract:
The magnetic properties, structural properties, and thermal conductivity of FePt films deposited on Ag and Cu heat sink layers designed for use in heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) were investigated. It has been found that FePt films grown on Cu have a well-defined L10-FePt (001) texture while the FePt films grown on Ag appear to be more isotropic. As the thickness of the heat sink layer increases from 15 to 120 nm the coercivity of the FePt films decreases from 1.7 to 1.5 T for Cu and from 1.3 to 1.0 T for Ag. The thermal conductivity measurements, carried out with the “laser-flash” technique, revealed that the overall thermal resistance of the examined structures is dominated by the thermal boundary resistance and the interface effects. The increase in the thickness of Ag and Cu heat sink layers does not lead to the higher effective thermal conductivity of the layered structure in the cross-plane direction. The obtained results are important for optimization of the FePt-based structures for HAMR.
Autors: Fernandez, Robert;Teweldebrhan, Desalegne;Zhang, Chen;Balandin, Alexander;Khizroev, Sakhrat;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 07B763 - 07B763-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study of Software Model Checkers as Unit Testing Tools: An Industrial Case Study
Abstract:
Conventional testing methods often fail to detect hidden flaws in complex embedded software such as device drivers or file systems. This deficiency incurs significant development and support/maintenance cost for the manufacturers. Model checking techniques have been proposed to compensate for the weaknesses of conventional testing methods through exhaustive analyses. Whereas conventional model checkers require manual effort to create an abstract target model, modern software model checkers remove this overhead by directly analyzing a target C program, and can be utilized as unit testing tools. However, since software model checkers are not fully mature yet, they have limitations according to the underlying technologies and tool implementations, potentially critical issues when applied in industrial projects. This paper reports our experience in applying Blast and CBMC to testing the components of a storage platform software for flash memory. Through this project, we analyzed the strong and weak points of two different software model checking technologies in the viewpoint of real-world industrial application-counterexample-guided abstraction refinement with predicate abstraction and SAT-based bounded analysis.
Autors: Moonzoo Kim;Yunho Kim;Hotae Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 146 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Study on Bubble-Driven Micropumping in Microchannels with Square and Circular Cross Sections
Abstract:
We report experimental evidence that by employing circular flow channels, the maximum pressure head, flow rate and output flow power of a valve-less bubble-driven micropump can be improved by factors of 2.0~2.3, 2.3~2.9 and 3.6~4.6 respectively, when compared with its counterparts with square flow channels having the same hydraulic diameter. It is thus suggested that significant improvements on pumping performance can be achieved by rounding the flow channels of this category of micropumps, which are usually square or rectangular in cross section as fabricated. The geometry-dependent pumping performance is attributed to the different formations of liquid film generated between the...
Autors: Ryan J., Lemmens , Dennis Desheng, Meng
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A comprehensive study for advanced in-situ contact dry cleaning
Abstract:
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Autors: An advanced in-situ pre-contact dry cleaning process with fluorine species has been comprehensively investigated to effectively remove the native oxide on the top surface of Ni-salicide layer for ensuring lower contact resistance (Rc) without the dra
Appeared in: Microelectronic Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A constitutive equation for nano-to-macro-scale heat conduction based on the Boltzmann transport equation
Abstract:
A constitutive equation for heat conduction is derived from the exact solution of the Boltzmann transport equation under the relaxation time approximation. This is achieved by a series expansion on multiple space derivatives of the temperature and introducing the concept of thermal multipoles, where the thermal conductivity defined under the framework of the Fourier law of heat conduction is just the first thermal pole. It is shown that this equation generalizes the Fourier law and Cattaneo equation of heat conduction, and it depends strongly on the relative values of the length and time scales compared with the mean-free path and mean-free time of the energy carriers, respectively. In the limiting case of steady-state heat conduction, it is shown that the heat flux vector depends on a spatial scale ratio whose effects are remarkable in the micro-scale spatial domains. By applying a first-order approximation of the obtained thermal multipole expansion to the problem of transient heat conduction across a thin film and comparing the results with the predictions for the same problem using the Fourier, Cattaneo and Boltzmann transport equations, it is shown that our results could be useful in the study of the heat transport in short as well as in long scales of space and time. The common and different features of the multipole expansion compared with the Ballistic-diffusive model of heat conduction are also discussed. Special emphasis is put to the cases where the physical scales of space and time are comparable to the mean-free path and mean-free time of the energy carriers.
Autors: Ordonez-Miranda, J.;Yang, Ronggui;Alvarado-Gil, J. J.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:8, pages: 084319 - 084319-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Construction of a New Family of -ary Sequences With Low Correlation From Sidel'nikov Sequences
Abstract:
In this paper, a new family of -ary sequences of period is proposed. The proposed family is constructed by the addition of cyclic shifts of an -ary Sidel'nikov sequence and its reverse sequence. The number of sequences contained in this family is about times of their period and the maximum magnitude of their correlation values is upper bounded by .
Autors: Chung, J.-S.;No, J.-S.;Chung, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 57, issue:4, pages: 2301 - 2305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control Strategy for Islanded Microgrids With DC-Link Voltage Control
Abstract:
New opportunities for optimally integrating the increasing number of distributed-generation (DG) units in the power system rise with the introduction of the microgrid. Most DG units are connected to the microgrid via a power-electronic inverter with dc link. Therefore, new control methods for these inverters need to be developed in order to exploit the DG units as effectively as possible in case of an islanded microgrid. In the literature, most control strategies are based on the conventional transmission grid control or depend on a communication infrastructure. In this paper, on the other hand, an alternative control strategy is proposed based on the specific characteristics of islanded low-voltage microgrids. The microgrid power is balanced by using a control strategy that modifies the set value of the rms microgrid voltage at the inverter ac side as a function of the dc-link voltage. In case a certain voltage, which is determined by a constant-power band, is surpassed, this control strategy is combined with P/V -droop control. This droop controller changes the output power of the DG unit and its possible storage devices as a function of the grid voltage. In this way, voltage-limit violation is avoided. The constant-power band depends on the characteristics of the generator to avoid frequent changes of the power of certain DG units. In this paper, it is concluded that the new control method shows good results in power sharing, transient issues, and stability. This is achieved without interunit communication, which is beneficial concerning reliability issues, and an optimized integration of the renewable energy sources in the microgrid is obtained.
Autors: Vandoorn, T.L.;Meersman, B.;Degroote, L.;Renders, B.;Vandevelde, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 703 - 713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A control theoretic approach to malaria immunotherapy with state jumps?
Abstract:
We investigate a control method for malaria dynamics to boost the immune response using a model-based approach. The idea of state jump is introduced and discussed using a hybrid model. To implement the state jumps we use a physiologically feasible method for the biological system, whereby the introduction of a pathogen into the system steers it to a desirable status. It is noted that we take advantage of a pathogen to implement state jumps in the system. The study is supported by recently reported experimental results.
Autors: H., Chang , A., Astolfi , H., Shim
Appeared in: Automatica
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Correction of Spectral Correlation Function Expression for OFDM Signals
Abstract:
This letter describes the correction of the existing Spectral Correlation Function (SCF) expression of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The influence of modulated sequences to the cyclostationarity of SCF is introduced, which means the cyclic frequencies of SCF are related to both the symbol period and the modulated sequences period. Theoretical analysis is also validated by simulation results.
Autors: Cui, Weiliang;Jiang, Hua;Li, Jianqiang;Wang, Quan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 15, issue:4, pages: 446 - 448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cost-Effective High-Efficiency Power Conditioner With Simple MPPT Control Algorithm for Wind-Power Grid Integration
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel grid integration system for a variable-speed wind turbine using an interior permanent-magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) is developed. The power conditioner system (PCS) consists of a series-type 12-pulse uncontrolled diode rectifier powered by a phase-shifting transformer and then cascaded to a pulsewidth-modulated (PWM) voltage source inverter. The active current of the grid-side PWM inverter is only controlled to follow the optimal active current reference which is determined by using a simple maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy. The MPPT algorithm requires only three sensors in order to track the maximum power of the wind turbine. The most significant advantage of the proposed system is that the passive filter together with a series-type 12-pulse rectifier provides high efficiency by compensating the power factor angle of the IPMSG and suppresses distortions presented in the IPMSG voltages and currents. The laboratory results indicate that the proposed construction and scheme are simple, cheap, and efficient.
Autors: Nishida, K.;Ahmed, T.;Nakaoka, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 47, issue:2, pages: 893 - 900
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Creep-Immune Electrostatic Actuator for RF-MEMS Tunable Capacitor
Abstract:
A high creep-immunity MEMS actuator is proposed for RF-MEMS tunable capacitor. The creep-immunity is attained by using silicon nitride, SiN, for the spring portions, where the stress is concentrated. Compared with an aluminum spring, the creep-induced deformation is reduced by a factor of 23 at 100°C. We also confirmed by a billion cycle test that the SiN spring does not develop a brittle fracture.
Autors: Etsuji, Ogawa , Tamio, Ikehashi , Tomohiro, Saito , Hiroaki, Yamazaki , Kei, Masunishi , ...
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Critical Assessment of the Closed-Loop Bulk Current Injection Immunity Test Performed in Compliance With ISO 11452-4
Abstract:
The closed-loop bulk current injection (BCI) method employed to measure the immunity to electromagnetic interference of an electronic equipment in compliance with the ISO 11452-4 standard is critically assessed on the basis of an experimental characterization of its test setup. It is highlighted that, above 100 MHz, the injected bulk current estimated by the calibration procedure described in the standard is significantly different from the actual bulk current injected into the connector of the equipment under test (EUT) during BCI tests. Such a discrepancy gives rise to unreliable BCI immunity test results highlighting susceptibility issues that are not related with the actual susceptibility of the EUT.
Autors: Crovetti, P.S.;Fiori, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 60, issue:4, pages: 1291 - 1297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cryogenic surface-electrode elliptical ion trap for quantum simulation
Abstract:
Two-dimensional crystals of trapped ions are a promising system with which to implement quantum simulations of challenging problems such as spin frustration. Here, we present a design for a surface-electrode elliptical ion trap which produces a 2-D ion crystal and is amenable to microfabrication, which would enable higher simulated coupling rates, as well as interactions based on magnetic forces generated by currents which may be incorporated into the trap structure. Working in an 11 K cryogenic environment, we experimentally verify to within 10% a numerical model of the structure of ion crystals in the trap, given the measured trap anisotropy. We also explore the possibility of implementing quantum simulation using magnetic forces, and calculate J-coupling rates on the order of 103 s-1 for a trap scale of 10 μm, using a current of 1 A.
Autors: Clark, Robert J.;Lin, Ziliang;Diab, Kenan S.;Chuang, Isaac L.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 109, issue:7, pages: 076103 - 076103-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A data-driven model simulating primary infection probabilities of cucumber downy mildew for use in early warning systems in solar greenhouses
Abstract:
 Highlights: ? The model is the foundation of disease early warning systems. ? The sensors and model were used to measure leaf wetness duration for disease warning. ? The input parameters of model were readily available and appropriately limited in number. ? The warnings could be provided more than 2 d before the symptoms appeared. ? The predicted probability for disease occurrence using the early warning model was 96%.

Autors: Treatment during the primary infection phase is essential for controlling cucumber downy mildew in solar greenhouses. An early warning model applicable to this phase would represent a foundation for early warning systems for managing the disease and
Appeared in: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Data-Mining-Based Methodology for Transmission Expansion Planning
Abstract:
Analyzing electrical and economical locational marginal pricing (LMP) values can help operators in the electric power sector plan future investments and network expansion.
Autors: Ferreira, Judite;Ramos, Sergio;Vale, Zita;Soares, Joao;
Appeared in: IEEE Intelligent Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 28 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Detailed Analytical Model of a Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator Under Dynamic Eccentricity Fault
Abstract:
In this paper, a new detailed analytical model of a salient-pole synchronous generator (SPSG) under dynamic eccentricity (DE) is presented which is capable of accounting for the effects of magnetic saturation, rotor pole shoe saliency, and space distribution of stator phases and rotor winding. A real form of rotor pole shoes is taken into account in the proposed SPSG air-gap function distribution. Saturation effects incorporate into the air-gap function of SPSG as a simple proposed analytic equation that varies by the generator load and operating condition. Furthermore, variation of the resulted air-gap distribution of SPSG in the presence of DE fault is then computed precisely and the inverse air-gap function calculated using Fourier series in order to compute time varying self- and mutual-inductances of stator phases and rotor winding via the modified winding function approach (MWFA). The computed inductances are used for simulation of SPSG and studying the frequency spectrum of stator line current in the presence of DE fault. It is shown that the results of proposed model are closer to the finite-element (FE) computation results compared to the available analytic models.
Autors: Babaei, M.;Faiz, J.;Ebrahimi, B. M.;Amini, S.;Nazarzadeh, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 47, issue:4, pages: 764 - 771
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital Signal Processing Module for Ge Semiconductor Detectors
Abstract:
We have developed a digital signal processing module (APV7109) for a germanium semiconductor detector. The benchmark test of this module has shown good energy resolution and high throughput compared with conventional analog modules. By adding an extension module, the APV7109 can perform more advanced on-line calculations using the pulse shapes delivered by the on-board programmable logic. Therefore, user defined algorithms for pulse shape analysis can be used to adapt this module to various applications. Tests have demonstrated the feasibility of this extensible design.
Autors: Fukuchi, T.;Arai, Y.;Watanabe, F.;Motomura, S.;Takeda, S.;Kanayama, Y.;Haba, H.;Watanabe, Y.;Enomoto, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:2, pages: 461 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digitally-Calibrated Phase-Locked Loop With Supply Sensitivity Suppression
Abstract:
A digitally-calibrated technique to suppress the supply voltage sensitivity of a phase-locked loop (PLL) is presented. The voltage-controlled ring oscillator with an additional opposite-supply-sensitivity pair is digitally calibrated to suppress the supply voltage sensitivity. The circuit is fabricated in a 0.18- m CMOS technology and the core area occupies 0.235 mm . The total power consumption is 16.2 mW for a supply voltage of 1.8 V and an operating frequency of 1.5 GHz. For a 100 mV , 110 kHz sinusoidal waveform noise applied to the supply, the measured rms jitters without and with calibration are 16.5 and 9.7 ps, respectively, while this PLL works at 1.5 GHz. This PLL achieves the rms jitter improvement by a factor of 41.2% under the proposed digitally-calibrated technique.
Autors: Kao, S.-Y.;Liu, S.-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:4, pages: 592 - 602
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Distributed Model for Border Traps in MOS Devices
Abstract:
A distributed border trap model based on tunneling between the semiconductor surface and trap states in the gate dielectric film is formulated to account for the observed frequency dispersion in the capacitance and conductance of Al2O3/InGaAs MOS devices biased in accumulation. The distributed circuit model is more physical and descriptive than previous lumped circuit border trap models in the literature. The distributed model correctly depicts the frequency dependence of both capacitance and conductance data in accumulation. A border trap volume density is extracted from the quantitative agreement with measured data.
Autors: Yu Yuan;Lingquan Wang;Bo Yu;Byungha Shin;Jaesoo Ahn;McIntyre, P.C.;Asbeck, P.M.;Rodwell, M.J.W.;Yuan Taur;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 32, issue:4, pages: 485 - 487
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A DOST based approach for the condition monitoring of 11 kV distribution line insulators
Abstract:
The diminishing trend of reliability owing to possible power system failures has become a serious concern for the power system as a whole. It has necessitated the development of advanced protection methodologies employing advanced information technology and substation monitoring system (SMS) constitutes an integral part of such methodologies. The proposed scheme for condition monitoring of insulators, which serves as an augmented feature of SMS, aims at alleviating overall system reliability as well as power quality because cracked insulators cause disruption of power, thereby incurring heavy loss to the power system utilities. The image processing based video surveillance (VS) is incorporated to dispense with the cumbersome and time consuming conventional manual on-site detection using discrete orthogonal S-transform (DOST) in conjunction with some intelligent classification algorithms to ascertain the condition of the insulators.
Autors: Jaya Bharata Reddy, M.;Karthik Chandra, B.;Mohanta, D.K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 588 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Shader 3-D Graphics Processor With Fast 4-D Vector Inner Product Units and Power-Aware Texture Cache
Abstract:
This paper presents a fully programmable 3-D graphics processor using unified shaders for mobile environment. In the system level, we adopted dual-core, dual-issue VLIW, and multithreading methods to utilize instruction, data, and task level parallelism in the graphics applications. In the shader core level, a novel IEEE-754 compliant 4-D vector inner product arithmetic unit and a configurable texture cache are proposed. Using these methods, the proposed processor achieves 143 Mvertices/s and 2.3 Gtexels/s consuming the power of 367 mW. The evaluation shows significant performance and power-delay product benefits. For real graphics applications, test results indicate 2.07 times improvement in performance and 34% reduction in power-delay product compared to previous mobile 3-D graphics processors. The proposed 3-D graphics processor is implemented in 4.5 4.5 mm using 0.18- m CMOS technology.
Autors: Yoon, J.-S.;Yu, C.-H.;Kim, D.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 19, issue:4, pages: 525 - 537
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A dynamic data-based model describing nephropathia epidemica in Belgium
Abstract:
 Highlights: ? We quantified the dynamics of NE cases in Belgium with dynamic data-based model. ? First we used just average monthly precipitation and temperature as inputs. ? To improve the result, estimated carrying capacity from SIR model was used as a third input. ? Combining the two models, we managed to explain the dynamics of NE cases in Belgium.

Autors: Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a human infection caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), which is naturally carried and shed by bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Population dynamics and infectious diseases in general, such as NE, have often been modelled with m
Appeared in: Biosystems Engineering
Publication date: Apr 2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A dynamic linearization concept for piezoelectric actuators
Abstract:
We present a linearization circuit based on a capacitive Wheatstone bridge that is able to set a desired polarization in a piezoactuator. The system is meant to be used for dynamic actuation in a broad frequency range. A general nonlinear model for piezoactuators is presented in which two nonlinear sub-systems are cascaded: the electric-field-to-polarization (E-P) and the polarization-to-strain (P-x) blocks. The inversion of the latter sub-system in combination with the linearization bridge results in a reduction of up to 19 dB of the harmonic distortion of the actuator's mechanical displacement.
Autors: Biancuzzi, G.;Haller, D.;Lemke, T.;Wischke, M.;Goldschmidtboeing, F.;Woias, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:4, pages: 689 - 697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast and Accurate Method to Study the Impact of Interface Traps on Germanium MOS Performance
Abstract:
A technique is presented to study the electrostatic degradation of key germanium metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) performance metrics such as the subthreshold slope , the drive current, and the off-state current. This is calculated using the superposition of the contributions from individual trap profiles, arising from a piecewise approximation of any arbitrary interface-trap spectrum. A technology computer-aided design simulation using this approach has been directly applied to the electrical evaluation of various scaled Ge p-channel FETs with different passivation schemes. The relative degradation due to interface traps is shown to be independent of the gate length, even in scaled devices exhibiting short-channel effects. Additionally, a linear dependence of the relative degradation with an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) is observed. As such, a transistor's subthreshold performance is less impacted by a given concentration of interface traps, as the EOT is further reduced. Finally, the MOSFET drive current is shown to be degraded due to interface traps, mainly through additional scattering in the channel, while the electrostatic effect is rather small.
Autors: Hellings, G.;Eneman, G.;Mitard, J.;Martens, K.;Wang, W.-E;Hoffmann, T.;Meuris, M.;De Meyer, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:4, pages: 938 - 944
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Fast H.264/AVC-Based Stereo Video Encoding Algorithm Based on Hierarchical Two-Stage Neural Classification
Abstract:
Stereo video, targeting at matching what the humans see in the real world, offers depth perception on observed scenes. The problem of compressing such a huge amount of video data has received considerable attention in the past few years. Its challenge comes from the much more complicated parameter selection (e.g., mode decision) process than single-channel video coding. To cope with this problem, the currently developed H.264/AVC-based JMVM platform is adopted here for implementation, where the encoding of the left-view channel is purely based on predictions from the temporal domain, while for the right-view channel, combined predictions from the temporal and the inter-view domains are exploited and a hierarchical two-stage neural classifier is designed for fast mode decision. The first-stage neural classifier determines candidates of block partition for each macroblock, while the second-stage classifier aims to choose the most probable prediction sources among the temporally forward/backward and inter-view directions. All input features for both stages of neural classifiers are calculated from simple inter-frame and inter-view analyses. In our scheme, the popular fast motion estimation schemes can be also cooperated for further speedup. Experiment results reveal that our proposed algorithm is capable of achieving up to 97% of time savings with nearly ignorable quality degradation and acceptable bit-rate increase (up to 5.67%).
Autors: Chiang, J.-C.;Chen, W.-C.;Liu, L.-M.;Hsu, K.-F.;Lie, W.-N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 5, issue:2, pages: 309 - 320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A fast hybrid algorithm combining regularized motion tracking and predictive search for reducing the occurrence of large displacement errors
Abstract:
A hybrid approach that inherits both the robustness of the regularized motion tracking approach and the efficiency of the predictive search approach is reported. The basic idea is to use regularized speckle tracking to obtain highquality seeds in an explorative search that can be used in the subsequent intelligent predictive search. The performance of the hybrid speckle-tracking algorithm was compared with three published speckle-tracking methods using in vivo breast lesion data. We found that the hybrid algorithm provided higher displacement quality metric values, lower root mean squared errors compared with a locally smoothed displacement field, and higher improvement ratios compared with the classic block-matching algorithm. On the basis of these comparisons, we concluded that the hybrid method can further enhance the accuracy of speckle tracking compared with its real-time counterparts, at the expense of slightly higher computational demands.
Autors: Jiang, J.;Hall, T.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Apr 2011, volume: 58, issue:4, pages: 730 - 736
Publisher: IEEE
 

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