Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 8

» Enhancing Team Composition in Professional Networks: Problem Definitions and Fast Solutions
Abstract:
In this paper, we study ways to enhance the composition of teams based on new requirements in a collaborative environment. We focus on recommending team members who can maintain the team's performance by minimizing changes to the team's skills and social structure. Our recommendations are based on computing team-level similarity, which includes skill similarity, structural similarity as well as the synergy between the two. Current heuristic approaches are one-dimensional and not comprehensive, as they consider the two aspects independently. To formalize team-level similarity, we adopt the notion of graph kernel of attributed graphs to encompass the two aspects and their interaction. To tackle the computational challenges, we propose a family of fast algorithms by (a) designing effective pruning strategies, and (b) exploring the smoothness between the existing and the new team structures. Extensive empirical evaluations on real world datasets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithms.
Autors: Liangyue Li;Hanghang Tong;Nan Cao;Kate Ehrlich;Yu-Ru Lin;Norbou Buchler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 613 - 626
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enhancing the Malloc System with Pollution Awareness for Better Cache Performance
Abstract:
Cache pollution, by which weak-locality data unduly replaces strong-locality data, may notably degrade application performance in a shared-cache multicore machine. This paper presents NightWatch, a cache management subsystem that provides general, transparent and low-overhead pollution control to applications. NightWatch is based on the observation that data within the same memory chunk or chunks within the same allocation context often share similar locality property. NightWatch embodies this observation by online monitoring current cache locality to predict future behavior and restricting potential cache polluters proactively. We have integrated NightWatch into two popular allocators, tcmalloc and ptmalloc2. Experiments with SPEC CPU2006 show that NightWatch improves application performance by up to 45 percent (18 percent on average), with an average monitoring overhead of 0.57 percent (up to 3.02 percent).
Autors: Xiaofei Liao;Rentong Guo;Hai Jin;Jianhui Yue;Guang Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 731 - 745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enhancing the Physical Layer Security of Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access in Large-Scale Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates the physical layer security of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in large-scale networks with invoking stochastic geometry. Both single-antenna and multiple-antenna aided transmission scenarios are considered, where the base station (BS) communicates with randomly distributed NOMA users. In the single-antenna scenario, we adopt a protected zone around the BS to establish an eavesdropper-exclusion area with the aid of careful channel ordering of the NOMA users. In the multiple-antenna scenario, artificial noise is generated at the BS for further improving the security of a beamforming-aided system. In order to characterize the secrecy performance, we derive new exact expressions of the security outage probability for both single-antenna and multiple-antenna aided scenarios. For the single-antenna scenario, we perform secrecy diversity order analysis of the selected user pair. The analytical results derived demonstrate that the secrecy diversity order is determined by the specific user having the worse channel condition among the selected user pair. For the multiple-antenna scenario, we derive the asymptotic secrecy outage probability, when the number of transmit antennas tends to infinity. Monte Carlo simulations are provided for verifying the analytical results derived and to show that: 1) the security performance of the NOMA networks can be improved by invoking the protected zone and by generating artificial noise at the BS and 2) the asymptotic secrecy outage probability is close to the exact secrecy outage probability.
Autors: Yuanwei Liu;Zhijin Qin;Maged Elkashlan;Yue Gao;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1656 - 1672
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enriched $K$ -Tier HetNet Model to Enable the Analysis of User-Centric Small Cell Deployments
Abstract:
One of the principal underlying assumptions of current approaches to the analysis of heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) with random spatial models is the uniform distribution of users independent of the base station (BS) locations. This assumption is not quite accurate, especially for user-centric capacity-driven small cell deployments where low-power BSs are deployed in the areas of high user density, thus inducing a natural correlation in the BS and user locations. In order to capture this correlation, we enrich the existing -tier Poisson point process (PPP) HetNet model by considering user locations as Poisson Cluster Process with the BSs at the cluster centers. In particular, we provide the formal analysis of the downlink coverage probability in terms of a general density function describing the locations of users around the BSs. The derived results are specialized for two cases of interest: 1) Thomas cluster process, where the locations of the users around BSs are Gaussian distributed and 2) Matérn cluster process, where the users are uniformly distributed inside a disc of a given radius. Tight closed-form bounds for the coverage probability in these two cases are also derived. Our results demonstrate that the coverage probability decreases as the size of user clusters around BSs increases, ultimately collapsing to the result obtained under the assumption of PPP distribution of users independent of the BS locations when the cluster size goes to infinity. Using these results, we also handle mixed user distributions consisting of two types of users: 1) uniformly distributed and 2) clustered around certain tiers.
Autors: Chiranjib Saha;Mehrnaz Afshang;Harpreet S. Dhillon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1593 - 1608
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enriched Multimodal Representations of Music Performances: Online Access and Visualization
Abstract:
The authors provide a first-person outlook on the technical challenges involved in the recording, analysis, archiving, and cloud-based interchange of multimodal string quartet performance data as part of a collaborative research project on ensemble music making. To facilitate the sharing of their own collection of multimodal recordings and extracted descriptors and annotations, they developed a hosting platform through which multimodal data (audio, video, motion capture, and derived signals) can be stored, visualized, annotated, and selectively retrieved via a web interface and a dedicated API. This article offers a twofold contribution: the authors open their collection of enriched multimodal recordings, the Quartet dataset, to the community, and they introduce and enable access to their multimodal data exchange platform and web application, the Repovizz system. This article is part of a special issue on multimedia technologies for enriched music.
Autors: Esteban Maestre;Panagiotis Papiotis;Marco Marchini;Quim Llimona;Oscar Mayor;Alfonso Pérez;Marcelo M. Wanderley;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 24 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Entropy of Ultrasound-Contrast-Agent Velocity Fields for Angiogenesis Imaging in Prostate Cancer
Abstract:
Prostate cancer care can benefit from accurate and cost-efficient imaging modalities that are able to reveal prognostic indicators for cancer. Angiogenesis is known to play a central role in the growth of tumors towards a metastatic or a lethal phenotype. With the aim of localizing angiogenic activity in a non-invasive manner, Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (DCE-US) has been widely used. Usually, the passage of ultrasound contrast agents thought the organ of interest is analyzed for the assessment of tissue perfusion. However, the heterogeneous nature of blood flow in angiogenic vasculature hampers the diagnostic effectiveness of perfusion parameters. In this regard, quantification of the heterogeneity of flow may provide a relevant additional feature for localizing angiogenesis. Statistics based on flow magnitude as well as its orientation can be exploited for this purpose. In this paper, we estimate the microbubble velocity fields from a standard bolus injection and provide a first statistical characterization by performing a spatial entropy analysis. By testing the method on 24 patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, we show that the proposed method can be applied effectively to clinically acquired DCE-US data. The method permits estimation of the in-plane flow vector fields and their local intricacy, and yields promising results (receiver-operating-characteristic curve area of 0.85) for the detection of prostate cancer.
Autors: Ruud JG van Sloun;Libertario Demi;Arnoud W Postema;Jean JMCH De La Rosette;Hessel Wijkstra;Massimo Mischi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 826 - 837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Enumeration of Maximal Cliques from an Uncertain Graph
Abstract:
We consider the enumeration of dense substructures (maximal cliques) from an uncertain graph. For parameter , we define the notion of an -maximal clique in an uncertain graph. We present matching upper and lower bounds on the number of -maximal cliques possible within a (uncertain) graph. We present an algorithm to enumerate -maximal cliques whose worst-case runtime is near-optimal, and an experimental evaluation showing the practical utility of the algorithm.
Autors: Arko Provo Mukherjee;Pan Xu;Srikanta Tirthapura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 543 - 555
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Equivalent Circuit Modeling for Reflectarrays Using Floquet Modal Expansion
Abstract:
The starting point in the design of reflectarray antennas is the derivation of the so-called S-curve, which maps changes in unit cell design parameters to the phase of the scattered field from the cell. In general, full-wave simulations are used to derive this curve, though recently a number of analytical techniques have emerged based on equivalent circuit models (ECMs). However, most ECMs are cumbersome to employ, either because they are too specialized or they depend on extraction of component values from supplementary simulations. This paper presents a fully analytical method for predicting the S-curve from dipole-like reflectarray elements based on an ECM derived from a Floquet modal expansion of a planar dipole. The model does not need supplementary simulations that can be used to predict the co-polarized reflection coefficient from a variety of fixed and reconfigurable reflectarray elements. The model is validated against full-wave simulations for several reflectarray element types, including fixed patches, varactor-loaded patches, and patches on tunable substrates, and is shown to be accurate. As such, it could become a highly useful design tool for quickly deriving the S-curve of reflectarray elements during the initial design stages of reflectarrays.
Autors: Sean Victor Hum;Bozhou Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1131 - 1140
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Erratum to “Design Issues for Performance Enhancement in Nanostructured Silicon Oxide Biosensors: Modeling the Frequency Response”
Abstract:
The authors would like to make corrections to [1, Fig. 7(b) and (c)] due to some post-processing carried out in these figures. After capturing the SEM images—top view [Fig. 7(b)] and cross section [Fig. 7(c)] in [1], we started measuring the pore dimensions with image processing software. We wanted to measure both the lateral and the vertical diameters of the pores in Fig. 7(b) (since they are not exactly circular). For this purpose, a boundary was constructed around some of the pores with textured lines but mistakenly these lines were not removed during transferring the pictures to the manuscript, which is responsible for the distortion in [1, Fig. 7(b)]. In Fig. 7(c) also, we wanted to measure the pore length, for which textured lines were drawn along the length of the pore, leading to some changes in the color contrast at the mouth of the pore from the original SEM picture. These lines also should have been removed from [1, Fig. 7(c)].
Autors: H. Ghosh;D. Kundu;C. RoyChaudhuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1408 - 1408
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Erratum to “Uncertainty Issues in Direct and Indirect Efficiency Determination for Three-Phase Induction Motors: Remarks About the IEC 60034–2-1 Standard” [Dec 16 2701-2716]
Abstract:
Due to a production error, some equations and data in the above paper [1] appeared incorrectly. Here are the correct versions.
Autors: Giovanni Bucci;Fabrizio Ciancetta;Edoardo Fiorucci;Antonio Ometto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 577 - 578
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ESD Self-Protection of High-Speed Transceivers Using Adaptive Active Bias Conditioning
Abstract:
Adaptive active bias conditioning (AABC) is proposed for high-speed inputs/outputs (I/O) to mitigate the tradeoff between bandwidth and electrostatic discharge (ESD) reliability. During a component-level ESD event, the I/O transistors’ gate voltages are adaptively set to the values that maximize ESD robustness based on the ESD polarity. The AABC technique has no deleterious effect on signal integrity or power consumption, because its circuitry is located off the high-speed signal path and activated only during ESD. The efficacy of the protection scheme is validated on a 130-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor test chip. Thirty percent improved ESD resiliency is found from the charged device model and very-fast transmission line pulsing tests with only 10% area overhead, relative to a transceiver with the same I/O protection and no AABC. In order to diagnose ESD-induced failures, a new failure analysis method, which utilizes power-on – curves, is introduced. Using this method, the failed device can be inferred without the use of any destructive, physical failure analysis techniques.
Autors: Min-Sun Keel;Elyse Rosenbaum;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 113 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating Respiratory Impedance at Breathing Frequencies Using Regularized Least Squares on Forced Oscillation Technique Measurements
Abstract:
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) measures the respiratory impedance in a noninvasive way to obtain the mechanical properties of a respiratory system. The respiratory impedance () is defined by the frequency-dependent ratio of pressure and flow at the airway opening. A major problem when measuring at low frequencies (0.1–2 Hz) on spontaneously breathing patients is the disturbance generated by the patients breathing (0.1–1 Hz). A method is presented that aims at eliminating breathing disturbances from low frequent FOT measurements by applying a combination of amplitude and phase modulated signal models and regularized least squares. The method is validated on simulations using breathing measurements, and estimates of with a very low error are obtained. In addition, the method has been applied to measurements performed on a group of healthy subjects, and the results are obtained that can be used for diagnostic purposes or for further studies on parametric modeling of at low frequencies.
Autors: Hannes Maes;Miroslav Zivanovic;Johan Schoukens;Gerd Vandersteen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 479 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages With Multi-Type Branching Processes
Abstract:
In this paper, the multitype branching process is applied to describe the statistics and interdependencies of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multitype branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multitype branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multitype branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multitype branching process can effectively predict the distribution of the load shed and isolated buses and their conditional largest possible total outages even when there are no data of them.
Autors: Junjian Qi;Wenyun Ju;Kai Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1212 - 1223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating Traveling Wave Tubes (TWTs) Failure Rate Using Bayesian Posterior Analysis From Spacecraft On-Orbit Flight Data
Abstract:
As a vital component for a communication payload transponder, the reliability of a traveling wave tube (TWT) plays a significant role in the satellite payload configuration design. Decisions regarding the level of transponder redundancy required are highly dependent on the predicted failure rate of the TWT. Based on observation of on-orbit performance, the existing MIL-HDBK-217 failure rate prediction model is deemed to be too conservative for the TWT. Derivation of a more accurate TWT failure rate value based on on-orbit flight data is preferred. To account for uncertainty of the on-orbit data, the failure rate value is typically estimated to its upper confidence bound. Since the data could change over time, a direct estimate from the on-orbit data may fluctuate severely. To avoid such severe fluctuation, and recognizing that the space industry has performed such estimation over a quite lengthy period of time, this paper proposes a Bayesian posterior analysis approach for the TWT failure rate estimation. Its confidence interval and bounds are derived. Prior distribution is established based on historic TWT failure rate estimates and special cases with assumed prior distributions are discussed. Results of examples indicate clear benefits by using the Bayesian posterior analysis when additional failures are observed. To evaluate the impact of each prior distribution parameter to the posterior estimate, a sensitivity analysis is performed and results are discussed.
Autors: Wei Huang;James Loman;Roy Andrada;Randall Ortland;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 259 - 266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimating Vegetation Water Content of Corn and Soybean Using Different Polarization Ratios Based on L- and S-Band Radar Data
Abstract:
Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important parameter of agriculture and forestry. In this letter, specific polarization ratios were evaluated for estimating VWC of corn and soybean. Backscattering coefficients (, and ), polarization ratios (,, and ), and the radar vegetation index derived from L-band (1.26 GHz) and S-band (3.15 GHz) radar data of the passive and active L- and S-band sensor (PALS) in Soil Moisture Experiments 2002 were implemented to develop various linear relationship models with field VWC measurements for corn and soybean, respectively. L-band was found to be most correlated with corn VWC (R = 0.81), while for soybean, L-band was able to estimate corn VWC with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.53 kg/m2 and a mean absolute relative error (MARE) of 11.48%. As for soybean, L-band was capable of estimating soybean VWC with an RMSE of 0.12 kg/m2 and an MARE of 13.33%. The main reason for these differences is most likely due to the disparate structure features and VWC distribution of corn and soybean. This letter proposes an effective method for acquiring VWC in regional areas, and it is also considered to be a powerful supplement for the current methods based on optical remotely sensed data.
Autors: Jianwei Ma;Shifeng Huang;Jiren Li;Xiaotao Li;Xiaoning Song;Pei Leng;Yayong Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 364 - 368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimation on Channel State Feedback Overhead Lower Bound With Consideration in Compression Scheme and Feedback Period
Abstract:
In wireless communication systems, channel state feedback (CSF) is widely used to improve link performance. However, CSF consumes extra system resources and results in transmission overhead. In this paper, we evaluate such resource consumption in terms of bit rate and provide an explicit expression for the lower bound of the CSF overhead. We propose an overhead optimization mechanism under the constraint of channel state reconstruction accuracy. The numerical simulations show that our paper is beneficial to select the optimum CSF parameters, including the average bit number and channel state feedback period. It is also shown that the proposed overhead optimization scheme is able to reduce the system resource consumption with a guaranteed reconstruction accuracy.
Autors: Pengda Huang;Wenbo Wang;Yiming Pi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1219 - 1233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Estimator of the Rotor Temperature of Induction Machine Based on Terminal Voltages and Currents
Abstract:
Monitoring of the rotor temperature is very important for both control and protection of induction machines. Temperature sensors are usually avoided due to additional wiring. Although the best precision is achieved by test-signal-based methods, they are rarely used due to a high-torque ripple. The ripple is negligible in cases where inherent pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage component is used as the test signal. In this paper, a novel temperature estimation method is devised, robust against the PWM delays, signal acquisition delays, and phase errors in high-frequency voltage and current components. Opposed to previous solutions where temperature is calculated based on the real part of the impedance, the presented method is based on the absolute value of the impedance at the PWM frequencies. The temperature is calculated from the change of the input impedance. Proposed method for temperature estimation was tested on an experimental setup which uses an inverter with sine modulated output voltages and an induction servo motor.
Autors: Nikola Z. Popov;Slobodan N. Vukosavic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 155 - 163
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ethical Imperatives for Veteran Healthcare Resources [Letter]
Abstract:
Autors: A.H. Noor;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 10 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ethics and Brain Implants in the Military [Commentary]
Abstract:
Definitions are a key factor when discussing the ethics of brain implants in the military. There is a world of difference between a permanent embedded rewritable chip and an active RFID-managed interface to a nervous system.
Autors: Marcus Wigan;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 65 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluating the Performance of the IEEE Standard 1366 Method for Identifying Major Event Days
Abstract:
IEEE Standard 1366 offers a method for segmenting reliability performance data to isolate the effects of major events from the underlying year-to-year trends in reliability. Recent analysis by the IEEE Distribution Reliability Working Group (DRWG) has found that reliability performance of some utilities differs from the expectations that helped guide the development of the Standard 1366 method. This paper proposes quantitative metrics to evaluate the performance of the Standard 1366 method in identifying major events and in reducing year-to-year variability in utility reliability. The metrics are applied to a large sample of utility-reported reliability data to assess performance of the method with alternative specifications that have been considered by the DRWG. We find that none of the alternatives perform uniformly “better” than the current Standard 1366 method. That is, none of the modifications uniformly lowers the year-to-year variability in System Average Interruption Duration Index without major events. Instead, for any given alternative, while it may lower the value of this metric for some utilities, it also increases it for other utilities (sometimes dramatically). Thus, we illustrate some of the trade-offs that must be considered in using the Standard 1366 method and highlight the usefulness of the metrics we have proposed in conducting these evaluations.
Autors: Joseph H. Eto;Kristina Hamachi LaCommare;Michael D. Sohn;Heidemarie C. Caswell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1327 - 1333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation and Influence of Gyrotron Cathode Emission Inhomogeneity
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the emission inhomogeneity of thermionic gyrotron cathode emitters, a novel definition of emission inhomogeneity and evaluating method from the current–voltage characteristics is described in this paper. Results for three different types of gyrotron oscillators at different emitter temperatures based on experimental data and mathematical treatment are considered in the investigation. The influence of emission inhomogeneity on gyrotron efficiency is numerically calculated using the 3-D codes ARIADNE and EURIDICE. The emitter inhomogeneity upper limits for the distributions of work function, temperature, and electric field are given at the end of this paper.
Autors: Jianghua Zhang;Stefan Illy;Ioannis Gr. Pagonakis;Tomasz Rzesnicki;Konstantinos A. Avramidis;Anton Malygin;Sebastian Ruess;Andrey Samartsev;Günter Dammertz;Bernhard Piosczyk;Gerd Gantenbein;Manfred Thumm;John Jelonnek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1315 - 1322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Ballistic Transport in III–V-Based p-Channel MOSFETs
Abstract:
Ballistic transport in III–V semiconductors-based p-channel double-gate MOSFETs is theoretically evaluated. The valence band structure is calculated by solving the eight-band Schrödinger and the Poisson equations self-consistently. A semiclassical ballistic model is employed to assess the hole transport properties. Ballistic characteristics are analyzed as a function of channel material, crystal orientation, and strain effect. The results indicate that Sb-based III–V materials can provide comparable drive current with the Ge counterpart. In addition, (110)/[] oriented devices exhibit better performance than other surface and transport directions whatever considered material. We also demonstrate that compressively strained GaSb devices outperform relaxed Ge in terms of ballistic current. According to our simulations, as effective oxide thickness scales down to 0.5 nm, both the group IV and III–V p-channel devices can be assumed to operate in the classical capacitance limits, where the – characteristics are basically governed by the transport effective mass. As a consequence, enhancement is owing to the reduced transport effective mass whether it results from alternative materials, optimized transport directions, and strain effects.
Autors: Pengying Chang;Xiaoyan Liu;Shaoyan Di;Gang Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1053 - 1059
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Conducted Emission Test Methods for Charge Pump DC/DC Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents conducted emission measurements for a group of commercially available capacitive step-up dc/dc converters. A comparison of the traditional line impedance stabilization network conducted emission method with integrated circuit test methods including , direct and transverse electromagnetic cell methods is presented. The frequency performance and systematic offsets of each method are examined. Relative electromagnetic compatibility of these devices is compared and correlation of results of different methods explored. Improved understanding of the electromagnetic environment improves the potential reliability of electronic systems.
Autors: Simon Kennedy;Mehmet Rasit Yuce;Jean-Michel Redouté;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 170 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Efficient Closed-Form Green’s Function in a Cylindrically Stratified Medium
Abstract:
An efficient technique is proposed for the removal of the spatial singularity for a z-directed current source in a cylindrically layered structure by decomposing the spectral domain Green’s function into the particular and homogeneous parts. The particular part with the singularity is converted into the spatial domain using Sommerfeld’s identity, while the DCIM with general pencil of function technique is applied on the spectral domain homogeneous part. The use of the ratio form of the reflection/transmission matrices, the Debye approximation, and the subsequent envelope extraction for the treatment of the spatial domain singularity is thus avoided. In addition, a very significant reduction in the number of modes required for convergence is also achieved. The technique is applied for evaluating the input impedance of several antennas in the cylindrical multilayer structure together with a coupling configuration for the excitation of the multilayer structure.
Autors: Dhrubajyoti Bhattacharya;Bratin Ghosh;Kamal Sarabandi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1505 - 1510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of High-Frequency Channels for Deep-Space Data Transmission Using Radiometeorological Model Forecast
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to investigate the usability of high-frequency channels for deep-space (DS) transmissions exploiting radiometeorological forecast modeling. A previously developed model chain for DS link-budget optimization, based on numerical weather forecasts (WFs), is adopted. The latter, already tested at Ka-band, exploits the combination of a high-resolution mesoscale forecast model and a radiative transfer model to predict the atmospheric scenario and optimize received data volume (DV) during DS transmissions. To shift available Ka-band results to other frequencies, we apply frequency-scaling laws to extrapolate forecast path attenuation, link parameters, and maximum allowed bit-rate for data transmission. Exploiting the available WF-based methodology, we compute DV return for DS missions operating at -, -, Ka-, -, and -bands in order to make a comparative study of the behavior of DS transmission-channels at these frequencies. Results show that, in terms of received DV, an innovative WF-based approach is more convenient than traditional methodologies and exhibits a trend similar to the benchmark (ideal case). Increasing link frequency, received DV increases up to -band. From - to -band, despite received DV does not increase significantly, lost data remain under reasonable values, thus making the -band suitable if coupled with a WF-based technique.
Autors: Marianna Biscarini;Mario Montopoli;Frank S. Marzano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1311 - 1320
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Low-Level Features for Real-World Surveillance Event Detection
Abstract:
Event detection targets at recognizing and localizing specified spatio-temporal patterns in videos. Most research of human activity recognition in the past decades experimented on relatively clean scenes with limited actors performing explicit actions. Recently, more efforts have been paid to the real-world surveillance videos in which the human activity recognition is more challenging due to large variations caused by factors, such as scaling, resolution, viewpoint, cluttered background, and crowdedness. In this paper, we systematically evaluate seven different types of low-level spatio-temporal features in the context of surveillance event detection (SED) using a uniform experimental setup. Fisher vector is employed to aggregate low-level features as the representation of each video clip. A set of random forests is then learned as the classification models. To bridge the research efforts and real-world applications, we utilize the NIST TRECVID SED as our testbed in which seven events are predefined involving different levels of human activity analysis. Strengths and limitations for each low-level feature type are analyzed and discussed.
Autors: Yang Xian;Xuejian Rong;Xiaodong Yang;Yingli Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 624 - 634
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evaluation of Physical Optics Integrals From B-Spline Surfaces by Means of a Fast Locating Algorithm of Stationary Points
Abstract:
A novel modeling method based on the parametric domain decomposition is proposed for the B-spline surfaces. This method combines the advantages of conventional B-spline and Bezier surfaces. Moreover, a fast algorithm based on the new modeling method is presented to locate the stationary points, including inner and boundary stationary points, of physical optics (PO) integrals from targets modeled with double-quadratic B-spline surfaces. In this algorithm, the locating problem is reduced to a numerical or analytical solution. No approximation is involved in the proposed modeling method and locating algorithm. The stationary phase method by means of the fast locating algorithm is employed to evaluate PO integrals. The CPU time is independent of the incident frequency and physical dimension of scattered surfaces. The accuracy and performance of the presented methods are validated by comparing them with those of the brute force method.
Autors: Jiao Liu;Li-Xin Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1495 - 1499
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Event-Triggering Containment Control for a Class of Multi-Agent Networks With Fixed and Switching Topologies
Abstract:
This paper investigates the event-triggering containment control of multi-agent networks with fixed and switching topologies, where there exist interactions between the leaders. Two cases are studied, respectively: One is that the leaders are opinionated. Then each leader will converge to its initial goal and the followers converge to the convex hull formed by the leaders. The other is that the leaders are not opinionated. Then the leaders will not insist on their initial goals and converge to some compromising states due to the interactions among them, while the followers still converge to the convex hull formed by the leaders. By means of pull-based event-triggering control, the event-triggering containment control problems of multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are investigated, respectively. Finally, simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.
Autors: Wenbing Zhang;Yang Tang;Yurong Liu;Jürgen Kurths;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 619 - 629
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Evolutionary Optimization of Graphene-Metal Metasurfaces for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Absorption
Abstract:
Tunable terahertz absorbers based on graphene frequency selective surfaces are designed using well-established evolutionary optimization techniques. Randomly initialized hill climbing (RHC) algorithm is applied to find the design with the broadest bandwidth. The effects of three factors including the substrate loss, structuring the substrate and using double layer patches are examined. The optimum structure with broadest operation bandwidth consists of a perforated lossy substrate with a single layer patch and offers 1.95 THz absorption bandwidth around 2 THz central frequency leading to 100% fractional bandwidth.
Autors: Elaheh Sadat Torabi;Arya Fallahi;Alireza Yahaghi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1464 - 1467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Examining the Interactions between DG Units and Voltage Regulating Devices for Effective Voltage Control in Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Voltage regulation by means of coordinated voltage control is one of the challenging aspects in an active distribution system operation. Integration of distributed generation (DG), which can also be operated in Volt/VAr control mode, may introduce adverse effects including control interactions, operational conflicts, steady-state voltage variations, and oscillations. Therefore, examining and analyzing the phenomenon (both steady state and dynamic) of the control interactions among multiple Volt/VAr support DG units and voltage regulating devices such as tap changers and capacitor banks would be essential for effective voltage control in active distribution systems. In this paper, the interactions among DG units and voltage regulating devices are identified using their simultaneous and nonsimultaneous responses through time-domain simulations. For this task, an analytical technique is proposed and small signal modeling studies have been conducted. The proposed methodology could be beneficial to distribution network planners and operators to ensure seamless network operation from voltage control perspective with increasing penetration of DG units.
Autors: D. Ranamuka;Ashish P. Agalgaonkar;Kashem M. Muttaqi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1485 - 1496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» EXIT Chart Aided LDPC Code Design for Symmetric Alpha-Stable Impulsive Noise
Abstract:
In this letter, an iterative analysis method based on an extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) chart and quantized density evolution is developed for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over channels with symmetric alpha-stable () impulsive noise. Based on the proposed scheme, a method to optimize ensembles of LDPC codes under different levels of impulsiveness is presented and it is shown that the information rates of our optimized code ensembles can achieve 95.4% and 94.7% of the channel capacity for and , respectively. Furthermore, experimental results, including EXIT curves, thresholds, and bit-error rate performance of optimized code ensembles, are obtained to verify the effectiveness of our analysis.
Autors: Bin Dai;Rongke Liu;Yi Hou;Ling Zhao;Zhen Mei;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 464 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exoskeletons, Transhumanism, and Culture: Performing Superhuman Feats
Abstract:
Arecent trend in blockbuster science fiction film is the depiction of characters wearing exoskeletons<sup>1</sup that enable them to perform superhuman feats.<sup>2</sup> Exoskeletons have proven a popular mainstay of the genre over the past decade through franchises such as the Marvel Cinematic Universe, with recurring characters such as Iron Man (Figure 1). However, the popularity of exoskeletons reaches beyond film. They also appear as Halloween costumes, in learn-to-read books, and in television commercials. They have become recognizable through the everyday texts that celebrate and profit from their depiction.
Autors: Isabel Pedersen;Tanner Mirrlees;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 37 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Expanding Research Methods for a Realistic Understanding of Personal Visualization
Abstract:
Personal visualizations have the great potential to provide the benefits of visualizations to everyone in their everyday lives. Their diverse goals combined with the personal data they contain and the contexts in which they are being used, however, make their evaluation particularly challenging and call for a wider perspective on empirical approaches. We need to devise new methods and adapt existing methods from other fields to account for the specific goals and challenges in this emerging research area. An open-minded approach to empirical methods may help us gain a more realistic understanding of personal visualizations.
Autors: Alice Thudt;Bongshin Lee;Eun Kyoung Choe;Sheelagh Carpendale;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 12 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Correction of Radiation Patterns Between Electromagnetic Environments
Abstract:
This paper presents an experimental method to estimate a radiation pattern obtained in a particular echoic environment (for example, from in situ measurements) as if measurements were performed in a given anechoic chamber. The correction is achieved using some reference measurements collected both in echoic and anechoic environments. An angular transfer function is estimated from these two sets of measurements and deconvolved from the measured radiation pattern to be corrected.
Autors: Maxime Spirlet;Christophe Geuzaine;Véronique Beauvois;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1330 - 1338
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Investigation of NBTI Degradation in Power VDMOS Transistors Under Low Magnetic Field
Abstract:
In this paper, we report an experimental evidence of the impact of applied a low magnetic field () during negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) stress and recovery, on commercial power double diffused MOS transistor. We show that both interface () and oxide trap () induced by NBTI stress are reduced by applying the magnetic field. This reducing is more pronounced as the magnetic field is high. However, the dynamic of interface trap during stress and recovery phase is not affected by the applied magnetic field. While, the dynamic of oxide trap is affected in both stress and recovery phases.
Autors: Hakim Tahi;Cherifa Tahanout;Mohamed Boubaaya;Boualem Djezzar;Sidi Mohammed Merah;Bacharia Nadji;Nadia Saoula;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 99 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Investigations of Resonance Vibration Control for Noncollocated AMB Flexible Rotor Systems
Abstract:
The resonance vibration control of active magnetic bearing (AMB) supported flexible rotors is a challenging topic in the industrial applications. This work addresses the two issues on the noncollocated AMB flexible rotor systems while passing through the critical speed. A modal separation scheme is established to enhance the observability of the bending mode, and a damping optimization procedure of the electromagnetic force is proposed to provide the maximum control efficiency. First, the rotor imbalance analysis is carried out, and several possible approaches to minimize the vibration of the flexible rotor are presented. Then, the detailed descriptions of the bending mode extraction scheme using notch filters and phase-lead compensators are discussed for a noncollocated flexible rotor system. The root locii of the closed-loop AMB-rotor system with and without additional phase-lead compensator are also performed. A solution to determining the phase angles between the measured rotor displacements to the bearing forces is established using the physical modeling and experimental identification. Finally, simulation and experimental results on a 10 kW magnetically suspended centrifugal compressor show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Autors: Shiqiang Zheng;Haitao Li;Cong Peng;Yingguang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2226 - 2235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Platform for Operational Analysis of Distribution Networks
Abstract:
The benefits provided by changes of topology are essentials to better use of all electrical system elements. In some situations, it can be observed that the load transfer results in an instant decrease of losses along of network, providing the balancing of voltage levels, becoming the network more robust. Thus, this paper presents an analysis of the applicability of optimization methods of networks using an experimental platform, developed and tested in a controlled environment.
Autors: Caio dos Santos;Daniel Pinheiro Bernardon;Marina Camponogara;Ana Paula Carboni de Mello;Luciano Lopes Pfitscher;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 423 - 430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Studies on Radiation Intensification in Gigahertz Radio Frequency Band by Subwavelength Plasma Structures
Abstract:
Plasma-added intensification of radio frequency (RF) signals toward the future generation of compact antennas with wide-range requests has been studied experimentally in this paper. A technology based on modulation and enhancement effects of subwavelength plasma structures on application-focused RF electromagnetic radiation is developed. An inductively coupled plasma is applied to provide appropriate subwavelength structures, aiming at enhancing the electromagnetic radiation of an omnidirectional ellipse dipole antenna. The plasma mediated radiation enhancement on RF antenna signals of ~1 GHz is observed experimentally for the first time. It is shown that this technology is capable to obtain a significant gain up to nearly 10 dB higher than the free-space radiation without the plasma structure. And an enhanced frequency band of the typical GSM900 frequency range can be extended from 0.89 to 1.05 GHz. Meanwhile, electromagnetic signals transmitted by the plasma-added antenna still maintain good quality for communication. In addition, numerical simulations are also taken to reveal the mechanism of the radiation enhancement effects.
Autors: Fan-Rong Kong;Yu-Fei Sun;Shu Lin;Qiu-Yue Nie;Zhi-Bin Wang;Zhong-Lin Zhang;Bo-Wen Li;Bin-Hao Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 381 - 387
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Experimental Time-Modulated Beamformer for Interference Mitigation in a Radio Spectrometer
Abstract:
This paper presents experimental results using time modulation to implement inexpensive sidelobe blanking. The Allen Telescope Array is used to save time-series data for the L-band hydroxyl maser W3(OH), which presents a narrow-band source among significant narrow-band interference. A software beamformer processing these data rapidly switches between antenna weights composed of the sum and difference of the acquisition and sidelobe suppression beams. This switching both forms and multiplexes the two beams for the computational cost of a single beamformer, making this technique less expensive than similar approaches. Results show that this approach blanks most sidelobe interference in the experimental data, and also highlight the challenge of coefficient synthesis for sparse arrays.
Autors: William C. Barott;Sugoon Fucharoen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 271 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Explicit Constructions for Type-1 QC-LDPC Codes With Girth 12
Abstract:
Given any square matrix over such that the differences of any two row vectors contain each element in at most once, a class of -regular quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check codes is explicitly constructed with lengths and girth 12, where is any integer satisfying . Simulation results show that the new codes perform very well for moderate rates and lengths.
Autors: Guohua Zhang;Rudolf Mathar;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 460 - 463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploiting Constructive Mutual Coupling in P2P MIMO by Analog-Digital Phase Alignment
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a joint analog-digital (A/D) beamforming scheme for the point-to-point multiple-input-multiple-output system, where we exploit mutual coupling by optimizing the load impedances of the transmit antennas. Contrary to the common conception that mutual coupling strictly harms the system performance, we show that mutual coupling can be beneficial by exploiting the concept of constructive interference. By changing the value of each load impedance for the antenna array based on convex optimization, the mutual coupling effect can be manipulated so that the resulting interference aligns constructively to the useful signal vector. We first prove that the full elimination of mutual coupling effect is not achievable solely by tuning the values of the antenna load impedances. We then introduce the proposed A/D scheme for both PSK and QAM modulations, where performance gains with respect to conventional techniques are obtained. The implementation of the proposed schemes is also discussed, where a lookup table can be built to efficiently apply the calculated load impedances. The numerical results show that the proposed schemes can achieve an improved performance compared to systems with fixed mutual coupling, especially when the antenna spacing is small.
Autors: Ang Li;Christos Masouros;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1948 - 1962
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Coherent Motion Patterns via Structured Trajectory Learning for Crowd Mood Modeling
Abstract:
Crowd behavior analysis has recently attracted extensive attention in research. However, the existing research mainly focuses on investigating motion patterns in crowds, while the emotional aspects of crowd behaviors are left unexplored. Analyzing the emotion of crowd behaviors is indeed extremely important, as it uncovers the social moods that are beneficial for video surveillance. In this paper, we propose a novel crowd representation termed crowd mood. Crowd mood is established based upon the discovery that the social emotional hypothesis of crowd behaviors can be revealed by investigating the spacing interactions and the structural levels of motion patterns in crowds. To this end, we first learn the structured trajectories of crowds by particle advection using low-rank approximation with group sparsity constraint, which implicitly characterizes the coherent motion patterns. Second, rich emotional motion features are explicitly extracted and fused by support vector regression to reflect social characteristics. In particular, we construct weighted features in a boosted manner by considering the features’ significance. Finally, crowd mood is intuitively presented as affective curves to track the emotion states of the crowd dynamics, which is robust to noise, sensitive to semantic shift, and compact for pattern expressions. Extensive evaluations on crowd video data sets demonstrate that our approach effectively models crowd mood and achieves significantly better results with comparisons to several alternative and state-of-the-art approaches for various tasks, i.e., crowd mood classification, global abnormal mood detection, and crowd emotion matching.
Autors: Yanhao Zhang;Lei Qin;Rongrong Ji;Sicheng Zhao;Qingming Huang;Jiebo Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 635 - 648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Locally Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction for Hyperspectral Image Classification: A Maximum Margin Metric Learning Aspect
Abstract:
The high-dimensional data space generated by hyperspectral sensors introduces challenges for the conventional data analysis techniques. Popular dimensionality reduction techniques usually assume a Gaussian distribution, which may not be in accordance with real life. Metric learning methods, which explore the global data structure of the labeled training samples, have proved to be very efficient in hyperspectral fields. However, we can go further by utilizing locally adaptive decision constraints for the labeled training samples per class to obtain an even better performance. In this paper, we present the locally adaptive dimensionality reduction metric learning (LADRml) method for hyperspectral image classification. The aims of the presented method are: 1) first, to utilize the limited training samples to reduce the dimensionality of data without a certain distribution hypothesis; and 2) second, to better handle data with complex distributions by the use of locally adaptive decision constraints, which can assess the similarity between a pair of samples based on the distance changes before and after metric learning. The experimental results obtained with a number of challenging hyperspectral image datasets demonstrate that the proposed LADRml algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art dimensionality reduction and metric learning methods.
Autors: Yanni Dong;Bo Du;Liangpei Zhang;Lefei Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1136 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Parallel Data Access Methods in Emerging Non-Volatile Memory Systems
Abstract:
The exploitation of internal parallelism over hundreds of NAND flash memories is becoming a key design issue in high-speed solid state disks (SSDs). In this study, we simulate a cycle-accurate SSD platform with diverse parallel data access methods and 24 page allocation strategies, which are geared toward exploiting both system-level parallelism and flash-level parallelism, using a variety of design parameters. Our extensive experimental analysis reveals that 1) the previously proposed channel striping-based page allocation strategy is not the best from a performance perspective, 2) as opposed to the common belief that system-level and flash-level concurrency mechanisms are largely orthogonal, the system-level parallel data access methods employed interferes with flash-level parallelism, 3) when most of the current currency controls and page allocation strategies are implemented, the SSD internal resources are significantly underutilized, and 4) while the performance of all the page allocation strategies on read-intensive workloads (reads 99 percent) is improved by employing a high frequency flash interface, the performance enhancements are significantly limited. Finally, we present several optimization points to extract the maximum internal parallelism by offering comprehensive evaluations with controllable and easy-to-understand micro-benchmarks.
Autors: Myoungsoo Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 746 - 759
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exploring Structural Consistency in Graph Regularized Joint Spectral-Spatial Sparse Coding for Hyperspectral Image Classification
Abstract:
In hyperspectral image classification, both spectral and spatial data distributions are important in describing and identifying different materials and objects in the image. Furthermore, consistent spatial structures across bands can be useful in capturing inherent structural information of objects. These imply that three properties should be considered when reconstructing an image using sparse coding methods. First, the distribution of different ground objects leads to different coding coefficients across the spatial locations. Second, local spatial structures change slightly across bands due to different reflectance properties of various object materials. Finally and more importantly, some sort of structural consistency shall be enforced across bands to reflect the fact that the same object appears at the same spatial location in all bands of an image. Based on these considerations, we propose a novel joint spectral-spatial sparse coding model that explores structural consistency for hyperspectral image classification. For each band image, we adopt a sparse coding step to reconstruct the structures in the band image. This allows different dictionaries be generated to characterize the band-wise image variation. At the same time, we enforce the same coding coefficients at the same spatial location in different bands so as to maintain consistent structures across bands. To further promote the discriminating power of the model, we incorporate a graph Laplacian sparsity constraint into the model to ensure spectral consistency in the dictionary generation step. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms some state-of-the-art spectral-spatial sparse coding methods.
Autors: Changhong Liu;Jun Zhou;Jie Liang;Yuntao Qian;Hanxi Li;Yongsheng Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1151 - 1164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extending the Operation of Asymmetrical Cascaded Multilevel Converters Under Fault Conditions on the Converter Power Cells
Abstract:
This paper proposes a generalized hybrid modulation strategy to extend the operation of asymmetrical cascaded multilevel converters into the overmodulation region during fault conditions on the power cells. The proposed strategy makes use of the advantages of both space vector and carrier-based geometrical modulations to allow the converter to operate with a wide range of modulation indexes and fault conditions. Also, it does not need to precalculate various trajectories for the voltage reference, which would be a very complex task, as the shape of the converter space vector diagram is different for each type of fault condition. It is shown that different kinds of overmodulation can happen during faults on the power cells, and solutions are presented for each mode of operation. Finally, simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed modulation strategy.
Autors: Fernanda Carnielutti;Humberto Pinheiro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1853 - 1862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» External AC Electric Field-Induced Conformational Change in Bovine Serum Albumin
Abstract:
An ac electric field (acEF) application technology has been reported as a principle technique for food preservation. With this method, conformational changes in the protein molecules of food materials may be induced. Conformational changes were experimentally examined using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein using an acEF technology. The amplitude of acEF was 66.7 kV/m. BSA with acEF (ac-BSA) and BSA without the ac field (n-BSA) were trypsinized under the same conditions. The derived peptides were compared by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns. Formation of tryptic peptides was increased in n-BSA, and trypsin digestion was suppressed in ac-BSA. These results indicate that conformational changes in BSA molecules were induced by acEF application.
Autors: Takamasa Okumura;Kazuki Yamada;Taro Yaegashi;Katsuyuki Takahashi;Bunei Syuto;Koichi Takaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 489 - 494
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extraction and Classification of Road Markings Using Mobile Laser Scanning Point Clouds
Abstract:
This study aims at building a robust method for semiautomated information extraction of pavement markings detected from mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds. The proposed workflow consists of three components: 1) preprocessing, 2) extraction, and 3) classification. In preprocessing, the three-dimensional (3-D) MLS point clouds are converted into radiometrically corrected and enhanced two-dimensional (2-D) intensity imagery of the road surface. Then, the pavement markings are automatically extracted with the intensity using a set of algorithms, including Otsu's thresholding, neighbor-counting filtering, and region growing. Finally, the extracted pavement markings are classified with the geometric parameters by using a manually defined decision tree. A study was conducted by using the MLS dataset acquired in Xiamen, Fujian, China. The results demonstrated that the proposed workflow and method can achieve 92% in completeness, 95% in correctness, and 94% in F-score.
Autors: Ming Cheng;Haocheng Zhang;Cheng Wang;Jonathan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1182 - 1196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extraction of BEOL Contributions for Thermal Resistance in SiGe HBTs
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose a simple approach to extract the contribution of the back-end-of-line (BEOL) layers on the thermal resistance of heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). A finite value of BEOL thermal resistance obtained following our approach confirms a non-negligible heat flow toward BEOL. The proposed extraction technique is validated with iterative solutions and measured data of silicon–germanium HBTs fabricated in the STMicroelectronics B9MW technology.
Autors: Suresh Balanethiram;Rosario D’Esposito;Anjan Chakravorty;Sebastien Fregonese;Thomas Zimmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1380 - 1384
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Extraction of the Pavement Permittivity and Thickness From Measured Ground-Coupled GPR Data Using a Ground-Wave Technique
Abstract:
A ground-wave technique is introduced in this letter to directly extract the pavement permittivity and thickness from measured data of ground-coupled ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Analytic solution, numerical simulation, and experimental test are carried out to validate the method. This technique enables bistatic radar to obtain both thickness and permittivity by just one measurement, which effectively reduces measurement and computation time for GPR applications.
Autors: Chen Guo;Li Zhao;Yan Chen;Wei Li;Richard C. Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 399 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Eye on Patient Care: Continuous Health Monitoring: Design and Implementation of a Wireless Platform for Healthcare Applications
Abstract:
Wireless technologies are currently among the most prominent candidates for use by the medical and care-giving community as a part of the development of telemedicine systems [1]?[9]. The exponential progress of these technologies is expected to open a multitude of opportunities and choices for enhanced patient safety, better data collection, increased convenience for patients, and reduced costs for health systems [5]?[8]. Thanks to the cost effectiveness and clinical acceptability of wireless telecommunication technology, patient diagnosis and treatment have been significantly improved. Technology for remote sensing of patients' activity is also being developed.
Autors: Jorge Miranda;Mukhtiar Memon;Jorge Cabral;Blaise Ravelo;Stefan Rahr Wagner;Christian Fischer Pedersen;Morten Mathiesen;Claus Nielsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 83 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication and Characteristic Analysis for Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Modified by Graphene Oxide and Magnetic Beads Based on Microfluidic Framework
Abstract:
The indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) was adopted as enzymatic glucose sensing membrane and a screen-printed technology was used to complete fabrication of sensor in this paper. There are some drawbacks for most of the enzymatic glucose biosensors, such as insufficient sensing area and weak immobilization strength, formed between glucose oxidase (GOx) and support materials. For improving drawbacks of enzymatic glucose biosensor, graphene oxide (GO) was directly dropped on the IGZO sensing membrane to improve sensing area and magnetic beads (MBs) were combined with GOx by covalent bonding to enhance immobilization strength for GOx. In addition, the enzymatic glucose biosensor modified by GO and MBs was integrated with microfluidic framework in order to investigate sensing characteristics under the dynamic conditions. According to the experimental results, the optimal average sensitivity and linearity of the enzymatic glucose biosensor were 12.383 mV/mM and 0.999 at 25-/min flow rate, respectively.
Autors: Jung-Chuan Chou;Jian-Syun Chen;Yi-Hung Liao;Chih-Hsien Lai;Siao-Jie Yan;Min-Siang Huang;Tong-Yu Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1741 - 1748
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fabrication and Characterization of Cu Doped ZnO/Bi Doped ZnO Nanolaminates as Mirror for Application in Optical Devices
Abstract:
Cu doped ZnO/Bi doped ZnO nanolaminated multilayer mirror has been designed for visible window wavelength (∼ 550–750 nm). For the sake of designing multilayer mirror ZnO has been doped with Cu and Bi and alternating layer of as doped ZnO thin film has been deposited on n-silicon substrate using sol-gel spin coating method. One set of alternating layer has been termed as bilayer stack, henceforth the design mirror consists of three bilayer stacks of Cu doped ZnO and Bi doped ZnO. The thickness and reflectance spectra of the deposited layer have been determined using variable angle ellipsometery. Further, the effect of varying angle of incidence of the light incident upon the mirror has also been determined in terms of refractive index. In order to confirm the growth of nanolaminated structure XRD has been performed for all three bilayer stacks that show polycrystalline growth of grain. The experimental outcome of the Cu doped ZnO/Bi doped ZnO multilayer mirror indicated that a high reflectivity of >95% was attainable at wavelength range from 550 to 750 nm and at an incident angle of 20°, 40° and 80° from normal incidence. This approach allows as to simultaneously obtaining a high quality active layer together with a high photonic confinement as demonstrated through microphotoluminescence and reflectivity.
Autors: Brijesh Kumar Singh;Lucky Agarwal;Shweta Tripathi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 203 - 208
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Factors Affecting Ground Potential Rise and Fault Currents Along Transmission Lines With Multigrounded Shield Wires
Abstract:
The multigrounded shield wire transmission scheme is common within North American utilities. The ground potential rise (GPR) for this transmission scheme is important as it is to be used to develop specifications for systems and component protection. No hand calculation methods for GPR for high-voltage transmission line faults exist due to the complexity of the problem itself and vast amount of data input required. Such calculation depends only on computer simulation software, and very limited information has been reported in the literature. This paper aims to provide insights into GPR for high-voltage transmission line faults by demonstrating quantity values for the very first time through extensive computer simulation using the ATP-EMTP software. A practical design for a 160 km 230 kV single-circuit transmission line with two multigrounded shield wires is used as a case study in the paper. Different factors affecting GPR and fault current levels in the system are investigated through a sensitivity study. The underlying relationship between parameters is analyzed and summarized based on simulation results, which can be used to assist practicing engineers’ design work.
Autors: Xiaodong Liang;Chenyang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 888 - 900
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Factors That Influence the Efficiency of a Propeller-Type Tribocharging Device for Granular Plastics
Abstract:
This work is focused on the experimental study of a new propeller-type tribocharging device specifically designed to operate in conjunction with an electrostatic separator for mixtures of granular insulating materials. The device consists of two coaxial aluminum propellers rotating in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe; it has two control variables: the material feed-rate and the rotation speed of the propellers. Virtual instrumentation using LABVIEW software is used for measuring the mass and the electric charge of the tribocharged samples of four types of polymers: polypropylene (PP); high impact polystyrene (HIPS); high-density polyethylene (HDPE); and PVC. In accordance with the sign and the magnitude of the charge/mass ratio, the four polymers are arranged in a triboelectric series, starting from the negative polarity: PVC—HDPE—PP—HIPS. The effectiveness of the tribocharging process is validated by using a free fall electrostatic separator. The best results (purities and recoveries higher than 90%) are obtained in the case of PVC/HIPS granular mixtures.
Autors: Abdelkader Mekhalef Benhafssa;Thami Zeghloul;Sara Messal;Lucian Dascalescu;Karim Medles;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1446 - 1451
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Failure Analysis and Improvement for High Power Single-Phase Module
Abstract:
The failure mechanism of the single-phase power module for three-phase converter applications with high output power is investigated. It illustrates that the higher current density on the near-terminal side of the power device, along with the abreast bonding that induces thermal coupling at the second footprints of bond wires, together result in the failure of the power device in the module. Then, an improved bonding method by redistributing the bond wires is proposed to solve the reliability problem. The bond wires are staggerly soldered on the surface of the device, avoiding the second footprints from listing in a line to reduce the thermal accumulation. The simulation performed by TCAD ANSYS shows that the junction temperature () can be effectively decreased through this way. A practical experiment is also carried out to verify the availability of the optimized bonding method, which demonstrates that the improved method can decrease the of the device by 17 °C under 65A operating current.
Autors: Jiaxing Wei;Siyang Liu;Weifeng Sun;Chunwei Zhang;Ning Wang;Kaixin Si;Haiyang Song;Jiutao Zhu;Chuanwu Yu;Peng Ye;Yuanzheng Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 170 - 175
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Failure of High Power LEDs Submitted to EOS: Dependence on Device Layout and Pulse Properties
Abstract:
This paper reports an extensive analysis of the failure of high power replace with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) submitted to electrical overstress (EOS). By using a custom EOS simulator, capable of generating current pulses up to 40 A with a duration between and 5 ms, we characterized four different kinds of power LEDs having a different layout: horizontal structure with bonding wires, vertical structure with via-holes through the insulating substrate, and a flip chip-structure with isolated vias. The results described in this paper demonstrate that: 1) state-of-the-art LEDs rated for a maximum current of 1–1.5 A can withstand EOS current levels in excess of 35 A, corresponding to power densities of 350 W/mm2; 2) dependent on the layout of the devices, the failure mechanisms include: fusion of the bonding wires, migration/degradation of the metal lines, failure of the insulated vias, and cracking the semiconductor material; and 3) the EOS failure level strongly depends on the pulse duration and on the layout of the package/chip. The devices with a flip-chip structure showed the highest robustness, while the use of bonding wire was found to severely limit the stability of the devices.
Autors: Matteo Buffolo;Matteo Meneghini;Andrea Munaretto;Carlo De Santi;Gaudenzio Meneghesso;Enrico Zanoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 191 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fairness-Constrained Maximum Sum Rate of Multi-Rate CSMA Networks
Abstract:
This paper presents the sum rate analysis of a saturated -group multi-rate carrier sense multiple access network, where nodes in different groups have distinct packet transmission rates. An explicit expression of the network sum rate is derived, based on which the maximum sum rate is obtained by optimizing the transmission probabilities of nodes. It is found that to achieve the maximum sum rate, only the group of nodes with the largest transmission rate is allowed to access the channel, which leads to severe unfairness. To ensure certain fairness, two constraints, namely, throughput fairness (TF) and data-rate fairness (DF), are proposed, with which each node acquires a target proportion of the network throughput and the network sum rate, respectively. Explicit expressions of the network maximum sum rate with TF and DF are derived, which show that by including the fairness constraints, the network maximum sum rate becomes inferior to that without fairness constraints as long as there is difference in the transmission rates of nodes. The analysis is further applied to IEEE 802.11 networks, where the optimal initial backoff window sizes of nodes to achieve the network maximum sum rates with both fairness constraints are derived.
Autors: Xinghua Sun;Lin Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1741 - 1754
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast and Accurate ISAR Focusing Based on a Doppler Parameter Estimation Algorithm
Abstract:
This letter deals with inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) autofocusing of noncooperative moving targets. The relative motion between the target and the sensor, which provides the angular diversity necessary for ISAR imagery, is also responsible for unwanted range migration and phase changes generating defocusing. In the case of noncooperative targets, the relative motion is unknown: the ISAR needs, hence, to implement an autofocus step [motion compensation (MoCo)] to achieve high resolution imaging. This task is typically carried out via the optimization of functionals based on general image quality parameters. In this letter, we propose the use of a fast and accurate MoCo algorithm based on the estimation of the Doppler parameters, thus fully coping with the nature of the imaging system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is proven on both simulated data and data acquired by operational systems.
Autors: Carlo Noviello;Gianfranco Fornaro;Paolo Braca;Marco Martorella;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 349 - 353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast and Lightweight Rate Control for Onboard Predictive Coding of Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:
Predictive coding is attractive for compression of hyperspectral images onboard of spacecrafts in light of the excellent rate-distortion performance and low complexity of recent schemes. In this letter, we propose a rate control algorithm and integrate it in a lossy extension to the CCSDS-123 lossless compression recommendation. The proposed rate algorithm overhauls our previous scheme by being orders of magnitude faster and simpler to implement, while still providing the same accuracy in terms of output rate and comparable or better image quality.
Autors: Diego Valsesia;Enrico Magli;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 394 - 398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Connected Components Computation in Large Graphs by Vertex Pruning
Abstract:
Finding connected components is a fundamental task in applications dealing with graph analytics, such as social network analysis, web graph mining and image processing. The exponentially growing size of today's graphs has required the definition of new computational models and algorithms for their efficient processing on highly distributed architectures. In this paper we present cracker, an efficient iterative MapReduce-like algorithm to detect connected components in large graphs. The strategy of cracker is to transform the input graph in a set of trees, one for each connected component in the graph. Nodes are iteratively removed from the graph and added to the trees, reducing the amount of computation at each iteration. We prove the correctness of the algorithm, evaluate its computational cost and provide an extensive experimental evaluation considering a wide variety of synthetic and real-world graphs. The experimental results show that cracker consistently outperforms state-of-the-art approaches both in terms of total computation time and volume of messages exchanged.
Autors: Alessandro Lulli;Emanuele Carlini;Patrizio Dazzi;Claudio Lucchese;Laura Ricci;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 760 - 773
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Response (7.6s) Acetone Sensing by InGaN/GaN on Si (111) at 373 K
Abstract:
A new and exciting resistive gas sensor based on Ni/InGaN/GaN heterostructure, grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, has been developed to efficiently detect acetone very rapidly at low temperature. Non-rectifying I–V characteristics of epitaxially relaxed InGaN with Ni contact have been revealed at 373 K. An incremental current of has been found at 373 K with the exposure of 100 ppm of acetone vapor at an operating bias of 0.4 V. Sensitivity has been obtained from transient response curves. Most importantly, very fast response/recovery characteristics with good baseline recovery have been witnessed. The response time and recovery time have been found to be ~7.6–8.4 s and ~4.5–19.1 s. A possible explanation, including Langmuir adsorption–desorption isotherm, has also been discussed.
Autors: Subhashis Das;Ankush Bag;Rahul Kumar;Dhrubes Biswas;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 383 - 386
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Switching and Low Operating Vertical Alignment Liquid Crystal Display With 3-D Polymer Network for Flexible Display
Abstract:
Vertical alignment liquid crystal (LC) cell driven by in-plane field with 3-D polymer network exhibited no pooling mura under an external mechanical pressure; however, the operating voltage of the device was increased, because the polymer network hinders field-induced reorientation of LC. In this paper, we adopted a modified cell structure in which a counter electrode on top substrate of the conventional mode is existed, to improve upon this drawback. The proposed device in which the polymer network is formed in bulk of vertically aligned LC layer shows a very fast response time of 2 ms (rise + decay), 57% reduction in operating voltage, and also keeps image quality although the cell is curved.
Autors: Young Jin Lim;Hyo Joong Kim;Young Cheol Chae;G. Murali;Joong Hee Lee;Byung-June Mun;Dae Young Gwon;Gi-Dong Lee;Seung Hee Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1083 - 1087
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast Vectorless RLC Grid Verification
Abstract:
Checking the power distribution network of an integrated circuit must start early in the design process, when changes to the grid can be more easily implemented. Vectorless verification is a technique that achieves this goal by demanding limited information about the currents drawn from the grid. State of the art techniques that deal with RLC grids become prohibitive even for medium size grids. In this paper, we propose a novel technique that estimates the worst-case voltage fluctuations for RLC grids by carefully selecting the time step, in a way that significantly reduces the number of linear programs that need to be solved, and eliminates the need for other expensive computations, like dense matrix-matrix multiplications. Results show that our technique is accurate and scalable for large grids as it achieves over speedup over existing methods.
Autors: Mohammad Fawaz;Farid N. Najm;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 489 - 502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast-Pulsed Characterization of RF GaN HEMTs in Lifetest Systems
Abstract:
We report a new application of microsecond-pulsed current–voltage characterization of field-effect transistor (FET) devices; namely, in compact, mutlichannel DC and RF lifetest systems. This application is important for routine monitoring of trap-related signature parameters in lifetests, and is particularly useful for study of GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) due to the wide variety of traps in the present generations of this technology. Also, we report a systematic approach to identifying the significant populations of traps, their general locations, and the qualitative changes that occur during lifetesting. This enables quick evaluation of device quality, likely degradation mechanisms and their signature parameters, and degradation rates—all with good statistics (up to 30 specimens simultaneously in one of our systems) and high reproducibility (± a few %). We use static I-V measurements as well, to separate the slow trap effects (longer than 10 min) from the fast ones (a few microseconds to about 1 min). We illustrate these techniques, with measurements of unstressed specimens of two GaN HEMT technologies. Evolution of the traps as the lifetests proceed will be described in a later paper.
Autors: Bruce M. Paine;Steve R. Polmanter;Vincent T. Ng;Neil T. Kubota;Carl R. Ignacio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 130 - 137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fast-Pulsed Characterizations of RF GaN HEMTs During Wearout
Abstract:
We have adapted recently developed techniques for fast-pulsed I-V characterization, to monitor the changes of various trap populations during lifetests of GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Unlike other techniques, this approach is rapid and well-suited to repeated characterizations of multiple devices during a lifetest. We monitor qualitatively, the populations of “shallow” traps (those we can change with moderate “pre-treatments”) under the gates, as well as between the gate and drain contacts, and distinguish “slow” and “fast” traps (with time constants greater or less than 10 minutes). Also, we monitor changes in the populations of “deep” traps. Examples are shown from DC and RF lifetests on GaN HEMT devices from one foundry. As-fabricated, these FETs have fast traps under the gate and slow and fast traps in the G-D access region. With lifetest stress (DC or RF), approximately more fast traps per cm develop in the G-D access region, and about deep traps per cm develop under the gates, while the other trap populations are not changed.
Autors: Bruce M. Paine;Steve R. Polmanter;Vincent T. Ng;Neil T. Kubota;Carl R. Ignacio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 184 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Faster, Stabler, and Simpler—A Recursive-Least-Squares Algorithm Exploiting the Frisch–Waugh–Lovell Theorem
Abstract:
We propose a novel recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm that exploits the Frisch–Waugh–Lovell theorem to reduce digital complexity and improve convergence speed and algorithmic stability in fixed-point arithmetic. We tested the new algorithm in the digital background calibration section of a four-channel time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter, obtaining better stability and faster convergence. The digital complexity of the new algorithm in terms of multiplications and divisions is 33% lower asymptotically than that of the conventional Bierman algorithm if the model parameters need not be computed at each update; otherwise, it is the same. Memory requirements are also the same. Because, in calibration, the distance between the ideal and calibrated outputs of the system is to be minimized, the actual value of the model parameters is usually not of interest. Convergence time can be up to 10 or 20 times better in fixed-point arithmetic, and stability for large models is also better in our simulations. In our simulations, when the conventional Bierman RLS algorithm is stable, the steady-state accuracy of the new algorithm is either comparable or better, depending on the simulation setup.
Autors: Pietro Monsurrò;Alessandro Trifiletti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 344 - 348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault Detection and Isolation of Linear Discrete-Time Periodic Systems Using the Geometric Approach
Abstract:
This technical note solves the problem to detect and isolate faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. A residual generator is designed through a suitable unknown input observer with the requirement that each residual should be sensitive only to one fault and, simultaneously, insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system, and with the additional requirement of - detectability, that is the transition matrix of its relative error system has all eigenvalues smaller than , in modulus, for a given positive . The solution is based on geometric tools, and it makes use of the outer observable subspace notion.
Autors: Sauro Longhi;Andrea Monteriù;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1518 - 1523
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fault-Tolerant Control for an Internet-Based Three-Tank System: Accommodation to Sensor Bias Faults
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the fault-tolerant control problem for an Internet-based three-tank system in the presence of possible sensor bias faults. The Internet-based three-tank system is an experimental setup that can be regarded as a typical networked system for evaluating networked fault-diagnosis and fault-tolerant control methods. Packet dropout phenomenon in the sensor-to-controller link is considered in this paper, and the fault type we deal with is chosen as the sensor bias fault. Fault-diagnosis unit is designed toward an auxiliary system. Sensor bias faults can be detected by comparing the residual signal generated by the fault detection filter and a prescribed threshold. After that, the fault can be isolated by using the residual analysis approach. Once the fault is isolated, it can be estimated iteratively in the least-squares sense. A fault accommodation method is proposed, and a fault-tolerant control strategy is achieved based on the fault information provided by the fault-diagnosis unit. The approach brought forward in this paper is demonstrated via an experimental study on the practical Internet-based three-tank system. Results show the effectiveness and the applicability of the proposed techniques.
Autors: Xiao He;Zidong Wang;Yang Liu;Liguo Qin;Donghua Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2266 - 2275
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feasibility of Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data for Road Mapping
Abstract:
Multispectral airborne laser scanning (ALS) data have recently become available. The objective of this letter is to study the feasibility of these data for road mapping—for road detection and road surface classification. The results are compared with the results of traditional aerial ortho images using object-based image analysis and Random Forest classification. The results demonstrate that the multispectral ALS data are feasible for automatic road detection and a significant improvement compared to the use of optical aerial imagery is obtained. In a test using ALS data, 80.5% points representing roads were classified correctly. When aerial images were used, the percentage decreased to 71.6%.
Autors: Kirsi Karila;Leena Matikainen;Eetu Puttonen;Juha Hyyppä;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 294 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Feature Investigation of a T-LPMSM Following the Selection of Its Slot-Pole Combination
Abstract:
This paper investigates the no-load and the on-load behavior of a fractional-slot tubular-linear permanent magnet synchronous machine (T-LPMSM). The study is initiated by the selection of the machine slot-pole combination. To do so, a formulation of the air gap flux density, based on the solution of the magnetic potential vector equation in the air gap and in the PM regions, is derived. The electromagnetic model allows the prediction of the phase back electromotive forces (EMFs) and of the cogging force. The effect of the slot-pole combination on these features is then considered to the aim of the optimal selection of the slot per pole and per phase. A case study considering the optimized slot per pole and per phase number is treated where the analytically predicted no-load features are validated by finite element analysis (FEA). The investigation is extended to the on-load characteristic which is predicted by FEA and is validated by experiments.
Autors: Amal Souissi;Imen Abdennadher;Ahmed Masmoudi;Fabrizio Marignetti;Roberto Di Stefano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1009 - 1017
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Field and Airborne Spectroscopy Cross Validation—Some Considerations
Abstract:
Field spectroscopy is increasingly used in various fields of science: either as a research tool in its own right or in support of airborne- or space-based optical instruments for calibration or validation purposes. Yet, while the use of the instruments appears deceptively simple, the processes of light and surface interactions are complex to be measured in full and are further complicated by the multidimensionality of the measurement process. This study exemplifies the cross validation of in situ point spectroscopy and airborne imaging spectroscopy data across all processing stages within the spectroscopy information hierarchy using data from an experiment focused on vegetation. In support of this endeavor, this study compiles the fundamentals of spectroscopy, the challenges inherent to field and airborne spectroscopy, and the best practices proposed by the field spectroscopy community. This combination of theory and case study shall enable the reader to develop an understanding of 1) some of the commonly involved sources of errors and uncertainties, 2) the techniques to collect high-quality spectra under natural illumination conditions, and 3) the importance of appropriate metadata collection to increase the long-term usability and value of spectral data.
Autors: Andreas Hueni;Alexander Damm;Mathias Kneubuehler;Daniel Schläpfer;Michael E. Schaepman;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1117 - 1135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Field Test Results of Layered Division Multiplexing for the Next Generation DTV System
Abstract:
In this paper, we present field test results of a layered division multiplexing (LDM) technology for the next generation digital television system, and analyze the results in several scenarios such as rooftop, indoor, and mobile receptions. In order to evaluate performance of the LDM technology, the field strength or the reception power is measured for all considered scenarios. Furthermore, the threshold of visibility, the marginal reception power, and the erroneous second ratio are measured for fixed, indoor, and mobile receptions, respectively. The field test results show that LDM technology enables broadcaster not only to efficiently provide a variety of services (e.g., mobile, indoor, and stationary services) with different robustness within a single radio frequency (RF) channel but also to increase flexible usage of the RF channel.
Autors: Sung-Ik Park;Jae-Young Lee;Bo-Mi Lim;Youngmin Kim;Sunhyoung Kwon;Heung Mook Kim;Jeongchang Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 260 - 266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filtering Chiral Particle for Rotating the Polarization State of Antennas and Waveguides Components
Abstract:
Here, we present a compact component for waveguide systems and horn antennas, enabling both filtering and polarization rotation capabilities. In particular, the proposed module consists of an electrically thin-chiral particle, which is first used to design a waveguide twist to connect two waveguide sections mutually rotated by 90°. We show that around the resonant frequency of the particle, good transmission efficiency between the two mutually orthogonal waveguides is achieved. Then, the same module is inserted at the throat of a vertically polarized horn antenna to rotate its polarization plane and narrow its matching bandwidth. The result is a filtering horn antenna that, within the operating bandwidth of the particle, efficiently radiates a horizontally polarized field. The effectiveness of the proposed module is verified through numerical and experimental results.
Autors: Mirko Barbuto;Fabrizio Trotta;Filiberto Bilotti;Alessandro Toscano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1468 - 1471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» FIM$^{2c;}$: Multicolor, Multipurpose Imaging System to Manipulate and Analyze Animal Behavior
Abstract:
In vivo whole-body imaging of small animals plays an important role for biomedical studies. In particular, animals like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster or the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are popular model organisms for preclinical research since they offer sophisticated genetic tool-kits. Recording these translucent animals with high contrast in a large arena is however not trivial. Furthermore, fluorescent proteins are widely used to mark cells in vivo and report their functions. This paper introduces a novel optical imaging technique called FIMenabling simultaneous detection of the animals posture and movement as well as fluorescent markers like green fluorescent protein (GFP). FIMutilizes frustrated total internal reflection of two distinct wavelengths and captures both, reflected and emitted light. The resultant two-color high-contrast images are superb compared to other imaging systems for larvae or worms. This multipurpose method enables a large variety of different experimental approaches. For example, FIMcan be used to image GFP positive cells/tissues/animals and supports the integration of fluorescent tracers into multitarget tracking paradigms. Moreover, optogenetic tools can be applied in large-scale behavioral analysis to manipulate and study neuronal functions. To demonstrate the benefit of our system, we use FIMto resolve colliding larvae in a high-throughput approach, which was impossible given the existing tools. Finally, we present a comprehensive database including images and locomotion features of more tha resolved collisions available for the community. In conclusion, FIMis a versatile tool for advanced imaging and locomotion analysis for a variety of different model organisms.
Autors: Benjamin Risse;Nils Otto;Dimitri Berh;Xiaoyi Jiang;Matthias Kiel;Christian Klämbt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 610 - 620
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finding Maximum Disjoint Set of Boundary Rectangles With Application to PCB Routing
Abstract:
Motivated by the bus escape routing problem in printed circuit boards (PCBs), we study the following optimization problem: given a set of rectangles attached to the boundary of a rectangular region, find a subset of nonoverlapping rectangles with maximum total weight. We present an efficient algorithm that solves this problem optimally in time, where is the number of rectangles in the input instance. This improves over the best previous -time algorithm available for the problem. We also present two efficient approximation algorithms for the problem that find near-optimal solutions with guaranteed approximation factors. The first algorithm finds a 2-approximate solution in time, and the second one computes a -approximation in time. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of both our exact and approximation algorithms.
Autors: Amirmahdi Ahmadinejad;Hamid Zarrabi-Zadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 412 - 420
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finish line looms for Google lunar xprize [News]
Abstract:
After nearly 10 years and multiple deadline extensions, the moon seems to be coming into focus for competitors in the Google Lunar XPrize. Five finalists will have until 31 December to leave the launchpad in pursuit of the US $20 million top prize, which will go to the first team that lands a vehicle on the moon and completes a set of mission requirements, including moving at least 500 meters across the surface and transmitting high-definition video back to Earth.
Autors: Rachel Courtland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 7 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite Horizon Opportunistic Multicast Beamforming
Abstract:
Wireless multicasting suffers from the problem that the transmit rate is usually determined by the receiver with the worst channel conditions. Composite or adaptive beamforming allows using beamforming patterns that trade-off antenna gains between receivers, which can be used to overcome this problem. A common solution for wireless multicast with beamforming is to select the pattern that maximizes the minimum rate among all receivers. However, when using opportunistic multicast to transmit a finite number of packets to all receivers—the finite horizon problem—this is no longer optimal. Instead, the optimum beamforming pattern depends on instantaneous channel conditions as well as the number of received packets at each receiver. We formulate the finite horizon multicast beamforming problem as a dynamic programming problem to obtain an optimal solution. We further design a heuristic that has sufficiently low complexity to be implementable in practice. To deal with imperfect feedback, and in particular feedback delay, we extend the algorithm to work with estimated state and channel information. We show through extensive simulations that our algorithms significantly outperform prior solutions.
Autors: Gek Hong Sim;Joerg Widmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1452 - 1465
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Control Set Model Predictive Control Method for Torque Control of Induction Motors Using a State Tracking Cost Index
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel torque control method for two-level-inverter-fed induction motor drives. The control principle is based on a finite-control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) using a state tracking cost index. In the online procedure of the proposed FCS-MPC, the optimal voltage vector and its corresponding optimal modulation factor are determined based on the principle of torque and rotor flux error minimization. In this method, a reference state is determined in a systematic way so that the reference torque tracking with maximum torque per ampere and flux-limited operation could be achieved. In addition, a weighting matrix for the state tracking error is optimized in offline using the linear matrix inequality based optimization problem. The efficacy of the proposed FCS-MPC method is proved by the simulation and experimental results at different working circumstances. The comparison of the presented control system with the conventional FCS-MPC and with other reported FCS-MPC with modulation control is made. The proposed algorithm yields fast dynamic performance and minimum torque and current ripples at different speed and torque levels.
Autors: Abdelsalam A. Ahmed;Byung Kwon Koh;Hyo Sung Park;Kyo-Beum Lee;Young Il Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1916 - 1928
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-SNR Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff for Network Coded Cooperative OFDMA Systems
Abstract:
Network-coded cooperation (NCC) is an effective method to improve the throughput efficiency in cooperative wireless networks. The combined use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with NCC has been further studied in the literature to exploit the multipath diversity gains. In this paper, we consider orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), an extension of OFDM to a multiuser system where subsets of carriers are assigned to different users. We first derive a closed-form expression for the outage probability of NCC-OFDMA over Rician fading channels and then present the asymptotical and finite-SNR DMT expressions. Our results provide insight into the performance mechanisms under practical SNR regime of NCC-OFDMA systems and demonstrate that NCC-OFDMA is able to fully exploit both frequency and spatial diversity. We also show that the derived finite-SNR DMT converges to an asymptotical one as expected. Furthermore, special cases for our derived analytical expressions are presented, to show that the derived expression is a generalized case of the related the state of the art results. Simulation results are further presented to verify our theoretical analyses.
Autors: Ali Reza Heidarpour;Gunes Karabulut Kurt;Murat Uysal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1385 - 1396
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Finite-Time Stabilization via Sliding Mode Control
Abstract:
This technical note investigates the sliding mode control (SMC) design based on finite-time boundedness (FTB) for a class of nonlinear systems. A suitable SMC law is constructed to drive the state trajectories onto the specified sliding surface during a specified finite (possibly short) time interval. Besides, by introducing a partitioning strategy, the corresponding FTB over reaching phase and sliding motion phase are guaranteed, respectively. And then, the sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the FTB of the closed-loop systems over the whole finite-time interval. Finally, a simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.
Autors: Jun Song;Yugang Niu;Yuanyuan Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1478 - 1483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT
Abstract:
The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.
Autors: Ahmed Bader;Hesham ElSawy;Mohammad Gharbieh;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;Abdulkareem Adinoyi;Furaih Alshaalan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 138 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flame Transmission at Extremely Low Temperatures When Pressure Piling Is Present
Abstract:
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 60079-1 has requirements for testing flameproof enclosures to ensure that there is no transmission of an internal explosion, but there are no special requirements for nontransmission testing for equipment intended for use in extremely low temperatures. The gas mixtures used for test are based on a measure called the maximum experimental safe gap (MESG). It is known that with initial pressures higher than standard atmospheric pressure, flamepaths are less effective and hence the MESG decreases. Conversely, when temperatures are lowered, the flamepaths become more effective and hence the MESG increases. But there is a lack of published literature on how the two effects interact in combination on MESG, in particular at extremely low temperatures. The situation is more complex when pressure piling is present as the pressures become even higher. An analysis of published data suggests that for some gases when the temperature drops from +20 to –60 °C, the impact of pressures may be more significant than the direct impact of temperature on MESG. Hence, transmission may be more likely at lower temperatures where high pressures are present than at ambient temperature. This paper reports on experiments investigating the practical likelihood of flame transmission at extremely low temperatures, in particular when pressure piling is present.
Autors: Jim Munro;Alice Kou;Ye Jingnan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1685 - 1693
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible Induction Heating Using Magnetic Resonant Coupling
Abstract:
This paper proposes and implements the concept of flexible induction heating based on the magnetic resonant coupling (MRC) mechanism. In conventional induction heating systems, the variation of the relative position between the heater and workpiece significantly deteriorates the heating performance. In particular, the heating effect dramatically reduces with the increase of vertical displacement or horizontal misalignment. This paper utilizes the MRC mechanism to effectuate flexible induction heating; thus, handling the requirements of varying vertical displacement and horizontal misalignment for various cooking styles. Differing from a conventional induction heating, the proposed induction heating adopts one resonant coil in the heater and one resonant coil in the workpiece, which can significantly strengthen the coupling effect, and, hence, the heating effect. Both the simulation and experimental results are given to validate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed induction heating.
Autors: Wei Han;K. T. Chau;Zhen Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1982 - 1992
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible Microwire Residence Times Difference Fluxgate Magnetometer
Abstract:
We present a novel realization of the microwire fluxgate magnetometer based on a flexible CoFeSiB core. The readout is underpinned by the residence times difference, wherein the target dc magnetic field information is derived from the temporal positions of the output waveform “spikes” generated by the crossing of two thresholds. This readout is known to be simple, and less noisy, as well as less computationally intensive compared to traditional frequency domain readouts. The design of the magnetometer is discussed with emphasis on the sensor configuration, sensing capabilities, resolution, sensitivity, and hysteresis. We describe a specific device that has been realized using the flexible core technology; in particular, we compare it to a “classical” microwire fluxgate (having a rigid core), previously developed by us. As a part of the evaluation of the sensor performance, its ability to locate the position of a dc quasi-static magnetic source is characterized and related to the radius of curvature of the core. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using the flexible architecture as the sensing element for the detection of weak (dc) magnetic targets with a very good performance in terms of resolution, sensitivity, and magnetic coupling; the performance is far superior to conventional fluxgate magnetometers constructed with nonflexible sensing elements.
Autors: Carlo Trigona;Valentina Sinatra;Bruno Andò;Salvatore Baglio;Adi Ratan Bulsara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 559 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flexible-Blade Coating of Small Molecule Organic Semiconductor for Low Voltage Organic Field Effect Transistor
Abstract:
A flexible-blade coating (FBC) approach, using a simple thin and flexible steel sheet as the meniscus guide, is developed to deposit the blended small molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) solution on substrate surface with pre-fabricated electrode patterns. During coating, the bottom edge of the used flexible steel film touches the substrate surface, but can bend up adapting to the surface morphology variation without causing any damages to the bottom electrodes. With this approach, little amount of very dilute ink solution can be used to coat the channel film, resulting in the greatest material saving among all reported methods. It is shown that, by using the FBC at a moving speed of 12 mm/s to deposit the OSC layer, all solution processed low-voltage organic field effect transistor composed of another polymer gate dielectric layer and inkjet printed metal electrodes were achieved over relatively large area with high performance and good uniformity.
Autors: Li Ding;Jiaqing Zhao;Yukun Huang;Wei Tang;Sujie Chen;Xiaojun Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 338 - 340
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Flow Distribution Control in Meso Scale via Electrohydrodynamic Conduction Pumping
Abstract:
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) conduction pumping technology offers an innovative way to control flow distribution in multiscale environments. In EHD conduction, the interaction between a strong electric field and dissociated electrolyte species in a dielectric fluid generates a net body force and therefore a net flow. EHD conduction pumps have simple designs with no moving parts, low power consumption, and the ability to operate in microgravity. These pumps perform better at smaller scales and have been shown to be effective for heat transfer enhancement, with possible applications in electronics cooling terrestrially and in space. Flow distribution control using EHD conduction pumps was previously examined only in macro scale. This study experimentally and numerically examines isothermal liquid flow distribution control between parallel tubes 1 mm in diameter, utilizing EHD conduction pumps in meso scale. The working fluid is Novec 7600 Engineering Fluid operated at ambient conditions.
Autors: Lei Yang;Michal Talmor;Brandon C. Shaw;Kliment S. Minchev;Cheng Jiang;Jamal Seyed-Yagoobi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1431 - 1438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fog Computing
Abstract:
Fog computing could alleviate many of the Internet of Things' unique challenges. This special issue explores fog computing's opportunities and challenges to form a distributed and virtualized platform, supporting computation-intensive tasks and distributing advanced computing, storage, networking, and management services to the edge of the network. From reducing latency to enhancing security, this special issue delivers novel solutions to an exciting frontier.
Autors: Songqing Chen;Tao Zhang;Weisong Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 4 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fog Computing for the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy Issues
Abstract:
The inherent characteristics of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, such as limited storage and computational power, require a new platform to efficiently process data. The concept of fog computing has been introduced as a technology to bridge the gap between remote data centers and IoT devices. Fog computing enables a wide range of benefits, including enhanced security, decreased bandwidth, and reduced latency. These benefits make the fog an appropriate paradigm for many IoT services in various applications such as connected vehicles and smart grids. Nevertheless, fog devices (located at the edge of the Internet) obviously face many security and privacy threats, much the same as those faced by traditional data centers. In this article, the authors discuss the security and privacy issues in IoT environments and propose a mechanism that employs fog to improve the distribution of certificate revocation information among IoT devices for security enhancement. They also present potential research directions aimed at using fog computing to enhance the security and privacy issues in IoT environments.
Autors: Arwa Alrawais;Abdulrahman Alhothaily;Chunqiang Hu;Xiuzhen Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 34 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fog Orchestration for Internet of Things Services
Abstract:
Large-scale Internet of Things (IoT) services such as healthcare, smart cities, and marine monitoring are pervasive in cyber-physical environments strongly supported by Internet technologies and fog computing. Complex IoT services are increasingly composed of sensors, devices, and compute resources within fog computing infrastructures. The orchestration of such applications can be leveraged to alleviate the difficulties of maintenance and enhance data security and system reliability. However, efficiently dealing with dynamic variations and transient operational behavior is a crucial challenge within the context of choreographing complex services. Furthermore, with the rapid increase of the scale of IoT deployments, the heterogeneity, dynamicity, and uncertainty within fog environments and increased computational complexity further aggravate this challenge. This article gives an overview of the core issues, challenges, and future research directions in fog-enabled orchestration for IoT services. Additionally, it presents early experiences of an orchestration scenario, demonstrating the feasibility and initial results of using a distributed genetic algorithm in this context.
Autors: Zhenyu Wen;Renyu Yang;Peter Garraghan;Tao Lin;Jie Xu;Michael Rovatsos;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 16 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» For Power Systems, Geography Doesn?t Matter, But Electrical Structure Does
Abstract:
In a national grid, where should a new power generating plant be built? In a competive electricity market, why do wholesale prices for electricity vary between regions? Such innocent questions are often met with rather involved technical and economic answers. How can a more accessible understanding of power grids be articulated, suitable even for a non technical audience? This article discusses one potentially helpful step in this direction: drawing power network diagrams in an electrically meaningful way, rather than using geographic maps that can obscure their inherent structure.
Autors: Paul Cuffe;Elena Saiz Marin;Andrew Keane;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 42 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Forest Change Detection by Using Point Clouds From Dense Image Matching Together With a LiDAR-Derived Terrain Model
Abstract:
Recent development of image matching algorithms has enabled the generation of highly detailed image point clouds (IPCs) from aerial stereo images. The acquisition of aerial images is typically significantly less expensive than the collection of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) or field data. IPCs thus provide a cost-effective alternative to update forest resource data more frequently than at present. We evaluate the feasibility of IPCs in the detection of forest changes by assessing the accuracy of automatic IPC-based classification of thinnings and clear cuts. IPCs were created by using the semi-global matching and next-generation automatic terrain extraction algorithms. To predict changes over a period of three years, we created difference layers which displayed the difference in height or volume between the initial and subsequent time points. These were constructed by calculating the difference in either IPC-based canopy height models or in IPC-derived height and volume models. In this process, the LiDAR-derived digital terrain model was used to scale heights to above ground level. The values from the difference layers were then used in logistic regression models to classify the study area into the categories ClearCut, Thinning, or NoChange. When the predicted changes were compared with the true changes verified in the field, we obtained a classification accuracy for clear cuts 98.6% at best, but only 24.1% for thinnings. In conclusion, IPCs are applicable for the detection of major changes in forests, but incapable of detecting minor changes. The same seems to be applied to LiDAR data.
Autors: Daniela Ali-Sisto;Petteri Packalen;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1197 - 1206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Foreword to the Special Section on the IEEE International On-Line Testing and Robust System Design Symposium (IOLTS) 2016
Abstract:
This Special Section of IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability includes a collection of the best papers of the latest (2016) edition of an established IEEE symposium which focuses for more than two decades on the challenges and solutions for electronic circuits and systems on-line testing and fault tolerance. Held for 21 years as the IEEE International On-Line Testing Symposium it was renamed in 2016 to International On-Line Testing and Robust Systems Design Symposium keeping its well recognized acronym IOLTS.
Autors: Dimitris Gizopoulos;Dan Alexandrescu;Michael Nicolaidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 1 - 2
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Formal Methods for Validation and Test Point Prioritization in Railway Signaling Logic
Abstract:
The EN50128 Railway Safety Standard recommends the use of formal methods for proving the correctness of the yard-specific logic, which was developed for electronic signaling and interlocking systems. We present a tool flow, which consists of three components. The core component uses a novel method for automatically generating the relevant safety properties for a yard from its control table. The second component proves the validity of the properties on the application logic by using a new theory of invariant checking. The third component leverages the suite of formal properties to prioritize site acceptance test points. Experimental results are presented on real application data for the yards in India that are demonstrating the performance of the proposed methods.
Autors: Shiladitya Ghosh;Arindam Das;Nirvik Basak;Pallab Dasgupta;Alok Katiyar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 678 - 689
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Foud: Integrating Fog and Cloud for 5G-Enabled V2G Networks
Abstract:
V2G technology is considered a powerful approach enabling renewable energy sources to provide ancillary electrical services, and managing and monitoring power usage in the smart grid. However, owing to the inherent high mobility of EVs, flexible and timely on-demand response services against EV mobility in the V2G system must be provided. Promoted by the advantages of 5G communications, e.g., supporting various connectivity and faster transmission, fogs and clouds are enabled to provide realistic services, and fog computing and cloud computing assisted V2G systems in future 5G mobile networks are expected to be a new paradigm to create a new situation for V2G services. To this end, a fogbased and cloud-based hybrid computing model named "Foud" applied to V2G networks in 5G is proposed. The potential V2G network services provided by Foud are reviewed, and open issues and challenges for future work are also discussed with possible solutions.
Autors: Ming Tao;Kaoru Ota;Mianxiong Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Fracturing Effect of Electrohydraulic Shock Waves Generated by Plasma-Ignited Energetic Materials Explosion
Abstract:
Electrohydraulic shock waves (ESWs) are widely applied to many fields such as sterilization, lithotripsy, food processing, and so on. Based on high-pulsed power technology, electrical explosion is increasingly utilized to generate shock waves with steep fronts and short duration. In order to further magnify the shock waves, we have proposed a new technique by using energetic materials (EMs) loads. This paper investigated the fracturing effect of the ESWs generated by plasma-ignited EMs explosion. During the ESWs fracturing process, a large-scale triaxial stress pressurizing equipment and a dynamic strain measurement system were applied to the shale samples. The most evident experimental results showed that a large number of cell-shaped multiple cracks developed after the ESWs fracturing process. In addition, interior crack morphology and fluorescent tracing proved the evidence of penetration cracks. These cracks contributed to a great reduction of fracture pressure in fracturing test, which laid a scientific foundation for ESWs technique to be a promising method of well stimulation in those low permeability reservoir and further optimized into a new plugging relief and injection gain technology.
Autors: Qiaojue Liu;Weidong Ding;Ruoyu Han;Jiawei Wu;Yang Jing;Yongmin Zhang;Haibin Zhou;Aici Qiu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 423 - 431
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frame Structure Design and Analysis for Millimeter Wave Cellular Systems
Abstract:
The millimeter-wave (mmWave) frequencies have attracted considerable attention for fifth generation (5G) cellular communication as they offer orders of magnitude greater bandwidth than current systems. However, the medium access control (MAC) layer may need to be significantly redesigned to support the highly directional transmissions, and the demand for ultra-low latencies and high peak rates expected in mmWave communication. To address these challenges, we present a novel mmWave MAC layer frame structure with a number of enhancements, including flexible, highly granular transmission times, dynamic control signal locations, extended messaging, and the ability to efficiently multiplex directional control signals. Analytic formulas are derived for the utilization and control overhead as a function of control periodicity, number of users, traffic statistics, signal-to-noise ratio, and antenna gains. Importantly, the analysis can incorporate various front-end MIMO capability assumptions—a critical feature of mmWave. Under realistic system and traffic assumptions, the analysis reveals that the proposed flexible frame structure design offers significant benefits over designs with fixed frame structures similar to current 4G long-term evolution. It is also shown that the fully digital beamforming architectures offer significantly lower overhead compared with analog and hybrid beamforming under equivalent power budgets.
Autors: Sourjya Dutta;Marco Mezzavilla;Russell Ford;Menglei Zhang;Sundeep Rangan;Michele Zorzi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1508 - 1522
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Control of DFIG-Based Wind Power Penetrated Power Systems Using Switching Angle Controller and AGC
Abstract:
This paper proposes a switching angle controller (SAC) and an automatic generation controller (AGC) for the doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) to control the frequency of DFIG-based wind power penetrated power systems. The concept of virtual rotor angle of the DFIG is defined. The virtual rotor angle is controlled by the SAC in a bang-bang manner such that the active power of the DFIG is regulated to provide frequency support to the external power grids. The output of the SAC is also used for the control of pitch angle to offer a short-term regulation of the mechanical power input to the DFIG, and the long-term control of the mechanical power input is achieved with the AGC. Small-signal analysis is undertaken to verify the effectiveness of the SAC and the AGC. Simulation studies are carried out in a two-machine power system and a modified Kundur four-machine two-area power system, respectively. The frequency support performance of DFIGs having different control configurations is investigated. Modal analysis is undertaken to evaluate the effect of the SAC and the AGC in providing additional damping to the rotor oscillation modes of the modified Kundur four-machine two-area power system.
Autors: Y. Liu;Lin Jiang;Q. H. Wu;Xiaoxin Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1553 - 1567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Diverse Coprime Arrays With Coprime Frequency Offsets for Multitarget Localization
Abstract:
Different from conventional phased-array radars, the frequency diverse array (FDA) radar offers a range-dependent beampattern capability that is attractive in various applications. The spatial and range resolutions of an FDA radar are fundamentally limited by the array geometry and the frequency offset. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by introducing a novel sparsity-based multitarget localization approach incorporating both coprime arrays and coprime frequency offsets. The covariance matrix of the received signals corresponding to all sensors and employed frequencies is formulated to generate a space-frequency virtual difference coarrays. By using antennas and frequencies, the proposed coprime arrays with coprime frequency offsets enables the localization of up to targets with a resolution of in angle and range domains, where and are coprime integers. The joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) and range estimation is cast as a two-dimensional sparse reconstruction problem and is solved within the Bayesian compressive sensing framework. We also develop a fast algorithm with a lower computational complexity based on the multitask Bayesian compressive sensing approach. Simulations results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach in terms of DOA-range resolution, localization accuracy, and the number of resolvable targets.
Autors: Si Qin;Yimin D. Zhang;Moeness G. Amin;Fulvio Gini;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 321 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Frequency Divider
Abstract:
The paper proposes an approximated yet reliable formula to estimate the frequency at the buses of a transmission system. Such a formula is based on the solution of a steady-state boundary value problem where boundary conditions are given by synchronous machine rotor speeds and is intended for applications in transient stability analysis. The hypotheses and assumptions to define bus frequencies are duly discussed. The rationale behind the proposed frequency divider is first illustrated through a simple 3-bus system. Then the general formulation is duly presented and tested on two real-world networks, namely a 1,479-bus model of the all-island Irish system and a 21,177-bus model of the European transmission system.
Autors: Federico Milano;Álvaro Ortega;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1493 - 1501
Publisher: IEEE
 

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