Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 6

» Dark Current Blooming in Pinned Photodiode CMOS Image Sensors
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates the existence of dark current blooming in pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) with the support of both experimental measurements and TCAD simulations. It is usually assumed that blooming can appear only under illumination, when the charge collected by a pixel exceeds the full well capacity (FWC) (i.e., when the photodiode becomes forward biased). In this paper, it is shownthat blooming can also appear in the dark by dark current leakage from hot pixels in reverse bias (i.e., belowthe FWC). The dark current blooming is observed to propagate up to nine pixels away in the experimental images and can impact hundreds of pixels around each hot pixel. Hence, it can be a major image quality issue for the state-of-the-art PPD CISs used in dark current limited applications, such as low-light optical imaging and should be considered in the dark current subtraction process. This paper also demonstrates that one of the key parameter for dark current optimization, the transfer gate bias during integration, has to be carefully chosen depending on the application because the optimum bias for dark current reduction leads to the largest dark current blooming effects.
Autors: Jean-Marc Belloir;Jean-Baptiste Lincelles;Alice Pelamatti;Clémentine Durnez;Vincent Goiffon;Cédric Virmontois;Philippe Paillet;Pierre Magnan;Olivier Gilardx;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1161 - 1166
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DC Bus Capacitor Discharge of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Drive Systems for Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
This paper investigates control methods to quickly and safely discharge the high-voltage dc bus capacitor for the permanent-magnet synchronous machine drive systems of hybrid electric vehicles during emergency situations such as a crash event. The published dc bus capacitor discharge strategies either need impractically heavy and bulky hardware or are only effective for low machine speeds. Applying the existing methods under high speeds will lead to loss of the current control and a system shutdown, followed by the bus voltage recharging again. The proposed new control method applies a modulation index controller together with a bus voltage regulator to quickly discharge the bus voltage and avoid any bus recharge regardless of the electric machine speed. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm.
Autors: Ziwei Ke;Julia Zhang;Michael W. Degner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1399 - 1405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» De Novo Annotation of Transposable Elements: Tackling the Fat Genome Issue
Abstract:
Transposable elements (TEs) constitute the most dynamic and the largest component of large plant genomes: for example, 80% to 90% of the maize genome and the wheat genome may be TEs. De novo TE annotation is therefore a computational challenge, and we investigated, using current tools in the REPET package, new strategies to overcome the difficulties. We tested our methodological developments on the sequence of the chromosome 3B of the hexaploid wheat; this chromosome is ∼1 Gb, one of the “fattest” genomes ever sequenced. We successfully established various strategies for annotating TEs in such a complex dataset. Our analyses show that all of our strategies can overcome the current limitations for de novo TE discovery in large plant genomes. Relative to annotation based on a library of known TEs, our de novo approaches improved genome coverage (from 84% to 90%), and the number of full length annotated copies from 14 830 to 15 905. We also developed two new metrics for qualifying TE annotation: NTE50 involves measuring the number, and LTE50 the smallest sizes of annotations that cover 50% of the genome. NTE50 decreased the number of annotations from 124 868 to 93 633 and LTE50 increased it from 1839 to 2659. This work shows how to obtain comprehensive and high-quality automatic TE annotation for a number of economically and agronomically important species.
Autors: Véronique Jamilloux;Josquin Daron;Frédéric Choulet;Hadi Quesneville;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 474 - 481
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decision-Making Model for Adaptive Impedance Control of Teleoperation Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a haptic assistance strategy for teleoperation that makes a task and situation-specific compromise between improving tracking performance or human-machine interaction in partially structured environments via the scheduling of the parameters of an admittance controller. The proposed assistance strategy builds on decision-making models and combines one of them with impedance control techniques that are standard in bilateral teleoperation systems. Even though several decision-making models have been proposed in cognitive science, their application to assisted teleoperation and assisted robotics has hardly been explored yet. Experimental data supports the Drift-Diffusion model as a suitable scheduling strategy for haptic shared control, in which the assistance mechanism can be adapted via the parameters of reward functions. Guidelines to tune the decision making model are presented. The influence of the reward structure on the realized haptic assistances is evaluated in a user study and results are compared to the no assistance and human assistance case.
Autors: Javier Corredor;Jorge Sofrony;Angelika Peer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 5 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decoding-Delay-Controlled Completion Time Reduction in Instantly Decodable Network Coding
Abstract:
For several years, the completion time and the decoding delay problems in instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) were considered separately and were thought to act completely against each other. Recently, some works have aimed to balance the effects of these two important IDNC metrics, but none of them studied a further optimization of one by controlling the other. This paper investigates the effect of controlling the decoding delay to reduce the completion time below its currently best known solution in both perfect and imperfect feedback with persistent erasure channels. To solve the problem, the decoding-delay-dependent expressions of the users' and overall completion times are derived in the complete feedback scenario. Although using such expressions to find the optimal overall completion time is NP-hard, this paper proposes two novel heuristics that minimize the probability of increasing the maximum of these decoding-delay-dependent completion time expressions after each transmission through a layered control of their decoding delays. Afterward, this paper extends the study to the imperfect feedback scenario, in which uncertainties at the sender affect its ability to anticipate accurately the decoding delay increase at each user. This paper formulates the problem in such an environment and derives the expression of the minimum increase in the completion time. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed solutions and suggest that both heuristics achieve a lower mean completion time, as compared with the best known heuristics for completion time reduction in perfect and imperfect feedback. The gap in performance becomes more significant as the erasure of the channel increases.
Autors: Ahmed Douik;Sameh Sorour;Tareq Y. Al-Naffouri;Mohamed-Slim Alouini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2756 - 2770
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decomposition of Perfluoropolyether Lubricant on Air-Bearing Surfaces During Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording
Abstract:
The thermal decomposition of a thin film of D-4OH lubricant under heating conditions on air-bearing surfaces, such as those found in magnetic recording devices, was investigated using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The substrates used in this experiment were those of actual magnetic head sliders with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin-film coatings. Two kinds of surfaces were prepared: an undisturbed DLC thin-film surface and an Al2O3 surface exposed by sputtering of the DLC thin film. Changes in the positive mass spectra as a result of heating confirmed that thermal decomposition of the D-4OH lubricant thin-film occurred, and that it was catalytically accelerated by Al2O3 at heating temperatures below 150 °C. This observation contrasts with the fact that the D-4OH lubricant thin film on the undisturbed DLC thin-film surface did not decompose.
Autors: Norio Tagawa;Hiroshi Tani;Hiroaki Asada;Renguo Lu;Shingi Koganezawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep learning reinvents the hearing aid
Abstract:
My mother began to lose her hearing while I was away at college. I would return home to share what I'd learned, and she would lean in to hear. Soon it became difficult for her to hold a conversation if more than one person spoke at a time. Now, even with a hearing aid, she struggles to distinguish the sounds of each voice. When my family visits for dinner, she still pleads with us to speak in turn. My mother's hardship reflects a classic problem for hearing aid manufacturers. The human auditory system can naturally pick out a voice in a crowded room, but creating a hearing aid that mimics that ability has stumped signal processing specialists, artificial intelligence experts, and audiologists for decades. British cognitive scientist Colin Cherry first dubbed this the "cocktail party problem" in 1953.
Autors: DeLiang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 32 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Model Based Domain Adaptation for Fault Diagnosis
Abstract:
In recent years, machine learning techniques have been widely used to solve many problems for fault diagnosis. However, in many real-world fault diagnosis applications, the distribution of the source domain data (on which the model is trained) is different from the distribution of the target domain data (where the learned model is actually deployed), which leads to performance degradation. In this paper, we introduce domain adaptation, which can find the solution to this problem by adapting the classifier or the regression model trained in a source domain for use in a different but related target domain. In particular, we proposed a novel deep neural network model with domain adaptation for fault diagnosis. Two main contributions are concluded by comparing to the previous works: first, the proposed model can utilize domain adaptation meanwhile strengthening the representative information of the original data, so that a high classification accuracy in the target domain can be achieved, and second, we proposed several strategies to explore the optimal hyperparameters of the model. Experimental results, on several real-world datasets, demonstrate the effectiveness and the reliability of both the proposed model and the exploring strategies for the parameters.
Autors: Weining Lu;Bin Liang;Yu Cheng;Deshan Meng;Jun Yang;Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2296 - 2305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Retraining and Innovation
Abstract:
A byproduct of a society filled with technological innovation is the need to keep apace. This is true in the devices used, and the skills that each person learns. With that in mind, how can individuals use upskilling to find greater satisfaction?
Autors: Vinton G. Cerf;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 104 - 104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DeepList: Learning Deep Features With Adaptive Listwise Constraint for Person Reidentification
Abstract:
Person reidentification (re-id) aims to match a specific person across nonoverlapping cameras, which is an important but challenging task in video surveillance. Conventional methods mainly focus either on feature constructing or metric learning. Recently, some deep learning-based methods have been proposed to learn image features and similarity measures jointly. However, current deep models for person re-id are usually trained with either pairwise loss, where the number of negative pairs greatly outnumbering that of positive pairs may lead the training model to be biased toward negative pairs or constant margin hinge loss, without considering the fact that hard negative samples should be paid more attention in the training stage. In this paper, we propose to learn deep representations with an adaptive margin listwise loss. First, ranking lists instead of image pairs are used as training samples, in this way, the problem of data imbalance is relaxed. Second, by introducing an adaptive margin parameter in the listwise loss function, it can assign larger margins to harder negative samples, which can be interpreted as an implementation of the automatic hard negative mining strategy. To gain robustness against changes in poses and part occlusions, our architecture combines four convolutional neural networks, each of which embeds images from different scales or different body parts. The final combined model performs much better than each single model. The experimental results show that our approach achieves very promising results on the challenging CUHK03, CUHK01, and VIPeR data sets.
Autors: Jin Wang;Zheng Wang;Changxin Gao;Nong Sang;Rui Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 513 - 524
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degradation of Textile Dye AB 52 in an Aqueous Solution by Applying a Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure
Abstract:
The variations in the physical and chemical parameters involved in the degradation of dye Acid Black 52 (AB52) using plasma were analyzed. The plasma, or electrical discharge, was generated in the gas–liquid interface at atmospheric pressure using a dc power supply. The system configuration comprised two tungsten electrodes: the cathode is immersed in the solution while the anode is fixed above the surface with a gap of 5 mm, where the plasma is generated. The absorbance, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, pH variation, electrical conductivity, optical emission spectrum, and the change in volume and temperature were measured for each sample as a function of treatment time.
Autors: Josefina Vergara Sánchez;César Torres Segundo;Esteban Montiel Palacios;Aarón Gómez Díaz;Pedro Guillermo Reyes Romero;Horacio Martinez Valencia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 479 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degrees of Freedom for the MIMO Multi-Way Relay Channel With Common and Private Messages
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the general multiple input multiple output (MIMO) multi-way relay channel, i.e., MIMO Y channel, with common and private messages. In this channel, users exchange messages through a common relay. Each user transmits a private message to each user in addition to a common message to all the other users. The th user and the relay are equipped with and antennas, respectively. First, we derive the degrees of freedom (DoF) region of the symmetric three-user MIMO Y channel, where and . Due to the symmetry of the network, we focus on the case where the DoF of all private messages are equal and the DoF of all common messages are equal. In this case, the DoF region has two dimensions: the DoF of private messages and the DoF of common messages. We develop an outer bound on the DoF region based by using cut-set and one-sided genie bounds. We prove the achievability of the outer bound on the DoF region by using linear beamforming and signal space alignment (SSA) schemes. Second, based on our study of the DoF region of the symmetric channel, we define a weighted sum DoF metric that integrates all the network messages and weights the common messages by a factor of . We study the weighted sum DoF maximization problem and show that sending common messages only is optimal when exceeds . Next, we focus on the weighted sum DoF with that represents the total number of received interference-free streams at the users. First, we show that the weighted sum DoF, with , of the MIMO Y channel with an arbitrary number of antennas is given by . Second, we study the weighted sum DoF, with , of the –user case in the symmetric setting. We derive an outer bound on the weighted sum DoF using cut-set bounds, and show that the network has weighted DoF. The achievability results are obtained by using SSA for network coding in the multiple access phase, and zero-forcing precoding in the broadcast phase.
Autors: Mohamed Salah;Amr El-Keyi;Mohammed Nafie;Yahya Mohasseb;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1673 - 1686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay Analysis for Current Mode Threshold Logic Gate Designs
Abstract:
Current mode is a popular CMOS-based implementation of threshold logic functions, where the gate delay depends on the sensor size. This paper presents a new implementation of current mode threshold functions for improved gate delay and switching energy. An analytical method is also proposed in order to identify quickly the sensor size that minimizes the gate delay. Simulation results on different gates implemented using the optimum sensor size indicate that the proposed current mode implementation method outperforms consistently the existing implementations in delay as well as switching energy.
Autors: Chandra Babu Dara;Themistoklis Haniotakis;Spyros Tragoudas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1063 - 1071
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay Analysis of Physical-Layer Key Generation in Dynamic Roadside-to-Vehicle Networks
Abstract:
Secret key generation by extracting the shared randomness in a wireless fading channel is a promising way to ensure wireless communication security. Previous studies only consider key generation in static networks, but real-world key establishments are usually dynamic. In this paper, for the first time, we investigate the pairwise key generation in dynamic wireless networks with a center node and random arrival users (e.g., roadside units (RSUs) with vehicles). We establish the key generation model for these kinds of networks. We propose a method based on discrete Markov chain to calculate the average time a user will spend on waiting and completing the key generation, called average key generation delay (AKGD). Our method can tackle both serial and parallel key generation scheduling under various conditions. We propose a novel scheduling method, which exploits wireless broadcast characteristic to reduce AKGD and probing energy. We conduct extensive simulations to show the effectiveness of our model and method. The analytical and simulation results match each other.
Autors: Rong Jin;Xianru Du;Kai Zeng;Liqun Huang;Laiyuan Xiao;Jing Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2526 - 2535
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay Aware Resource Management for Grid Energy Savings in Green Cellular Base Stations With Hybrid Power Supplies
Abstract:
Base stations equipped with resources to harvest renewable energy are not only environment-friendly but can also reduce the grid energy consumed, thus bringing cost savings for the cellular network operators. Intelligent management of the harvested energy can further increase the cost savings. Such management of energy savings has to be carefully coupled with managing the quality of service so as to ensure customer satisfaction. In such a process, there is a trade-off between the energy drawn from grid and the quality of service. Unlike prior studies which mainly focus on network energy minimization, this paper proposes a framework for jointly managing the grid energy savings and the quality of service (in terms of the network latency), which is achieved by downlink power control and user association reconfiguration. We use a real BS deployment scenario from London, U.K., to show the performance of our proposed framework and compare it against existing benchmarks. We show that the proposed framework can lead to around 60% grid energy savings as well as better network latency performance than the traditionally used scheme.
Autors: Vinay Chamola;Biplab Sikdar;Bhaskar Krishnamachari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1092 - 1104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay on Broadcast Erasure Channels Under Random Linear Combinations
Abstract:
We consider a transmitter broadcasting random linear combinations (over a field of size ) formed from a block of packets to a collection of receivers, where the channels between the transmitter and each receiver are independent erasure channels with reception probabilities . We establish several properties of the random delay until all receivers have recovered all packets, denoted . First, we provide lower and upper bounds, exact expressions, and a recurrence for the moments of . Second, we study the delay per packet as a function of , including the asymptotic delay (as ) and monotonicity (in ) properties of the delay per packet. Third, we employ extreme value theory to investigate as a function of (as ). Several results are new, some- results are extensions of existing results, and some results are the proofs of known results using new (probabilistic) proof techniques.
Autors: Nan Xie;Steven Weber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1631 - 1661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delay-Oriented QoS-Aware User Association and Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks
Abstract:
To meet ever-growing mobile data traffic, network spatial densification with various low-power nodes in addition to the conventional high-power macro base stations, also known as heterogeneous network (HetNet), is regarded as one key enabling solution. Due to the unplanned nature, HetNets are very irregular and severe interference can happen without judicious designs of the user association rules. Most prior works assumed best-effort traffic and sought the optimal association to maximize metrics, such as the sum of log-rates. In the case of bursty traffic with quality-of-service (QoS) requirements, existing association schemes cannot fully release the traffic offloading capabilities of HetNets. In this paper, we model the downlink traffic to individual mobile station explicitly. Aiming to minimize the network-wide packet delay, we investigate the optimal user association scheme and the corresponding resource allocation algorithm. We then propose the QoS-aware user association (QoSA) strategies of different flavors enjoying low complexity and guaranteed convergence. Furthermore, the proposed QoSA algorithms are readily implemented in distributed manners. Extensive network simulations are carried out to corroborate our designs.
Autors: Xiliang Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1809 - 1822
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delegation of Computation with Verification Outsourcing: Curious Verifiers
Abstract:
In the Cloud Computing paradigm, a user often reduces financial, personnel, and computational burdens by outsourcing computation and other IT services to a professional service provider. However, to be able to assure the correctness of the result, the user still needs to perform the verification himself. Such verification may be tedious and expensive. Consequently, users are likely to outsource (again) the verification workload to a third party. Other scenarios such as auditing and arbitrating may also require the use of third-party verification. Outsourcing verification will introduce new security challenges. One such challenge is to protect the computational task and the results from the untrusted third party verifier. In this work, we address this problem by proposing an efficient verification outsourcing scheme. To our knowledge, this is the first solution to the verification outsourcing problem. We show that, without using expensive fully-homomorphic encryption, an honest-but-curious third party can help to verify the result of an outsourced computational task without having to learn either the computational task or the result thereof. We have implemented our design by combining a novel commitment protocol and an additive-homomorphic encryption in the argument system model. The total cost of the verification in our design is less than the verifier's cost in the state-of-the-art argument systems that rely only on standard cryptographic assumptions.
Autors: Gang Xu;George T. Amariucai;Yong Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 717 - 730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delivering Scalable Audio Experiences using AC-4
Abstract:
AC-4 is a state-of-the-art audio codec standardized in ETSI (TS 103 190 and TS 103 190-2) and included in the DVB toolbox (TS 101 154 V2.2.1 and DVB BlueBook A157) and, at the time of writing, is a candidate standard for ATSC 3.0 as per A/342 part 2. AC-4 is an audio codec designed to address the current and future needs of video and audio entertainment services, including broadcast and Internet streaming. As such, it incorporates a number of features beyond the traditional audio coding algorithms, such as capabilities to support immersive and personalized audio, support for advanced loudness management, video-frame synchronous coding, dialog enhancement, etc. This paper will outline the thinking behind the design of the AC-4 codec, explain the different coding tools used, the systemic features included, and give an overview of performance and applications. It further outlines metadata aspects (immersive and personalized, essential for broadcast), metadata carriage, aspects of interchange of immersive programing, as well as immersive playback and rendering.
Autors: Jeffrey Riedmiller;Kristofer Kjörling;Jonas Rödén;Martin Wolters;Arijit Biswas;Prinyar Boon;Tim Carroll;Per Ekstrand;Alexander Gröschel;Per Hedelin;Toni Hirvonen;Holger Hörich;Janusz Klejsa;Jeroen Koppens;Kurt Kraus
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 179 - 201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Delta-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge Converter Application in Unbalanced Load Compensation
Abstract:
The delta-connected cascaded H-bridge converter has been applied to compensate flicker and unbalance load to meet power quality requirement. Based on the detailed power analysis, this paper presents a dc capacitor voltage-balancing technique for the converter. This paper also proposes a current limit control technique to avoid overstressing the power semiconductor devices of the converter. The control techniques in this paper are verified in a 220-V, 1-kVA laboratory test bench.
Autors: Ping-Heng Wu;Hsin-Chih Chen;Yi-Ting Chang;Po-Tai Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1254 - 1262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Density Flow in Dynamical Networks via Mean-Field Games
Abstract:
Current distributed routing control algorithms for dynamic networks model networks using the time evolution of density at network edges, while the routing control algorithm ensures edge density to converge to a Wardrop equilibrium, which was characterized by an equal traffic density on all used paths. We rearrange the density model to recast the problem within the framework of mean-field games. In doing that, we illustrate an extended state-space solution approach and we study the stochastic case where the density evolution is driven by a Brownian motion. Further, we investigate the case where the density evolution is perturbed by a bounded adversarial disturbance. For both the stochastic and the worst-case scenarios, we provide conditions for the density to converge to a pre-assigned set. Moreover, we analyze such conditions from two different perspectives, repeated games with vector payoffs and inclusion theory.
Autors: Dario Bauso;Xuan Zhang;Antonis Papachristodoulou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1342 - 1355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deoxyribonucleic Acid for Nanopackaging: A promising bottom-up approach
Abstract:
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is presented as a potential candidate to develop nanopackaging solutions in the field of microelectronics by a bottom-up approach. Such an approach could overcome the miniaturization limitations of the current top-down approaches. By its particular and unique properties of self-assembling and the capability to be functionalized, DNA is a versatile biological material that can be used in many different ways to build multiscale nanostructures and especially conductive nanowires (NWs). These NWs could be implemented as potential future nanoscale interconnections.
Autors: Christophe Brun;Cheikh Tidiane Diagne;Pierre-Henri Elchinger;Simona Torrengo;Aurelie Thuaire;Didier Gasparutto;Raluca Tiron;Xavier Baillin;
Appeared in: IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 12 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dependence Guided Symbolic Execution
Abstract:
Symbolic execution is a powerful technique for systematically exploring the paths of a program and generating the corresponding test inputs. However, its practical usage is often limited by the path explosion problem, that is, the number of explored paths usually grows exponentially with the increase of program size. In this paper, we argue that for the purpose of fault detection it is not necessary to systematically explore the paths, and propose a new symbolic execution approach to mitigate the path explosion problem by predicting and eliminating the redundant paths based on symbolic value. Our approach can achieve the equivalent fault detection capability as traditional symbolic execution without exhaustive path exploration. In addition, we develop a practical implementation called Dependence Guided Symbolic Execution (DGSE) to soundly approximate our approach. Through exploiting program dependence, DGSE can predict and eliminate the redundant paths at a reasonable computational cost. Our empirical study shows that the redundant paths are abundant and widespread in a program. Compared with traditional symbolic execution, DGSE only explores 6.96 to 96.57 percent of the paths and achieves a speedup of 1.02 to 49.56. We have released our tool and the benchmarks used to evaluate DGSE.
Autors: Haijun Wang;Ting Liu;Xiaohong Guan;Chao Shen;Qinghua Zheng;Zijiang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 43, issue:3, pages: 252 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of an Efficient Friend-to-Friend Content Dissemination System
Abstract:
Opportunistic communication, off-loading, and decentrlaized distribution have been proposed as a means of cost efficient disseminating content when users are geographically clustered into communities. Despite its promise, none of the proposed systems have not been widely adopted due to unbounded high content delivery latency, security, and privacy concerns. This paper, presents a novel hybrid content storage and distribution system addressing the trust and privacy concerns of users, lowering the cost of content distribution and storage, and shows how they can be combined uniquely to develop mobile social networking services. The system exploit the fact that users will trust their friends, and by replicating content on friends’ devices who are likely to consume that content it will be possible to disseminate it to other friends when connected to low cost networks. The paper provides a formal definition of this content replication problem, and show that it is NP hard. Then, it presents a community based greedy heuristic algorithm with novel dynamic centrality metrics that replicates the content on a minimum number of friends’ devices, to maximize availability. Then using both real world and synthetic datasets, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated. The practicality of the proposed system, is demonstrated through an implementation on Android smartphones.
Autors: Kanchana Thilakarathna;Aline Carneiro Viana;Aruna Seneviratne;Henrik Petander;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 702 - 715
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Characterization of High-Current Optical Darlington Transistor for Pulsed-Power Applications
Abstract:
A high-current and low on-state voltage optical Darlington transistor (ODT) is developed in this paper for high-power applications. The structure of this device includes a two-stage Darlington transistor in which the first stage is triggered optically using an infrared laser of an 808-nm wavelength. The photogenerated current in the first stage drives the second stage of the ODT for current amplification. The ON-state voltage of the proposed two-stage ODT is found to be 1.12 V at 50 A. The results show that a single-pipe laser with a low optical power of 2 W is sufficient to trigger this high-current optical switch. This can give us more flexibility to achieve an optimal tradeoff between the ON-state voltage and delay times. The experimental results show that the ODT has a breakdown voltage of 70 V and can operate at frequencies higher than 10 kHz. Thismakes it potentiallysuitable as an optical gate driver for applications including but not limited to pulsed-power and series-connectionof power semiconductor devices for voltage scaling, and as an auxiliary optical-triggering device for anode- or even gate-currentmodulation of a high-frequency and high-power all-optical emitter turn-OFF thyristor.
Autors: Alireza Mojab;Sudip K. Mazumder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 769 - 778
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Characterization of Sloped-Field-Plate Enhanced Trench Edge Termination
Abstract:
In this paper, the design and characterization of the sloped-field-plate enhanced trench edge termination structure are carried out. For achieving the ideal planar junction breakdown voltage and high dV/dt performance, structural parameters, including the depth of the sloped-field-plate and the depth and width of the trench, need to be well designed. Using extensive numerical simulations, the above-mentioned design is accomplished. Experimental results show that for 600 V class devices, a breakdown voltage of 757 V can be achieved by the devices with a trench width larger than 20 . The breakdown characteristics are verified as the ideal planar junction breakdown by using liquid crystal thermal measurement. Furthermore, the high dV/dt measurement results show that the devices with a trench width larger than 25 are capable of handling a high dV/dt of 28.9 kV/ even at a bus voltage of 750 V.
Autors: Wentao Yang;Hao Feng;Xiangming Fang;Yong Liu;Yuichi Onozawa;Hiroyuki Tanaka;Johnny K. O. Sin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 713 - 719
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Comparative Evaluation of a PCM-Based CAM (Content Addressable Memory) Cell
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of a content addressable memory (CAM) cell. This cell utilizes a phase change memory (PCM) as a storage element and an ambipolar transistor for data comparison; the operation of the ambipolar transistor is controlled by voltage at the polarity gate. A memory core consisting of a CMOS transistor and a PCM is employed (1T1P). For the search operation, the data in the 1T1P memory core are read and its values are established by using a differential sense amplifier. The proposed CAM cell is simulated and compared with other nonvolatile CAM cells by using emerging technologies (such as MTJ and memristor). The simulation results show that as the proposed CAM cell operates on a voltage basis, it offers significant advantages in terms of power delay product for the search operation and reduced circuit complexity (in terms of lower transistor and storage element counts) compared with other designs found in the technical literature.
Autors: Pilin Junsangsri;Jie Han;Fabrizio Lombardi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 359 - 363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Demonstration of High Power Density Inverter for Aircraft Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a design methodology for a high power density converter, which emphasizes weight minimization. The design methodology considers various inverter topologies and semiconductor devices with application of cold plate cooling and LCL filter. Design for a high-power inverter is evaluated with demonstration of a 50 kVA 2-level 3-phase SiC inverter operating at 60 kHz switching frequency. The prototype achieves high gravimetric power density of 6.49 kW/kg.
Autors: Arie Nawawi;Chin Foong Tong;Shan Yin;Assel Sakanova;Yitao Liu;Yong Liu;Men Kai;Kye Yak See;King-Jet Tseng;Rejeki Simanjorang;Chandana Jayampathi Gajanayake;Amit K. Gupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1168 - 1176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Evaluation of a 3-D Printed Optical Sensor for Monitoring Finger Flexion
Abstract:
The development of techniques for monitoring finger movement is becoming increasingly important in areas, such as robotics, virtual reality, and rehabilitation. To date, various techniques have been proposed for tracking hand movements, but the majority suffer from poor accuracy and repeatability. Inspired by the articulated structure of finger joints, we propose a novel 3-D printed optical sensor with a compact hinged configuration for tracking finger flexion. This sensor exploits Malus’ law using the attenuation of light transmitted through crossed polarizers. The sensor consists of a single LED, two pieces of linear polarizing film, and a photodetector that detects the changes in polarized light intensity proportional to the angle of finger flexion. This paper presents the characterization of the proposed optical sensor and compares it with a commonly used commercial bend sensor. Results show that the bend sensor exhibits hysteresis error, low sensitivity at small angles, and significant temporal drift. In contrast, the optical sensor is more accurate (±0.5°) in the measuring range from 0° to 90°, and exhibits high repeatability and stability, as well as a fast dynamic response. Overall, the optical sensor outperforms the commercial bend sensor, and shows excellent potential for monitoring hand movements in real time.
Autors: Lefan Wang;Turgut Meydan;Paul Williams;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1937 - 1944
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Evaluation of a Digital Control System: An Upgrade from Converters to Resolve Aging and Obsolescence Issues
Abstract:
The dc-dc converters at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, are more than 15 years old. An upgrade to a digital control system is being evaluated to resolve aging and obsolescence issues. These converters supply power to electromagnets used to guide high-energy beams, so a highly accurate control system is required for the dc?dc converters. This article describes the design and evaluation of a digital control system to regulate the output current and resolve aging and obsolescence issues.
Autors: Liping Guo;Muhammad Aqil;Donald S. Zinger;Ju Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 17 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Evaluation of an Efficient Schmitt Trigger-Based Hardened Latch in CNTFET Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents a Schmitt trigger (ST) buffer using carbon nanotube FET (CNTFET) for reliable low-power applications. Nanoscale circuits are more susceptible to transient faults or soft errors due to the reduction of the stored charge in their sensitive nodes. Hereupon, low-cost and tolerant circuits design is a significant challenge, especially in the nanoscale storage cells. In addition, the proposed ST is utilized for designing a low-power hardened latch. In the proposed design, instead of up-sizing and increasing the input capacitance, the determined hysteresis mechanism of the proposed ST buffer is utilized to improve the single event upset hardness. The simulations are conducted based on the Stanford CNTFET model at 16-nm technology node. According to the results, the proposed ST has on average 90% lower power-delay product and higher robustness to PVT variations as compared to its most efficient CNTFET-based counterparts. Moreover, the simulations confirm the considerable tolerance of the proposed hardened latch to the multiple node upset as compared to the state-of-the-art designs. The proposed hardened latch has on average 68% higher critical charge, which considerably enhances its reliability and on average 16% smaller area as compared to its counterparts.
Autors: Majid Moghaddam;Mohammad Hossein Moaiyeri;Mohammad Eshghi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 267 - 277
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Evaluation of Shape-Changing Haptic Interfaces for Pedestrian Navigation Assistance
Abstract:
Shape-changing interfaces are a category of device capable of altering their form in order to facilitate communication of information. In this work, we present a shape-changing device that has been designed for navigation assistance. ‘The Animotus’ (previously, ‘The Haptic Sandwich’ ), resembles a cube with an articulated upper half that is able to rotate and extend (translate) relative to the bottom half, which is fixed in the user's grasp. This rotation and extension, generally felt via the user's fingers, is used to represent heading and proximity to navigational targets. The device is intended to provide an alternative to screen or audio based interfaces for visually impaired, hearing impaired, deafblind, and sighted pedestrians. The motivation and design of the haptic device is presented, followed by the results of a navigation experiment that aimed to determine the role of each device DOF, in terms of facilitating guidance. An additional device, ‘The Haptic Taco’, which modulated its volume in response to target proximity (negating directional feedback), was also compared. Results indicate that while the heading (rotational) DOF benefited motion efficiency, the proximity (translational) DOF benefited velocity. Combination of the two DOF improved overall performance. The volumetric Taco performed comparably to the Animotus’ extension DOF.
Autors: Adam J. Spiers;Aaron M. Dollar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 17 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Fabrication of a Stretchable Circuit Board for Wireless Posture Measurement
Abstract:
We introduce a novel fabrication of a stretchable circuit based on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate for wireless posture measurement. To prevent the typical emergence of cracks attributed to thermal mismatch between the metal seed layer and the PDMS substrate, an intermittent process is proposed to deposit a metal seed layer directly on a PDMS substrate. Afterward, the resistance of the S-shape Cu-wire in the stretchable circuit was measured at different strain states. Results showed that the resistance of a Cu-wire within 55 mm mm mm increased not more than at 30% strain from 0.735 at zero strain. Finally, the wireless posture measurement system was verified through body posture experiments.
Autors: Shujing Lin;Junkai Xu;Xiao Zhi;Di Chen;Jianmin Miao;Peter Bradley Shull;Daxiang Cui;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 399 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Feasibility Evaluation of WGPs Chip as a Physical Force Sensor
Abstract:
Wire grid polarizers (WGPs) are composed of 1-D nanoscale periodic structures and are widely used in liquid crystal display devices to enhance brightness and improve the utilization rate of the backlight source. This letter proposes a new design of a WGPs chip, which can be used in a physical force sensor. In this way, the WGPs can fabricate on many types of microstructure, such as cantilever beam, thin film, and bridge. Then, infrared light was served as the signal source, and illuminated WGPs chip with the optimum angle. When a physical force is applied to the microstructure, the incident angle of infrared light will be varied, resulting in different transmission signal output. As a result, this system can be used for designing the physical force-measuring module operated by optical contactless sensing approach. Furthermore, the WGPs structure introduced in this letter was defined by laser interference lithography and deposited Al by E-beam evaporation.
Autors: Kuo-Chun Tseng;Shuo-Ting Hong;Chien-Chung Fu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 481 - 484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Optimization Strategy of Sensor Array Layout for Magnetic Localization System
Abstract:
Magnetic tracking technology is emerging to provide an occlusion-free tracking scheme for the estimation of full pose of various instruments. This brings substantial benefits for intra-corporeal applications, such as tracking of flexible robots or wireless endoscopic devices, and thus is helpful for further computer-assisted diagnosis, interventions, and surgeries. Towards efficient magnetic tracking, we propose a magnetic localization and orientation system in this paper. By modeling the cylindrical magnet, the magnetic models have been compared and analyzed. Moreover, we present a sensor layout strategy based on grid method and its optimization method for better performance. Based on the magnetic model and the layout optimization results, we have built a sensor array for magnetic positioning. Extensive simulations and experiments have shown the feasibility of the proposed system with the average positional and orientational errors of and 3.4°, respectively.
Autors: Shuang Song;Xiaoxiao Qiu;Jiaole Wang;Max Q.-H. Meng;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1849 - 1857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance Prediction of Space Vector-Based PMU Algorithms
Abstract:
Phasor measurement units (PMUs) are expected to be the basis of modern power networks monitoring systems. They are conceived to allow measuring the phasor, frequency, and rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) of electrical signals in a synchronized way and with unprecedented accuracy. PMUs are intended to apply to three-phase systems and to track signal parameters evolution during network dynamics. For these reasons, the design of the algorithms and, in particular, of the filters that allow rejecting the disturbances while preserving the passband signal content is a paramount concern. In this paper, a novel space vector approach is proposed. It exploits the three-phase nature of the monitored signals together with proper lowpass and differentiation filters. Analytical formulas for performance prediction under almost all the test conditions prescribed by the synchrophasor standard C37.118.1 for PMUs, are introduced. The given expressions are extremely accurate, thus allowing to derive the filter design criteria for phasor, frequency, and ROCOF computation, so that the requirements in terms of estimation errors can be easily translated into filter specifications. The implications of the proposed approach in practical PMU design are illustrated by means of two simple design examples matching P and M compliance classes, respectively, for all the test cases of the standard. The reported performance proves the validity of the proposal.
Autors: Sergio Toscani;Carlo Muscas;Paolo Attilio Pegoraro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 394 - 404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Risk Evaluation of Reliability Demonstration Test for Hierarchical Systems With Multilevel Information Aggregation
Abstract:
As reliability requirements become increasingly demanding for many engineering systems, conventional system reliability demonstration testing (SRDT) based on the number of failures depends on a large sample of system units. However, for many safety critical systems, such as missiles, it is prohibitive to perform such testing with large samples. To reduce the sample size, existing SRDT methods utilize test data from either system level or component level. In this paper, an aggregation-based SRDT methodology is proposed for hierarchical systems by utilizing multilevel reliability information of components, subsystems, and the overall system. Analytical conditions are identified for the proposed method to achieve lower consumer risk. The performances of different SRDT design strategies are evaluated and compared according to their consumer risks. A numerical case study is presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and demonstrate its validity and effectiveness.
Autors: Mingyang Li;Weidong Zhang;Qingpei Hu;Huairui Guo;Jian Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 135 - 147
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Validation of Polarity-Changeable Magnetizer for Encoding Patterns on Ring-Like Rotary Encoders
Abstract:
Through numerical simulations and calibrated experiments, the aim of the work presented in this paper is placed on the development of a polarity changeable magnetizing platform for a rotary magnetic encoder using a permanent magnet and thin silicon steel plate. Parameter studies are conducted via finite-element analyses to obtain optimized geometric design parameters for the magnetizer, leading to desirable magnetic flux density and effective magnetized patterns on the magnetic media.
Autors: Yu-Chen Liu;Heng-Sheng Hsiao;Jen-Yuan James Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Considerations of Charge Pump for Antenna Switch Controller With SOI CMOS Technology
Abstract:
An enhanced charge pump for the antenna switch controller using the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS technology is presented in this brief. The pseudo cross-coupled technique is proposed to reduce parasitic capacitances at charging/discharging nodes through charge transferring paths, which improves the current drive capability and provides better accuracy of the output voltage. Furthermore, the codesign between the gate control voltages of power MOS transistors and the clock drive signals of pumping capacitors has been investigated to eliminate the reversion loss and reduce the ripple voltage. The pseudo cross-coupled charge pump has been fabricated in the 0.18- SOI CMOS technology with an area of 0.065 mm2. According to the comparison results of the conventional and enhanced charge pumps, the start-up time and the recovery time are typically shortened by 71.4% and 21.7%, owing to the improvement of the current drive capability, and the ripple voltage at no-load condition is greatly reduced by 46.1%.
Autors: Kai Yu;Sizhen Li;Gary Zhang;Zhihao Zhang;Qiaoling Tong;Xuecheng Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 229 - 233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Considerations of Stator DC-Winding Excited Vernier Reluctance Machines Based on the Magnetic Gear Effect
Abstract:
Stator dc field winding excited vernier reluctance machines are increasingly attracting research interest recently due to their low cost and highly reliable rotor structure. In this paper, the design of these machines is studied systematically using both theoretical equations and finite element analysis (FEA). First, the general structures of these machines and their operation principles are discussed. Second, based on the operation principle, the back electromotive force, torque, and power factor expressions are deduced in terms of the geometrical variables. Several key design parameters are defined, including stator/rotor slot/pole combinations, air gap, split ratio, field/armature coil turn ratio, and stator/rotor tooth arc combination. Third, the deduced theoretical expressions are verified by the FEA. Finally, a prototype is designed and tested to verify the analysis results.
Autors: Shaofeng Jia;Ronghai Qu;Jian Li;Dawei Li;Hanxiao Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1028 - 1037
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Equations for a Coupled-Line Type Filtering Power Divider
Abstract:
We derive the design equations for a coupled-line type filtering power divider. With the design equations that give analytical solutions to the design parameters, the power divider can be designed for a desired two-pole Chebyshev or Butterworh bandpass response. The power divider stands out from those in the literature, by both simple design procedure and layout. The design procedure using the derived equations is demonstrated with two proof-of-concept prototypes, fabricated on a 20-mil-thick RO4003C substrate.
Autors: Chih-Jung Chen;Zhen-Cheng Ho;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 257 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Fiction: Anticipating Adoption
Abstract:
This tutorial highlights the potential of design fiction with Game of Drones, a fictional user trial of an imagined Drone Enforcement System. The authors explore a potential future use of drones for civic enforcement activities and advance a program for developing design fiction as a research method. This method provides a means for exploring the societal, technological, and political nuances of possible futures so researchers can better consider possible adoption pathways for emerging technologies. This tutorial is part of a special issue on drones.
Autors: Paul Coulton;Joseph Lindley;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 43 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Brushless PM Starter Generator for Low-Cost Manufacture and a High-Aspect-Ratio Mechanical Space Envelope
Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a brushless permanent magnet (PM) starter-generator design, which caters for low-cost manufacture and a highly constrained mechanical space envelope. The starter-generator design addresses the low-cost requirement through the use of aluminium winding conductors and ferrite PM. This presents several challenges which include, but are not limited to, the selection of an appropriate machine topology to realise a high specific output with the lower performance materials, minimizing the power losses associated with the higher resistivity of aluminium, and the enhancement of thermal performance. The problem is further exacerbated by the demanding space envelope, operating requirements, and the necessity of “design for manufacture.” The selection of an appropriate machine topology is paramount in the present application as the limited mechanical space-envelope results in a “pancake” like geometry in which the aspect ratio of the stator outer diameter to the machine active length is high. To provide a solution satisfying all these challenging design requirements, an approach combining the theoretical electromagnetic and thermal analyses together with tests on machine subassemblies has been employed here. Such a method allows for a more informed design process, where the manufacture and assembly nuances affecting the starter-generator's performance are identified and accounted for prior to prototyping of the complete machine assembly. This paper discusses the employed design methodology in detail. A number of machine designs with alternative winding constructions have been considered providing an insight into challenges and limitations for the cost-effective winding construction utilizing aluminium conductors. The results from analysis of the starter generator suggest that the proposed machine design is capable of achieving the design requirements- for both continuous and transient operating modes.
Autors: Rafal Wrobel;Nick Simpson;Phil H. Mellor;James Goss;Dave A. Staton;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1038 - 1048
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Fully Decentralized Controlled Electric Vehicle Charger for Mitigating Charging Impact on Power Grids
Abstract:
A fully decentralized controlled (FDC) electric vehicle (EV) charger, where its design is intended to mitigate the charging impact on power grids, is proposed in this paper. The proposed FDC EV charger uses the parameters measured from the power grid, EV charger and EV battery pack to adjust the charging current. Fuzzy logic control is used in this paper to integrate these measured parameters into the proposed FDC EV charger. As the proposed charger can be realized without a centralized control center and information exchanges between EV chargers, an FDC scheme for EV charger can therefore be effectively achieved. A prototype of the proposed FDC EV charger with a rated power of 500 W is implemented. Experimental results verify that the proposed charger can automatically adjust the charging current according to variations in the power grid and EV. Simulations analyze the impact of 100 EVs with a rated power of 7 kW charged simultaneously. Simulation results show that the EV charging impact on power grids can be effectively mitigated by the proposed FDC EV chargers.
Autors: Jen-Hao Teng;Shu-Hung Liao;Chao-Kai Wen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1497 - 1505
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Microstrip Low-Pass-Bandpass Diplexer Using Direct-Feed Coupled-Resonator Filter
Abstract:
Previous systematic low-pass-bandpass diplexer was using coupled-feed line to design its bandpass channel response. However, a coupled-feed line coupled-resonator bandpass filter typically leads to the realization problem in the external quality factor because of the line space limitation between the coupled-feed line and the resonator. Based on our investigation, systematic low-pass-bandpass diplexer design using direct-feed coupled-resonator bandpass filter to relax this problem has never been published in the literature. Therefore, a low-pass-bandpass diplexer using direct-feed coupled-resonator bandpass filter is presented and a systematic matching design is also included in this letter.
Autors: Pu-Hua Deng;Ren-Chuan Liu;Wei-Da Lin;Wei Lo;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 254 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a New Mobile-Optimized Remote Laboratory Application Architecture for M-Learning
Abstract:
As mobile learning (M-Learning) has demonstrated increasing impacts on online education, more and more mobile applications are designed and developed for the M-Learning. In this paper, a new mobile-optimized application architecture using Ionic framework is proposed to integrate the remote laboratory into mobile environment for the M-Learning. With this mobile-optimized application architecture, remote experiment applications can use a common codebase to deploy native-like applications on many different mobile platforms such as iOS, Android, Windows Mobile, and Blackberry. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new architecture for M-Learning, an innovative remote networked proportional–integral–derivative control experiment has been successfully implemented based on this new application architecture. The performance is validated by the Baidu mobile cloud testing bed.
Autors: Ning Wang;Xuemin Chen;Gangbing Song;Qianlong Lan;Hamid R. Parsaei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2382 - 2391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of an OFDM Physical Layer Encryption Scheme
Abstract:
This paper presents a new encryption scheme implemented at the physical layer of wireless networks employing orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). The new scheme obfuscates the subcarriers by randomly reserving several subcarriers for dummy data and resequences the training symbol by a new secure sequence. Subcarrier obfuscation renders the OFDM transmission more secure and random, whereas training symbol resequencing protects the entire physical layer packet but does not affect the normal functions of synchronization and channel estimation of legitimate users while preventing eavesdroppers from performing these functions. The security analysis shows that the system is robust to various attacks by analyzing the search space using an exhaustive key search. Our scheme is shown to perform better in terms of search space, key rate, and complexity in comparison with other OFDM physical layer encryption schemes. The scheme offers options for users to customize the security level and the key rate according to the hardware resource. Its low complexity nature also makes the scheme suitable for resource-limited devices. Details of practical design considerations are highlighted by applying the approach to an IEEE 802.11 OFDM system case study.
Autors: Junqing Zhang;Alan Marshall;Roger Woods;Trung Q. Duong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2114 - 2127
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Robust Controller for a Class of Uncertain Discrete-Time Systems Subject to Actuator Saturation
Abstract:
This technical note studies the robust output tracking controller design for a class of uncertain discrete-time systems subject to actuator saturation. To achieve this capability, a new controller is proposed by robustifying the discrete-time composite nonlinear feedback (DCNF) control law. Since, the proposed controller may be saturated; a precise analysis is done to show its robust performance in spite of presence of actuator saturation and time-varying external disturbances. Additionally, a theorem is given and proved which guarantees the disturbance attenuation via the proposed control law for three different cases of the saturation function and it is shown that even if the control signal is saturated, the proposed controller achieves steady-state error of order for state regulation. Finally, computer simulations are performed for a practical system and the applicability of the proposed controller is shown.
Autors: Tahereh Binazadeh;Majid Bahmani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1505 - 1510
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Special Protection System for an Offshore Island With High-PV Penetration
Abstract:
An intelligent load-shedding strategy was designed and embedded in the special protection system (SPS) to enhance the system stability for an offshore island with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. To prepare the training dataset for the artificial neural network (ANN), the transient stability analysis of the isolated power system was executed to determine the minimum amount of load to be interrupted to prevent the tripping of diesel generators for the emergency shutdown of PV systems. By selecting various combinations of PV penetration levels, total system load demand, and the frequency decay rate at the instant of PV system tripping as the input neurons of the ANN, the proper load-shedding scheme is derived and stored in the decision knowledge base of the SPS. When the intelligent energy management system detects the tripping of a PV system, the SPS will be triggered to determine the amount of loss to be disconnected and executes the corresponding load interruption. By applying the proposed ANN-based load-shedding scheme in SPS, the amount of customer loading to be interrupted has been reduced dramatically for the restoration of system stability after the emergency shutdown of high-penetration PV system.
Autors: Chih-Chieh Yeh;Chao-Shun Chen;Te-Tien Ku;Chia-Hung Lin;Cheng-Ting Hsu;Yung-Ruei Chang;Yih-Der Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 947 - 953
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Synthesis of Switched Flux Hybrid-Permanent Magnet Memory Machines
Abstract:
This paper develops a design methodology for switched flux (SF) hybrid permanent magnet memory machines (HPMMMs). The memorable flux is achieved due to the variable magnetization level of low coercive force (LCF) permanent magnets (PMs) Thus, the associated excitation loss is negligible, resulting in high efficiency operation over a wide speed range. A general hybrid PM magnetic circuit is modeled, which is characterized by spoke-array NdFeB PMs and LCF PMs sandwiched between an outer stator ring and an inner stator pole. Based on the magnetic circuit, the design conflicts within the stationary side are unveiled. Thereafter, the machine configuration is introduced, followed by a description of the design procedure. First, the optimal stator pole number is determined based on one-phase machine models. In addition, a simplified permeance function is utilized to analytically optimize the rotor number, accounting for different ratios of the slot opening to NdFeB PM thickness. The electromagnetic performance of the machines with alternate stator/rotor pole combinations are compared. The design guidelines for LCF PMs are presented. Finally, the theoretical analysis is verified experimentally on the prototype machine.
Autors: Hui Yang;Z. Q. Zhu;Heyun Lin;Pelin L. Xu;Hanlin L. Zhan;Shuhua Fang;Yunkai Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 65 - 79
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design, Analysis, and Prototyping of a New Wound-Rotor Axial Flux Brushless Resolver
Abstract:
Resolvers are electromagnetic position sensors that are widely used in industrial applications. In this study, a new axial flux brushless resolver (AFBR) with a wound rotor is introduced. In the proposed resolver, the core of the rotary transformer (RT) is omitted, and an innovative design is used to supply the excitation winding of the resolver. The proposed resolver can be built with smaller dimensions, and its thermal stability and mechanical strength are increased compared with conventional AFBRs. The performance of the proposed structure is simulated and optimized by using a three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method. The effect of the leakage flux of the RT on the excitation and signal windings is also discussed for both the proposed and conventional structures. A prototype based on the optimized topology is constructed and tested. Good agreement is obtained between the simulation and experimental results, validating the success of the proposed resolver.
Autors: Zahra Nasiri-Gheidari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 276 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detailed Analysis of Directional Radio Channel Measurements
Abstract:
Physical models describe the radio channel by characterizing the multipath propagation. Also, measurements are frequently employed in the establishment of such models, or for tuning the existing ones. This paper presents a systematic analysis of double-directional radio channel data, obtained by combining two single-input multiple-output measurements (forward and reverse), each, containing the channel frequency responses at the locations of a virtual rectangular antenna array. The measurement setup uses a vector network analyzer, which, together with the adopted data processing, represents an affordable, but very consistent, alternative to more sophisticated equipment, given that, a physical analysis of the identified channel contributions provided sensible results. The study comprised three main steps: 1) the characterization of each single-directional channel by employing a high-resolution algorithm to obtain the parameters of a chosen number of multipath components (MPCs); 2) the classification of the obtained MPCs in a twofold way, first, by grouping MPCs using clustering tools, and, second, by classifying these clusters according to their type of interaction with the propagation scenario; and 3) the extraction of typical values for the number of clusters, the number of MPCs per cluster, rules for power decay, and statistical distributions for inter and intracluster delays and azimuths.
Autors: Susana Mota;Armando Rocha;Fernando Pérez-Fontán;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1281 - 1288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detailed Study on Dynamic Characteristics of a High-Performance SGT-MOSFET With Under-the-Trench Floating P-Pillar
Abstract:
We proposed a 150 V shielded-gate trench (SGT) power MOSFET with floating P-pillars under the trench and studied its static and dynamic characteristics, especially the transient capacitance and dynamic at high switching frequency. TCAD simulation demonstrated over 33% reduction compared with regular SGT-MOSFET. Up to MHz switching frequency, simulation indicates almost no increase in this device, meaning negligible dynamic penalty. On the other hand, elevated is observed within a particular range (40–90 V) as switching frequency increases, which translates to penalty. We investigated the underlying physical process for this change, and attributed it to the hole pilings in the undepleted region of the P-pillar. The overall parameters of this device, including and {math\rm {R}}_{{math\rm {ds}}({math\rm {on}})} \ast {math\rm {Q}}_{{math\rm {oss}}} , are superior to regular SGT-MOSFET and are close to superjunction MOSFET, which is more expensive and challenging in manufacturing. Although a 150 V MOSFET is used as our study vehicle, the analyses and conclusions apply to any power devices that employ the proposed device architecture.
Autors: Shengling Deng;Zia Hossain;Toshimitsu Taniguchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 735 - 740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting and Preventing Kernel Rootkit Attacks with Bus Snooping
Abstract:
To protect the integrity of operating system kernels, we present Vigilare system, a kernel integrity monitor that is architected to snoop the bus traffic of the host system from a separate independent hardware. This snoop-based monitoringenabled by the Vigilare system, overcomes the limitations of the snapshot-based monitoring employed in previous kernel integrity monitoring solutions. Being based on inspecting snapshots collected over a certain interval, the previous hardware-based monitoring solutions cannot detect transient attacks that can occur in between snapshots, and cannot protect the kernel against permanent damage. We implemented three prototypes of the Vigilare system by adding Snooper hardware connections module to the host system for bus snooping, and a snapshot-based monitor to be comared with, in order to evaluate the benefit of snoop-based monitoring. The prototypes of Vigilare system detected all the transient attacks and the second one protected the kernel with negligible performance degradation while the snapshot-based monitor could not detect all the attacks and induced considerable performance degradation as much as 10 percent in our tuned STREAM benchmark test.
Autors: Hyungon Moon;Hojoon Lee;Ingoo Heo;Kihwan Kim;Yunheung Paek;Brent Byunghoon Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 145 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting Interactions between the Renal Autoregulation Mechanisms in Time and Space
Abstract:
Objective: Our objective is to identify localized interactions between the renal autoregulation mechanisms over time. Methods: A time-varying phase-randomized wavelet bicoherence detector for quadratic phase coupling between tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response is presented. Through simulations we show its ability to interrogate quadratic phase coupling. The method is applied to kidney blood flow and laser speckle imaging sequences of cortical perfusion from anesthetized rats before and after nonselective inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase. Results: Quadratic phase coupling in kidney blood flow data was present in four out of nine animals during the control period for 13.0 ± 5.6% (mean ± SD) of time and in five out of nine animals during inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase for 15.8 ± 8.2% of time. Approximately 60% of time-series extracted from laser speckle imaging pixels of the renal cortex showed significant quadratic phase coupling. Pixels with significant coupling had a median coupling length of 10.8 ± 2.2% and 12.1 ± 3.1% of time with the 95th percentile of pixels being coupled for 25.5 ± 4.4% and 30.9 ± 6.4% of time during control and inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate quadratic phase coupling exists in short time intervals between tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic response and is detected more - ften in local renal perfusion signals than whole kidney blood flow in anesthetized rats. Significance: Combining the detector and laser speckle imaging provides identification of coordination between renal autoregulation mechanisms that is localized in time and space.
Autors: Christopher G. Scully;Nicholas Mitrou;Branko Braam;Willliam A. Cupples;Ki H. Chon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 690 - 698
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting Low-Quality Workers in QoE Crowdtesting: A Worker Behavior-Based Approach
Abstract:
QoE crowdtesting is increasingly popular among researchers to conduct subjective assessments of network services. Experimenters can easily access a huge pool of human subjects through crowdsourcing platforms. Without any supervision, low-quality workers, however, can threaten the reliability of the assessments. One of the approaches in classifying the quality of workers is to analyze their behavior during the experiments, such as mouse cursor trajectory. However, existing works analyze the trajectory coarsely, which cannot fully extract the imbedded information. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect low-quality workers in QoE crowdtesting by analyzing the worker behavior. Our approach is to construct a predictive model by using supervised learning algorithms. A quality score is computed by applying existing anti-cheating techniques and human inspections to label the workers. We define a set of ten worker behavior metrics, which quantifies different types of worker behavior, including finer-grained cursor trajectory analysis. A multiclass Naïve Bayes classifier is applied to train a model to predict the quality of workers from the metrics. We have conducted video QoE assessments on Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower to collect the worker behavior. Our results show that the error rates of the model trained from four metrics are equal or less than 30%. We further find that combining the predictions from the four different 5-point Likert scale rating methods can improve the success rate in detecting low-quality workers to around 80%. Finally, our method is 16.5% and 42.9% better in precision and recall than CrowdMOS.
Autors: Ricky K. P. Mok;Rocky K. C. Chang;Weichao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 530 - 543
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection Ability Mathematical Model and Performance Evaluation Method in Visible-Light Photoelectric Detection System
Abstract:
To enhance the stability of detection ability and the suitability of performance evaluation method in the visible-light photoelectric detection system, this paper sets up a new illumination contrast calculation model based on the optical reflection characteristics of dynamic target with high velocity in remote distance; by the analysis of noise-signal ratio (SNR), establishes a new contrast noise signal ratio (CSNR) mathematical model, derives scientifically the expression of detector output signal amplitude, which is direct proportion to detection ability; proposes the reasonably performance evaluation method of visible-light photoelectric detection system by utilizing fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and analytic hierarchy process. Through the calculation and testing analysis, the change of output signal amplitude was discussed under different key factors, including background illumination, detection distance, relative aperture, and reflectance, the results show that those factors have important influence on the detection ability; with the increase of target reflectance, the illumination contrast has obvious enhancement; the SNR also increases with the increment of the relative aperture in a certain detection distance.
Autors: Hanshan Li;Sangsang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1649 - 1655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Global and Local Motion Changes in Human Crowds
Abstract:
Crowds arise in a variety of situations, such as public concerts and sporting matches. In typical conditions, the crowd moves in an orderly manner, but panic situations may lead to catastrophic results. We propose a computer vision method to identify motion pattern changes in human crowds that can be related to an unusual event. The proposed approach can identify global changes, by evaluating 2D motion histograms in time, and also local effects, by identifying clusters that present similar spatial locations and velocity vectors. The method is tested both on publicly available data sets involving crowded scenarios and on synthetic data produced by a crowd simulation algorithm, which allows the creation of controlled environments with known motion patterns that are particularly suitable for multicamera scenarios.
Autors: Igor R. de Almeida;Vinicius J. Cassol;Norman I. Badler;Soraia Raupp Musse;Cláudio Rosito Jung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 603 - 612
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Ultrasonic Waves Using Resonant Cylindrical Cavity for Defense Application
Abstract:
A novel resonant standoff quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy-based technique has been demonstrated for the detection of hazardous molecules (chemicals and explosives) on adsorbed surfaces, such as plastics and cloths, vapors, and in aerosols form in open air. Laser photoacoustic spectra of various trace molecules in the midinfrared spectral band 7– have been recorded. Cylindrical tube coupled with microphone detector has been developed for the detection in trace amounts. The cylindrical tube has been developed for a compatible microphone detector working at resonant frequency of 40 kHz. The devised QCL-based acoustic detection setup has high selectivity and sensitivity. The present technique has been developed for screening of suspicious objects for security applications. It has the potential to be converted into a handy product.
Autors: Ramesh C. Sharma;Subodh Kumar;Surya Kumar Gautam;Saurabh Gupta;Deepak Kumar;Hari B. Srivastava;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1681 - 1685
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determining Optimal Buses for Implementing Demand Response as an Effective Congestion Management Method
Abstract:
Demand response (DR) can be counted as an effective congestion management method in power systems. However, appointing the optimal buses for the demand response programs (DRPs) implementation is one of the main challenges for the power system operators. In this paper, a new procedure has been developed by which the optimal locations and times of DRPs implementation are determined. Optimal buses are identified based on the power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs), available transfer capability, and dynamic dc optimal power flow problem. Applying the developed method results in reducing lines’ congestion, increasing customers, and independent system operator's benefits, improving load curve's characteristics, preventing line outages and black outs, and consequently increasing the network reliability. The proposed method has been applied on the IEEE 39-bus New England test system. Results indicate the effectiveness and practical benefits of the proposed method.
Autors: Ehsan Dehnavi;Hamdi Abdi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1537 - 1544
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determining Optimal Inspection Intervals in Maintenance Considering Equipment Aging Failures
Abstract:
This paper presents an integrated inspection and failure model of equipment for asset management. The model combines both repairable and aging failure modes with maintenance activities. Based on this model, an optimization approach for determining equipment inspection interval is proposed. The proposed approach can optimize the inspection interval by minimizing the total cost including maintenance, failure loss, repair, replacement, and patrol costs. The proposed method is applied to a mixed set of equipment consisting of breakers and transformers in two regions. The results indicate that the optimal inspection interval for each region can be effectively obtained using the proposed method. Equipment aging failures have significant impacts on the optimal inspection interval. The optimal inspection interval gradually becomes shorter over years due to the equipment aging process. The optimal inspection interval is different for different regions depending on the equipment aging status and other factors in each region. Therefore, it is recommended to have a region-specific inspection strategy for each area.
Autors: Jun Zhong;Wenyuan Li;Caisheng Wang;Juan Yu;Ruilin Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1474 - 1482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determining the Optimized Layer-by-Layer Film Architecture With Dendrimer/Carbon Nanotubes for Field-Effect Sensors
Abstract:
The capacitive electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) structure is a typical device based on a field-effect sensor platform. With a simple silicon-based structure, EIS have been useful for several sensing applications, especially with incorporation of nanostructured films to modulate the ionic transport and the flat-band potential. In this paper, we report on ion transport and changes in flat-band potential in EIS sensors made with layer-by-layer films containing poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) adsorbed on p-Si/SiO2/Ta2O5 chips with an Al ohmic contact. The impedance spectra were fitted using an equivalent circuit model, from which we could determine parameters such as the double-layer capacitance. This capacitance decreased with the number of bilayers owing to space charge accumulated at the electrolyte–insulator interface, up to three PAMAM/SWNTs bilayers, after which it stabilized. The charge-transfer resistance was also minimum for three bilayers, thus indicating that this is the ideal architecture for an optimized EIS performance. The understanding of the influence of nanostructures and the fine control of operation parameters pave the way for optimizing the design and performance of new EIS sensors.
Autors: Marcos A. M. Sousa;José R. Siqueira;Andrés Vercik;Michael J. Schöning;Osvaldo N. Oliveira;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1735 - 1740
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Experimental Validation of a Haptic Compass Based on Asymmetric Torque Stimuli
Abstract:
This paper presents the design, control, and experimental validation of a haptic compass, designed as a guiding device for all environments. The proposed device uses the principle of asymmetric torques. Its design is based on a direct drive motor and a pre-calibrated open-loop control, which allows the generation of stimuli in a wide range of frequencies. User studies are presented and show optimum effectiveness in the frequency range 5-15 nd for torques over . The use of a haptic feedback proportional to the angle error is then shown to significantly improve the results. An experimental validation by a group of‘ subjects with the portable device using these stimuli is reported. The results show that all subjects met all route objectives with small lateral deviations (avg. ).
Autors: Jean-Philippe Choinière;Clément Gosselin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 29 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a Differential Voltage Probe for Measurements in Automotive Electric Drives
Abstract:
Accurate efficiency determination is very important in the field of electric drive research and development. Modern inverters generate pulse width modulated signals with short rise times and high frequencies. Thus, high-accuracy power measurements under nonsinusoidal conditions have to be performed. This requires high precision voltage and current probes, including frequency response flatness over a wide bandwidth and a high linearity up to a few hundred volts. This paper describes the development and characterization of a high-voltage differential probe, suitable for precise measurements in automotive electric drives. The main parts of the probe are two input voltage dividers with a further frequency compensation circuit and a difference amplifier. The complete circuit design and the compensation of parasitic effects are explained in detail. Final experiments show that the developed probe outperforms commercially available probes. The probe has a very flat frequency response up to 1 MHz, a bandwidth of 20 MHz, and a linearity better than 250 ppm up to the maximum differential input voltage of 1 kV.
Autors: Michael Grubmüller;Bernhard Schweighofer;Hannes Wegleiter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2335 - 2343
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of an EMG-ACC-Based Upper Limb Rehabilitation Training System
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the development of an upper limb rehabilitation training system designed for use by children with cerebral palsy (CP). It attempts to meet the requirements of in-home training by taking advantage of the combination of portable accelerometers (ACC) and surface electromyography (SEMG) sensors worn on the upper limb to capture functional movements. In the proposed system, the EMG-ACC acquisition device works essentially as wireless game controller, and three rehabilitation games were designed for improving upper limb motor function under a clinician’s guidance. The games were developed on the Android platform based on a physical engine called Box2D. The results of a system performance test demonstrated that the developed games can respond to the upper limb actions within 210 ms. Positive questionnaire feedbacks from twenty CP subjects who participated in the game test verified both the feasibility and usability of the system. Results of a long-term game training conducted with three CP subjects demonstrated that CP patients could improve in their game performance through repetitive training, and persistent training was needed to improve and enhance the rehabilitation effect. According to our experimental results, the novel multi-feedback SEMG-ACC-based user interface improved the users’ initiative and performance in rehabilitation training.
Autors: Ling Liu;Xiang Chen;Zhiyuan Lu;Shuai Cao;De Wu;Xu Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 244 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of CFETR Integration Design Platform: Modular Structure
Abstract:
China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) is now in the conceptual design phase. The main objective of CFETR is demonstration of fusion energy with 50 ~ 200 MW fusion power, fuel cycle of T self-sustained and steady-state operation with duty cycle of 0.3 ~ 0.5. The design of CFETR involves complex system structure, and there are complex constrains between physics and engineering. Between optimization of performance parameters and design of main structure and key components, numerous data exchange and iterative optimization are necessary for optimal design of subsystems. To do the optimization design, the CFETR integration design platform is under development. The main technical schemes for it include: a physical design platform and various engineering design modules are developed, then a global framework integrates them by standard interfaces and communication technologies; and a standard material and design criterion database unifies the reference data for the integration platform. The detailed study will be presented in this paper.
Autors: M. Y. Ye;S. J. Wang;S. F. Mao;Z. W. Wang;G. L. Xu;X. F. Liu;J. W. Zhang;V. S. Chan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 512 - 518
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of the MPEG-H TV Audio System for ATSC 3.0
Abstract:
A new TV audio system based on the MPEG-H 3D audio standard has been designed, tested, and implemented for ATSC 3.0 broadcasting. The system offers immersive sound to increase the realism and immersion of programming, and offers audio objects that enable interactivity or personalization by viewers. Immersive sound may be broadcast using loudspeaker channel-based signals or scene-based components in combination with static or dynamic audio objects. Interactivity can be enabled through broadcaster-authored preset mixes or through user control of object gains and positions. Improved loudness and dynamic range control allows tailoring the sound for best reproduction on a variety of consumer devices and listening environments. The system includes features to allow operation in HD-SDI broadcast plants, storage, and editing of complex audio programs on existing video editor software or digital audio workstations, frame-accurate switching of programs, and new technologies to adapt current mixing consoles for live broadcast production of immersive and interactive sound. Field tests at live broadcast events were conducted during system design and a live demonstration test bed was constructed to prove the viability of the system design. The system also includes receiver-side components to enable interactivity, binaural rendering for headphone, or tablet computer listening, a “3D soundbar” for immersive playback without overhead speakers, and transport over HDMI 1.4 connections in consumer equipment. The system has been selected as a proposed standard of ATSC 3.0 and is the sole audio system of the UHD ATSC 3.0 broadcasting service currently being deployed in South Korea.
Autors: Robert L. Bleidt;Deep Sen;Andreas Niedermeier;Bernd Czelhan;Simone Füg;Sascha Disch;Jürgen Herre;Johannes Hilpert;Max Neuendorf;Harald Fuchs;Jochen Issing;Adrian Murtaza;Achim Kuntz;Michael Kratschmer;Fabian Küch;Richard Fü
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 202 - 236
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DFM Evaluation Using IC Diagnosis Data
Abstract:
Design for manufacturability rule evaluation using manufactured silicon (DREAMS) is a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the yield-preserving capabilities of a set of design for manufacturability (DFM) rules using the results of logic diagnosis performed on failed ICs. DREAMS is an improvement over prior art in that the distribution of rule violations over the diagnosis candidates and the entire design are taken into account along with the nature of the failure (e.g., bridge versus open) to appropriately weight the rules. Silicon and simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the DREAMS methodology. Specifically, virtual data is used to demonstrate that the DFM rule most responsible for failure can be reliably identified even in light of the ambiguity inherent to a nonideal diagnostic resolution, and a corresponding rule-violation distribution that is counter-intuitive. We also show that the combination of physically aware diagnosis and the nature of the violated DFM rule can be used together to improve rule evaluation even further. Application of DREAMS to the diagnostic results from an in-production chip provides valuable insight in how specific DFM rules improve yield (or not) for a given design manufactured in particular facility. Finally, we also demonstrate that a significant artifact of DREAMS is a dramatic improvement in diagnostic resolution. This means that in addition to identifying the most ineffective DFM rule(s), validation of that outcome via physical failure analysis of failed chips can be eased due to the corresponding improvement in diagnostic resolution.
Autors: Ronald D. Shawn Blanton;Fa Wang;Cheng Xue;Pranab K. Nag;Yang Xue;Xin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 463 - 474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diagnosability Analysis of Labeled Time Petri Net Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we focus on two notions of diagnosability for labeled Time Petri net (PN) systems: -diagnosability implies that any fault occurrence can be detected after at most observations, while -diagnosability implies that any fault occurrence can be detected after at most time units. A procedure to analyze such properties is provided. The proposed approach uses the Modified State Class Graph, a graph the authors recently introduced for the marking estimation of labeled Time PN systems, which provides an exhaustive description of the system behavior. A preliminary diagnosabilty analysis of the underlying logic system based on classical approaches taken from the literature is required. Then, the solution of some linear programming problems should be performed to take into account the timing constraints associated with transitions.
Autors: Francesco Basile;Maria Paola Cabasino;Carla Seatzu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1384 - 1396
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diameter Dependence of Leakage Current in Nanowire Junctionless Field Effect Transistors
Abstract:
In this paper, we give a physical insight into the diameter-dependent dominant leakage mechanisms in the nanowire junctionless (NWJL) FETs. Using calibrated 3-D simulations, we show that the off-state current in the NWJLFETs with nanowire diameter less than 10 nm is governed by the drain-induced barrier lowering and the consequent source-to-channel barrier height and barrier thinning, which controls the lateral band-to-band tunneling (L-BTBT)-induced parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) action. Furthermore, the quantum confinement-induced bandgap enhancement is shown to lower the probability of L-BTBT, and hence acts as the dominant mechanism in reducing the off-state current of the NWJLFETs with sub-7 nm diameter. In addition, the hole accumulation due to L-BTBT induces a shielding effect, which results in an inefficient volume depletion, leading to a large off-state current in NWJLFETs with nanowire diameters >15 nm. Furthermore, the impact of gate sidewall spacer on the L-BTBT-induced parasitic BJT in NWJLFETs has also been investigated.
Autors: Shubham Sahay;Mamidala Jagadesh Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1330 - 1335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dielectric Charging Asymmetry in SiN Films Used in RF MEMS Capacitive Switches
Abstract:
This paper presents a systematic investigation of the effect of stressing bias polarity to the discharge process of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN films that have been fabricated under different deposition conditions. Dielectric charging asymmetry has been observed on the utilized films of metal-insulator-metal capacitors and microelectromechanical systems capacitive switches, since charging is enhanced when negative polarization bias is applied to the top electrode. In addition, it is shown that deposition conditions play a key issue role on the degree of this asymmetry. Finally, a physical model which assumes that hopping dominates the discharging process is used in order to gain a better understanding of the processes that are responsible for the appearance of asymmetric dielectric charging and the results correlate with the material’s electrical properties.
Autors: Matroni Koutsoureli;Loukas Michalas;Eleni Papandreou;George Papaioannou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 138 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dielectric Properties Characterization From 0.5 to 50 GHz of Breast Cancer Tissues
Abstract:
Knowledge of the dielectric properties of human tissues is important for several biomedical applications, including imaging and hyperthermia treatment, as well as for determining safety thresholds in policy making. Breast tissues, both normal and tumorous, are of particular interest because of the medical and social impact of breast cancers. While experimental data is available up to 20 GHz, for higher frequencies, this information is missing, or has been extrapolated from models based on lower-frequency data. Emerging technologies and applications in the millimeter-wave region would benefit from experimental data that bridge this gap. This paper presents the characterization of dielectric properties of breast tissues for the frequency range from 0.5 to 50 GHz. Cole–Cole models are derived for normal and tumorous tissues based on experimental measurements on more than 220 tissue samples obtained at surgery (ex vivo) from a population exceeding 50 patients, covering a wide span of normal and tumorous tissues, from patients ranging in age from 28 to 85 years, with a time from excision to measurements under 3.5 h. This paper also presents a comprehensive analysis of the differences between normal and tumorous breast tissues at different frequencies in terms of sensitivity and specificity.
Autors: Andrea Martellosio;Marco Pasian;Maurizio Bozzi;Luca Perregrini;Andrea Mazzanti;Francesco Svelto;Paul Eugene Summers;Giuseppe Renne;Lorenzo Preda;Massimo Bellomi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 998 - 1011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital music's language maestro [Resources_Geek Life]
Abstract:
Experimental musicians and sound artists frequently incorporate otherworldly drones, warbles, and never-before-heard noises into their work. Yet as different as these compositions are, many of them have something in common: a pair of programming languages written by University of California, San Diego, computer musician Miller Puckette. Those languages are Max and Pure Data, or Pd. They serve as popular all-purpose tools for composing pieces or building musical instruments, either wholly synthetic or physicaldigital hybrids. These languages, now several decades old, have nourished active communities of avant-garde musicians, who rely on the software's unique visual interfaces for their performances and compositions.
Autors: Ryan F. Mandelbaum;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 23 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Predistortion Using Lookup Tables With Linear Interpolation and Extrapolation: Direct Least Squares Coefficient Adaptation
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a method to implement digital predistortion (DPD) memory models using lookup tables (LUTs) with linear interpolation and extrapolation. We introduce the required set of basis functions to describe this model. The DPD output is expressed as a linear combination of these basis functions and we show how to directly estimate the LUT entries using least squares. We show how this model achieves lower complexity at similar or better performance compared to polynomial models translated to LUTs with interpolation or models based on LUTs without interpolation whose coefficients are adapted directly. We refer to this model as the direct adaptation of LUTs with interpolation/extrapolation (DLUTI). In this paper we also introduce the composite memory polynomial model: a new polynomial model which is a hybrid between the generalized memory polynomial and the dynamic deviation reduction models. This model is used as a starting point to generate the final LUT-based model.
Autors: Albert Molina;Kannan Rajamani;Kamran Azadet;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 980 - 987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Imagery Using Sparse Graph Learning
Abstract:
Combining with sparse representation, the sparse graph can adaptively capture the intrinsic structural information of the specified data. In this paper, an unsupervised sparse-graph-learning-based dimensionality reduction (SGL-DR) method is proposed for hyperspectral image. In SGL-DR, the sparse graph construction and projection learning are combined together in a unified framework and influence each other. During sparse graph learning, projected features are utilized to enhance the discriminant information in sparse graph. Likewise, in projection learning, the enhanced sparse graph could make projected features have high discriminant capacity. Besides, the spatial–spectral information in the original space combined with the structure information in the projected space is also exploited to learn the imprecise discriminant information. With the imprecise discriminant information, the projected space that is spanned by the projection matrix of the constructed sparse graph would contain abundant discriminant information, which is beneficial for hyperspectral image classification. Experimental results over two hyperspectral image datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the other state-of-the-art unsupervised approaches with a 10% improvement of the classification accuracy. Furthermore, it also outperforms those graph-based supervised methods with acceptable computational cost.
Autors: Puhua Chen;Licheng Jiao;Fang Liu;Shuiping Gou;Jiaqi Zhao;Zhiqiang Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1165 - 1181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Direct Deembedding of Noise Factors for On-Wafer Noise Measurement
Abstract:
This paper extends the noise theory of linear networks to enable direct deembedding of noise factors for an active device surrounded by a passive four-port. It solves the problem of noise factor deembedding, when there are feedback paths between the output and input of a device-under-test. It also leads to a new approach to obtain intrinsic noise parameters for on-wafer noise measurements by performing deembedding first and optimization last. Verification of the noise factor deembedding algorithm is performed using idealized data, and the evaluation of the new noise parameter deembedding approach is conducted using the experimental data of the n-type MOSFETs fabricated in 28- and 90-nm CMOS technology from United Microelectronics Corporation.
Autors: Xuesong Chen;Chih-Hung Chen;Ryan Lee;David C. Chen;D. Y. Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 916 - 922
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Direct Remaining Useful Life Estimation Based on Support Vector Regression
Abstract:
Prognostics is a major activity in the field of prognostics and health management. It aims at increasing the reliability and safety of systems while reducing the maintenance cost by providing an estimate of the current health status and remaining useful life (RUL). Classical RUL estimation techniques are usually composed of different steps: estimations of a health indicator, degradation states, a failure threshold, and finally the RUL. In this work, a procedure that is able to estimate the RUL of equipment directly from sensor values without the need for estimating degradation states or a failure threshold is developed. A direct relation between sensor values or health indicators is modeled using a support vector regression. Using this procedure, the RUL can be estimated at any time instant of the degradation process. In addition, an offline wrapper variable selection is applied before training the prediction model. This step has a positive impact on the accuracy of the prediction while reducing the computational time compared to existing indirect RUL prediction methods. To assess the performance of the proposed approach, the Turbofan dataset, widely considered in the literature, is used. Experimental results show that the performance of the proposed method is competitive with other existing approaches.
Autors: Racha Khelif;Brigitte Chebel-Morello;Simon Malinowski;Emna Laajili;Farhat Fnaiech;Noureddine Zerhouni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2276 - 2285
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Directive Surface Plasmons on Tunable Two-Dimensional Hyperbolic Metasurfaces and Black Phosphorus: Green’s Function and Complex Plane Analysis
Abstract:
We study the electromagnetic response of two- and quasi-two-dimensional (2-D) hyperbolic materials, on which a simple dipole source can excite a well-confined and tunable surface plasmon polariton (SPP). The analysis is based on the Green’s function for an anisotropic 2-D surface, which nominally requires the evaluation of a 2-D Sommerfeld integral. We show that for the SPP contribution, this integral can be evaluated efficiently in a mixed continuous-discrete form as a continuous spectrum contribution (branch cut integral) of a residue term, in distinction to the isotropic case, where the SPP is simply given as a discrete residue term. The regime of strong SPP excitation is discussed, and the complex-plane singularities are identified, leading to physical insight into the excited SPP. We also present a stationary phase solution valid for large radial distances. Examples are presented using graphene strips to form a hyperbolic metasurface and thin-film black phosphorus. Green’s function and complex-plane analysis developed allows for the exploration of hyperbolic plasmons in general 2-D materials.
Autors: Seyyed Ali Hassani Gangaraj;Tony Low;Andrei Nemilentsau;George W. Hanson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1174 - 1186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discontinuous Galerkin Volume Integral Equation Solution of Scattering From Inhomogeneous Dielectric Objects by Using the SWG Basis Function
Abstract:
A discontinuous Galerkin volume integral equation (DGVIE) method that uses the Schaubert–Wilton–Glisson (SWG) basis function is proposed for the analysis of scattering from inhomogeneous dielectric objects. The main advantages of the proposed DGVIE method are: 1) no hypersingular integrals need to be calculated or compared with other methods that use nonconformal meshes and SWG basis functions; 2) the number of unknowns in the DGVIE method that uses the SWG basis function is less than that in the scheme that uses the piecewise constant vector basis function for the same mesh; and 3) the code of the proposed DGVIE can be easily obtained by a minor modification of the conventional method of moments code. A trial explanation is presented for the fact that the explicit enforcement of the continuity condition at the interface between two elements is not required in the DGVIE. The numerical results are presented to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Autors: Li-Ming Zhang;Xin-Qing Sheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1500 - 1504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discrete Lossy Gray–Wyner Revisited: Second-Order Asymptotics, Large and Moderate Deviations
Abstract:
In this paper, we revisit the discrete lossy Gray-Wyner problem. In particular, we derive its optimal second-order coding rate region, its error exponent (reliability function), and its moderate deviations constant under mild conditions on the source. To obtain the second-order asymptotics, we extend some ideas from Watanabe’s work. In particular, we leverage the properties of an appropriate generalization of the conditional distortion-tilted information density, which was first introduced by Kostina and Verdú. The converse part uses a perturbation argument by Gu and Effros in their strong converse proof of the discrete Gray–Wyner problem. The achievability part uses two novel elements: 1) a generalization of various type covering lemmas and 2) the uniform continuity of the conditional rate-distortion function in both the source (joint) distribution and the distortion level. To obtain the error exponent, for the achievability part, we use the same generalized type covering lemma, and for the converse, we use the strong converse together with a change-of-measure technique. Finally, to obtain the moderate deviations constant, we apply the moderate deviations theorem to probabilities defined in terms of information spectrum quantities.
Autors: Lin Zhou;Vincent Y. F. Tan;Mehul Motani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1766 - 1791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discriminative Dictionary Learning With Motion Weber Local Descriptor for Violence Detection
Abstract:
Automatic violence detection from video is a hot topic for many video surveillance applications. However, there has been little success in developing an algorithm that can detect violence in surveillance videos with high performance. In this paper, following our recently proposed idea of motion Weber local descriptor (WLD), we make two major improvements and propose a more effective and efficient algorithm for detecting violence from motion images. First, we propose an improved WLD (IWLD) to better depict low-level image appearance information, and then extend the spatial descriptor IWLD by adding a temporal component to capture local motion information and hence form the motion IWLD. Second, we propose a modified sparse-representation-based classification model to both control the reconstruction error of coding coefficients and minimize the classification error. Based on the proposed sparse model, a class-specific dictionary containing dictionary atoms corresponding to the class labels is learned using class labels of training samples. With this learned dictionary, not only the representation residual but also the representation coefficients become discriminative. A classification scheme integrating the modified sparse model is developed to exploit such discriminative information. The experimental results on three benchmark data sets have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed approach over the state of the arts.
Autors: Tao Zhang;Wenjing Jia;Xiangjian He;Jie Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 696 - 709
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discriminative Multi-instance Multitask Learning for 3D Action Recognition
Abstract:
As the prosperity of low-cost and easy-operating depth cameras, skeleton-based human action recognition has been extensively studied recently. However, most of the existing methods partially consider that all 3D joints of a human skeleton are identical. Actually, these 3D joints exhibit diverse responses to different action classes, and some joint configurations are more discriminative to distinguish a certain action. In this paper, we propose a discriminative multi-instance multitask learning (MIMTL) framework to discover the intrinsic relationship between joint configurations and action classes. First, a set of discriminative and informative joint configurations for the corresponding action class is captured in multi-instance learning model by regarding the action and the joint configurations as a bag and its instances, respectively. Then, a multitask learning model with group structure constraints is exploited to further reveal the intrinsic relationship between the joint configurations and different action classes. We conduct extensive evaluations of MIMTL using three benchmark 3D action recognition datasets. Experimental results show that our proposed MIMTL framework performs favorably compared with several state-of-the-art approaches.
Autors: Yanhua Yang;Cheng Deng;Shangqian Gao;Wei Liu;Dapeng Tao;Xinbo Gao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 519 - 529
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Displacement Sensor Based on Radar Cross-Polarization Measurements
Abstract:
This paper presents the feasibility of measuring submillimeter displacements of objects in real environments using simple resonant radar targets. These scatterers, also known as chipless tags, have their own radar signature that can be used not only for identification but also for sensing. The chipless radio frequency identification (RFID) is a highly promising technology, since it paves the way for the development of easily implementable communication systems where tags have costs similar to barcodes. Object displacements are extracted by just evaluating at different times the variation of the signals backscattered in cross polarization from the tags. Based on this analog RFID sensing principle, an analytical model is developed to perform the direct derivation of the displacements. Therefore, the approach does not require complex and specific calibration procedures based on lookup table for compensating variations due to the presence of surrounding unknown objects. It is possible to add this functionality to already designed chipless RFID tag operating in cross polarization without decreasing their coding capacity. Experimentations inside and outside anechoic chamber have been done, and a very good agreement was obtained with simulations. It has been proved that submillimeter displacements can be monitored with this approach. A chipless tag displacement of 0.5 mm with less than error can be detected in real environment for a read range of up to 40 cm.
Autors: Etienne Perret;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 955 - 966
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distance-Based Ecological Driving Scheme Using a Two-Stage Hierarchy for Long-Term Optimization and Short-Term Adaptation
Abstract:
This paper proposes a distance-based ecological (eco)-driving scheme with two stages: one for long-term speed optimization and the other for short-term adaptation to actual traffic conditions. Before departure, the speed profile for an entire route is optimized in a distance domain by using characteristics of the drivetrain and road conditions. Then, while driving, the speed at only the next location is controlled to follow the optimal speed profile and adapt it for traffic conditions, which allows for real-time adaptation, maintaining optimal driving in the long term. To localize the change of the optimal speed profile due to traffic conditions, models for fuel rate of a conventional vehicle and vehicle propulsion systems were formulated in a distance domain, and a distance-based optimal speed profile was generated. The proposed eco-driving scheme is optimized by the quadratic programming method, and its validity is tested by simulation.
Autors: Hansang Lim;Wencong Su;Chunting Chris Mi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 1940 - 1949
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Aggregate Privacy-Preserving Authentication in VANETs
Abstract:
Existing secure and privacy-preserving vehicular communication protocols in vehicular ad hoc networks face the challenges of being fast and not depending on ideal tamper-proof devices (TPDs) embedded in vehicles. To address these challenges, we propose a vehicular authentication protocol referred to as distributedaggregate privacy-preserving authentication. The proposed protocol is based on our new multiple trusted authority one-time identity-based aggregate signature technique. With this technique a vehicle can verify many messages simultaneously and their signatures can be compressed into a single one that greatly reduces the storage space needed by a vehicle or a data collector (e.g., the traffic management authority). Instead of ideal TPDs, our protocol only requires realistic TPDs and hence is more practical.
Autors: Lei Zhang;Qianhong Wu;Josep Domingo-Ferrer;Bo Qin;Chuanyan Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 516 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Capacitive Sensors for Partial Discharge Detection and Defective Region Identification in Power Transformers
Abstract:
Analyzing of detected partial discharge (PD) signals is a reliable technique to assess the electrical insulation in power transformers. In order to detect and locate the PD sources in power transformers, some distributed simple fine sensors are proposed and used, which are made by a few turns of thin enameled copper wire wrapped around the transformer core. They are distributed sensors, which sense PD voltage signals through capacitive coupling with the transformer windings. Two methods, including broadband and limited-band PD signal analyzing, are considered to identify defective phase and/or region on that phase through the proposed distributed sensors outputs. Transfer functions of these sensors are obtained and it is experimentally shown that although defective phase can be diagnosed, the expected priority to identify defective region is not regarded in broadband analysis, while a suitable limited frequency band can be found to achieve this aim. The idea is implemented on a sample transformer by injecting artificial PD signals to different high-voltage winding sections. The results show that not only PD signals can be detected through the mentioned sensors with high sensitivity, but also defective phase can be diagnosed using broadband analysis. Moreover, defective region can be accurately identified by limited-band analysis.
Autors: Hasan Mohammadi;Farhad Haghjoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1626 - 1634
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Content Based Video Identification in Peer-to-Peer Networks: Requirements and Solutions
Abstract:
In this paper, we first discuss the essential requirements for a fingerprint (perceptual hash)-based distributed video identification system in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks in comparison with traditional central database implementations of fingerprints. This discussion reveals that first, fingerprint sizes of existing video fingerprint methods are not compatible with the cache sizes of current P2P clients; second, fingerprint extraction durations during a query are not at tolerable levels for a user in the network; third, the repetitive patterns in the extracted fingerprints avoid the uniform distribution of storage and traffic load among the peers; and finally, the existing methods do not provide a solution to synchronize the fingerprint extraction from the shared video and queried video. In order to solve the mentioned requirements, we propose a baseline method using only the difference of video frame means, which decreases the fingerprint sizes to typical cache sizes, by increasing the granularity levels from seconds to minutes. We then develop a novel algorithm which utilizes reference points on one-dimensional frame mean sequence for the synchronization of fingerprint extraction. This algorithm is extended with a hierarchical decoding approach based on Gaussian scales, which only decodes a subset of video frames without needing a full decoding. Finally, an analysis on the effect of design parameters to the fingerprint probability distribution is performed to avoid repetitive patterns. Our ultimate solution reduces the fingerprint sizes into kilobytes, extraction time to seconds, and search duration into milliseconds, and achieves about 90% detection rates with 1–4 min granularities, while enabling a fair distribution of storage load among the peers at the same time.
Autors: Alper Koz;R. (Inald) L. Lagendijk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 475 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Energy Management for Vehicle-to-Grid Networks
Abstract:
Making full use of V2G services, EVs with batteries may assist the smart grid in alleviating peaks of energy consumption. Aiming to develop a systematic understanding of the interplay between smart grid and EVs, an architecture for the V2G networks with the EV aggregator is designed to maintain the balance between energy suppliers (the grid side) and consumers (the EV side). We propose a combined control and communication approach considering distributed features and vehicle preferences in order to ensure efficient energy transfer. In our model, the integrated communication and control unit can achieve realtime and intelligent management with the logic controller and collected data. On the consumers' side, we theoretically analyze how to satisfy the charging constraints that we incorporate in the form of willingness to pay, and propose a distributed framework to coordinate the energy delivery behaviors for satisfying service demands. Moreover, illustrative results indicate that the proposed approach can yield higher revenue than the conventional pricing mechanism in V2G networks.
Autors: Kun Wang;Liqiu Gu;Xiaoming He;Song Guo;Yanfei Sun;Alexey Vinel;Jian Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 22 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Estimation and Secondary Control of Autonomous Microgrid
Abstract:
This paper proposes a systematic approach to balance the active power between photovoltaic generators (PVs) and loads in autonomous microgrids. To achieve this, a distributed algorithm is designed to estimate the power difference between generation and consumption, then a finite-time consensus protocol is introduced to regulate the outputs of all the PVs in a cooperative and timely fashion, and the frequency deviation caused by active power unbalance can be compensated as well. In particular, the proposed distributed estimation and secondary control strategy is completely distributed and center-free in the sense that each PV and load are both self-organizing and global-awareness with only local communication, no centralized monitors are needed. Simulations on the standard IEEE 37-bus network are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.
Autors: Guoyue Zhang;Chaoyong Li;Donglian Qi;Huanhai Xin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 989 - 998
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Load Balancing for the Resilient Publish/Subscribe Overlay in SeDAX
Abstract:
SEcure data-centric application eXtension (SeDAX) is a publish/subscribe information-centric networking architecture, where publishers send messages to the appropriate message broker over a Delaunay-triangulated overlay network. Resilient data forwarding and data redundancy enable a high level of reliability. Overlay nodes and topics are addressed via geo-coordinates. A topic is stored on primary and secondary nodes, those nodes closest and second-closest to the topic’s coordinate, respectively. The overlay automatically reroutes a topic’s messages to its secondary node should its primary node fail. In the original proposal, SeDAX determines the coordinate of a topic by hashing its name. This kind of topic allocation is static, which can lead to unintended load imbalances. We propose a topic delegation mechanism to make the assignment of topics to nodes dynamic. Our proposed mechanism is the only existing method to improve the flexibility and resource management of the SeDAX architecture so far. We define three resilience levels that allow information on the SeDAX overlay to survive 0, 1, or 2 node failures, imposing different loads on SeDAX nodes. For this elaborated SeDAX approach, we suggest a distributed resource management system that detects traffic imbalances among SeDAX nodes and re-assigns topics to other coordinates for load balancing purposes. We evaluate the load imbalance for the different resilience levels, for different topic characteristics, and in particular for topics with storage requirements growing over time. The proposed algorithm leads to well balanced load on SeDAX nodes while keeping load redistribution at a reasonable level.
Autors: Michael Hoefling;Cynthia G. Mills;Michael Menth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 147 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Power Allocation for D2D Communications Underlaying/Overlaying OFDMA Cellular Networks
Abstract:
The implementation of device-to-device (D2D) underlaying or overlaying preexisting cellular networks has received much attention due to the potential of enhancing the total cell throughput, reducing the power consumption, and increasing the instantaneous data rate. In this paper, we propose a distributed power allocation scheme for D2D OFDMA communications and, in particular, we consider the two operating modes amenable to a distributed implementation: dedicated and reuse modes. The proposed schemes address the problem of maximizing the users’ sum rate subject to power constraints, which is known to be nonconvex and, as such, extremely difficult to be solved exactly. We propose here a fresh approach to this well-known problem, capitalizing on the fact that the power allocation problem can be modeled as a potential game. Exploiting the potential games property of converging under better response dynamics, we propose two fully distributed iterative algorithms, one for each operation mode considered, where each user updates sequentially and autonomously its power allocation. Numerical results, computed for several different user scenarios, show that the proposed methods, which converge to one of the local maxima of the objective function, exhibit performance close to the maximum achievable optimum and outperform other schemes presented in the literature.
Autors: Andrea Abrardo;Marco Moretti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1466 - 1479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Reinforcement Learning via Gossip
Abstract:
We consider the classical TD(0) algorithm implemented on a network of agents wherein the agents also incorporate updates received from neighboring agents using a gossip-like mechanism. The combined scheme is shown to converge for both discounted and average cost problems.
Autors: Adwaitvedant Mathkar;Vivek S. Borkar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1465 - 1470
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Temperature Sensing Using Cyclic Pseudorandom Sequences
Abstract:
An alternative for commercial Raman-Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) distributed temperature sensors is presented, where a pseudorandom pulse sequence is used to increase the signal to noise ratio. Additionally, a deconvolution algorithm is proposed to eliminate distortions in the reconstruction arising from the real correlation properties of the sensing signal. An improvement in SNR of a factor 11 respect to the Raman-OTDR method at the same peak power was achieved, allowing 2 m and 1.5 °C resolution in a 6 s measurement using a 90-mW Continuous wave semiconductor laser.
Autors: Guillermo Daniel Brinatti Vazquez;Oscar Eduardo Martínez;Darío Kunik;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1686 - 1691
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed User Association in Energy Harvesting Small Cell Networks: A Probabilistic Bandit Model
Abstract:
We investigate a distributed downlink user association problem in a dynamic small cell network, where every small base station (SBS) obtains its required energy through ambient energy harvesting. On the one hand, energy harvesting is inherently opportunistic, so that the amount of available energy is a random variable. On the other hand, users arrive at random and require different wireless services, rendering the energy consumption a random variable. In this paper, we develop a probabilistic framework to mathematically model and analyze the random behavior of energy harvesting and energy consumption. We further analyze the probability of QoS satisfaction (success probability), for each user with respect to every SBS. The proposed user association scheme is distributed in the sense that every user independently selects its corresponding SBS with the success probability serving as the performance metric. The success probability however depends on a variety of random factors such as energy harvesting, channel quality, and network traffic, whose distribution or statistical characteristics might not be known at users. Since acquiring the knowledge of these random variables (even statistical) is very costly in a dense network, we develop a bandit-theoretical formulation for distributed SBS selection when no prior information is available at users. The performance is analyzed both theoretically and numerically.
Autors: Setareh Maghsudi;Ekram Hossain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1549 - 1563
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributionally Robust Chance-Constrained Optimal Power Flow With Uncertain Renewables and Uncertain Reserves Provided by Loads
Abstract:
Aggregations of electric loads can provide reserves to power systems, but their available reserve capacities are time-varying and not perfectly known when the system operator computes the optimal generation and reserve schedule. In this paper, we formulate a chance constrained optimal power flow problem to procure minimum cost energy, generator reserves, and load reserves given uncertainty in renewable energy production, load consumption, and load reserve capacities. Assuming that uncertainty distributions are not perfectly known, we solve the problem with distributionally robust optimization, which ensures that chance constraints are satisfied for any distribution in an ambiguity set built upon the first two moments. We use two ambiguity sets to reformulate the model as a semidefinite program and a second-order cone program and run computational experiments on the IEEE 9-bus, 39-bus, and 118-bus systems. We compare the solutions to those given by two benchmark reformulations; the first assumes normally distributed uncertainty and the second uses large numbers of uncertainty samples. We find that the use of load reserves, even when load reserve capacities are uncertain, reduces operational costs. Also, the approach is able to meet reliability requirements, unlike the first benchmark approach and with lower computation times than the second benchmark approach.
Autors: Yiling Zhang;Siqian Shen;Johanna L. Mathieu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1378 - 1388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Divergence-Free SPH for Incompressible and Viscous Fluids
Abstract:
In this paper we present a novel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the efficient and stable simulation of incompressible fluids. The most efficient SPH-based approaches enforce incompressibility either on position or velocity level. However, the continuity equation for incompressible flow demands to maintain a constant density and a divergence-free velocity field. We propose a combination of two novel implicit pressure solvers enforcing both a low volume compression as well as a divergence-free velocity field. While a compression-free fluid is essential for realistic physical behavior, a divergence-free velocity field drastically reduces the number of required solver iterations and increases the stability of the simulation significantly. Thanks to the improved stability, our method can handle larger time steps than previous approaches. This results in a substantial performance gain since the computationally expensive neighborhood search has to be performed less frequently. Moreover, we introduce a third optional implicit solver to simulate highly viscous fluids which seamlessly integrates into our solver framework. Our implicit viscosity solver produces realistic results while introducing almost no numerical damping. We demonstrate the efficiency, robustness and scalability of our method in a variety of complex simulations including scenarios with millions of turbulent particles or highly viscous materials.
Autors: Jan Bender;Dan Koschier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:3, pages: 1193 - 1206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diversity-Multiplexing Trade-Off of Half-Duplex Single Relay Networks
Abstract:
The diversity-multiplexing trade-off (DMT) of half-duplex single-relay networks is computed analytically, where all the channels in the networks are assumed to be quasi-static flat-fading channels with independent Rayleigh distributions. We have computed DMT of dynamic quantize-map-and-forward (DQMF) strategy analytically, which has the optimal DMT for half-duplex single-relay networks with local channel state information. As a result, the optimal listening time of the relay in the DQMF strategy as a function of the source-relay channel realization can also be determined using our solution.
Autors: Farzad Parvaresh;Hediyeh Soltanizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1703 - 1720
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DLAU: A Scalable Deep Learning Accelerator Unit on FPGA
Abstract:
As the emerging field of machine learning, deep learning shows excellent ability in solving complex learning problems. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses significant challenge to construct a high performance implementations of deep learning neural networks. In order to improve the performance as well as to maintain the low power cost, in this paper we design deep learning accelerator unit (DLAU), which is a scalable accelerator architecture for large-scale deep learning networks using field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as the hardware prototype. The DLAU accelerator employs three pipelined processing units to improve the throughput and utilizes tile techniques to explore locality for deep learning applications. Experimental results on the state-of-the-art Xilinx FPGA board demonstrate that the DLAU accelerator is able to achieve up to speedup comparing to the Intel Core2 processors, with the power consumption at 234 mW.
Autors: Chao Wang;Lei Gong;Qi Yu;Xi Li;Yuan Xie;Xuehai Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 513 - 517
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Do we have to build robots that need rights? [Spectral Lines]
Abstract:
In January, the Legal Affairs Committee of the European Parliament put forward a draft report urging the creation and adoption of EU‑wide rules to corral the myriad issues arising from the widespread use of robots and AI-a development, it says, that is "poised to unleash a new industrial revolution." . It's an interesting read, and a valiant effort to get a handle on how to standardize and regulate the ever-expanding robot universe: drones, industrial robots, care robots, medical robots, entertainment robots, robots in farming-you name it, they're all in there.
Autors: Susan Hassler;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Do-It-Yourself Design for Social Robots: An Open-Source Hardware Platform to Encourage Innovation
Abstract:
One of the chief obstacles in achieving wider acceptance of robotics is that only experienced roboticists can develop robotics applications. If we want robots in our homes and offices, we need more tools and platforms that reduce the costs in time and money of prototyping robots. The open-source paradigm offers a potential solution to these key factors. However, creating open-source robotics hardware does not mean just making the design files available online. It is essential to design the hardware in such a way that it can be built and modified by nonexpert users.
Autors: Cesar Vandevelde;Francis Wyffels;Bram Vanderborght;Jelle Saldien;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 86 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 

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