Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 9

» Frequency Sensitivity Analysis of Load Damping Coefficient in Wind Farm-Integrated Power System
Abstract:
The presence of frequency sensitive loads such as motors has sustainable impact on power system frequency response (SFR). With increasing wind power penetration into the power system, guidelines for frequency regulation need to be revised to ensure system stability and reliability. Frequency regulation becomes more critical with the presence of frequency sensitive loads in wind integrated power system. This paper presents the impact of frequency sensitive loads on system frequency when wind farm is integrated with the conventional power system. A small-signal linearized model of variable speed wind turbine generator is derived. The typical SFR model is developed for wind farm integrated power (WFIP) system. Sensitivity and stability analysis is carried out for linearized model of WFIP system. The observations drawn from the analysis can be useful for the system operators for decision making of appropriate schemes for primary frequency control, demand response, and setting of relays, etc. for secure and stable power system operation. The proposed analysis is validated in IEEE 9-bus system using MATLAB simulation studies.
Autors: Chittaranjan Pradhan;Chandrashekhar Narayan Bhende;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1016 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Stability for an Island Power System: Developing an Intelligent Preventive-Corrective Control Mechanism for an Offshore Location
Abstract:
This article develops an intelligent underfrequency security control mechanism for offshore island power systems, for which frequency stability is a major concern. The security control mechanism is divided into two main categories: preventive control and corrective control. The developed preventive?corrective control system involves modules for forecasting the frequency nadir, the rate of change of frequency, intelligent load shedding, and protection strategies. The forecasts assist in the rescheduling of diesel generators, wind power curtailment, or intelligent underfrequency load shedding (UFLS). An actual island power system is considered to elucidate the feasibility of the proposed control system. The results of this study provide system operators with a valuable reference for preventive dispatch and the planning of load shedding.
Autors: Yuan-Kang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 74 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Artificial Intelligence to Augmented Intelligence
Abstract:
Yong Rui discusses a panel he attended, which featured various competitions between AI and humans. Rui considers AI's progress and remaining challenges and its potential to augment human intelligence.
Autors: Yong Rui;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From LTE to 5G for Connected Mobility
Abstract:
Long Term Evolution, the fourth generation of mobile communication technology, has been commercially deployed for about five years. Even though it is continuously updated through new releases, and with LTE Advanced Pro Release 13 being the latest one, the development of the fifth generation has been initiated. In this article, we measure how current LTE network implementations perform in comparison with the initial LTE requirements. The target is to identify certain key performance indicators that have suboptimal implementations and therefore lend themselves to careful consideration when designing and standardizing next generation wireless technology. Specifically, we analyze user and control plane latency, handover execution time, and coverage, which are critical parameters for connected mobility use cases such as road vehicle safety and efficiency. We study the latency, handover execution time, and coverage of four operational LTE networks based on 19,000 km of drive tests covering a mixture of rural, suburban, and urban environments. The measurements have been collected using commercial radio network scanners and measurement smartphones. Even though LTE has low air interface delays, the measurements reveal that core network delays compromise the overall round-trip time design requirement. LTE's breakbefore- make handover implementation causes a data interruption at each handover of 40 ms at the median level. While this is in compliance with the LTE requirements, and lower values are certainly possible, it is also clear that break-before-make will not be sufficient for connected mobility use cases such as road vehicle safety. Furthermore, the measurements reveal that LTE can provide coverage for 99 percent of the outdoor and road users, but the LTE-M or NarrowBand-IoT upgrades, as of LTE Release 13, are required in combination with other measures to allow for additional penetration losses, such as those experienced in underground parking lots. Based on the obser- ed discrepancies between measured and standardized LTE performance, in terms of latency, handover execution time, and coverage, we conclude the article with a discussion of techniques that need careful consideration for connected mobility in fifth generation mobile communication technology.
Autors: Mads Lauridsen;Lucas Chavarria Gimenez;Ignacio Rodriguez;Troels B. Sorensen;Preben Mogensen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 156 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the editors' desk
Abstract:
The first article in this issue is "Potential of Jatropha curcas Oil as a Dielectric Fluid for Power Transformers," by N. Beltrán, E. Palacios, and G. Blass of the Instituto Nacional de Electricidad y Energías Limpias, Gerencia de Materiales y Procesos Químicos, Cuernavaca Morelos, México. The article shows that refined nonedible Jatropha curcas oil is a feasible feedstock that through a specific refining process can meet the technical requirements for transformer applications. This refining process eliminates deodorization, and the refined Jatropha curcas oil obtained only requires the addition of a pour point depressant and an oxidation inhibitor to be compliant with ASTM D6871 and IEC 62770.
Autors: Ed Cherney;Robert Fleming;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 6 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From the Lab to the Real World: Re-identification in an Airport Camera Network
Abstract:
Over the past ten years, human re-identification has received increased attention from the computer vision research community. However, for the most part, these research papers are divorced from the context of how such algorithms would be used in a real-world system. This paper describes the unique opportunity our group of academic researchers had to design and deploy a human re-identification system in a demanding real-world environment: a busy airport. The system had to be designed from the ground up, including robust modules for real-time human detection and tracking, a distributed, low-latency software architecture, and a front-end user interface designed for a specific scenario. None of these issues are typically addressed in re-identification research papers, but all are critical to an effective system that end users would actually be willing to adopt. We detail the challenges of the real-world airport environment, the computer vision algorithms underlying our human detection and re-identification algorithms, our robust software architecture, and the ground-truthing system required to provide the training and validation data for the algorithms. Our initial results show that despite the challenges and constraints of the airport environment, the proposed system achieves very good performance while operating in real time.
Autors: Octavia Camps;Mengran Gou;Tom Hebble;Srikrishna Karanam;Oliver Lehmann;Yang Li;Richard J. Radke;Ziyan Wu;Fei Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 540 - 553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» From Wireless Indoor Systems and LTE to Human?Computer Interaction [From the Editor]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Klaus David;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fuel-Saving Servo-Loop Control for an Adaptive Cruise Control System of Road Vehicles With Step-Gear Transmission
Abstract:
Fuel consumption of fossil-based road vehicles is significantly affected by the way vehicles are driven. The same is true for automated vehicles with longitudinal control. This paper presents a periodic servo-loop longitudinal control algorithm for an adaptive cruise control (ACC) system to minimize fuel consumption in car-following scenarios. The fuel-saving mechanism of pulse-and-glide (PnG) operation is first discussed for the powertrain with internal combustion engine and step-gear transmission. The servo-loop controller is then designed based on a periodic switching map for real-time implementation and adjusted with a range-bounded feedback regulator to enhance the robustness to model mismatch. Simulations in both uniform and natural traffic flows demonstrate that this algorithm achieves a significant fuel-saving benefit in automated car-following scenarios up to 8.9% in naturalistic traffic flow (when coasting at neutral gear), compared with a linear quadratic (LQ) controller. Meanwhile, its intervehicle range is preferably bounded so that the negative impact on safety and traffic smoothness is contained.
Autors: Shengbo Eben Li;Qiangqiang Guo;Long Xin;Bo Cheng;Keqiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2033 - 2043
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fully- and Quasi-Vertical GaN-on-Si p-i-n Diodes: High Performance and Comprehensive Comparison
Abstract:
We report growth and fabrication of fully- and quasi-vertical GaN-on-Si p-i-n diodes. A record high Baliga figure of merit of 304 and 152 MW/cm2 is reported for fully- and quasi-vertical GaN-on-Si p-i-n diodes, respectively. A comprehensive comparison has been made between the two kinds of diodes in regard ON-resistance, breakdown voltage, and switching performance. An ultralow differential ON-resistance of 0.5 and 1.0 has been demonstrated for quasi- and fully-vertical diodes with a diameter of 60 at 3 kA/cm2. Current crowding effect in the n-GaN was a dominant factor of RON, especially for large size quasi-vertical diodes at high current density. A high Vbr of 390 V has been demonstrated for the two types of device structures, regardless of device diameters. The same breakdown voltage and low off-state leakage indicated the reliability of fully-vertical device fabrication that reflects intrinsic properties of the grown epilayers. The two kinds of diodes share similar switching performance, which is much superior to a commercial fast-recovery Si diode as a reference. The device characteristics show promising potential of both fully- and quasi-vertical diodes for low-cost high-power applications.
Autors: Xu Zhang;Xinbo Zou;Xing Lu;Chak Wah Tang;Kei May Lau;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 809 - 815
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Function-Reconfigurable Between SPDT Switch and Power Divider Based on Switchable HMSIW Unit
Abstract:
A compact reconfigurable circuit performing as either Single Pole Double Throw switch or power divider is proposed and demonstrated, based on the concept of modes match and impedance match between substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and half-mode SIW (HMSIW). A switchable HMSIW unit is first proposed and then followed by the design of the reconfigurable circuit. For demonstration, the proposed circuit is designed and fabricated on the substrate of Rogers 5880LZ with thickness 1.026 mm. When the circuit works as a switch and Port 2 is at ON-state, the measured dB, dB, dB, and and dB; meanwhile, when the circuit performs as a power divider, the measured dB, and and dB, over the frequency band from 4.6 to 5.3 GHz. The good performances show the advantages of proposed circuit topology, which can be an excellent candidate for multifunctional microwave or millimeter-wave circuits.
Autors: Haidong Chen;Wenquan Che;Yue Cao;Wenjie Feng;Kamal Sarabandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 275 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Functional Thin Films on Surfaces
Abstract:
The motion of a thin viscous film of fluid on a curved surface exhibits many intricate visual phenomena, which are challenging to simulate using existing techniques. A possible alternative is to use a reduced model, involving only the temporal evolution of the mass density of the film on the surface. However, in this model, the motion is governed by a fourth-order nonlinear PDE, which involves geometric quantities such as the curvature of the underlying surface, and is therefore difficult to discretize. Inspired by a recent variational formulation for this problem on smooth surfaces, we present a corresponding model for triangle meshes. We provide a discretization for the curvature and advection operators which leads to an efficient and stable numerical scheme, requires a single sparse linear solve per time step, and exactly preserves the total volume of the fluid. We validate our method by qualitatively comparing to known results from the literature, and demonstrate various intricate effects achievable by our method, such as droplet formation, evaporation, droplets interaction and viscous fingering. Finally, we extend our method to incorporate non-linear van der Waals forcing terms which stabilize the motion of the film and allow additional effects such as pearling.
Autors: Orestis Vantzos;Omri Azencot;Max Wardeztky;Martin Rumpf;Mirela Ben-Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 1179 - 1192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits of Remote Estimation of Autoregressive Markov Processes Under Communication Constraints
Abstract:
The fundamental limits of remote estimation of autoregressive Markov processes under communication constraints are presented. The remote estimation system consists of a sensor and an estimator. The sensor observes a discrete-time autoregressive Markov process driven by a symmetric and unimodal innovations process. At each time, the sensor either transmits the current state of the Markov process or does not transmit at all. The estimator estimates the Markov process based on the transmitted observations. In such a system, there is a trade-off between communication cost and estimation accuracy. Two fundamental limits of this trade-off are characterized for infinite horizon discounted cost and average cost setups. First, when each transmission is costly, we characterize the minimum achievable cost of communication plus estimation error. Second, when there is a constraint on the average number of transmissions, we characterize the minimum achievable estimation error. Transmission and estimation strategies that achieve these fundamental limits are also identified.
Autors: Jhelum Chakravorty;Aditya Mahajan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1109 - 1124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fundamental Limits on Uncertain Delays: When Is a Delay System Stabilizable by LTI Controllers?
Abstract:
This paper concerns the stabilization of linear time-invariant (LTI) systems subject to uncertain, possibly time-varying delays. The fundamental issue under investigation, referred to as the delay margin problem, addresses the question: What is the largest range of delay such that there exists a single LTI feedback controller capable of stabilizing all the plants for delays within that range? Drawing upon analytic interpolation and rational approximation techniques, we derive fundamental bounds on the delay margin, within which the delay plant is guaranteed to be stabilizable by a certain LTI output feedback controller. Our contribution is threefold. First, for single-input single-output (SISO) systems with an arbitrary number of plant unstable poles and nonminimum phase zeros, we provide an explicit, computationally efficient bound on the delay margin, which requires computing only the largest real eigenvalue of a constant matrix. Second, for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, we show that estimates on the variation ranges of multiple delays can be obtained by solving LMI problems, and further, by finding bounds on the radius of delay variations. Third, we show that these bounds and estimates can be extended to systems subject to time-varying delays. When specialized to more specific cases, e.g., to plants with one unstable pole but possibly multiple nonminimum phase zeros, our results give rise to analytical expressions exhibiting explicit dependence of the bounds and estimates on the pole and zeros, thus demonstrating how fundamentally unstable poles and nonminimum phase zeros may limit the range of delays over which a plant can be stabilized by a LTI controller.
Autors: Tian Qi;Jing Zhu;Jie Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1314 - 1328
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GA-SVM Algorithm for Improving Land-Cover Classification Using SAR and Optical Remote Sensing Data
Abstract:
Multisource remote sensing data have been widely used to improve land-cover classifications. The combination of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and optical imagery can detect different land-cover types, and the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and support vector machines (SVMs) can lead to improved classifications. Moreover, SVM kernel parameters and feature selection affect the classification accuracy. Thus, a GA was implemented for feature selection and parameter optimization. In this letter, a GA-SVM algorithm was proposed as a method of classifying multifrequency RADARSAT-2 (RS2) SAR images and Thaichote (THEOS) multispectral images. The results of the GA-SVM algorithm were compared with those of the grid search algorithm, a traditional method of parameter searching. The results showed that the GA-SVM algorithm outperformed the grid search approach and provided higher classification accuracy using fewer input features. The images obtained by fusing RS2 data and THEOS data provided high classification accuracy at over 95%. The results showed improved classification accuracy and demonstrated the advantages of using the GA-SVM algorithm, which provided the best accuracy using fewer features.
Autors: Chanika Sukawattanavijit;Jie Chen;Hongsheng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 284 - 288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GACN: Self-Clustering Genetic Algorithm for Constrained Networks
Abstract:
Extending the lifespan of a wireless sensor network is a complex problem that involves several factors, ranging from device hardware capacity (batteries, processing capabilities, and radio efficiency) to the chosen software stack, which is often unaccounted for by the previous approaches. This letter proposes a genetic algorithm-based clustering optimization method for constrained networks that significantly improves the previous state-of-the-art results, while accounting for the specificities of the Internet engineering task force, Constrained RESTful Environment (CoRE), standards for data transmission and specifically relying on CoRE interfaces, which fit this purpose very well.
Autors: J. A. Martins;A. Mazayev;N. Correia;G. Schütz;A. Barradas;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 628 - 631
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GaN-on-Si Power Technology: Devices and Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a comprehensive reviewand discussion of the state-of-the-art device technology and application development of GaN-on-Si power electronics. Several device technologies for realizing normally off operation that is highly desirable for power switching applications are presented. In addition, the examples of circuit applications that can greatly benefit from the superior performance of GaN power devices are demonstrated. Comparisonwith other competingpower device technology, such as Si superjunction-MOSFET and SiC MOSFET, is also presented and analyzed. Critical issues for commercialization of GaN-on-Si power devices are discussed with regard to cost, reliability, and ease of use.
Autors: Kevin J. Chen;Oliver Häberlen;Alex Lidow;Chun lin Tsai;Tetsuzo Ueda;Yasuhiro Uemoto;Yifeng Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 779 - 795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GDVAN: A New Greedy Behavior Attack Detection Algorithm for VANETs
Abstract:
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), whose main objective is to provide road safety and enhance the driving conditions, are exposed to several kinds of attacks such as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks which affect the availability of the underlying services for legitimate users. We focus especially on the greedy behavior which has been extensively addressed in the literature for Wireless LAN (WLAN) and for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). However, this attack has been much less studied in the context of VANETs. This is mainly because the detection of a greedy behavior is much more difficult for high mobility networks such as VANETs. In this paper, we propose a new detection approach called GDVAN (Greedy Detection for VANETs) for greedy behavior attacks in VANETs. The process to conduct the proposed method mainly consists of two phases, which are namely the suspicion phase and the decision phase. The suspicion phase is based on the linear regression mathematical concept while decision phase is based on a fuzzy logic decision scheme. The proposed algorithm not only detects the existence of a greedy behavior but also establishes a list of the potentially compromised nodes using three newly defined metrics. In addition to being passive, one of the major advantages of our technique is that it can be executed by any node of the network and does not require any modification of the IEEE 802.11p standard. Moreover, the practical effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are corroborated through simulations and experiments.
Autors: Mohamed Nidhal Mejri;Jalel Ben-Othman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 759 - 771
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Average Method for Time-Invariant Modeling of Inverters
Abstract:
Models of inverters and other converters based on averaging have been widely used in numerous simulation applications. Generalized averaging can be applied to model both average and switching behavior of converters while retaining the faster run times associated with average-value models. Herein, generalized average models for single- and three-phase pulse width modulation inverters are proposed. These models are based on a quasi-Fourier series representation of the switching functions that includes fundamental and switching frequency components as well as sideband components of the switching frequency. The proposed models are demonstrated both in simulation and experimentally and are found to accurately portray both the fundamental and the switching behavior of the inverter. In particular, the use of sideband components allows accurate representation of the variation in switching ripple magnitude that occurs in the steady state. The generalized average models are found to have simulation run times that are significantly faster than those associated with detailed models. Therefore, the proposed generalized average models are suitable for simulation applications in which both accuracy (including the switching behavior) and fast run times are required (e.g., long simulation times, systems with multiple converters, and repeated simulations).
Autors: Xiao Liu;Aaron M. Cramer;Fei Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 740 - 751
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized LCL-Filter Design Algorithm for Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Inverter
Abstract:
LCL-filters are preferred over conventional L-filters for grid-connected voltage-source inverters (VSIs) due to their superior harmonic attenuation and smaller filter size and weight. The LCL-filter design process is complex and takes an iterative approach due to the considerations of resonance damping, reactive power compensation, harmonic attenuation limits, etc. This paper analyses the parameters of LCL-filter design in order to understand its significance in grid-connected applications. Secondly, based on the analysis, relationships between the resonance frequency, attenuation of switching ripple, reactive power production, and the ratio between the grid-side inductor and the inverter-side inductor are used to realize a simple LCL-filter design algorithm. The design considers LCL-filter as a single filtering unit rather than individual filtering contributions from passive components. The design is verified by simulations in MATLAB and validated experimentally via a hardware prototype. Results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in terms of total harmonic distortion, harmonic attenuation, and reactive power compensated.
Autors: Sampath Jayalath;Moin Hanif;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1905 - 1915
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Sparse Learning of Linear Models Over the Complete Subgraph Feature Set
Abstract:
Supervised learning over graphs is an intrinsically difficult problem: simultaneous learning of relevant features from the complete subgraph feature set, in which enumerating all subgraph features occurring in given graphs is practically intractable due to combinatorial explosion. We show that 1) existing graph supervised learning studies, such as Adaboost, LPBoost, and LARS/LASSO, can be viewed as variations of a branch-and-bound algorithm with simple bounds, which we call Morishita-Kudo bounds; 2) We present a direct sparse optimization algorithm for generalized problems with arbitrary twice-differentiable loss functions, to which Morishita-Kudo bounds cannot be directly applied; 3) We experimentally showed that i) our direct optimization method improves the convergence rate and stability, and ii) L1-penalized logistic regression (L1-LogReg) by our method identifies a smaller subgraph set, keeping the competitive performance, iii) the learned subgraphs by L1-LogReg are more size-balanced than competing methods, which are biased to small-sized subgraphs.
Autors: Ichigaku Takigawa;Hiroshi Mamitsuka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 617 - 624
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generic Linear Network Code Construction Using Transversal Matroids
Abstract:
A generic linear network (GLN) code is the strongest linear network code in terms of the linear independence of the coding vectors. It can be designed by constructing a representation matrix for a transversal matroid. Recently, a new algorithm for constructing this matrix has been developed. In this letter, we present details on the method of constructing a GLN code using transversal matroids, compute the time complexity of this method, and compare it with other algorithms.
Autors: Morteza Rekab-Eslami;Morteza Esmaeili;T. Aaron Gulliver;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 448 - 451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geo-Information Is Power: Using Geographical Information Systems to Assess Rooftop Photovoltaics in Costa Rica
Abstract:
Economies of scale, incentives, and technological advances have made photovoltaic (PV) systems more affordable and common in developed nations. In Latin America, however, cost and regulation are still barriers for their widespread adoption, particularly by residential and commercial customers. In Costa Rica, there has only recently been interest in rooftop PV systems thanks to a major pilot project carried out from 2010 to 2015 by the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, ICE), the administrator of the generation, the transmission system operator, and one of the eight distribution network operators (DNOs) who also supply electricity. The hundreds of installations involved in this project created the momentum needed by the local emerging PV industry to push for changes in the regulatory framework and demonstrate the economic benefits, given the relatively high electricity prices. Although this project represented only a modest PV penetration, ICE recognized that the ability of distribution circuits to host rooftop PV systems should be adequately assessed. This prompted the Ministry of Energy and Environment to create a new and important requirement for Costa Rican DNO s: the generation-hosting capacity of distribution circuits should be quantified considering a comprehensive set of studies, with most of them requiring detailed network models.
Autors: Jairo Quiros-Tortos;Gustavo Valverde;Andres Arguello;Luis Nando Ochoa;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 48 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Geometric Primitive Extraction From Point Clouds of Construction Sites Using VGS
Abstract:
We propose a workflow for extracting geometric primitives, including linear, planar, and cylindrical objects, from point clouds of the construction site, using a novel segmentation- and recognition-based strategy. The entire point cloud is first organized by an octree-based voxel structure. The proposed voxel- and graph-based segmentation is conducted by aggregating connected adjacent voxels in a fully connected local affinity graph, the weighted edges of which consider their saliencies simultaneously, including the spatial distance, the shape similarity, and the surface connectivity. After the segmentation, an improved efficient RANSAC algorithm is tailored to recognize and extract geometric primitives from segments. The synthetic, laser scanned, and photogrammetric point clouds are tested in our experiments, and qualitative and quantitative results reveal that our method can outperform the representative segmentation algorithms for our application having the precision and recall better than 0.77. It also shows a good performance with a correctness value better than 0.7 in primitive extraction.
Autors: Yusheng Xu;Sebastian Tuttas;Ludwig Hoegner;Uwe Stilla;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 424 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GHEVC: An Efficient HEVC Decoder for Graphics Processing Units
Abstract:
The high compression efficiency that is provided by the high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard comes at the cost of a significant increase of the computational load at the decoder. Such an increased burden is a limiting factor to accomplish real-time decoding, specially for high definition video sequences (e.g., Ultra HD 4K). In this scenario, a highly parallel HEVC decoder for the state-of-the-art graphics processor units (GPUs) is presented, i.e., GHEVC. Contrasting to our previous contributions, the data-parallel GHEVC decoder integrates the whole decompression pipeline (except for the entropy decoding), both for intra- and interframes. Furthermore, its processing efficiency was highly optimized by keeping the decompressed frames in the GPU memory for subsequent inter frame prediction. The proposed GHEVC decoder is fully compliant with the HEVC standard, where explicit synchronization points ensure the correct HEVC module execution order. Moreover, the GPU-based HEVC decoder is experimentally evaluated for different GPU devices, an extensive range of recommended HEVC configurations and video sequences, where an average frame rate of 145, 318, and 605 frames per second for Ultra HD 4K, WQXGA, and Full HD, respectively, was obtained in the Random Access configuration with the NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN X GPU.
Autors: Diego F. de Souza;Aleksandar Ilic;Nuno Roma;Leonel Sousa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 459 - 474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Communications Newsletter
Abstract:
Autors: Stefano Bregni;Sattar B. Sadkhan;Dinko Begusic;Nikola Rozic;Pascal Lorenz;Josko Radic;Petar Solic;Matko Saric;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 7 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Diffusion Tractography by Simulated Annealing
Abstract:
Objective: Our goal is to develop a robust global tractography method for cardiac diffusion imaging. Methods: A graph is stretched over the whole myocardium to represent the fiber structure, and the solutions are minima of a graph energy measuring the fidelity to the data along with the fiber density and curvature. The optimization is performed by a variant of simulated annealing that offers increased design freedom without sacrificing theoretical convergence guarantees. Results: Numerical experiments on synthetic and real data demonstrate the capability of our tractography algorithm to deal with low angular resolution, highly noisy data. In particular, our algorithm outperforms the Bayesian model-based algorithm of Reisert et al. (NeuroImage, vol. 54, no. 2, 2011) and the graph-based algorithm of Frindel et al. (Magn. Reson. Med., vol. 64, no. 4, 2010) at the noise levels typical of in vivo imaging. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm avoids the drawbacks of local techniques and is very robust to noise, which makes it a promising tool for in vivo diffusion imaging of moving organs. Significance: Our approach is global in terms of both the fiber structure representation and the minimization problem. It also allows us to adjust the trajectory density by simply changing the vertex-lattice spacing in the graph model, a desirable feature for multiresolution tractography analysis.
Autors: Marc C. Robini;Matthew Ozon;Carole Frindel;Feng Yang;Yuemin Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 649 - 660
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Globality–Locality-Based Consistent Discriminant Feature Ensemble for Multicamera Tracking
Abstract:
Spatiotemporal data association and fusion is a well-known NP-hard problem even in a small number of cameras and frames. Although it is difficult to be tractable, solving them is pivotal for tracking in a multicamera network. Most approaches model association maladaptively toward properties and contents of video, and hence they produce suboptimal associations and association errors propagate over time to adversely affect fusion. In this paper, we present an online multicamera multitarget tracking framework that performs adaptive tracklet correspondence by analyzing and understanding contents and properties of video. Unlike other methods that work only on synchronous videos, our approach uses dynamic time warping to establish correspondence even if videos have linear or nonlinear time asynchronous relationship. Association is a two-stage process based on geometric and appearance descriptor space ranked by their inter- and intra-camera consistency and discriminancy. Fusion is reinforced by weighting the associated tracklets with a confidence score calculated using reliability of individual camera tracklets. Our robust ranking and election learning algorithm dynamically selects appropriate features for any given video. Our method establishes that, given the right ensemble of features, even computationally efficient optimization yields better accuracy in tracking over time and provides faster convergence that is suitable for real-time application. For evaluation on RGB, we benchmark on multiple sequences in PETS 2009 and we achieve performance that is on par with the state of the art. For evaluating on RGB-D, we built a new data set.
Autors: Kanishka Nithin;François Brémond;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 431 - 440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Glyph Visualization: A Fail-Safe Design Scheme Based on Quasi-Hamming Distances
Abstract:
In many spatial and temporal visualization applications, glyphs provide an effective means for encoding multivariate data. However, because glyphs are typically small, they are vulnerable to various perceptual errors. This article introduces the concept of a quasi-Hamming distance in the context of glyph design and examines the feasibility of estimating the quasi-Hamming distance between a pair of glyphs and the minimal Hamming distance for a glyph set. The authors demonstrate the design concept by developing a file-system event visualization that can depict the activities of multiple users.
Autors: Philip A. Legg;Eamonn Maguire;Simon Walton;Min Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 31 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gradient-Based Parameter Estimation in Pairwise Linear Gaussian System
Abstract:
This technical note addresses the gradient-based parameter estimation problem for pairwise linear Gaussian systems. The new adaptive filtering scheme is based on gradient-based optimization methods for estimating the uncertain system parameters and a robust square-root variant of the pairwise Kalman filter used for estimating the unknown states of the pairwise linear Gaussian systems. Hence, in the adaptive filtering techniques, the dynamic state and system parameters are estimated simultaneously. The method of the filter sensitivities computation required in gradient evaluation is derived in terms of square-root factors of covariance matrices.
Autors: M. V. Kulikova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1511 - 1517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene could buttress next-gen computer chip wiring [News]
Abstract:
Most of the hand-wringing over the fate of Moore's Law focuses on the ever-shrinking silicon transistor. But increasingly researchers are concerned with another critical part of the infrastructure: the copper wires that connect individual transistors to form complex circuits. At the IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting in San Francisco in December, researchers described the coming problems for copper interconnects and debated ways of getting around them. One approach, studied by a group led by Stanford electrical engineer H.-S. Philip Wong, is to gird copper with graphene. Wong's group found that the nanomaterial can alleviate a major problem facing copper, called electromigration.
Autors: Katherine Bourzac;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 9 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Great Equations? [Microwave Bytes]
Abstract:
Presents comments on a book, "Five Equations That Changed the World" (Gullen, M.; New York: Hyperion, 1995).
Autors: Steve C. Cripps;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 24 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground-Shielded Dual-Type High-Voltage Electrode for Corona Charging Applications
Abstract:
Corona discharge generated by various electrode arrangements is commonly employed for several electrostatic applications, such as charging nonwoven fabrics for air filters and insulating granules in electrostatic separators. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of the presence of a grounded metallic shield in the proximity of a high-voltage corona electrode facing a grounded plate electrode. The metallic shield was found to increase the current intensity and decrease the inception voltage of the corona discharge generated by this electrode arrangement, both in the absence and in the presence of a layer of insulating particles at the surface of the plate electrode. With the shield, the current density measured at the surface of the collecting electrode is higher and distributed on a larger area. As a consequence, the charge acquired by millimeter-sized HDPE particles forming a monolayer at the surface of the grounded plate electrode is twice as high as in the absence of the shield. These experiments are discussed in relation with the results of the numerical analysis of the electric field generated by the wire-plate configuration with and without shield.
Autors: Abdeldjalil Reguig;Abdelber Bendaoud;Ahmed Bouteffaha;Hanane Boudra;Amar Tilmatine;Lucian Dascalescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1439 - 1445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Growth Everywhere: The Integration of Distributed Energy Resources [From the Editor]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Michael Henderson;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Growth of Dual-Layer Nanorods and Nanowalls Using Al Reaction Layer For Cholesterol Biosensor
Abstract:
In this paper, a single-step chemical bath deposition method was developed for the growth of novel aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide nanostructures (NSs) comprising a dual-layer of nanorods/nanowalls. This particular mesoporous structure can accommodate a larger number of ChOx molecules than is possible in a traditional nanorod array. The formation of this dual-layer of NSs depends largely on the content of Al ions and reaction time. A cholesterol biosensor was constructed using these NSs as supporting materials for cholesterol oxidase loading. The device achieved sensitivity of within a linear-range of 1.3–13 mM.
Autors: Jian-Fu Tang;Yang-Ming Lu;Zong-Liang Tseng;Sheng-Yuan Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1584 - 1589
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editor's Introduction: Special Section on the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA)
Abstract:
The papers in this special section were presented at the 14th Annual ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation (SCA 2015), which was held in Los Angeles, California on August 7-9, 2015.
Autors: Florence Bertails-Descoubes;Stelian Coros;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 1165 - 1166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on Group and Crowd Behavior Analysis for Intelligent Multicamera Video Surveillance
Abstract:
Despite significant progress in human behavior analysis over the past few years, most of today’s state-of-the-art algorithms focus on analyzing individual behavior in a simple environment monitored by a single camera. Recently, the widespread availability of cameras and a growing need for public safety have shifted the attention of researchers in video surveillance from individual behavior analysis to group and crowd behavior analysis in multicamera networks. Group behavior analysis provides a novel level for describing events, which are semantically more meaningful, highlighting barely visible relational connections among people. Crowd behavior analysis can also be used for anomaly detection such as panic scenarios, dangerous situations, and illegal behaviors in public spaces.
Autors: Hongxun Yao;Andrea Cavallaro;Thierry Bouwmans;Zhengyou Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 405 - 408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Power Semiconductor Devices and Smart Power IC Technologies
Abstract:
Power semiconductor devices have been a mainstay of electron device technology since the introduction of the thyristor in the late 1950s. In the last six decades, electron devices and VLSI technology have gone through unprecedented changes. The state-of-the-art performance has progressed closely according to the famous Moore's Law, since it was introduced in 1965. The current techno-trend is the “More Than Moore” roadmap with emphasis on System in Package and 3-D integration. Over this period, we have witnessed device feature sizes shrinking from several microns in the 1970s to the 10-nm production-ready processes in 2017. At the same time, power semiconductor devices have also benefited significantly from these advancements.
Autors: Wai Tung Ng;Florin Udrea;Ichiro Omura;Jan Vobecky;Don Disney;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 654 - 658
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial: Special Section on Learning Analytics
Abstract:
The papers in ths special section focus on the topic of learning analytics.
Autors: Dragan Gašević;George Siemens;Carolyn Penstein Rosé;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 3 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editors Introduction: Special Section on the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology 2015
Abstract:
The papers in this special section were presented at the 2015 ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST’15).
Autors: Lili Wang;Ming Lin;Enhua Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 1207 - 1208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HAMR Writing Process Model-Based Compensation of Laser-Induced Transients
Abstract:
An established model is presented, which includes relative slow write head protrusion, fast near-field transducer (NFT) only protrusion, and heat transient process for heat-assisted magnetic recording writing process. Based on this model, equations are derived to calculate the write head and NFT only protrusions as a function of writing duty cycle. Then, we demonstrate how to compensate for the protrusion-caused NFT-to-media spacing change by thermal fly-height control for three different writing conditions of duty cycle from low to high, namely, repeatable run-out field write, servo pattern write, and user data field write. Finally, we present how to compensate for the impacts caused by fast transient processes, which include NFT only protrusion and heat transient process, within each servo wedge or data sector. There are two methods presented, pole placement method and deconvolution method. Both the methods produce very similar input laser profiles, which will cause approximately step change at the output signal magnitude responses from the simulation.
Autors: Jianyi Wang;Kun Ma;Zhen Ye;Wai Ee Wong;Guoxiao Guo;Youyi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Haptic Perception of Edge Sharpness in Real and Virtual Environments
Abstract:
We investigate the accuracy with which the haptic sharpness perception of a virtual edge is matched to that of a real edge and the effect of the virtual surface stiffness on the match. The perceived sharpness of virtual edges was estimated in terms of the point of subjective equality (PSE) when participants matched the sharpness of virtual edges to that of real edges with a radius of 0.5, 2.5, and 12.5 mm over a virtual stiffness range of 0.6 to 3.0 N/mm. The perceived sharpness of a real and a virtual edge of the same radius was significantly different under all but one of the experimental conditions and there was a significant effect of virtual surface stiffness on the accuracy of the match. The results suggest that the latter is presumably due to a constant penetration force employed by the participants that influenced the penetration depth and perceived sharpness of virtual edges at different surface stiffness levels. Our findings provide quantitative relations for appropriately offsetting the radii of virtual edges in order to achieve the desired perceived sharpness of virtual edges.
Autors: Jaeyoung Park;William R. Provancher;Hong Z. Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 54 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Haptics in Music: The Effects of Vibrotactile Stimulus in Low Frequency Auditory Difference Detection Tasks
Abstract:
We present an experiment that investigated the effect of vibrotactile stimulation in auditory pitch discrimination tasks. Extra-auditory information was expected to have some influence upon the frequency discrimination of auditory Just Noticeable Difference (JND) detection levels at 160 Hz. To measure this, the potential to correctly identified positive and negative frequency changes for two randomly divided groups was measured and then compared. The first group was given an audio only JND test and the second group was given the same test, but with additional vibrotactile stimulus delivered via a vibrating glove device. The results of the experiment suggest that in musical interactions involving the selection of specific pitches, or the detection of pitch variation, vibrotactile feedback may have some advantageous effect upon a musician's ability to perceive changes when presented in synchrony with auditory stimulus.
Autors: Gareth W. Young;Dave Murphy;Jeffrey Weeter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 135 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Implementation for Real-Time Haze Removal
Abstract:
Haze removal is useful in computational photography and computer vision applications. Although many haze removal algorithms have been proposed, their computational efficiency requires improvement. A real-time haze removal method is presented in this paper. The method is based on the concept of a dark channel prior. To enhance the haze removal performance, an approximate method to estimate the atmospheric light and transmission is employed. For embedded system applications, a hardware architecture to perform real-time haze removal is proposed. The hardware can achieve 116 MHz on Stratix FPGA. The simulation results indicate that the hardware is highly efficient and performs well. It obtains good image recovery results and satisfies the real-time requirement even for large images.
Autors: Bin Zhang;Jizhong Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1188 - 1192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware-Efficient Built-In Redundancy Analysis for Memory With Various Spares
Abstract:
Memory capacity continues to increase, and many semiconductor manufacturing companies are trying to stack memory dice for larger memory capacities. Therefore, built-in redundancy analysis (BIRA) is of utmost importance because the probability of fault occurrence increases with a larger memory capacity. A traditional spare structure that consists of simple rows and columns is somewhat inadequate for multiple memory blocks BIRA because the hardware overhead and spare allocation efficiency are degraded. The proposed BIRA uses various types of spares and can achieve a higher yield than a simple row and column spare structure. Herein, we propose a BIRA that can achieve an optimal repair rate using various spare types. The proposed analyzer can exhaustively search not only row and column spare types but also global and local spare types. In addition, this paper proposes a fault-storing content-addressable memory (CAM) structure. The proposed CAM is small and collects faults efficiently. The experimental results show a high repair rate with a small hardware overhead and a short analysis time.
Autors: Jooyoung Kim;Woosung Lee;Keewon Cho;Sungho Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 844 - 856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Head-on-Media Detection With PZT Self-Sensing Actuation in Dual-Stage Hard Disk Drives
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel method of head-on-media (HOM) detection with Pb-Zr-Ti (PZT) self-sensing actuation. Unlike conventional approaches based on X-ray scanning, the proposed method is able to detect HOM drives automatically prior to spin-up activities. As spin-up retries are avoided, the drives can be preserved for failure analysis or data recovery. The mechanism of HOM detection using self-sensing actuation is discussed by deriving the analytical model of PZT active suspension. The HOM detection methodology is established incorporating enhanced indirect-driven self-sensing actuation circuit. Experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and consistency of the proposed method.
Autors: Bin Hu;Jie Wan;Chee Khiang Pang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Help from the Sky: Leveraging UAVs for Disaster Management
Abstract:
This article presents a vision for future unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-assisted disaster management, considering the holistic functions of disaster prediction, assessment, and response. Here, UAVs not only survey the affected area but also assist in establishing vital wireless communication links between the survivors and nearest available cellular infrastructure. A perspective of different classes of geophysical, climate-induced, and meteorological disasters based on the extent of interaction between the UAV and terrestrially deployed wireless sensors is presented in this work, with suitable network architectures designed for each of these cases. The authors outline unique research challenges and possible solutions for maintaining connected aerial meshes for handoff between UAVs and for systems-specific, security- and energy-related issues. This article is part of a special issue on drones.
Autors: Milan Erdelj;Enrico Natalizio;Kaushik R. Chowdhury;Ian F. Akyildiz;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 24 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Integration [From the Guest Editors' Desk]
Abstract:
Today, there is ever-increasing interest in employing unused electromagnetic spectra and taking advantage of millimeter-wave (mmW) and submillimeter-wave (submmW) or terahertz (THz) frequencies. Current, rapid advances in semiconductor and packaging technologies along with the commercial availability of test equipment up to 1 THz have enabled many important developments at these high-frequency bands. As a result, next-generation broadband and ultrahigh-speed wireless communication systems, high-resolution imagers and sensors, and automotive radars will operate at mmW and sub-mmW regions, which will demand increasingly complex functionalities with better performance, compactness, efficiency, and reliability at a low cost. For semiconductor technologies, silicon (Si) is the dominant material in terms of circuit functionality, complex integration, maturity and yield, and cost. Further, recently integrated Si RF technologies—complementary–metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar junction transistor/CMOS (BiCMOS)—have made tremendous progress in power, while frequencies have been extended to around 100 GHz. However, there are still applications that can be fulfilled only by compound semiconductor (CS) technology, such as indium phosphide (InP), which provides transistors with fmax of 1 THz, high gain and power, and mixed signal circuits with ultrahigh speed, and gallium nitride (GaN), which enables devices with wide bandwidth, high breakdown voltage, and output power up to 100 GHz. Therefore, integration of dissimilar semiconductors.
Autors: Kamal K. Samanta;Dietmar Kissinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 14 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heterogeneous Multi-ASIP and NoC-Based Architecture for Adaptive Parallel TBICM-ID-SSD
Abstract:
A novel multi-ASIP and network-on-chip (NoC) based flexible architecture for parallel iterative demapping with turbo decoding using signal space diversity (TBICM-ID-SSD) is presented in this brief. The proposed heterogeneous multi-ASIP architecture uses multiple instances of two types of application-specific instruction-set processor (ASIP): one dedicated for turbo decoding and the second for demodulation, besides butterfly-topology-based NoCs. This architecture presents novel and outstanding levels of flexibility and scalability in the design of advanced iterative receivers. It supports modulation schemes from BPSK to 256-QAM for any mapping style and supports 8 state single and double binary turbo codes used in 3GPP-LTE, DVB-RCS, and WiMAX. FPGA prototyping results are presented, and the extra hardware cost required to enable turbo demodulation is evaluated.
Autors: Atif Raza Jafri;Amer Baghdadi;M. Najam-ul-Islam;Michel Jézéquel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 259 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HfO2-Based Highly Stable Radiation-Immune Ferroelectric Memory
Abstract:
In this letter, HfO2-based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) with metal–insulator–metal structure is studied for the first time under radiation conditions. Y-doped HfO2-based FeRAM devices show high immunity to 60Co ray radiation. Basic FeRAM parameters, such as leakage current, permittivity, remanent polarization, endurance, and fatigue, show almost no degradation after ray radiation with a total dose as high as 12.96 Mrad (SI). Furthermore, the ferroelectric hysteresis loops show no distortion after radiation. The high stability of Y-doped HfO2 FeRAM devices under radiation demonstrates their great potential for nuclear and aerospace applications.
Autors: Fei Huang;Yan Wang;Xiao Liang;Jun Qin;Yan Zhang;Xiufang Yuan;Zhuo Wang;Bo Peng;Longjiang Deng;Qi Liu;Lei Bi;Ming Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 330 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hi-Fi with your PI [Resources_Hands On]
Abstract:
From its very first version, the Raspberry Pi attracted interest as a small, inexpensive, and network-friendly home multimedia player. It comes with built-in HDMI and composite video for sending signals to television sets, and most versions have an analog 3.5-millimeter audio socket. Consequently, there's a fleet of Raspberry Pi-compatible software packages designed to play video and audio files using a stripped-down, TV-friendly interface and which can be networked for multiroom audio. . However, while the high-definition video output is sufficient for viewing most movies (unless you have one of the latest 4K screens, of course), the analog audio is not up to the standards of dedicated audiophiles. As a result, a number of companies have started offering various expansion options to improve the Pi's audio capabilities and ease of integration into existing hi-fi setups.
Autors: Stephen Cass;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 19 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Segmentation Using Tree-Based Shape Spaces
Abstract:
Current trends in image segmentation are to compute a hierarchy of image segmentations from fine to coarse. A classical approach to obtain a single meaningful image partition from a given hierarchy is to cut it in an optimal way, following the seminal approach of the scale-set theory. While interesting in many cases, the resulting segmentation, being a non-horizontal cut, is limited by the structure of the hierarchy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that acts by transforming an input hierarchy into a new saliency map. It relies on the notion of shape space: a graph representation of a set of regions extracted from the image. Each region is characterized with an attribute describing it. We weigh the boundaries of a subset of meaningful regions (local minima) in the shape space by extinction values based on the attribute. This extinction-based saliency map represents a new hierarchy of segmentations highlighting regions having some specific characteristics. Each threshold of this map represents a segmentation which is generally different from any cut of the original hierarchy. This new approach thus enlarges the set of possible partition results that can be extracted from a given hierarchy. Qualitative and quantitative illustrations demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method.
Autors: Yongchao Xu;Edwin Carlinet;Thierry Géraud;Laurent Najman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 457 - 469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical-Table-Based Model for All-Digital RF Transmitters
Abstract:
Transmitters based on nonlinear radio-frequency (RF) modulators and switched-mode power amplifiers are systems that, at least theoretically, can provide high linearity and energy-efficient generation of RF signals at the same time. However, the nonlinear memory-affected behavior remains an issue hindering practical applications. This paper shows that it is possible to model the nonlinear memory of such circuits based on time-domain observations and how to use this information in computationally efficient time-domain RF circuit models. In contrast to other works, this model covers the full bandwidth of the active device (dc–10 GHz) and it uses hierarchical data structuring to adaptively find a compact model without prior knowledge of the circuit’s memory depth. The data for this work were gained from a laboratory setup, designed to be used as an LTE transmitter for a signal bandwidth of 20 MHz at a fixed center frequency of 2.5 GHz.
Autors: Norbert Leder;Bernhard Pichler;Thomas Faseth;Henri Ruotsalainen;Holger Arthaber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 720 - 728
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Mobility High-Ge-Content SiGe PMOSFETs Using Al2O3/HfO2 Stacks With In-Situ O3 Treatment
Abstract:
We developed an Al2O3/HfO2 bi-layer gate dielectric with an in-situ O3 treatment for interface state density (Dit) and gate leakage current density (Jg) reductions on SiGe channels. We observed Ge-content dependent equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling and EOT 0.44 nm was achieved with an MOS capacitor with a Si0.05Ge0.95 substrate. The O3 treatment enabled application to non-planar device structures and we demonstrated five orders of magnitude lower off currents (IOFF), a sub-threshold slope of 68 mV/decade, and a very high hole mobility of 457 cm at an inversion carrier density (Ninv) of cm for asymmetrically strained SiGe PMOSFETs with Ge% of 65%–70%.
Autors: Takashi Ando;Pouya Hashemi;John Bruley;John Rozen;Yohei Ogawa;Siyuranga Koswatta;Kevin K. Chan;Eduard A. Cartier;Renee Mo;Vijay Narayanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 303 - 305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance Tri-Gate GaN Power MOSHEMTs on Silicon Substrate
Abstract:
We demonstrate high-performance GaN power metal–oxide–semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) on silicon substrate based on a nanowire tri-gate architecture. The common issue of partial removal of carriers by nanowire etching in GaN tri-gate transistors was resolved mainly by optimized tri-gate geometry, including filling factor and trench width. The tri-gate reduced the OFF-state leakage current () and the subthreshold slope, increased the ON/OFF ratio, and improved the breakdown voltage () of the device. With a gate-to-drain separation () of , the tri-gate MOSHEMTs exhibited of 792 V at of /mm, along with a small specific ON-resistance () of cm2. With of , hard of 1755 V at of /mm with high soft of 1370 V at /mm were achieved, rendering excellent high-power figure of merits (FOMs) up to 1.25 GW/cm2. These results unveil the significant potential of nanostructured GaN transistors for future power applications.
Autors: Jun Ma;Elison Matioli;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 367 - 370
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Resolution ToA Estimation via Optimal Waveform Design
Abstract:
This paper introduces a novel method to improve the Time of Arrival (ToA) estimation resolution for a fixed available bandwidth in the presence of unknown multipath frequency selective (MPFS) channels. Here, the maximum rising level detector technique is proposed which utilizes oversampling and multiple correlation paths to evaluate with high resolution the path corresponding to the maximum rising level of matched filters output. However, employing such technique demands for transmission of waveform that creates a very high rising level at autocorrelation center. This paper proposes an efficient technique to design proper waveforms (very high rising level at autocorrelation center) via minimization of weighted integrated sidelobe level, exploiting the trust-region algorithm. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated via simulations of the ToA mean square error, and compared with the state-of-the-art approaches considering the same bandwidth, and Cramer–Rao lower bound as benchmark. Simulations confirm that the ToA resolution is improved as the number of correlation paths increases and verify the feasibility of the proposed technique compared with the available approaches for the MPFS channels.
Autors: Mohsen Jamalabdollahi;Seyed Reza Zekavat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1207 - 1218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Step-Up PV Module Integrated Converter for PV Energy Harvest in FREEDM Systems
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel single-switch dc/dc converter for the future renewable electric energy delivery and management system to implement the distributed renewable energy resources (DRER). The DRER is responsible for the maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic panel (PV) module and also for the control of central energy storage device. Due to the characteristics of the PV module and the dc-bus, the single power stage must provide low current ripple in the input and output terminals, must operate with output current and voltage regulation, and present a high-voltage conversion ratio. To achieve such features, this paper proposes a novel integrated Boost–Zeta converter. To avoid a complex modeling and control, we propose a disaggregation concept for this. Experimental results are presented for the purpose of operating the converter and also for the operation of the system.
Autors: António Manuel Santos Spencer Andrade;Luciano Schuch;Mario Lúcio da Silva Martins;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1138 - 1148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Dimensional and Multiple-Failure-Region Importance Sampling for SRAM Yield Analysis
Abstract:
The failure rate of static RAM (SRAM) cells is restricted to be extremely low to ensure sufficient high yield for the entire chip. In addition, multiple performances of interest and influences from peripherals make SRAM failure rate estimation a high-dimensional multiple-failure-region problem. This paper proposes a new method featuring a multistart-point sequential quadratic programming (SQP) framework to extend minimized norm importance sampling (IS) to address this problem. Failure regions in the variation space are first found by the low-discrepancy sampling sequence. Afterward, start points are generated in all identified failure regions and local optimizations based on SQP are invoked from these start points searching for the optimal shift vectors (OSVs). Based on the OSVs, a Gaussian mixture distorted distribution is constructed for IS. To further reduce the computational cost of IS while fully considering the influence of increasing dimensionality, an adaptive model training framework is proposed to keep high efficiency for both low- and high-dimensional problems. The experimental results show that the proposed method can not only approximate failure rate with high accuracy and efficiency in low-dimensional cases but also keep these features in high-dimensional ones.
Autors: Mengshuo Wang;Changhao Yan;Xin Li;Dian Zhou;Xuan Zeng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 806 - 819
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Dimensional Estimation of Structured Signals From Non-Linear Observations With General Convex Loss Functions
Abstract:
We study the issue of estimating a structured signal from non-linear and noisy Gaussian observations. Supposing that is contained in a certain convex subset , we prove that accurate recovery is already feasible if the number of observations exceeds the effective dimension of . It will turn out that the possibly unknown non-linearity of our model affects the error rate only by a multiplicative constant. This achievement is based on recent works by Plan and Vershynin, who have suggested to treat the non-linearity rather as noise, which perturbs a linear measurement process. Using the concept of restricted strong convexity, we show that their results for the generalized Lasso can be extended to a fairly large class of convex loss functions. Moreover, we shall allow for the presence of adversarial noise so that even deterministic model inaccuracies can be coped with. These generalizations particularly give further evidence of why many standard estimators perform surprisingly well in practice, although they do not rely on any knowledge of the underlying output rule. To this end, our results provide a unified framework for signal reconstruction in high dimensions, covering various challenges from the fields of compressed sensing, signal processing, and statistical learning.
Autors: Martin Genzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1601 - 1619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Broadband Rectifier With Wide Ranges of Input Power and Output Load Based on Branch-Line Coupler
Abstract:
In this work, a novel rectifier based on a branch-line coupler is proposed to operate within wide ranges of input power, operating frequency and output load. In the proposed topology, two output ports of the coupler are connected with two identical sub-rectifiers and the isolation port is directly connected to the ground. The input impedance of the two sub-rectifiers varies with different input power, operating frequency and output load, which leads to impedance mismatching. By using the branch-line coupler with grounded isolation port, the power reflected from the two sub-rectifiers can be partially re-injected back to the sub-rectifiers. Thus, the power can be reused and the RF-dc conversion efficiency can be improved. Theoretical analysis and performance comparison are carried out. The results indicate that the proposed topology is able to realize high efficiency with wide input power, frequency and load dynamic ranges. For validation, a rectifier working at 2.45 GHz is designed. The fabricated rectifier circuit demonstrates a maximum RF-dc conversion efficiency of 80.8%. The measured efficiency remains over 70% with the input power from 10 dBm to 18.6 dBm and the operating frequency from 2.08 to 2.58 GHz.
Autors: Xiu Yin Zhang;Zhi-Xia Du;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 731 - 739
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency E-Band Power Amplifiers and Transmitter Using Gate Capacitance Linearization in a 65-nm CMOS Process
Abstract:
This brief presents a new design technique for high-efficiency CMOS millimeter-wave power amplifiers (PAs) and the implementations of a two-stage moderate-power PA, a three-stage high-power PA, and a transmitter all working over 68–78 GHz. The proposed PAs adopt nMOS capacitors connected at the gates of the transistors of the last one or two amplifying stages to compensate for the gate capacitance variation over a large signal swing, thus improving the linearity and the power efficiency. Implemented in a 65-nm CMOS process, the two-stage PA achieves a peak power-added efficiency (PAE) of 24.2%, a maximum gain of 17 dB, and a 3-dB bandwidth from 68 to 78 GHz. The three-stage PA achieves a saturated power (Psat) of 17.3 dBm, a peak PAE of 18.9%, and a maximum gain of 21.4 dB. The transmitter consisting of the three-stage PA and a passive double-balanced mixer with local oscillator shaping technique achieves a Psat of 14.6 dBm, a peak efficiency of 13.9%, and a conversion gain of 15.6 dB.
Autors: Tianzuo Xi;Sherry Huang;Shita Guo;Ping Gui;Daquan Huang;Sudipto Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 234 - 238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Core–Shell Nanorod Light-Emitting Diodes With Low-Peak Blueshift and Efficiency Droop
Abstract:
In this study, novel three-dimensional (3-D) nanoscale structures and methodology are demonstrated for application in high-efficiency core–shell nanorod (NR) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The key to our successful growth of the structures is the introduction of passivation, which can be used to selectively grow active layers in desired structures. Through the fabrication methodology, core–shell NR green LEDs exhibiting large nonpolar active region and homogeneous indium distributions without a point tip shape were achieved. Stable light emission at a central wavelength of 518 nm was achieved as the injected current increased to more than 40 mA. The improved NR LEDs exhibited a stable luminescence emission wavelength (blueshift of 62 nm) and low-efficiency droop (18.1%) at 200 mA. Our scheme is scalable and compatible with current technologies, which provides a new perspective for developing high-performance, 3-D nanoscale optoelectronic devices.
Autors: An-Jye Tzou;Dan-Hua Hsieh;Kuo-Bin Hong;Da-Wei Lin;Jhih-Kai Huang;Tzu-Pei Chen;Tsung-Sheng Kao;Yang-Fang Chen;Tien-Chang Lu;Chyong-Hua Chen;Hao-Chung Kuo;Chun-Yen Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 355 - 358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Precision and Fast Response Control for Complex Mechanical Systems—Servo Performance of Dedicated Servo Recording Systems
Abstract:
The dedicated servo recording system for hard disk drives (HDDs) has servo bursts continuously stored in between data recording layer and the soft underlayer of conventional perpendicular magnetic recording media. It provides high sampling rate for the servo control of the mechanical actuation system, which is thus enabled to quickly respond to high-frequency vibrations and achieve high positioning accuracy. The servo performance of the dedicated servo HDDs is investigated by applying low-frequency external vibrations, and its advantages over conventional servo are evaluated and verified. Dual-stage actuation mechanism is further applied to enhance the servo performance for effective utilizing the high sampling rate for the servo control. The high servo bandwidth, such as 5 and 10 kHz, is then achieved with sufficient position error signal (PES) samples provided by the dedicated servo. Not only to the low-frequency vibrations, the servo control loop with the high servo bandwidth is also able to significantly reduce the audio vibration impact on the PES. Simulation and testing results are provided, in this paper, to study and verify the servo performance of the dedicated servo recording systems.
Autors: C. Du;Y. Zhang;A. Kong;Z. Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution RFID Liquid Sensing Using a Chipless Tag
Abstract:
A high-resolution radio frequency identification sensor using a chipless tag is reported. The proposed sensor is based on a passive resonant LC circuit tag with a regenerative loop in the reader, to compensate losses and increase the quality factor of the system. The high quality factor offers high-resolution readout with deep field penetration and thus enables distant, high-resolution sensing. The regenerative loop increases the tag quality factor at the reader from 135 to 20 000 in air. It also provides the flexibility of adjusting the quality factor by varying the applied dc voltage.
Autors: Mohammad Hossein Zarifi;Mojgan Daneshmand;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 311 - 313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Selectivity Wideband Balanced Filters Using Coupled Lines With Open/Shorted Stubs
Abstract:
Two novel high-selectivity wideband balanced filters using symmetrical/asymmetrical coupled lines with open/shorted stubs are proposed in this letter. Multiple transmission zeros are achieved to obtain sharp rejection and good out-of-band suppression for the differential mode, in which fixed transmission zeros can be realized by half-wavelength open stubs and adjustable transmission zeros can be realized by loaded open/shorted coupled lines. In addition, all the transmission zeros can be allocated to suppress the common mode from 0 GHz to ( is the center frequency of the passband). Two balanced filters with 3-dB fractional bandwidths of 22% and 21% are, respectively, designed and fabricated.
Autors: Xin Gao;Wenjie Feng;Wenquan Che;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 260 - 262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Graphene Field Effect Transistors on Microbial Cellulose Biomembrane
Abstract:
For the goal of developing biocompatible sensors and electronics for in vivo applications, we report the first graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) fabricated on microbial cellulose (MBC), a biointegrative and ultraflexible biopolymer membrane. GFETs on MBC are fabricated in a wafer-scale using a transferred CVD graphene with a mobility of . With an excellent ohmic contact resistance of below , and a high transconductance of mS/mm with  mA/mm at , very promising RF performance was demonstrated. With a gate length of , a cut-off frequency of  GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of GHz were obtained without de-embedding. This corresponds to an extrinsic of , comparable to those reported for GFETs on other well-known flexible substrates. RF GFETs on the biointegrative MBC therefore show great promise for high-sensitivity and high-speed in vivo sen- ors and electronics applications.
Autors: Kyung-Ah Son;Baohua Yang;Hwa-Chang Seo;Danny Wong;Jeong S. Moon;Tahir Hussain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 239 - 244
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Low-Friction Piezoelectric Motors Based On Centrifugal Force
Abstract:
To develop a new type of piezoelectric motor with high speed, high power, and high efficiency output, this study proposed a novel low-friction type piezoelectric rotary motor based on centrifugal force. The construction, working principle, and torque generation mechanism of the motor were described. The motor is started up to a special speed by an external torque, and can be operated in a certain frequency range. The revolution speed of the rotor was designed to be strictly equal to the exciting frequency of piezoelectric transducers, thus this speed is considerably high. The prototype produced power of up to 8.45 W at 9120 r/min with an average efficiency of 25.3%. The feasibility of the proposed motor was verified, the power consumption was analyzed, and the possibility of realizing a larger efficiency was explained. Finally, the potential applications of this new type of piezoelectric motor were discussed.
Autors: Qiaosheng Pan;Fangsheng Huang;Jian Chen;Liang Guo He;Wei Li;Zhihua Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2158 - 2167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Parallel LFSR Architectures Based on Improved State-Space Transformations
Abstract:
Linear feedback shift register (LFSR) has been widely applied in BCH and CRC encoding. In order to increase the system throughput, the parallelization of LFSR is usually needed. Previously, a technique named state-space transformation was presented to reduce the complexity of parallel LFSR architectures. Exhaustive searches are performed to find good transformation matrix candidates. This brief proposes a new technique for construction of the transformation matrix together with a more efficient searching algorithm. The realization results indicate that the proposed architecture outperforms the prior arts, improving the hardware efficiency by around 35% and the corresponding searching algorithm finds the desirable transformation matrix much faster.
Autors: Guanghui Hu;Jin Sha;Zhongfeng Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1159 - 1163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Throughput and Energy-Efficient Belief Propagation Polar Code Decoder
Abstract:
Owing to their capacity-achieving performance and low encoding and decoding complexity, polar codes have received significant attention recently. Successive cancellation decoding (SCD) and belief propagation decoding (BPD) are two popular approaches for decoding polar codes. SCD, despite having less computational complexity when compared with BPD, suffers from long latency due to the serial nature of the SC algorithm. BPD, on the other hand, is parallel in nature and is more attractive for low-latency applications. However, due to the iterative nature of BPD, the required latency and energy dissipation increase linearly with the number of iterations. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme based on subfactor-graph freezing to reduce the average number of computations as well as the average number of iterations required by BPD, which directly translates into lower latency and energy dissipation. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has no performance degradation and achieves significant reduction in computation complexity over the existing methods. Moreover, the hardware architecture for the proposed scheme is developed and compared with the state-of-the-art BPD implementations for (1024, 512) polar codes. A decoding throughput of 13.9 Gb/s is achieved along with a 60%–73% improvement in energy reduction and two times increase in hardware efficiency when compared with the existing BPD implementations.
Autors: Syed Mohsin Abbas;YouZhe Fan;Ji Chen;Chi-Ying Tsui;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1098 - 1111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Voltage Integrated Circuits: History, State of the Art, and Future Prospects
Abstract:
High-voltage ICs (HVICs) are used in many applications, including ac/dc conversion, off-line LED lighting, and gate drivers for power modules. This paper describes the technologies most commonly used in commercial HVICs, including junction-isolation, thin silicon-on-insulator (SOI), and thick SOI approaches. Emerging technologies such as thin silicon membrane are also discussed.
Autors: Don Disney;Ted Letavic;Tanya Trajkovic;Tomohide Terashima;Akio Nakagawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 659 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Yield and Robust 9T SRAM Cell Tolerant to Removal of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes
Abstract:
Metallic carbon nanotubes (m-CNs) cause malfunction by shorting the source and drain terminals in carbon nanotube transistors. To achieve high-yield with robust read and write operations, a new nine carbon nanotube MOSFET (9-CN-MOSFET) static random-access memory (SRAM) cell that can tolerate the removal of m-CNs is proposed in this paper. A functional yield model considering the spatial correlations of carbon nanotubes in channel arrays of CN-MOSFETs is developed. The yield of the m-CN-removal-tolerant 9-CN-MOSFET SRAM array is increased by as compared to a design that does not consider process imperfections in carbon-based electronics. Due to the increased strength of read and write ports, the read delay and worst-case write delay of the m-CN-removal-tolerant 9-CN-MOSFET SRAM circuit are reduced by 29.05% and 22.30%, respectively, as compared to the previously published memory circuit that does not consider process imperfections in a 16-nm CN-MOSFET technology.
Autors: Yanan Sun;Weifeng He;Zhigang Mao;Hailong Jiao;Volkan Kursun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 20 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Higher Order LOD-FDTD Methods and Their Numerical Dispersion Properties
Abstract:
Higher order locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (HO-LOD-FDTD) methods are proposed here to improve the accuracy of the four-step LOD-FDTD, five-step LOD-FDTD, and six-step LOD-FDTD methods. In the proposed HO-LOD-FDTD methods, higher order finite-difference approximations are used for all the three space derivatives; therefore, they give improved accuracy in all the three directions. In addition to HO-LOD-FDTD methods, hybrid-HO LOD-FDTD (HHO-LOD-FDTD) methods are also proposed here. In the HHO-LOD-FDTD methods, higher order finite-difference approximations are used for the desired direction(s) only. As a result, they give improved accuracy in the desired direction(s), and take less computational time than the HO-LOD-FDTD methods. Moreover, to validate the analytical results, simulation results of the fourth-order (FO) and hybrid-FO LOD-FDTD methods are also discussed here.
Autors: Alok Kumar Saxena;Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1480 - 1485
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Histograms of Optical Flow Orientation and Magnitude and Entropy to Detect Anomalous Events in Videos
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for detecting anomalous events in videos with crowds. The main goal is to recognize patterns that might lead to an anomalous event. An anomalous event might be characterized by the deviation from the normal or usual, but not necessarily in an undesirable manner, e.g., an anomalous event might just be different from normal but not a suspicious event from the surveillance point of view. One of the main challenges of detecting such events is the difficulty to create models due to their unpredictability and their dependency on the context of the scene. Based on these challenges, we present a model that uses general concepts, such as orientation, velocity, and entropy to capture anomalies. Using such a type of information, we can define models for different cases and environments. Assuming images captured from a single static camera, we propose a novel spatiotemporal feature descriptor, called histograms of optical flow orientation and magnitude and entropy, based on optical flow information. To determine the normality or abnormality of an event, the proposed model is composed of training and test steps. In the training, we learn the normal patterns. Then, during test, events are described and if they differ significantly from the normal patterns learned, they are considered as anomalous. The experimental results demonstrate that our model can handle different situations and is able to recognize anomalous events with success. We use the well-known UCSD and Subway data sets and introduce a new data set, namely, Badminton.
Autors: Rensso Victor Hugo Mora Colque;Carlos Caetano;Matheus Toledo Lustosa de Andrade;William Robson Schwartz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 673 - 682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» History-Assisted Energy-Efficient Spectrum Sensing for Infrastructure-Based Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Spectrum sensing is a prominent functionality to enable dynamic spectrum access (DSA) in cognitive radio (CR) networks. It provides protection to primary users (PUs) from interference and creates opportunities of spectrum access for secondary users (SUs). It should be performed efficiently to reduce the number of false alarms and missed detections. Continuous sensing for a long time incurs cost in terms of increased energy consumption; thus, spectrum sensing ought to be energy efficient to ensure the prolonged existence of CR devices. This paper focuses on using of history to help achieve energy-efficient spectrum sensing in infrastructure-based CR networks. The scheme employs an iteratively developed history processing database that is used by CRs to make decisions about spectrum sensing, subsequently resulting in reduced spectrum scanning and improved energy efficiency. Two conventional spectrum sensing schemes, i.e., energy detection (ED) and cyclostationary feature detection (CFD), are enriched by history to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. System-level simulations are performed to investigate the sensitivity of the proposed history-based scheme by performing detailed energy consumption analysis for the aforementioned schemes. Results demonstrate that the employment of history ensued in improved energy efficiency due to reduced spectrum scanning. This paper also suggests which spectrum sensing scheme can be the best candidate in a particular scenario by looking into computational complexity before comparative analysis is presented with other states of the art.
Autors: Tazeen S. Syed;Ghazanfar A. Safdar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2462 - 2473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hourly Solar Irradiance Prediction Based on Support Vector Machine and Its Error Analysis
Abstract:
Due to a variability and uncertainty of photovoltaic (PV) output power, PV operators may be subject to significant penalties on forthcoming energy markets. Thus, the accurate prediction of PV output power plays a very important role in energy market. This paper proposes a novel solar prediction scheme for one-hour ahead prediction of solar irradiance based on various meteorological factors including the cloud cover and support vector machine (SVM). A -means clustering algorithm is applied to collect meteorological data and the entire data are classified into three clusters based on similar daily weather types. The same cluster data are used for the SVM regression in the training stage. We also investigate the prediction error analysis. It is shown that the solar irradiance prediction errors of each prediction scheme can be categorized to be leptokurtic and a location-scale distribution is proposed as a distribution fitting for the prediction errors. In addition, the power and energy capacities of an energy storage system (ESS), which can absorb the prediction errors, are estimated from the probability density functions. Numerical results show that the proposed SVM regression scheme significantly improves the prediction accuracy and reduces the ESS installation capacity.
Autors: Kuk Yeol Bae;Han Seung Jang;Dan Keun Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 935 - 945
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Consistent Are the Best-Known Readability Equations in Estimating the Readability of Design Standards?
Abstract:
Research problem: Readability equations are widely used to compute how well readers will be able to understand written materials. Those equations were usually developed for nontechnical materials, namely, textbooks for elementary, middle, and high schools. This study examines to what extent computerized readability predictions are consistent for highly technical material—selected Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and International Standards Organization (ISO) Recommended Practices and Standards relating to driver interfaces. Literature review: A review of original sources of readability equations revealed a lack of specific criteria in counting various punctuation and text elements, leading to inconsistent readability scores. Few studies on the reliability of readability equations have identified this problem, and even fewer have systematically investigated the extent of the problem and the reasons why it occurs. Research questions: (1) Do the most commonly used equations give identical readability scores? (2) How do the scores for each readability equation vary with readability tools? (3) If there are differences between readability tools, why do they occur? (4) How does the score vary with the length of passage examined? Method: Passages of varying lengths from 12 selected SAE and ISO Recommended Practices and Standards were examined using five readability equations (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Gunning Fog Index, SMOG Index, Coleman-Liau Index, and Automated Readability Index) implemented five ways (four online readability tools and Microsoft Word 2013 for Windows). In addition, short test passages of text were used to understand how different readability tools counted text elements, such as words and sentences. Results and conclusions: The mean readability scores of the passages from those 12 SAE and ISO Recommended Practices and Standards ranged from the 10th grade reading - evel to about 15th. The mean grade reading levels computed across the websites were: Flesch-Kincaid 12.8, Gunning Fog 15.1 SMOG 12.6, Coleman-Liau 13.7, and Automated Readability Index 12.3. Readability score estimates became more consistent as the length of the passage examined increased, with no noteworthy improvements beyond 900 words. Among the five readability tools, scores typically differed by two grade levels, but the scores should have been the same. These differences were due to how compound and hyphenated words, slashes, numbers, abbreviations and acronyms, and URLs were counted, as well other punctuation and text elements. These differences occurred because the sources for these equations often did not specify how to score various punctuation and text elements. Of the tools examined, the authors recommend Microsoft Word 2013 for Windows if the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level is required.
Autors: Shixiang Zhou;Heejin Jeong;Paul A. Green;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 97 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How to Protect ADS-B: Confidentiality Framework and Efficient Realization Based on Staged Identity-Based Encryption
Abstract:
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is one of the key technologies for future “e-Enabled” aircrafts. ADS-B uses avionics in the e-Enabled aircrafts to broadcast essential flight data such as call sign, altitude, heading, and other extra positioning information. On the one hand, ADS-B brings significant benefits to the aviation industry, but, on the other hand, it could pose security concerns as channels between ground controllers and aircrafts for the ADS-B communication are not secured, and ADS-B messages could be captured by random individuals who own ADS-B receivers. In certain situations, ADS-B messages contain sensitive information, particularly when communications occur among mission-critical civil airplanes. These messages need to be protected from any interruption and eavesdropping. The challenge here is to construct an encryption scheme that is fast enough for very frequent encryption and that is flexible enough for effective key management. In this paper, we propose a Staged Identity-Based Encryption (SIBE) scheme, which modifies Boneh and Franklin's original IBE scheme to address those challenges, that is, to construct an efficient and functional encryption scheme for ADS-B system. Based on the proposed SIBE scheme, we provide a confidentiality framework for future e-Enabled aircraft with ADS-B capability.
Autors: Joonsang Baek;Eman Hableel;Young-Ji Byon;Duncan S. Wong;Kitae Jang;Hwasoo Yeo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 690 - 700
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HUB Floating Point for Improving FPGA Implementations of DSP Applications
Abstract:
The increasing complexity of new digital signal processing (DSP) applications is forcing the use of floating point (FP) numbers in their hardware implementations. In this brief, we investigate the advantages of using half-unit biased (HUB) formats to implement these FP applications on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These new FP formats allow for the effective elimination of the rounding logic on FP arithmetic units. First, we experimentally show that HUB and standard formats provide equivalent signal-to-noise ratio on DSP application implementations. We then present a detailed study of the improvement achieved when implementing FP adders and multipliers on FPGAs by using HUB numbers. In most of the cases studied, the HUB approach reduces resource use and increases the speed of these FP units while always providing statistically equivalent accuracy as that of conventional formats. However, for some specific sizes, HUB multipliers require far more resources than the corresponding conventional approach.
Autors: Javier Hormigo;Julio Villalba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 319 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human by Design: An Ethical Framework for Human Augmentation
Abstract:
Rapid advances in science and technology are opening doors for the fulfillment of human desires in ways that were not previously possible. Neural, genetic, pharmacological, and physical forms of augmentation of the human experience promise to multiply both in number and complexity over the next decades. It is our responsibility to create a public, open discourse around the ethical implications of technology that will shape what it means to be human in the near and distant future.
Autors: Nadja Oertelt;Adam Arabian;E. Christian Brugger;Michael Choros;Nita A. Farahany;Samantha Payne;Will Rosellini;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 32 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Human Microchipping, Past, Present, and ... Future? [Opinion]
Abstract:
Autors: Gary Retherford;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 18 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Modular Multilevel DSCC Inverter for Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drives
Abstract:
This paper proposes a hybrid modular multilevel drive system based on a modular multilevel cascade inverter (MMCI) with double-star chopper cells (DSCC) and a two-level (2L) inverter to feed three-phase induction motors with open-end windings (OEWs). The proposed system is an alternative for high-speed motor drives based on a small-scale DSCC topology. A voltage reference technique is presented based on the analysis of the degrees of freedom of the system for generating the output voltage references, considering any voltage ratios of the dc links. The proposed system is evaluated in a symmetric scenario, in which the dc-link voltages are equal. Thus, the 2L inverter is set up to operate at the fundamental frequency, while the DSCC inverter synthesizes the output voltage references from high-quality waveform with a significant number of voltage levels. Experimental results obtained from a downscaled 10-kVA 380-V prototype driving a full loaded 3.7-kW OEW induction motor are provided to verify the viability of the proposed system.
Autors: Italo Roger Ferreira Moreno Pinheiro da Silva;Cursino Brandão Jacobina;Alexandre Cunha Oliveira;Gregory Arthur de Almeida Carlos;Maurício Beltrão de Rossiter Corrêa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1232 - 1242
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Power Flow Controller Steady-State Modeling, Control, and Practical Application
Abstract:
Steady-state models of the hybrid power flow controller (HPFC) for power flow and optimal power flow (OPF) studies are presented in this paper, considering the multiple control modes of the device. A strategy for control mode switching and limit handling in power flow calculations is proposed. The OPF model of the HPFC represents all the device control and physical limits as constraints in the mathematical formulation, so that the HPFC can be optimally dispatched as a part of the transmission system control assets. The power flow model is demonstrated and validated through loadability studies on a two-area benchmark test system, where the OPF model is used to determine the optimal ratings of the device based on a cost-benefit analysis. A study is also presented of the HPFC application to Ontario-Canada's grid, to address particular congestion problems in this network; an HPFC cost analysis is also shown for this system. The presented studies demonstrate the application of the proposed models for planning and operation studies, illustrating the performance, effectiveness, and feasibility of the controller to solve congestion issues in a real grid.
Autors: Behnam Tamimi;Claudio Cañizares;Claudia Battistelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1483 - 1492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Space Vector Modulation Strategy for Torque Ripple Minimization in Three-Phase Four-Switch Inverter-Fed PMSM Drives
Abstract:
Three-phase four-switch (TPFS) inverters are generally applied as cost-reduction topologies for permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives because of their reduced number of switching devices. However, undesirable torque ripples are produced by the inverter-fed PMSMs due to the application of nonsinusoidal voltages. Because the torque ripples are strongly influenced by the employed pulse width modulation (PWM) strategy, two commonly used switching sequences in TPFS inverter-fed PMSM drives are fully investigated based on the root mean square value of the torque ripples, in which the effects of the different equivalent zero vectors on the torque ripples are presented. Then, a hybrid space vector modulation (SVM) strategy is proposed to minimize the torque ripples by alternatively using the two equivalent zero vector synthesis approaches during a fundamental period. The sector division of the proposed hybrid SVM strategy is determined by the location of the stator current vector, which is quite different from the methods used in other SVM methods. Then, a simplified sector identification method is proposed to reduce the computational burden. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid PWM strategy can effectively reduce torque ripples in TPFS inverter-fed PMSM drives.
Autors: Zhiyong Zeng;Chong Zhu;Xiaoliang Jin;Wen Shi;Rongxiang Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2122 - 2134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Transient Energy Function-Based Real-Time Optimal Wide-Area Damping Controller
Abstract:
This paper presents a real-time wide-area damping controller design based on a hybrid intelligent and direct method to improve the power system transient stability. The algorithm applied as a nonlinear optimal wide-area damping controller monitors the oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. First, energy functions and Prony analysis techniques are used to identify these local or interarea oscillations and develop stability or damping performance index at a given time. Second, artificial neural networks are deployed to learn the dynamics of the system and energy functions based on supervised learning to construct an optimal control design. Then, using online reinforcement learning the quadratic objective function based on the stability index is estimated and optimized forward-in-time. Results on the IEEE 68-bus in Power System Toolbox and HYPERSIM real-time simulator show better transient and damping response when compared to conventional schemes and local power system stabilizers.
Autors: Reza Yousefian;Amireza Sahami;Sukumar Kamalasadan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1506 - 1516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperspectral Image Classification Using Discrete Space Model and Support Vector Machines
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel method based on discrete space model (DSM) and support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed for hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. The DSM approach transforms continuous spectral signatures into discrete features and constructs a space model with the discrete features. Therefore, the classification capability of SVMs can be improved on account of the discrete feature space. Moreover, a composite kernel model is employed to take advantage of the spectral and spatial features among neighboring pixels. The proposed method is applied to real HSIs for classification. The experimental results confirm that the classification accuracy for the SVMs could be improved using the DSM method prior to classification.
Autors: Li Xie;Guangyao Li;Mang Xiao;Lei Peng;Qiaochuan Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 374 - 378
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HySense: A Hybrid Mobile CrowdSensing Framework for Sensing Opportunities Compensation under Dynamic Coverage Constraint
Abstract:
Mobile crowdsensing is a novel sensing paradigm enabled by the proliferation of mobile devices. Since crowdsensing applications are driven by sufficient users, advanced incentive mechanisms have been designed to enhance users' willingness to participate in sensing tasks. However, incentive mechanisms only provide adequate sensing opportunities on the condition that the available user base is large. If existing users are fewer than the required number of participants, incentive mechanisms will lose efficacy. This article proposes a hybrid framework called HySense to compensate for inadequate sensing opportunities solely provided by incentive mechanisms. Within each sensing cycle, HySense combines mobile devices with static sensor nodes to generate uniformly distributed space-time data under the constraint of field coverage. To balance sensing opportunities among different geographic regions, redundant users are efficiently migrated from densely populated areas to sparsely populated areas. HySense utilizes calibration mode for checking whether the participants' behavior patterns are consistent with the sensing task queue. Therefore, any change caused by unforeseen accidents can be dealt with in advance.
Autors: Guangjie Han;Li Liu;Sammy Chan;Ruiyun Yu;Yu Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 93 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hysteresis Losses in Different Types of Permanent Magnets Used in PMSMs
Abstract:
In permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM), depending on the machine application, different types of permanent magnets (PM) can be used. The most common PMs are ferrite magnets, neodymium iron boron magnets (NdFeB), and samarium cobalt magnets (SmCo). The selection of a suitable magnet for a particular machine design depends on the magnet properties: remanence, conductivity, mechanical rigidity, losses, and demagnetization characteristics. Usually, the possibility of hysteresis losses in PM materials is neglected. In this paper, however, it is demonstrated that possible hysteresis losses have to be evaluated in the machine design. It is shown by measurements and simulations that in some machine designs, hysteresis losses in NdFeB, SmCo, and ferrite magnets can be a source of significant additional ac losses that may lead to too high PM operating temperatures and a reduction in the machine efficiency.
Autors: Ilya Petrov;Dmitry Egorov;Joosep Link;Raivo Stern;Sami Ruoho;Juha Pyrhönen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2502 - 2510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» i2RES: Integrated Information Relay and Energy Supply Assisted RF Harvesting Communication
Abstract:
To overcome finite lifetime bottleneck in the ubiquitous deployment of low-power wireless devices in Internet-of-Things, we propose a novel integrated information relay and energy supply (i2RES)-assisted RF harvesting co-operative communication model. i2RES aids the communication between two distant energy-constrained wireless nodes by: 1) RF energy transfer to the source and 2) relaying source data along with supplying energy to the destination. To enable efficient i2RES-powered information transfer to the destination, we first derive and then maximize the delay-limited achievable throughput over Rician channels by jointly optimizing time allocation for information and energy transfer along with relative position of i2RES between source and destination. Although the throughput maximization problem is nonconvex and highly nonlinear, we prove its generalized-convexity and obtain the global-optimal numerical solutions. To gain analytical insights, we also derive tight closed-form approximation for the optimized solutions. Numerical results validate the analysis and demonstrate significant gain in throughput performance via our proposed optimization schemes under practical hardware constraints. Finally, we discuss how the analysis and optimization results can be extended to general RF-EH system settings with relaxed constraints.
Autors: Deepak Mishra;Swades De;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1274 - 1288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IAS Member Training and Education [Education News]
Abstract:
Presents information on IAS society member training and education programs.
Autors: Iqbal Husain;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 90 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification and Robust Control of the Nonlinear Photoelectrothermal Dynamics of LED Systems
Abstract:
In lighting systems consisting light-emitting diodes (LEDs), excessive temperature is a main cause of degraded luminous efficacy, which leads to reduced average illuminance and distorted illumination rendering. Modeling the thermal dynamics of LEDs is hence essential in designing thermal dissipators and controllers for maintaining constant illuminance or chromaticity. In the existing literature, both physical modeling and system identification have been proposed, which all find the dependence of the temperature on the input power. When the power fluctuates, e.g., due to dimming control, the thermal dynamics becomes nonlinear. Moreover, when a photoelectrothermal model is used in the control synthesis, the nonlinearity due to the product of the temperature-dependent efficacy and the input power must be considered. These nonlinearities are either ignored or linearized in most existing methods. The main contribution of this work is treating the aforementioned nonlinearities in a linear parameter varying (LPV) framework. First, the nonlinear thermal dynamics is identified by LPV system identification techniques. Then, a controller to track reference illuminance is designed by control techniques to be robust to both the temperature and the disturbance from ambient light. The identification data and the designed controller are collected from and verified on a real experimental setup.
Autors: Jianfei Dong;Guoqi Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2215 - 2225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Interarea Modes From Ringdown Data by Curve-Fitting in the Frequency Domain
Abstract:
Low damping ratios of interarea modes in the power system result in peaks at their natural frequencies in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) representation of ringdown data. This has been a motivation to develop a nonparametric DFT-based modal identification method. However, this method has difficulty estimating damping ratios. This paper proposes a parametric DFT-based method to solve such a problem in the non-parametric one. To effectively remove the decaying dc component in ringdown data, the proposed method uses a difference sequence between two sets of ringdown frequency data with oscillation against each other. This method estimates coefficients of the numerator and denominator in the Laplace transform of the frequency difference sequence by curve-fitting of DFT values around peak frequencies. Then, modal natural frequencies and damping ratios are calculated from estimated coefficients of the denominator. This method is compared to a non-parametric DFT-based method and a Prony-based method through simulations on the signal-to-noise ratio and is applied to identify real power systems from ringdown frequency data in the Frequency Monitoring Network system.
Autors: Jin Kwon Hwang;Yilu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 842 - 851
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Magnetic Properties for Cutting Edge of Electrical Steel Sheets
Abstract:
Electrical steel sheets of motors and generators are usually shaped to the final form by punching. The punching and other cutting processes generate large plastic deformations and residual stresses. These are known to deteriorate the magnetic properties of the edge region. However, the characterization of this deterioration in the form of magnetic properties is missing. The main aim of this paper is to propose a method to identify the magnetic properties of the edge region based on experimental results. This approach is demonstrated by using previously presented test results for magnetic properties of rectangular strips. The width of these strips is varied, and thus, the share of the edge region to the whole can be used as a variable. Based on this variation, a simple model is developed and the model parameters fitted to the experimental results. The correspondence between the calculated and experimental results is good.
Autors: Timo P. Holopainen;Paavo Rasilo;Antero Arkkio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1049 - 1053
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of MISO Systems Using Periodic Inputs and Its Application to Dual-Stage Hard Disk Drives
Abstract:
In this paper, we address identification of a class of multi-input single-output (MISO) linear time-invariant (LTI) discrete-time systems, where the MISO system is composed of several single-input single-output (SISO) LTI systems and only the sum of the output of each SISO system can be measured. By exciting one SISO system and employing periodic inputs to the remaining SISO systems, we decompose the MISO system into the excited SISO system where its input and output can be calculated from the measured data. As such, the original parameters for each SISO system can be estimated using the well-established identification techniques. The proposed method using periodic inputs is also extended to identification beyond the Nyquist frequency. Both simulation and experimental results on identification of actuators in the dual-stage hard disk drive are carried out to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.
Autors: Weili Yan;Chee Khiang Pang;Chunling Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IECON 2016 Summary [Students and Young Professionals News]
Abstract:
Presents information on the IECON 2016 Conference.
Autors: Marek Jasinski;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 81 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE DEIS-Sponsored distinguished lecturer program workshop
Abstract:
The IEEE DEIS-sponsored Distinguished Lecturer Program Workshop took place on November 8, 2016, at the Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India. The workshop was conducted by Prof. Edward A. Cherney from the University of Waterloo, Canada. The topic of the workshop was "Tracking and erosion protection mechanisms of inorganic fillers in polymer materials for outdoor insulation."
Autors: B. Chatterjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 53 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Members Elevated to IEEE Fellows [Society News]
Abstract:
Lists IE Society members who were elevated to the status if IEEE Fellow.
Autors: Peter Palensky;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 68 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IGBT History, State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects
Abstract:
An overview on the history of the development of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) as one key component in today’s power electronic systems is given; the state-of-the-art device concepts are explained as well as an detailed outlook about ongoing and foreseeable development steps is shown. All these measures will result on the one hand in ongoing power density and efficiency increase as important contributors for worldwide energy saving and environmental protection efforts. On the other hand, the exciting competition of more maturing Si IGBT technology with the wide bandgap successors of GaN and SiC switches will go on.
Autors: Noriyuki Iwamuro;Thomas Laska;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 741 - 752
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ignorant, Stubborn, and Unwilling to Listen [MicroBusiness]
Abstract:
Addresses management styles and explores how the following traits impact management outcomes: ignorance, stubbornness, and an unwillingness to listen.
Autors: Fred Schindler;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 22 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IGZO-TFT Biosensors for Epstein–Barr Virus Protein Detection
Abstract:
A transistor-based biosensor with high sensitivity is demonstrated in this paper. The sensor is composed of a reusable In–Ga–ZnO (IGZO)-thin-film transistor (TFT) array wire connected to an external sensing pool. The TFT acts as an electrical charge transducer as well as the signal readout device. Contrast to typical approachesofemploying parameters, such as transconductance, threshold voltage, or current change as the benchmark for sensitivity, we develop a model to extract the corresponding electrical changes after introducing analytes so as tomitigate device-to-device sensing variations. Using Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) antibody as the example of target analyte, the IGZO-TFT biosensors are able to selectively detect 10 pg/mL of EBNA-1 antibody in the phosphate-buffered saline solution. The measurement results were cross verifiedwith conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our approach is four orders of magnitude better than the ELISA.
Autors: Tsung-Han Yang;Ting-Yang Chen;Nian-Ting Wu;Yung-Tsan Chen;Jian-Jang Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1294 - 1299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Fusion With Contextual Statistical Similarity and Nonsubsampled Shearlet Transform
Abstract:
Image fusion has the capability to integrate useful information from source images into a more comprehensive image. How to obtain the effective representation of source images is a key step to image fusion. Due to the loss of the dependence of coefficients, most of traditional multi-scale decomposition-based image fusion methods suffer from an inaccurate image representation. To solve this problem, a novel image fusion method with contextual statistical similarity in nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) is presented. The key contributions include: 1) the dependence of NSST coefficients is captured by the contextual hidden Markov model (CHMM); 2) the contextual statistical similarity of coefficients is proposed; 3) an effective fusion rule based on the characteristic of CHMM is developed for high-frequency subbands in NSST domain. By the visual analysis and quantitative evaluations on experimental results, the superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated.
Autors: Xiaoqing Luo;Zhancheng Zhang;Baocheng Zhang;Xiaojun Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1760 - 1771
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Matching via Feature Fusion and Coherent Constraint
Abstract:
The Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based methods have achieved great success in point set registration. However, they cannot be directly applied to image matching, because the features extracted from two images usually contain a large portion of outliers. In this letter, we propose a new method to extend the powerful GMM to the field of image feature points matching. The algorithm consists of two main steps. In the first step, points extracted from the images are mapped into a new subspace, in which feature similarity information is fused to get the new representation of the points. The second step performs an improved progressive process with the GMM to find correspondences satisfying the coherent constraint. In this way, finding correspondences among large outliers is feasible and the iteration converges faster. Experimental results on benchmark data sets show that the proposed method can find more correct matches with high accuracy.
Autors: Kun Sun;Liman Liu;Wenbing Tao;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 289 - 293
Publisher: IEEE
 

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