Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 5

» Coding Schemes for Achieving Strong Secrecy at Negligible Cost
Abstract:
We study the problem of achieving strong secrecy over wiretap channels at negligible cost, in the sense of maintaining the overall communication rate of the same channel without secrecy constraints. Specifically, we propose and analyze two source-channel coding architectures, in which secrecy is achieved by multiplexing public and confidential messages. In both cases, our main contribution is to show that secrecy can be achieved without compromising communication rate and by requiring only randomness of asymptotically vanishing rate. Our first source-channel coding architecture relies on a modified wiretap channel code, in which randomization is performed using the output of a source code. In contrast, our second architecture relies on a standard wiretap code combined with a modified source code termed uniform compression code, in which a small shared secret seed is used to enhance the uniformity of the source code output. We carry out a detailed analysis of uniform compression codes and characterize the optimal size of the shared seed.
Autors: Rémi A. Chou;Badri N. Vellambi;Matthieu R. Bloch;Jörg Kliewer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1858 - 1873
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cogging Torque Analysis and Minimization of Axial Flux PM Machines With Combined Rectangle-Shaped Magnet
Abstract:
This paper introduces three indexes for the cogging torque waveform and analyzes the influence of machine parameters on these three indexes in the theory. The phase of cogging torque under different combinations of slot opening ratio and pole-arc ratio is analyzed. Based on this analysis, two techniques to minimize cogging torque of the axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) machines are proposed and discussed. Using the quasi-3-D analysis method, the mechanism of cogging torque minimization for AFPM machines equipped with several special magnet shapes is revealed by elaborating the results of each slice. Then, a novel rectangle-shaped magnet arrangement is proposed and investigated for cogging torque minimization. Comparing with other cogging torque minimization techniques such as conventional skew on PM edges, this method is able to decrease cogging torque without comprising torque output. Finally, a prototype is built and the experiment is performed to validate the finite-element analysis results.
Autors: Linyuan Xiao;Jian Li;Ronghai Qu;Yang Lu;Rui Zhang;Dawei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1018 - 1027
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cogging Torque and Unbalanced Magnetic Pull Due to Simultaneous Existence of Dynamic and Static Eccentricities and Uneven Magnetization in Permanent Magnet Motors
Abstract:
We mathematically investigate the cogging torque and the unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) of permanent magnet motors caused by the simultaneous existence of dynamic and static eccentricities and uneven magnetization. We show that the harmonics of cogging torque and UMP are generated due to the dynamic and static eccentricities and the uneven magnetization, respectively. We also show that the simultaneous existence of dynamic and static eccentricities and uneven magnetization induces additional harmonics of cogging torque and UMP. We investigate the relative amplitudes of the harmonics of cogging toque and UMP generated by the eccentricities. The mathematical investigations are verified via numerical simulation.
Autors: J. Y. Song;K. J. Kang;C. H. Kang;G. H. Jang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cognitive Coded Cooperation in Underlay Spectrum-Sharing Networks Under Interference Power Constraints
Abstract:
Since the radio-frequency spectrum is fast becoming scarce, increasing the spectral utilization is of utmost importance for the sustainable development of wireless communications systems. In an effort to improve the spectral efficiency, cooperative relaying techniques have recently been integrated into spectrum-sharing environments. In this paper, we examine the outage and bit error probabilities of dual-hop cognitive turbo-coded cooperative networks with outdated channel state information (CSI) subject to Rayleigh fading. We assume a spectrum-sharing environment where the transmit power conditions of the underlay network are governed by the combined power constraint of the interference in the primary network and the maximum allowable transmission power at the secondary network. In this network, cochannel interference from the primary transmitter on the secondary network is considered, and a single relay that maximizes the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is selected among the secondary relays. To efficiently evaluate the key parameters on the system performance, we derive the analytical expressions of the end-to-end outage probability and bit error rate (BER) for the proposed scheme. Assuming binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), we obtain explicit upper bounds on the probability of bit error based on the pairwise error probability. Furthermore, we present simplified expressions of the outage probability in the high-SNR regime used to quantify the system performance in terms of diversity gain. Finally, simulation results are provided to verify the accuracy of our analytical framework.
Autors: Jules Merlin Moualeu;Walaa Hamouda;Fambirai Takawira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2099 - 2113
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Collaborative Data Downloading by Using Inter-Satellite Links in LEO Satellite Networks
Abstract:
Satellite systems have attracted great attention from academic and industrial communities in recent years. There are many satellites that have been launched for weather forecast, environment monitoring, and target surveillance. One important task of the satellites is to download the data they have collected in space to the ground servers via earth stations (ESs). Since satellites move at high speed along their own orbits and have very limited contact time with ESs, satellites may not be able to download all the data they have to the ground on time. In this paper, we propose a collaborative scheme that allows satellites to offload data among themselves using inter-satellite links (ISLs) before they come into contact with the ES, such that satellites will carry the right amount of data according to the length of their contact time with the ES and the throughput of data downloading at the ES is maximized. We develop an iterative optimization algorithm that jointly schedules data offload among the satellites and data downloading from satellites to the ES. Extensive simulations have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed method. The simulation results show that the data downloading throughput by using ISL data offload can be increased significantly. In many cases, the throughput reaches close to 100% of the capacity of the ES.
Autors: Xiaohua Jia;Tao Lv;Feng He;Hejiao Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1523 - 1532
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Color Scheme Adaptation to Enhance User Experience on Smartphone Displays Leveraging Ambient Light
Abstract:
With the rapid development of information technology, mobile devices have exhibited increasing popularity in recent years. To support the anytime-anywhere service model of mobile devices, one important problem related to the screen display arises when using these devices (e.g., smartphone and tablet) under various lighting conditions. On one hand, it is hard for users to see the display clearly under strong lighting conditions (e.g., sunlight). On the other hand, the screen appears dazzling under weak lighting conditions. This problem related to the mobile device display can significantly degrade user experience and undermine the successful deployment of the anytime-anywhere mobile service model. Existing solutions mainly focus on the automatic adjustment of brightness level under different light conditions. We show that merely utilizing brightness level to solve the display problem is not enough to maintain the user experience under both strong and weak lighting scenarios through experimenting with over 200 volunteers. In this work, we take a different approach by investigating automatic color scheme adjustment to improve user experience. We find that Readability, Comfort level, and Similarity are major factors that contribute to user experience. In recognizing these problems, we propose a system, ColorVert, which utilizes the DKL color space to adaptively transform color schemes by sensing ambient light to improve user experience under various lighting scenarios. Our experimental evaluation with over 200 precipitants and various mobile devices demonstrates that ColorVert is more effective in both maintaining as well as improving user experience compared with the existing automatic brightness adjustment system.
Autors: Jiadi Yu;Yingying Chen;Jianda Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 688 - 701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combating Full-Duplex Active Eavesdropper: A Hierarchical Game Perspective
Abstract:
Security is an issue of paramount importance, yet is it a significant challenge for wireless communications, which becomes more intricate when facing a full duplex (FD) active eavesdropper capable of performing eavesdropping and jamming simultaneously. In this paper, we investigate the physical layer security issue in the presence of an FD active eavesdropper, who launches jamming attacks to further improve the eavesdropping. The jamming, however, also results in self-interference at the eavesdropper itself. This security problem is formulated within a hierarchical game framework where the eavesdropper acts as the leader and the legitimate user is the follower. In particular, we first investigate the follower’s secrecy rate maximization problem and derive the optimal legitimate transmission strategy. Then, the leader’s wiretap rate maximization is expressed as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). Leveraging the concavity of the follower’s problem, we transform the MPEC problem into a single-level optimization and obtain the jamming power allocation strategy by applying the primal-dual interior-point method. Moreover, we analyze the situations where only partial channel state information is available at the legitimate user and the corresponding impacts on the game. Finally, we present extensive simulation results to validate our theoretical analysis.
Autors: Xiao Tang;Pinyi Ren;Yichen Wang;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1379 - 1395
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combination of E-Jet and Inkjet Printing for Additive Fabrication of Multilayer High-Density RDL of Silicon Interposer
Abstract:
The additive nature and high resolution of electrohydrodynamic inkjet (E-jet) printing can be utilized for manufacturing micrometer scale conductive tracks such as those required in the high-density redistribution layers (RDLs) of silicon interposers used in electronics packaging for 3-D integration. Compared to the current lithographic fabrication method, this approach promises to increase the customizability of the process and reduce the amount of waste materials, thereby lowering the costs and the environmental impact of the manufacturing process. In this paper, multilayer interdigitated capacitor and meander resistor structures with 5/5 conductor width/spacing are used to demonstrate the feasibility of E-jet printing of high-density multilayer RDLs. A sheet resistance of 28.5 /square was achieved for the first metallization layer (MET1) conductors and 313.2 /square for the MET2 conductors. The thickness of the conductors was 6.9 for MET1 and 5.4 for MET2.
Autors: Mika-Matti Laurila;Behnam Khorramdel;Matti Mäntysalo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1217 - 1224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combining Models for Improved Fault Localization in Spreadsheets
Abstract:
Spreadsheets are the most prominent example of end-user programing, but they unfortunately are often erroneous, and thus, they compute wrong values. Localizing the true cause of such an observed misbehavior can be cumbersome and frustrating especially for large spreadsheets. Therefore, supporting techniques and tools for fault localization are highly required. Model-based software debugging (MBSD) is a well-known technique for fault localization in software written in imperative and object-oriented programing languages like C, C++, and Java. In this paper, we explain how to use MBSD for fault localization in spreadsheets and compare three types of models for MBSD, namely the value-based model (VBM), the dependency based model (DBM), and an improved version of the DBM. Whereas the VBM computes the lowest number of diagnoses, both DBMs convince by their low computational complexity. Hence, a combination of these two types of models is desired, and we present a solution that combines value-based and DBM in this paper. Moreover, we discuss a detailed evaluation of the models and the combined approach, which indicates that the combined approach computes the same number of diagnoses like the VBMs while requiring less computation time. Hence, the proposed approach is more appropriate to be used in tools for fault localization in spreadsheets.
Autors: Birgit Hofer;Andrea Höfler;Franz Wotawa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 38 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combining University Student Self-Regulated Learning Indicators and Engagement with Online Learning Events to Predict Academic Performance
Abstract:
Self-regulated learning theories are used to understand the reasons for different levels of university student academic performance. Similarly, learning analytics research proposes the combination of detailed data traces derived from technology-mediated tasks with a variety of algorithms to predict student academic performance. The former approach is designed to provide meaningful pedagogical guidance, while the latter is designed to identify event patterns and relations that can be translated into actionable remediation. The benefits of both approaches have motivated this study to investigate if a combination of the self-report data and data arising from an observation of the engagement of students with online learning events offers a deeper understanding and explanation of why some students achieve relatively higher levels of academic performance. In this paper we explore how to combine data about self-regulated learning skills with observable measures of online activity in a blended learning course to increase predictive capabilities of student academic performance for the purposes of informing teaching and task design. A case study in a course with 145 students showed that the variation of the students’ final score for their course is better explained when factors from both approaches are considered. The results point to the potential of adopting a combined use of self-report and observed data to gain a more comprehensive understanding of successful university student learning.
Autors: Abelardo Pardo;Feifei Han;Robert A. Ellis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 82 - 92
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CoMP Joint Transmission for Gaussian Broadcast Channels in Delay-Limited Networks
Abstract:
The backhaul-linked cellular network architecture shows an intrinsic defect in its delay characteristic when coordinated multipoint (CoMP) joint transmission (JT) is operated. Channel state information (CSI) fed back to evolved Node B (eNB) is used to calculate joint beamforming (BF) matrices, and the results are delivered to helping eNBs, which participate in CoMP JT, through the backhaul link. The applied information, however, could be outdated before it reaches the helping eNBs due to the backhaul delay, thus resulting in JT performance degradation as the UE velocity increases. Based on this observation, we propose a novel solution for Gaussian broadcast channels, which efficiently exploits the latest channel information available in the CoMP JT architecture. The numerical results clearly demonstrate the spectral efficiency gain of the proposed scheme at the cell-edge region, particularly with high velocity and large backhaul delay.
Autors: Kyuhwan Kwak;Hui Won Je;Seok-Hwan Park;Sunghyun Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2053 - 2058
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Bandpass Filter With Multiple Coupling Paths in Limited Space for Ku-Band Application
Abstract:
A compact bandpass filter (BPF) for Ku-band application is proposed in this letter. The proposed filter is composed of five quarter-wavelength () stepped-impedance resonators, which are in staggered arrangement. Folded narrow feedlines are used to introduce multiple coupling paths in limited space. Two symmetrical cascaded quadruplet like (CQ-like) structures are formed and devoted to generate two transmission zeros (TZs) located in both the upper and lower sides of the center frequency . Two other TZs are generated by the coupling path between folded narrow feedlines. Two TZs in upper rejection band can be adjusted to special locations to strength the suppression in these points. A prototype of the proposed filter was fabricated and good agreement between simulation and measurement is achieved. The proposed BPF owns the advantages of high selectivity, compact size, low insertion loss, and low cost.
Autors: Jun Xu;Wei Hong;Hui Zhang;Hongjun Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 251 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Load Network for GaN-HEMT Doherty Power Amplifier IC Using Left-Handed and Right-Handed Transmission Lines
Abstract:
This letter presents a compact load network for Doherty power amplifier (DPA) integrated circuits (ICs) using -type left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) transmission lines (TLs) based on lumped components. The quarter-wave impedance transformers based on the LH TLs and a compensation method for the internal shunt capacitance using a shunt inductor were adopted for the impedance matching networks. The -type LH and RH TLs for the matching networks and a combining network can be further simplified by merging adjacent shunt components. In order to verify the proposed load network, a 2.6-GHz DPA IC was designed and fabricated using a 0.4- gallium nitride high-electron-mobility transistor process for small-cell base stations. The overall size of the chip is mm2 and the chip was mounted on a quad flat no-leads package. For a long term evolution signal with a signal bandwidth of 10 MHz and a peak-to-average power ratio of 6.5 dB, a high drain efficiency of 52.2% was obtained at an average output power of 34.0 dBm.
Autors: Hwiseob Lee;Wonseob Lim;Wooseok Lee;Hyunuk Kang;Jongseok Bae;Cheon-Seok Park;Keum Cheol Hwang;Kang-Yoon Lee;Youngoo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 293 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Model for Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Transistor With MFIS Structure
Abstract:
We present a physics-based compact model for a ferroelectric negative capacitance FET (NCFET) with a metal–ferroelectric–insulator–semiconductor (MFIS) structure. The model is computationally efficient, and it accurately calculates the gate charge density as a function of the applied voltages. For the first time, an explicit expression for the channel current in bulk NCFET is also deduced taking into account the spatial variation of ferroelectric polarization in the longitudinal direction. Using current continuity condition in the channel, we find that different regions of the ferroelectric may operate in a positive or a negative capacitance state depending on the external biases. The model captures the impact of ferroelectric thickness scaling and variation in the ferroelectric material parameters, and has been validated against the implicit approach involving full numerical computations as well as experimental data. We also compare the device characteristics of the MFIS structure with those of the metal–ferroelectric–metal–insulator–semiconductor structure.
Autors: Girish Pahwa;Tapas Dutta;Amit Agarwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1366 - 1374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Modeling and Evaluation of Magnetic Skyrmion-Based Racetrack Memory
Abstract:
Racetrack memory (RM) has been considered as one of the most attractive nonvolatile memories in the future advanced computer architectures. Current RM is based on domain wall (DW) motion, which, however, has some intrinsic limitations, such as scalability, density, and energy consumption owing to the physical property of DW. Recently, magnetic skyrmion, one new type of spintronic object, has emerged as an alternative of DW in RM application. The advantageous features of skyrmion, such as nanoscale size, topological stability, as well as ultralow depinning current density, make it promising as an information carrier in the future ultradense, high-speed, and low-power electronics in addition to RM design. In this paper, we primarily investigate the prospects of the skyrmion-based RM (Sky-RM). We developed a physics-based compact model for Sky-RM electronic design and performance evaluation. Experimentalmaterial parameterswere included and micromagnetic investigations were carried out simultaneously to calibrate the accuracy of the model. Using the developed model, hybrid simulations were performed to evaluate the Sky-RM performance, in comparison with the DW-based RM (DW-RM). Our results show that Sky-RM outperforms DW-RM in terms of storage density and energy efficiency.
Autors: Wang Kang;Chentian Zheng;Yangqi Huang;Xichao Zhang;Weifeng Lv;Yan Zhou;Weisheng Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1060 - 1068
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Modeling of Charge, Capacitance, and Drain Current in III–V Channel Double Gate FETs
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a surface potential based compact modeling of terminal charge, terminal capacitance, and drain current for III–V channel double gate field-effect transistor (DGFET) including the effect of conduction band nonparabolicity. The proposed model is developed accounting for the two-dimensional density of states and includes the effect of quantum capacitance associated with the low density of states channel material. In addition, model incorporates contribution of the first two sub-bands and efficiently captures the step like behavior appearing in the gate capacitance and transconductance with population of the higher sub-bands. The behavior of bias-dependent terminal capacitances and drain current is verified with the numerical simulation data of InGaAs channel DGFET and shows a close agreement with the simulation data.
Autors: Chandan Yadav;Mayank Agrawal;Amit Agarwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 347 - 354
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Modeling of Dynamic MOSFET Degradation Due to Hot-Electrons
Abstract:
A trap-density-based compact model of dynamic metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor degradation due to hot electrons is reported, for which model parameters are extractable from measured 1/ noise properties. It is observed that the deep trap-state increase is dominant for the degradation and approaches its maximum under long accelerated-stress duration. A key modeling concept is the explicit inclusion of the extracted stress-condition-dependent trap density in the Poisson equation, which is solved iteratively. The developed model correctly predicts actual dynamic degradation of the measured I-V characteristics, that is, trap density increase during stress application, without the disadvantage of longer simulation times. The reported model can automatically reproduce not only the threshold-voltage shift, but also the degradation of the complete – characteristics and all other observable effects caused by the carrier trapping, without any additional model-parameter fitting for each of these effects.
Autors: H. Tanoue;A. Tanaka;Y. Oodate;T. Nakahagi;D. Sugiyama;C. Ma;H. J. Mattausch;M. Miura-Mattausch;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 52 - 58
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Modeling of Transition Metal Dichalcogenide based Thin body Transistors and Circuit Validation
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a compact model for surface potential and drain current in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) channel material-based n-type and p-type FETs. The model considers 2-D density of states and Fermi–Dirac statistics along with drift-diffusion transport model and includes velocity saturation and trap state effects. The developed model has been implemented in Verilog-A and is applicable for symmetric double gate as well as top-gated TMD-on-insulator FETs. The presented model is extensively validated with simulation as well as experimental data for different TMD materials-based FETs and shows excellent agreement with both the simulation and the experimental data. We further validate the model at circuit level using experimental data of MoS2 FET-based inverter.
Autors: Chandan Yadav;Amit Agarwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1261 - 1268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Quad-Band Bandpass Filter Using Quad-Mode Stepped Impedance Resonator and Multiple Coupling Circuits
Abstract:
A compact quad-band bandpass filter using quad-mode stepped impedance resonator (QMSIR) is investigated in this paper. To get suitable coupling within the four passbands, the multiple coupling circuits between the input/output ports and QMSIR are applied. Based on the symmetry of the QMSIR, even- and odd-mode theory is used to analyze the equivalent circuits of the QMSIR. Design equations are derived, and they are used to guide the design of the circuits. Four passbands can be easily tuned by its physical dimensions. Upper stopband is improved by adding the open-loop SIRs at both I/O ports. Transmission zeros among each passbands are generated, resulting in high isolation and frequency selectivity. An experimental circuit is fabricated and evaluated to validate the design concept. The measurement results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulation results.
Autors: Denis Bukuru;Kaijun Song;Fan Zhang;Yu Zhu;Maoyu Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 783 - 791
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Temperature Sensors in 40-nm CMOS for SoC Thermal Monitoring
Abstract:
An array of temperature sensors based on the thermal diffusivity (TD) of bulk silicon has been realized in a standard 40-nm CMOS process. In each TD sensor, a highly digital voltage-controlled oscillator-based ADC digitizes the temperature-dependent phase shift of an electrothermal filter (ETF). A phase calibration scheme is used to cancel the ADC’s phase offset. Two types of ETF were realized, one optimized for accuracy and one optimized for resolution. Sensors based on the accuracy-optimized ETF achieved a resolution of 0.36 °C (rms) at 1 kSa/s, and inaccuracies of ±1.4 °C (3, uncalibrated) and ±0.75 °C (3, room-temperature calibrated) from −40 °C to 125 °C. Sensors based on the resolution-optimized ETFs achieved an improved resolution of 0.21 °C (rms), and inaccuracies of ±2.3 °C (3, uncalibrated) and ±1.05 °C (3, room-temperature calibrated). The sensors draw 2.8 mA from supply voltages as low as 0.9 V, and occupy only 1650 , making them some of the smallest smart temperature sensors reported to date, and well suited for thermal monitoring applications in systems-on-chip.
Autors: Uğur Sönmez;Fabio Sebastiano;Kofi A. A. Makinwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 834 - 843
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation
Abstract:
An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.
Autors: Vibol Yem;Hiroyuki Kajimoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 130 - 134
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparative Evaluation of the Loss and Thermal Performance of Advanced Three-Level Inverter Topologies
Abstract:
This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the loss and thermal performance of two advanced three-level inverter topologies, namely the partial silicon carbide (SiC) T-Type and the Hybrid-neutral-point-clamped (NPC), both of which are aimed at reducing the high switching losses associated with a conventional Si T-Type inverter. The first solution directly replaces the 1200 V primary Si IGBT switches with lower loss 1200 V SiC MOSFETs. The second solution strategically adds 600 V CoolMos FET devices to the conventional Si T-Type inverter to reduce the primary commutation losses. Semiconductor loss models, experimentally verified on calibrated heat sinks, are used to show that both variations can significantly reduce the semiconductor losses compared with the Si T-Type inverter. The results show that both alternatives are attractive if high efficiencies and reduced thermal stress are major requirements for the converter design.
Autors: Alexander Anthon;Zhe Zhang;Michael A. E. Andersen;Donald Grahame Holmes;Brendan McGrath;Carlos Alberto Teixeira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1381 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparative Investigation on the Effects of Organic and Inorganic Interlayers in Au/n-GaAs Schottky Diodes
Abstract:
There have been many attempts on Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) to improve the quality of metal–semiconductor (MS) structure and control permanently the barrier height (BH) by utilizing an organic or inorganic interfacial layer instead of widely used SiO2. The organic polymer or inorganic insulator interfacial layer insertion to the M/S interface converts the structure into the metal–polymer–semiconductor (MPS) or metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS). The reliability and performance of the MIS/MPS-type SBDs is drastically affected by the interface layer quality and also its thickness. In this paper, MS structure forms as Au/n-GaAs are consecutively used with an organic interfacial layer polyvinyl alcohol and inorganic interfacial layer zinc oxide to compare their effects on the electrical characteristics of SBDs under distinct illumination levels. Consequently, the current-voltage characteristics provide us to reveal and compare the improvement and reliability of the MPS and MIS-type SBDs by also considering significant electrical parameters, such as ideality factor, apparent BH, and series resistance.
Autors: Serhat Orkun Tan;Hüseyin Tecimer;Osman Çiçek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 984 - 990
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparative Study of Fault-Tolerant Switched-Flux Permanent-Magnet Machines
Abstract:
The fault-tolerant capabilities are compared in this paper for the conventional double-layer switched-flux permanent-magnet machine and its single-layer counterparts, i.e., C-core, E-core, and modular. The comparison includes the interturn short-circuit and irreversible demagnetization faults. A combination of Simulink and finite element models is used in the study. Based on the predictions, it is found that the modular topology produces the lowest short-circuit current and also has the best demagnetization withstand capability while the conventional one produces the highest short-circuit current and has the worst demagnetization withstand capability. The frozen permeability method is employed to separate the flux produced by armature current and magnets, and the results showed that, besides the influence of short-circuit current, the available magnet volume and magnetic circuit configuration play an important role in the demagnetization process. It is also found that removing half of the magnets, such as using C-core, E-core, and modular topologies, generally improves the demagnetization withstand capability and also increases the torque per magnet volume. Measured results are also presented to validate the short-circuit current predictions and magnet demagnetization.
Autors: Petrica Taras;Guang-Jin Li;Zi Qiang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1939 - 1948
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparing Landsat-7 ETM+ and ASTER Imageries to Estimate Daily Evapotranspiration Within a Mediterranean Vineyard Watershed
Abstract:
We compared the capabilities of Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imageries for mapping daily evapotranspiration (ET) within a Mediterranean vineyard watershed. We used Landsat and ASTER data simultaneously collected on four dates in 2007 and 2008, along with the simplified surface energy balance index (S-SEBI) model. We used previously ground-validated good quality ASTER estimates as reference, and we analyzed the differences with Landsat retrievals in light of the instrumental factors and methodology. Although Landsat and ASTER retrievals of S-SEBI inputs were different, estimates of daily ET from the two imageries were similar. This is ascribed to the S-SEBI spatial differencing in temperature, and opens the path for using historical Landsat time series over vineyards.
Autors: Carlo Montes;Frédéric Jacob;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 459 - 463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison and Evaluation of Different MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Products Over the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China
Abstract:
Many aerosol retrieval algorithms based on the remote sensing technology have been developed and applied to produce aerosol optical depth (AOD) products for different satellite sensors. The dark target (DT) and deep blue (DB) algorithms are two main MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithms that are suitable for dark or bright areas. The estimation of land surface reflectance (LSR) is necessary to improve the accuracy of AOD retrievals. Therefore, in this paper, a new procedure to improve LSR estimation using MODIS surface reflectance products is developed. A new high-resolution <1000 m> aerosol retrieval algorithm with a priori LSR database support (HARLS) is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the spatial adaptability of different MODIS AOD products produced by the above three algorithms. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) region, which features complex surface structures and serious air pollution, was chosen as the study area, and the different AOD products are validated using aerosol robotic network (AERONET) AOD ground measurements from four stations located in dark and bright areas. Compared with the DT retrievals , the C6 DB AOD retrievals yield a stronger correlation with AERONET AOD and lower RMSE, MRE and MAE values, resulting in approximately 20%–30% less average overestimation. The C6 DTDB AOD results show a retrieval quality similar to that of DB, with approximately 50%–70% of the collections falling ithin the expected error (EE). Moreover, DT DB is much better than DT, with more than approximately 10%–20% of the collections falling within the EE. However, HARLS achieves a high correlation with the AERONET AODs, with low RMSE and MAE and small offsets . HARLS retrievals exhibited 7%–8% less uncertainty than the C6 DB retrievals, 37%–38% less uncertainty than the C6 DTDB retrievals, and 39%–44% less uncertainty than the C5 and C6 DT retrievals. HARLS achieves greater accuracy and reliability in AOD retrieval, and it is less biased and better overall than the routine MODIS aerosol products over the Jing-Jin-Ji region.
Autors: Jing Wei;Lin Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 835 - 844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison Between Conventional and Transferred DBD Plasma Jets for Processing of PDMS Surfaces
Abstract:
This paper studies the processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in two different assemblies, one using the primary plasma jet obtained from a conventional DBD and the other using a DBD plasma jet transfer. The evolution of water contact angle in the function of plasma processing time and in the function of aging time as well as the changes in the surface roughness of PDMS samples for both plasma treatments have been studied. The vibrational and rotational temperatures are compared for both plasmas and for the first time the vibrational temperature ( for the transferred plasma jet has been shown to be higher as compared with the primary jet. The increment in the value seems to be the main reason for the improvements in adhesion properties and surface wettability for the transferred plasma jet. Possible explanations for the increase in the vibrational temperature are presented.
Autors: Fellype do Nascimento;Munemasa Machida;Mara A. Canesqui;Stanislav A. Moshkalev;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 346 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison Between Pre-Log and Post-Log Statistical Models in Ultra-Low-Dose CT Reconstruction
Abstract:
X-ray detectors in clinical computed tomography (CT) usually operate in current-integrating mode. Their complicated signal statistics often lead to intractable likelihood functions for practical use in model-based image reconstruction (MBIR). It is therefore desirable to design simplified statistical models without losing the essential factors. Depending on whether the CT transmission data are logarithmically transformed, pre-log and post-log models are two major categories of choices in CT MBIR. Both being approximations, it remains an open question whether one model can notably improve image quality over the other on real scanners. In this study, we develop and compare several pre-log and post-log MBIR algorithms under a unified framework. Their reconstruction accuracy based on simulation and clinical datasets are evaluated. The results show that pre-log MBIR can achieve notably better quantitative accuracy than post-log MBIR in ultra-low-dose CT, although in less extreme cases, post-log MBIR with handcrafted pre-processing remains a competitive alternative. Pre-log MBIR could play a growing role in emerging ultra-low-dose CT applications.
Autors: Lin Fu;Tzu-Cheng Lee;Soo Mee Kim;Adam M. Alessio;Paul E. Kinahan;Zhiqian Chang;Ken Sauer;Mannudeep K. Kalra;Bruno De Man;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 707 - 720
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison of Logic Performance of CMOS Circuits Implemented With Junctionless and Inversion-Mode FinFETs
Abstract:
In this paper, we report the logic performance of CMOS circuits implemented with n- and p-channel junctionless (JL) FinFETs. A one-to-one comparison of the performance is made between such circuits and those implemented with n- and p-channel conventional inversion-mode (IM) FinFETs. The logic performance of a CMOS inverter is evaluated in terms of rise time and fall time for three different future technology nodes with the help of extensive 3-D device and mixed-mode circuit simulators. Frequency of oscillation of a three-stage ring oscillator (RO) is also obtained for such nodes. In spite of reduced ON-state current arising out of the higher channel doping and, hence, reduced carrier mobility in the JL devices, somewhat improved performance of the JL CMOS circuits over their IM counterparts are observed. For example, improvement of ~28% and ~10% in the rise time and fall time, respectively, for the inverter and ~12% in the frequency of oscillation of RO are observed for 10-nm technology node. Our investigations reveal reduced gate capacitance of the JL devices that in turn result in such improved performance of the JL CMOS circuits. Reduced gate capacitance also results in reduced dynamic power dissipation of JL CMOS circuits.
Autors: Shilpi Guin;Monali Sil;Abhijit Mallik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 953 - 959
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison of Photoresponse of Si-Based BIB THz Detectors
Abstract:
We fabricate Si-based blocked impurity band (BIB) terahertz detectors using p-dopant through a standard silicon device fabrication technology. Comparison of photoresponse of the detectors under alternate operating mode and conventional operation mode (COM) is made. We demonstrate that the detectors can achieve high responsivity through positive bias on the active layer side, namely, alternate operating mode (AOM). The response of the detectors terminates at wavelength of (8.57 THz) under AOM; on the contrary, the response is cutoff at (9.68 THz) with a positive bias on the blocking layer, namely, COM. The relative responsivity at 0.6 V under AOM is 2.3 times of that under COM. By developing an energy band model, we find that the response difference under the two modes originates from the change of band offsets. The electric field in the blocking layer under AOM is much smaller than COM and most of the voltage drops in the active layer under AOM, which leads to the bigger multiplication of the photon-generated carriers than COM. By analyzing the origination of the dark current under the AOM, a method to improve the performance of BIB detectors under AOM is proposed.
Autors: He Zhu;Zeping Weng;Jiaqi Zhu;Huizhen Wu;Ning Li;Ning Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1094 - 1099
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison of the Thermal Degradation of Heavily Nb-Doped and Normal PZT Thin Films
Abstract:
The degradation of niobium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and two types of PZT thin films were investigated. Undoped PZT, two-step PZT, and heavily Nb-doped PZT (PNZT) around the morphotropic phase boundary were in situ deposited under optimum condition by RF-magnetron sputtering. All 2--thick films had dense perovskite columnar grain structure and self-polarized (100) dominant orientation. PZT thin films were deposited on Pt/TiOx bottom electrode on Si wafer, and PNZT thin film was on Ir/TiW electrode with the help of orientation control. Sputtered PZT films formed on microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope and the degradation rates were compared at different temperatures. PNZT showed the best resistance to the thermal degradation, followed by two-step PZT. To clarify the effect of oxygen vacancies on the degradation of the film at high temperature, photoluminescence measurement was conducted, which confirmed that oxygen vacancy rate was the lowest in heavy PNZT. Nb-doping PZT thin films suppressed the oxygen deficit and made high imprint with self-polarization. This defect distribution and high internal field allowed PNZT thin film to make the piezoelectric sensors more stable and reliable at high temperature, such as reflow process of MEMS packaging.
Autors: Jeong-Suong Yang;YunSung Kang;Inyoung Kang;SeungMo Lim;Seung-Joo Shin;JungWon Lee;Kang Heon Hur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 617 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparisons of the Characteristic on the Mode Transition in an Inductively Coupled Discharge by Exciting Coil Change
Abstract:
The effects on the characteristics of mode transition were investigated in a spiral type inductively coupled discharge with different size antennas, such as different turns, intervals, and heights. In the case of the relatively small intervals, the transition powers, whether the E to H mode or the H to E mode, decrease with the intervals in the two-turn antenna discharge, and the transition powers of three-turn antenna discharge are much smaller than that of two-turn antenna as the heights stay constant. All these results can be attributed to the nonlinear enhancement mechanism of electron heating in the nonlocal kinetic overlapping region. Moreover, the transition powers decrease slowly with the intervals and finally can increase under the circumstance that the dissipated power in the plasma sheath is relatively obvious. Meanwhile, the transition powers seem like keeping at a minimum values in the three-turn antenna discharge with the same intervals. These experimental results can be caused by the increased power loss across the relatively large sheath and Joule heating in the antenna coil, which lead to a decrease in the radio frequency coupling efficiency with the increasing intervals. Therefore, the combined effect of the nonlinear enhancement effect and the thicken sheath is a key factor on the change laws of the mode transition powers in different type antenna discharges. This paper can be significant to industrial production applications and the foundation theory researches on the mode transition in inductively coupled discharges.
Autors: Xiao Zhang;Jin-Xiang Cao;Yu Liu;Yan-Peng Wang;Peng-Cheng Yu;Zhong-Kai Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 338 - 345
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comprehensive Research of Modular E-Core Stator Hybrid-Flux Switched Reluctance Motors With Segmented and Nonsegmented Rotors
Abstract:
Modular switched reluctance motors (MSRMs) normally have better characteristics than conventional SRMs (CSRMs) such as lower cost, higher torque production, stronger fault-tolerance, less loss, etc. This paper comprehensively investigates two hybrid-flux MSRMs with the same E-core stator, but different rotor configurations, termed as segmented-rotor MSRM (SR-MSRM) and nonsegmented rotor MSRM (NSR-MSRM), as well as compares with a CSRM. To evaluate the effects of different rotor topologies, the electromagnetic performances of two MSRMs and a CSRM with the same basic dimensions, including machine cost, flux distribution, static flux linkage, and torque, dynamic and transient operation performances are comprehensively analyzed and compared. The results based on finite-element analysis and Simulink indicate that the SR-MSRM has lowest steel consumption, highest torque production, highest power and torque densities, and strongest starting capability. Finally, three motor prototypes, including one SR-MSRM, one NSR-MSRM, and one CSRM are manufactured. The experimental results of static magnetic characteristics, dynamic and transient performances of three SRM drives confirm the predictions.
Autors: Wen Ding;Yanfang Hu;Tao Wang;Shuai Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 382 - 393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comprehensive Simulation Study of Direct Source-to-Drain Tunneling in Ultra-Scaled Si, Ge, and III-V DG-FETs
Abstract:
As the scaling of transistors approaches the 7-/5-nm technology nodes, direct source-to-drain tunneling (SDT) is becoming increasingly important with the shrinking gate lengths. In this paper, we present a comprehensive simulation study on the effects of SDT in ultrascaled FETs with various channel materials (Si, Ge, SiGe, InGaAs, and so on), surface/channel orientation configurations, gate lengths, body thicknesses, doping concentrations, stress levels, and temperatures. The nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism with the atomistic tight-binding basis is used to accurately model both the quantum-mechanical tunneling and the bandstructure effects. To quantify the strength of SDT, we propose a current ratio (), which essentially illustrates the difference between a full quantum transport model and a semiclassical model for calculating the FET OFF-current. The results clearly show that SDT strongly depends on orientations and stress levels in the FET channel, and for materials with a small transport effective-mass (e.g., Ge and InAs), SDT dominates the total OFF-current, making it difficult to achieve a low OFF-current target at a scaled gate length. In addition, it is found that the temperature dependence of the FET OFF-current decreases with the strength of SDT, which may have an implication on the technology definition and device targeting for the 7-/5-nm nodes.
Autors: Zhengping Jiang;Jing Wang;Hong-Hyun Park;Anh-Tuan Pham;Nuo Xu;Yang Lu;Seonghoon Jin;Woosung Choi;Mohammad Ali Pourghaderi;Jongchol Kim;Keun-Ho Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 945 - 952
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis
Abstract:
Although widely used, Multilinear PCA (MPCA), one of the leading multilinear analysis methods, still suffers from four major drawbacks. First, it is very sensitive to outliers and noise. Second, it is unable to cope with missing values. Third, it is computationally expensive since MPCA deals with large multi-dimensional datasets. Finally, it is unable to maintain the local geometrical structures due to the averaging process. This paper proposes a novel approach named Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis (CSMA) to solve the four problems mentioned above. Our approach can deal with the problem of missing values and outliers via SVD-L1. The Random Projection method is used to obtain the fast low-rank approximation of a given multifactor dataset. In addition, it is able to preserve the geometry of the original data. Our CSMA method can be used efficiently for multiple purposes, e.g., noise and outlier removal, estimation of missing values, biometric applications. We show that CSMA method can achieve good results and is very efficient in the inpainting problem as compared to [1] , [2] . Our method also achieves higher face recognition rates compared to LRTC, SPMA, MPCA and some other methods, i.e., PCA, LDA and LPP, on three challenging face databases, i.e., CMU-MPIE, CMU-PIE and Extended YALE-B.
Autors: Khoa Luu;Marios Savvides;Tien D. Bui;Ching Y. Suen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 444 - 456
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computational Neuromodulation : Future Challenges for Deep Brain Stimulation [Life Sciences]
Abstract:
Over the past two decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been leading a renaissance of neurosurgical treatments for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS has become an established adjunct therapy for movement and mood disorders that, despite maximal medical treatment, remain sufficiently debilitating to warrant the risks of brain surgery [1]. The procedure has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for essential tremor (ET), Parkinson's disease (PD), dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder, and the growing spectrum of treatable conditions is expanding to pain and major depression, among others. Interestingly, the large phenomenological variance of the treatable symptoms that span the motor and affective domains is addressed by the same therapeutic principle: similarly to how a cardiac pacemaker works, a medical device called a neurostimulator sends frequent (50-250 Hz) electrical pulses to electrodes implanted into a subcortical nucleus associated with the disorder. Despite its simplicity, the procedure, when applied accurately, may alleviate symptoms of complicated diseases.
Autors: Konstantinos P. Michmizos;Blerta Lindqvist;Stephen Wong;Eric L. Hargreaves;Konstantinos Psychas;Georgios D. Mitsis;Shabbar F. Danish;Konstantina S. Nikita;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 114 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computer Aided Design of a Microscale Digitally Controlled Hydraulic Resistor
Abstract:
Microscale mechanical networks are prevalent in lab-on-a-chip systems, which are rapidly expanding into biological, chemical, and physical research. In these systems, nano-liter volumes of fluids are manipulated and a precise control of flow in individual segments within a complex network is often desirable. One paradigm for such control suggests adjusting the hydraulic resistance of each segment, relying on the fact that like in electrical circuits, fluid flow is depended upon the relation between the potential drop (pressure difference) and the resistance of the transmitting conductor. Current solutions for the control of hydraulic resistance rely on intricate fabrication processes, are often characterized by a high-biased error and can generally produce a limited range of resistance. Here, a computer-aided design of a six-bit digitally controlled adjustable hydraulic resistor, which features five linear ranges of resistance and a small footprint is presented. This design can be rapidly embedded within a microfluidic network for real time control of fluid flow.
Autors: Elishai Ezra Tsur;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 508 - 512
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computer Modeling of Nickel–Iron Alloy in Power Electronics Applications
Abstract:
Rotational magnetizations of an Ni–Fe alloy are simulated using two different computer modeling approaches, physical and phenomenological. The first one is a model defined using a single hysteron operator based on the Stoner and Wohlfarth theory and the second one is a model based on a suitable system of neural networks. The models are identified and validated using experimental data, and, finally, an example of their application for a finite-element analysis is given.
Autors: Ermanno Cardelli;Antonio Faba;Antonino Laudani;Simone Quondam Antonio;Francesco Riganti Fulginei;Alessandro Salvini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2494 - 2501
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Concentration Estimator of Mixed VOC Gases Using Sensor Array With Neural Networks and Decision Tree Learning
Abstract:
This paper aims to estimate the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as ethanol, acetone, formaldehyde, and toluene, in a quaternary mixture. In order to develop an electronic nose for practical applications, the concentrations of VOCs and their combinations in the mixture are randomly assigned. The sensor array consists of five metal oxide sensors, which are produced in a laboratory. The algorithm for the estimation of concentration is realized using a back-propagation neural network (BPNN) with two hidden layers and decision tree learning. First, the data set of the VOC mixture is divided into four subclasses based on the concentration using classification and regression trees. Second, every subclass is classified and regressed using a corresponding BPNN; furthermore, its four output nodes provide a continuous prediction of the concentration of each VOC in the mixture. A single BPNN with two hidden layers is also constructed and evaluated for the purpose of comparison. The maximum error in the concentration estimation of each VOC using the proposed method is approximately 2 ppm, and the accuracy is better than the result obtained using the single BPNN. Moreover, the relative error is less than 5% when the predicted concentration is higher than 20 ppm. This paper reports some aspects of the potential of using neural networks for quantitatively analyzing the concentrations of a VOC mixture.
Autors: Zhiyun Chen;Yangong Zheng;Ken Chen;Hanyu Li;Jiawen Jian;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1884 - 1892
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Concurrent Efficient Evaluation of Small-Change Parameters and Green’s Functions for TCAD Device Noise and Variability Analysis
Abstract:
We present here an efficient numerical approach for the concurrent evaluation of the small-change deterministic device parameters and of the relevant Green’s functions exploited in the simulation of device small-signal (SS), small-signal large-signal (SSLS conversion matrix), stationary and cyclostationary noise, and variability properties of semiconductor devices through the solution of physics-based models based on a partial-differential equation description of charged carrier transport. The proposed technique guarantees a significant advantage in computation time with respect to the currently implemented solutions. The accuracy is the same as for the standard technique.
Autors: Simona Donati Guerrieri;Marco Pirola;Fabrizio Bonani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1269 - 1275
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Condition monitoring of vegetable oil insulation in in-service power transformers: some data spanning 10 years
Abstract:
Power transformers are expected to operate for several decades [1]. The insulating oil of a power transformer can be replaced if it becomes too degraded. However, it is obviously financially preferable to a utility that the insulating oil last as long as practically possible. Vegetable oils were among some of the earliest types of dielectric liquid, e.g., a team led by George Westinghouse used caster and linseed oils from the late 1880s onward [2]. However, a disadvantage was that the vegetable oils readily oxidized, and so mineral oils were adopted. In the mid to late 1990s there was renewed interest in vegetable oil-based dielectrics, to which antioxidants had been added [3]. Subsequently, vegetable oil-based transformer oils became commercially available. Initially, they were used only in smaller distribution transformers. However, as the electrical industry became more confident, they began to be used in ever larger power transformers from the early 2000s.
Autors: Daniel Martin;Tapan Saha;Lindsay Mcpherson;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 44 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Condition Parameter Estimation for Photovoltaic Buck Converters Based on Adaptive Model Observers
Abstract:
DC–DC power converters such as buck converters are susceptible to degradation and failure due to operating under conditions of electrical stress and variable power sources in power conversion applications, such as electric vehicles and renewable energy. Some key components such as electrolytic capacitors degrade over time due to evaporation of the electrolyte. In this paper, a model-observer based scheme is proposed to monitor the states of Buck converters and to estimate their component parameters, such as capacitance and inductance. First, a diagnosis observer is proposed, and the generated residual vectors are applied for fault detection and isolation. Second, component condition parameters, such as capacitance and inductance are reconstructed using another novel observer with adaptive feedback law. Additionally, the observer structures and their theoretical performance are analyzed and proven. In contrast to existing reliability approaches applied in buck converters, the proposed scheme performs online-estimation for key parameters. Finally, buck converters in conventional dc–dc step-down and photovoltaic applications are investigated to test and validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in both simulation and laboratory experiments. Results demonstrate the feasibility, performance, and superiority of the proposed component parameter estimation scheme.
Autors: Zhaohui Cen;Paul Stewart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 148 - 160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Confinement Effects on Radiation Response of SOI FinFETs at the Scaling Limit
Abstract:
This letter demonstrates the impact of carrier confinement on the radiation response of Si-based SOI finFETS toward the scaling limit. A comparison between the semi-classical and quantum (i.e., self-consistent Schrödinger–Poisson) calculations establishes the significance of confinement effects in determining the experimentally observed radiation response as fin width is scaled to a few nanometers. This letter reveals that reduction in ionizing radiation sensitivity as a function of scaling is not only due to improved electrostatic control, but also due to reduced oxide fields resulting from size quantization and carrier confinement inside the channel of the device.
Autors: Ivan S. Esqueda;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 306 - 309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Congestion-Aware Communication Paradigm for Sustainable Dense Mobile Crowdsensing
Abstract:
Mobile crowdsensing, as an emerging sensing paradigm, relies significantly on wireless communication networks to provide QoS guaranteed data transmission among smartphone users on phenomena of common interest. The explosively growing number and varieties of smartphones impose heavy burdens on the communication infrastructures of mobile crowdsensing. The communication performance of crowdsensing may deteriorate in some high-density areas due to the overwhelming communication requests, while the wireless bandwidth in other areas may not be fully utilized with sporadic and infrequent communication requests. Therefore, it is of great necessity to consider the imbalanced utilization of wireless resources in the design of a communication paradigm in mobile crowdsensing to meet the stringent QoS requirements. To this end, in this article we propose a congestion-aware communication paradigm for sustainable dense mobile crowdsensing in order to achieve efficient load balancing and reliable communication in mobile crowdsensing.
Autors: Wen Sun;Jiajia Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 62 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Congratulations, IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Volunteers-and Thank You
Abstract:
Presents congratulatory messages to IES society volunteers.
Autors: Thilo Sauter;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consensus of Linear Multiagent Systems With Actuator Saturation and External Disturbances
Abstract:
This brief considers the leader-following consensus problem for linear multiagent systems with actuator saturation and external disturbances. By enlarging the contractively invariant set to estimate the domain of consensus attraction (DOCA) of the origin, this brief derives a condition to estimate the DOCA under the actuator saturation and magnitude-bounded disturbances. For the energy-bounded disturbance case, a sufficient condition is obtained under which trajectories starting from an ellipsoid will remain inside an outer ellipsoid. Moreover, all the optimization problems are transformed into the corresponding convex optimization algorithms with linear-matrix-inequality constraints. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.
Autors: Chao Deng;Guang-Hong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 284 - 288
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Considerations for Static Energy Reduction in Digital CMOS ICs Using NEMS Power Gating
Abstract:
Due to its infinite OFF resistance, Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switches (NEMS) have been recently proposed to reduce leakage current during the standby mode in large-scale Digital ICs in nano regime area. However, detailed analysis of the conditions at which the NEMS devices will have impact is missing. In this brief, the technique of power gating is analyzed with a NEMS switch using detailed circuit level simulations to obtain the conditions under which one can obtain net energy savings as compared with FinFET-based power gating. Finally, applicability in the energy reduction on a futuristic system-on-chip for mobile platform made using 14 nm gate length FinFET device is evaluated.
Autors: Sivaneswaran Sankar;Ulayil Sajesh Kumar;Mayank Goel;Maryam Shojaei Baghini;Valipe Ramgopal Rao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1399 - 1403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Considerations for the Application of an MV High-Speed Grounding Switch for Arc Flash Mitigation of LV Equipment
Abstract:
This paper expands on the work of a previous paper that presented the possibility of a significant reduction of incident energy on the secondary of medium-voltage to low-voltage (MV–LV) transformers with the combination of a high-speed grounding switch (HSGS) and traditional MV current limiting E-rated fuses. It was shown that when the HSGS is applied at a location between the E-rated fuse load terminals and the transformer's primary connection and controlled by relays on the LV side, incident energy can be reduced to less than 1.0 cal/cm2. The first paper focused on the results from a high-power test lab, whereas this paper discusses the issues related with its application on typical power systems and lessons learned from installations at several locations. Application considerations include a review of relay requirements, coordination of E-rated fuses, requirements for resistance grounded systems, modeling in analysis software, and field installation considerations.
Autors: Raymond Catlett;Mike Lang;Steve Scala;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1709 - 1716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Constructing a User-Friendly and Smart Ubiquitous Personalized Learning Environment by Using a Context-Aware Mechanism
Abstract:
Although m-learning applications have been widely researched, few studies have investigated applying adaptive learning content to various learning environments and efficient input interfaces. This study combined a context-aware mechanism, which can be used to provide suitable learning information anytime and anyplace by using GPS technology, with a rapid and user-friendly QR code interface input into a personalized context-aware recommendation (PCAR) learning system for enabling learners to immediately save useful external contents as learning materials. To improve students’ English application abilities efficiently, GPS combined with an intelligent personalized context-aware learning algorithm was used to obtain English learning content that is more practical. The results of several experiments and investigations indicate that the posttest grades of the experimental group, which used the proposed PCAR system, were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, approximately 80 percent of the users were satisfied with how the system benefited their learning and with its ease of use. The results also show that the PCAR system markedly enhanced learner interest and learning efficiency by creating a convenient virtual English learning environment.
Autors: Ching-Bang Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 104 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Content Pushing With Request Delay Information
Abstract:
Pushing along with proactive caching, in which content items are transmitted prior to being requested by a user, holds the promise of trading scalable storage resources for substantial throughput increase in content-centric networks. In this paper, a joint pushing and caching (JPC) method is studied, which determines when and which content to be pushed to, and to be removed from, the receiver buffer based on content request delay information (RDI) that predicts a user’s request time for certain content items. Both offline and online JPC policies with noncausal, statistical, and causal RDI are proposed based on a greedy algorithm and dynamic programming. The effective throughputs of the policies are evaluated, and they are seen to increase with both the receiver buffer size and the pushing limited channel capacity. The analysis also reveals the fundamental tradeoff between communication and storage resources. Furthermore, RDI feedback is shown to significantly enhance the performance of the online JPC without incurring much signaling overhead or complexity, especially in small buffer scenarios.
Autors: Wei Chen;H. Vincent Poor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1146 - 1161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Context-Associative Hierarchical Memory Model for Human Activity Recognition and Prediction
Abstract:
Human activity recognition is a challenging high-level vision task, for which multiple factors, such as subject, object, and their diverse interactions, have to be considered and modeled. Current learning-based methods are limited in the capability to integrate human-level concepts into an easily extensible computational framework. Inspired by the existing human memory model, we present a context-associative approach to recognize activity with human-object interaction. The proposed system can recognize incoming visual content based on the previous experienced activities. The high-level activity is parsed into consecutive subactivities, and we build a context cluster to model the temporal relations. The semantic attributes of the subactivity are organized by a concept hierarchy. Based on the hierarchy, a series of similarity functions are defined to turn the recognition computing into retrievals over the contextual memory, similar to the auto-associative characteristics of human memory. Partially matching in retrieval and stored memory make the activity prediction possible. The dynamical evolution of the brain memory is mimicked to allow decay and reinforcement of the input information, providing a natural way to maintain data and save computational time. We evaluate our approach on three data sets: CAD-120, MHOI, and OPPORTUNITY. The proposed method demonstrates promising results compared with other state-of-the-art techniques.
Autors: Lei Wang;Xu Zhao;Yunfei Si;Liangliang Cao;Yuncai Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 646 - 659
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Contextual Markup and Mining in Digital Games for Science Learning: Connecting Player Behaviors to Learning Goals
Abstract:
Digital games can make unique and powerful contributions to K-12 science education, but much of that potential remains unrealized. Research evaluating games for learning still relies primarily on pre- and post-test data, which limits possible insights into more complex interactions between game design features, gameplay, and formal assessment. Therefore, a critical step forward involves developing rich representations for analyzing gameplay data. This paper leverages data mining techniques to model learning and performance, using a metadata markup language that relates game actions to concepts relevant to specific game contexts. We discuss results from a classroom study and identify potential relationships between students’ planning/prediction behaviors observed across game levels and improvement on formal assessments. The results have implications for scaffolding specific activities, that include physics learning during gameplay, solution planning and effect prediction. Overall, the approach underscores the value of our contextualized approach to gameplay markup to facilitate data mining and discovery.
Autors: John S. Kinnebrew;Stephen S. Killingsworth;Douglas B. Clark;Gautam Biswas;Pratim Sengupta;James Minstrell;Mario Martinez-Garza;Kara Krinks;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 93 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous Authentication and Authorization for the Internet of Things
Abstract:
With the dawn of the Internet of Things, small but smart devices have become ubiquitous. Although these devices carry a lot of compute power and enable several interesting applications, they lack conventional interfaces such as keyboards, mice, and touchscreens. As a result, such devices can't authenticate and authorize users in familiar ways. Furthermore, unlike for conventional settings, a one-time authentication at the start of a session usually isn't appropriate for the IoT, because the application scenarios are dynamic and a user might not retain physical control or even awareness of IoT devices quite as readily as with traditional computers. Thus, users need to be continuously authenticated and authorized. Fortunately, the IoT offers interesting potential solutions for meeting these requirements. This article discusses some challenges and opportunities in developing continuous authentication and authorization approaches for the IoT while also presenting a case study of a Wi-Fi-based human authentication system called WiFiU.
Autors: Muhammad Shahzad;Munindar P. Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 86 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous Probability Distribution Prediction of Image Emotions via Multitask Shared Sparse Regression
Abstract:
Previous works on image emotion analysis mainly focused on predicting the dominant emotion category or the average dimension values of an image for affective image classification and regression. However, this is often insufficient in various real-world applications, as the emotions that are evoked in viewers by an image are highly subjective and different. In this paper, we propose to predict the continuous probability distribution of image emotions which are represented in dimensional valence-arousal space. We carried out large-scale statistical analysis on the constructed Image-Emotion-Social-Net dataset, on which we observed that the emotion distribution can be well-modeled by a Gaussian mixture model. This model is estimated by an expectation-maximization algorithm with specified initializations. Then, we extract commonly used emotion features at different levels for each image. Finally, we formalize the emotion distribution prediction task as a shared sparse regression (SSR) problem and extend it to multitask settings, named multitask shared sparse regression (MTSSR), to explore the latent information between different prediction tasks. SSR and MTSSR are optimized by iteratively reweighted least squares. Experiments are conducted on the Image-Emotion-Social-Net dataset with comparisons to three alternative baselines. The quantitative results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method.
Autors: Sicheng Zhao;Hongxun Yao;Yue Gao;Rongrong Ji;Guiguang Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 632 - 645
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous Wavelet Transform-Based Frequency Dispersion Compensation Method for Electromagnetic Time-Reversal Imaging
Abstract:
The invariance of wave equations in lossless media allows the time reversal (TR) technique to spatiotemporally refocus back-propagated signals in a given ultrawideband imaging scenario. However, the existence of dispersion and loss in the propagation medium breaks this invariance and the resultant TR focusing exhibits frequency and propagation duration dependent degradation. We propose an algorithm based on the continuous wavelet transform that tackles this degradation to improve focusing resolution under such conditions. The developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the scenario for localization of lung cancer.
Autors: Ammar M. Abduljabbar;Mehmet E. Yavuz;Fumie Costen;Ryutaro Himeno;Hideo Yokota;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1321 - 1329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous-Observation Partially Observable Semi-Markov Decision Processes for Machine Maintenance
Abstract:
Partially observable semi-Markov decision processes (POSMDPs) provide a rich framework for planning under both state transition uncertainty and observation uncertainty. In this paper, we widen the literature on POSMDP by studying discrete-state discrete-action yet continuous-observation POSMDPs. We prove that the resultant -vector set is continuous and, therefore, propose a point-based value iteration algorithm. This paper also bridges the gap between POSMDP and machine maintenance by incorporating various types of maintenance actions, such as actions changing machine state, actions changing degradation rate, and the temporally extended action “do nothing.” Both finite and infinite planning horizons are reviewed, and the solution methodology for each type of planning horizon is given. We illustrate the maintenance decision process via a real industrial problem and demonstrate that the developed framework can be readily applied to solve relevant maintenance problems.
Autors: Mimi Zhang;Matthew Revie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 202 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuously Tunable 0.55–1.9-GHz Bandpass Filter With a Constant Bandwidth Using Switchable Varactor-Tuned Resonators
Abstract:
This paper reports on tunable 2- and 3-pole bandpass filters with a wide frequency tuning range (tuning ratio >3) and a constant bandwidth using switchable varactor-tuned resonators. The wide center frequency tuning range is obtained using p-i-n diodes to switch in and out quarter-wavelength (/4) or half-wavelength (/2) resonators for low-band or high-band modes, without increasing the tuning capacitance range of the varactors. A combination of electric and magnetic coupling is utilized to realize a near constant absolute bandwidth across the tuning range. A switchable feed line with a fixed matching capacitance is used to realize the external coupling. Two filters are designed and fabricated on a Duroid substrate with and mm. For the 2-pole filter, the center frequency is tuned from 550 to 1900 MHz while maintaining a 3-dB bandwidth of 92 ± 6 MHz, insertion loss of 3.2~4.4 dB, and return loss of better than 15 dB. For the 3-pole filter, the center frequency is tuned from 540 to 1800 MHz while maintaining a 3-dB bandwidth of 89 ± 4 MHz, insertion loss of 4~5.4 dB, and return loss of better than 12 dB. For both filter types, the third-order intercept point and 1-dB compression point ( are 11 and 7 dBm, respectively. The rejection level at 200-MHz offset frequency from the passband center frequency is better than 25 and 41 dB for 2- and 3-pole filters, respectively, across the entire tuning range. To the best of our knowledge, this planar b- ndpass filter exhibits the widest tuning range with a near-constant bandwidth.
Autors: Feng Lin;Mina Rais-Zadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 792 - 803
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Angiogenesis Imaging by Mutual Information Analysis for Prostate Cancer Localization
Abstract:
Objective: The role of angiogenesis in cancer growth has stimulated research aimed at noninvasive cancer detection by blood perfusion imaging. Recently, contrast ultrasound dispersion imaging was proposed as an alternative method for angiogenesis imaging. After the intravenous injection of an ultrasound-contrast-agent bolus, dispersion can be indirectly estimated from the local similarity between neighboring time-intensity curves (TICs) measured by ultrasound imaging. Up until now, only linear similarity measures have been investigated. Motivated by the promising results of this approach in prostate cancer (PCa), we developed a novel dispersion estimation method based on mutual information, thus including nonlinear similarity, to further improve its ability to localize PCa. Methods: First, a simulation study was performed to establish the theoretical link between dispersion and mutual information. Next, the method's ability to localize PCa was validated in vivo in 23 patients (58 datasets) referred for radical prostatectomy by comparison with histology. Results: A monotonic relationship between dispersion and mutual information was demonstrated. The in vivo study resulted in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve area equal to 0.77, which was superior (p = 0.21–0.24) to that obtained by linear similarity measures (0.74–0.75) and (p 0.05) to that by conventional perfusion parameters (0.70). Conclusion: Mutual information between neighboring time–intensity curves can be used to indirectly estimate contrast dispersion and can lead to more accurate PCa localization. Significance: /italic> An improved PCa localization method can possibly lead to better grading and staging of tumors, and support focal-treatment guidance. Moreover, future employment of the method in other types of angiogenic cancer can be considered.
Autors: Stefan G. Schalk;Libertario Demi;Nabil Bouhouch;Maarten P. J. Kuenen;Arnoud W. Postema;Jean J. M. C. H. de la Rosette;Hessel Wijkstra;Tjalling J. Tjalkens;Massimo Mischi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 661 - 670
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control Circuits in Power Electronics: Practical Issues in Design and Implementation [Book News]
Abstract:
This book discloses discloses some engineering solutions that usually have no place to be published in papers about control of power electronics converters. Although it is assumed that a skilled engineer can figure out how to implement a published modulator and nonlinear controller, often, the obtained solution is not optimal and takes valuable time. This book presents state-of-the-art techniques to implement modulation schemes, control algorithms, and gate drivers using analog circuits, digital microprocessors, or field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA). The book’s first part covers analog control circuits and converters where analog control circuitry presents higher performance. The second part, “Digital Control Circuits,” includes quantization effects and limit cycles, controller implementation, digital PWM, microcontrollerbased electronic ballasts, and FPGAs with sliding-mode direct control applied to unity power factor boost rectifiers (UPFRs). The third part, “New Trends in Control Circuits for Power Electronics,” starts with intelligent gate drivers, design and control of switched capacitor (charge pumps), and DSP natural frame and sliding-mode control of UPFRs at fixed switching frequency. The last chapters are dedicated to the application of dual-core DSPs in the control of grid-forming converters to microgrids and the usage of computational intelligence (fitness functions, genetic algorithms, and ant colony optimization) to optimize power converters.
Autors: Fernando A. Silva;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 84 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Control Under Stochastic Multiplicative Uncertainties: Part I, Fundamental Conditions of Stabilizability
Abstract:
In this two-part paper we study stabilization and optimal control of linear time-invariant systems with stochastic multiplicative uncertainties. We consider structured multiplicative perturbations, which, unlike in robust control theory, consist of static, zero-mean stochastic processes, and we assess the stability and performance of such systems using mean-square measures. While Part 2 of this paper tackles and solves optimal control problems under the mean-square criterion, Part 1 is devoted to the stabilizability problem. We develop fundamental conditions of mean-square stabilizability which ensure that an open-loop unstable system can be stabilized by output feedback in the mean-square sense. For single-input single-output systems, a general, explicit stabilizability condition is obtained. This condition, both necessary and sufficient, provides a fundamental limit imposed by the system's unstable poles, nonminimum phase zeros and time delay. For multi-input multi-output systems, we provide a complete, computationally efficient solution for minimum phase systems possibly containing time delays, in the form of a generalized eigenvalue problem readily solvable by means of linear matrix inequality optimization. Limiting cases and nonminimum phase plants are analyzed in depth for conceptual insights, revealing, among other things, how the directions of unstable poles and nonminimum phase zeros may affect mean-square stabilizability in MIMO systems. Other than their independent interest, stochastic multiplicative uncertainties have found utilities in modeling networked control systems pertaining to, e.g., packet drops, network delays, and fading. Our results herein lend solutions applicable to networked control problems addressing these issues.
Autors: Tian Qi;Jie Chen;Weizhou Su;Minyue Fu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1269 - 1284
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Converse Bounds for Private Communication Over Quantum Channels
Abstract:
This paper establishes several converse bounds on the private transmission capabilities of a quantum channel. The main conceptual development builds firmly on the notion of a private state, which is a powerful, uniquely quantum method for simplifying the tripartite picture of privacy involving local operations and public classical communication to a bipartite picture of quantum privacy involving local operations and classical communication. This approach has previously led to some of the strongest upper bounds on secret key rates, including the squashed entanglement and the relative entropy of entanglement. Here, we use this approach along with a “privacy test” to establish a general meta-converse bound for private communication, which has a number of applications. The meta-converse allows for proving that any quantum channel’s relative entropy of entanglement is a strong converse rate for private communication. For covariant channels, the meta-converse also leads to second-order expansions of relative entropy of entanglement bounds for private communication rates. For such channels, the bounds also apply to the private communication setting in which the sender and the receiver are assisted by unlimited public classical communication, and as such, they are relevant for establishing various converse bounds for quantum key distribution protocols conducted over these channels. We find precise characterizations for several channels of interest and apply the methods to establish converse bounds on the private transmission capabilities of all phase-insensitive bosonic channels.
Autors: Mark M. Wilde;Marco Tomamichel;Mario Berta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1792 - 1817
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Beamforming for Cognitive-Radio-Based Broadcasting Systems in Presence of Asynchronous Interference
Abstract:
To address the asynchronous interference issue in a generalized scenario with multiple primary and multiple secondary receivers, in this paper, we propose an innovative cooperative beamforming technique. The cooperative beamforming design is formulated as an optimization problem that maximizes the weighted sum transmission rate of secondary destinations while maintaining the asynchronous interference at the primary receivers below their target thresholds. In particular, we obtain the optimum beamforming directions and allocate power values among such beamforming directions. In light of the intractability of the power allocation problem, an approximation is used to convert the nonconvex and nonlinear optimization problem into a convex and linear one. Due to the multiple interference constraints corresponding to multiple primary receivers, the power allocation scheme is still complex. Therefore, we also propose a low-complexity power allocation algorithm. The proposed beamforming technique is extended for the case when cooperating CR nodes (CCRNs) have statistical channel knowledge of the primary receivers by developing an upper bound on the probability of introducing asynchronous interference at a given primary receiver beyond a given threshold value. We also propose two CCRN selection strategies for cooperative beamforming.
Autors: Mai H. Hassan;Md. Jahangir Hossain;Vijay K. Bhargava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2311 - 2323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coordinated Operation of Concentrated Solar Power and Wind Resources for the Provision of Energy and Reserve Services
Abstract:
Renewable energy poses increasing challenges for power systems due to its variability, intermittency and uncertainty. The concentrated solar power (CSP) plant represents a promising alternative source of renewable energy technology and allows for the incorporation of thermal energy storage (TES) to store energy for later use. Furthermore, an electric heater (EH) can be integrated in CSP plant to convert supplemental energy from other sources into thermal energy for utilizations. Both TES and EH devices provide operational flexibility into power systems to accommodate more renewable energy through strategic scheduling and dispatching. Thus, we devote this paper to develop a stochastic two-stage day-ahead unit commitment model and a rolling look-ahead economic dispatch model with the integration of CSP and wind resources. We apply the proposed approach to assess the role of TES and EH in the improvement of the system's operational flexibility. Specifically, we focus on their contribution to the mitigation of the uncertainty in the outputs of renewable resources, to the reserve requirements and to the reduction of overall system costs. We perform extensive studies on a modified IEEE test system using real solar and wind data with different configurations of CSP, TES and EH. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of CSP with TES and EH in promoting the further integration of renewable energy.
Autors: Ti Xu;Ning Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1260 - 1271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coordination of Generation and Transmission Development Through Generation Transmission Charges—A Game Theoretical Approach
Abstract:
Transmission charges aim to recover the cost of transmission network investments and provide efficient locational signals to new generators. In this paper, we investigate the effect of these charges on the development of new generation capacities in the system. Generation expansion planning is decided by strategic generation planners (SGPs) trying to maximize their profits, while transmission line investments are planned by a central planner and regulatory body aimed at minimizing the overall operation and network investment costs of the system. Regulatory transmission charges (RTCs) are calculated according to the marginal responsibility of generation investment on transmission network investment costs. An iterative algorithm is proposed to model the interaction taking place between the central planner and SGPs. The developed methodology is applied to a 2-node illustrative example and the IEEE-RTS96, and effects of RTCs on investment decisions of SGPs are analyzed.
Autors: Yaser Tohidi;Luis Olmos;Michel Rivier;Mohammad Reza Hesamzadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1103 - 1114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coplanar Waveguide Transmission Line Loaded With Electric-LC Resonator for Determination of Glucose Concentration Sensing
Abstract:
In this paper, a compact glucose concentration sensor is designed based on an electric-LC (ELC) resonator coupled with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line, and the ELC resonator is no longer aligned with the CPW transmission line axis. The principle of the sensor is based on the notch depth in the transmission coefficient () depending on the glucose concentration, and it is applied using a micropipette into a cylindrical plastic sample chamber that covers the gap in the middle branch of the ELC resonator. The notch magnitude in the transmission coefficient response behavior was measured and analyzed in the range of 2.5–6 GHz with air, deionized water, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and different glucose concentrations in deionized water and PBS in the range of 0%–20% (w/V). The experimental results showed that the proposed sensor has good detection of the glucose concentration with high linearity and wide dynamic range. A prototype of the sensor provides an opportunity for the development of a biological and chemical sensing application in the future.
Autors: Supakorn Harnsoongnoen;Anuwat Wanthong;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1635 - 1640
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corona Discharge Generated by Dual-Type Electrode Fixed Between Parallel Grounded Strips
Abstract:
Several electrode arrangements have been proposed to enhance the efficiency of insulating materials charging by corona discharge. Recent studies pointed out that the presence of a grounded metallic shield in the proximity of the high-voltage corona electrode increases, the total current measured at the surface of the collecting electrode decreases the corona onset voltage value and enlarges the reparation of current density and the surface potential as well. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the effect of replacing the shield by two parallel grounded strips located in the horizontal plan of the ionizing wire. The experimental results obtained show that the presence of the shield or the two parallel strips in the proximity of the dual wire electrode increases in the same way the corona current at the surface of the plate electrode. Varying the height of the strips and the wire-strips distance could modify significantly the behavior of the corona discharge in such electrode arrangements for both polarities. The characterization of this new electrode configuration could be very useful to the corona charging of different insulating materials in various electrostatic processes. These experiments are discussed in relation with the results of the numerical analysis of the electric field generated by the various electrode configurations. The equipotential lines plots and the electric field lines orientation explain the peculiarities of the corona discharge generated by this electrode arrangement.
Autors: Abdeldjalil Reguig;Lucian Dascalescu;Peyman Dordizadeh;Abdelber Bendaoud;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1459 - 1465
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Attomolar Sensitivity of FET Biosensor Based on Smooth and Reliable Graphene Nanogrids”
Abstract:
The authors would like to make corrections to the above paper [1, Fig. 2(b) and 4(b)] due to some post-processing carried out in these figures. After capturing the SEM image-cross-section [1, Fig. 2(b)], we wanted to measure the pore lengths, pore diameters at different positions along the lengths and also the spacing between the pores, to evaluate the uniformity of the electrochemical etching process. To do so, vertical and horizontal lines had to be constructed. For this purpose, we were trying to select different textured lines in the image processing software whose texture would match closely the original texture of the SEM image. But exact matching was not possible. Initially we tried to measure with a textured line, a part of which is actually the white region above the “nm” in 30 nm word in [1, Fig. 2(b)]. Later, we shifted to different textured lines which are visible above the “100 nm” word and also within the pores in [1, Fig. 2(b)]. Within the pores these lines look grayish. These lines are visible in most of the regions since they were a better match with the original SEM figure than the whitish line. However, all these lines were only for our own measurements and should have been deleted before submitting the final paper.
Autors: J. Basu;C. RoyChaudhuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 407 - 407
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrective Control to Handle Forecast Uncertainty: A Chance Constrained Optimal Power Flow
Abstract:
Higher shares of electricity generation from renewable energy sources and market liberalization is increasing uncertainty in power systems operation. At the same time, operation is becoming more flexible with improved control systems and new technology such as phase shifting transformers (PSTs) and high voltage direct current connections (HVDC). Previous studies have shown that the use of corrective control in response to outages contributes to a reduction in operating cost, while maintaining N-1 security. In this work, we propose a method to extend the use of corrective control of PSTs and HVDCs to react to uncertainty. We characterize the uncertainty as continuous random variables, and define the corrective control actions through affine control policies. This allows us to efficiently model control reactions to a large number of uncertainty sources. The control policies are then included in a chance constrained optimal power flow formulation, which guarantees that the system constraints are enforced with a desired probability. By applying an analytical reformulation of the chance constraints, we obtain a second-order cone problem for which we develop an efficient solution algorithm. In a case study for the IEEE 118 bus system, we show that corrective control for uncertainty leads to a decrease in operational cost, while maintaining system security. Further, we demonstrate the scalability of the method by solving the problem for the IEEE 300 bus and the Polish system test cases.
Autors: Line Roald;Sidhant Misra;Thilo Krause;Göran Andersson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1626 - 1637
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrective Control With Transient Assistive Measures: Value Assessment for Great Britain Transmission System
Abstract:
In this paper, the efficacy and value of using corrective control supported by transient assistive measures (TAM) is quantified in terms of the cost savings due to less constrained operation of the system. The example TAM is a rapid modulation of the power order of the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) links in the system so as to improve transient stability during corrective control. A sequential approach is used for the offline value assessment: a security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) module (master problem) determines the optimal generation dispatch, HVDC settings, and the corrective control actions to be used post-fault (generation and demand curtailed) so as to minimize the operational costs while ensuring static security. The transient stability module (slave problem) assesses the dynamic stability for the operating condition set by the SCED and, if needed, applies appropriate TAM to maintain the system transiently stable. If this is not possible, the master module uses a tighter set of security constraints to update the dispatch and other settings until the system can be stabilized. A case-study on the Great Britain system is used to demonstrate that corrective control actions supported by TAM facilitate significantly higher pre-fault power transfers whilst maintaining N-2 security.
Autors: Yousef Pipelzadeh;Rodrigo Moreno;Balarko Chaudhuri;Goran Strbac;Tim C. Green;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1638 - 1650
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrective Model-Predictive Control in Large Electric Power Systems
Abstract:
Enhanced control capabilities are required to coordinate the response of increasingly diverse controllable resources, including FACTS devices, energy storage, demand response, and fast-acting generation. Model-predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for accommodating these devices in a corrective control framework that exploits the thermal overload capability of transmission lines and limits detrimental effects of contingencies. This work expands upon earlier implementations by incorporating voltage magnitudes and reactive power into the system model utilized by MPC. These improvements provide a more accurate prediction of system behavior and enable more effective control decisions. Performance of this enhanced MPC strategy is demonstrated using a model of the Californian power system containing 4259 buses. Sparsity in modeling and control actions must be exploited for implementation on large networks. A method is developed for identifying the set of controls that is most effective for a given contingency. The proposed MPC corrective control algorithm fits naturally within energy management systems where it can provide feedback control or act as a guide for system operators by identifying beneficial control actions across a wide range of devices.
Autors: Jonathon A. Martin;Ian A. Hiskens;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1651 - 1662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrective Transmission Switching for N-1-1 Contingency Analysis
Abstract:
System operators are required to serve the load in the most cost-effective way while maintaining the integrity of the system and heeding reliability requirements. In the day-ahead market, operators acquire reserves in an attempt to guarantee N-1 reliability; yet, reserve deliverability is not guaranteed. Prior research has shown that the use of transmission switching, or topology control, may help improve reserve deliverability. In this paper, transmission switching is used as a corrective mechanism to help the system achieve N-1-1 reliability, where not only has the system lost a single element, but also it experiences the loss of a second major element after an adjustment period. In an attempt to preserve N-1-1 reliability, for this paper, a day-ahead unit commitment model that acquires supplementary reserves is solved. The day-ahead market solution is then tested for N-1-1 reliability using contingency analysis models with and without transmission switching. The methodology can be employed at the day-ahead time stage to ensure the system has acquired sufficient supplemental reserves. The results demonstrate that not only can corrective transmission switching be beneficial post-contingency without inhibiting the ability to return to N-1 reliability, but it can also help obtain an N-1-1 reliable solution.
Autors: Mojdeh Abdi-Khorsand;Mostafa Sahraei-Ardakani;Yousef M. Al-Abdullah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1606 - 1615
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Correlated LFM Waveform Set Design for MIMO Radar Transmit Beampattern
Abstract:
Multiple-input multiple-output radar has many advantages over the phased-array radar system due to the waveform diversity, one of which is the greater flexibility to design the transmit beampattern. Hence, waveform set design for transmit beampattern has become an attractive topic, and many methods have been proposed in recent years. However, previous methods cannot synthesize the waveforms with constant-envelope and easy-generation properties. In this letter, we propose to design a set of correlated linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveforms to solve this problem. First, the covariance matrix of the LFM waveform set is analyzed, and the formulation of the transmit beampattern is obtained accordingly. Since the transmit beampattern is mainly affected by the frequency steps and initial phases of the LFM waveforms, the correlated LFM waveform set design problems are formulated by optimizing these parameters for different beampatterns. The resulting problems are solved by adopting the constrained nonlinear optimization, and the LFM waveforms are obtained consequently. The designed waveforms have the properties of constant-envelope and easy generation, and can match the desired transmit beampattern properly. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method.
Autors: Hui Li;Yongbo Zhao;Zengfei Cheng;Dazheng Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 329 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corticomuscular Coherence With Time Lag With Application to Delay Estimation
Abstract:
Functional coupling between the motor cortex and muscle activity is usually detected and characterized using the spectral method of corticomuscular coherence (CMC). This functional coupling occurs with a time delay, which, if not properly accounted for, may decrease the coherence and make the synchrony difficult to detect. In this paper, we introduce the concept of CMC with time lag (CMCTL), that is the coherence between segments of motor cortex electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals displaced from a central observation point. This concept is motivated by the need to compensate for the unknown delay between coupled cortex and muscle processes. We demonstrate using simulated data that under certain conditions the time lag between EEG and EMG segments at points of local maxima of CMCTL corresponds to the average delay along the involved corticomuscular conduction pathways. Using neurophysiological data, we then show that CMCTL with appropriate time lag enhances the coherence between cortical and muscle signals, and that time lags which correspond to local maxima of CMCTL provide estimates of delays involved in corticomuscular coupling that are consistent with the underlying physiology.
Autors: Yuhang Xu;Verity M. McClelland;Zoran Cvetković;Kerry R. Mills;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 588 - 600
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cosimulation of Intelligent Power Systems: Fundamentals, Software Architecture, Numerics, and Coupling
Abstract:
Smart grids link various types of energy technologies-such as power electronics, machines, grids, and markets-via communication technology, which leads to a transdisciplinary, multidomain system. Simulation packages for assessing system integration of components typically cover only one subdomain, while simplifying the others. Cosimulation overcomes this by coupling subdomain models that are described and solved within their native environments, using specialized solvers and validated libraries. This article discusses the state of the art and conceptually describes the main challenges for simulating intelligent power systems. This article, part 1 of 2 on this subject, covers fundamental concepts. Part 2 will appear in a future issue of IEEE Electrification Magazine and cover applications.
Autors: Peter Palensky;Arjen A. Van Der Meer;Claudio David Lopez;Arun Joseph;Kaikai Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 34 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cost-Efficient Strategies for Restraining Rumor Spreading in Mobile Social Networks
Abstract:
With the popularity of mobile devices, mobile social networks (MSNs) have become an important platform for information dissemination. However, the spread of rumors in MSNs present a massive social threat. Currently, there are two kinds of methods to address this: blocking rumors at influential users and spreading truth to clarify rumors. However, most existing works either overlook the cost of various methods or only consider different methods individually. This paper proposes a heterogeneous-network-based epidemic model that incorporates the two kinds of methods to describe rumor spreading in MSNs. Moreover, two cost-efficient strategies are designed to restrain rumors. The first strategy is the real-time optimization strategy that minimizes the rumor-restraining cost by optimally combining various rumor-restraining methods such that a rumor can be extinct within an expected time period. The second strategy is the pulse spreading truth and continuous blocking rumor strategy that restrains rumor spreading through spreading truth periodically. The two strategies can restrain rumors in a continuous or periodical manner and guarantee cost efficiency. The experiments toward the Digg2009 data set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the efficiency of the two strategies.
Autors: Zaobo He;Zhipeng Cai;Jiguo Yu;Xiaoming Wang;Yunchuan Sun;Yingshu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2789 - 2800
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coupled Multivehicle Detection and Classification With Prior Objectness Measure
Abstract:
Vehicle recognition plays an important role in traffic surveillance systems, advanced driver-assistance systems, and autonomous vehicles. This paper presents a novel approach for multivehicle recognition that considers vehicle space location and classification as a coupled optimization problem. It can speed up the detection process with more accurate vehicle region proposals and can recognize multiple vehicles using a single model. The proposed detector is implemented in three stages: 1) obtaining candidate vehicle locations with prior objectness measure; 2) classifying vehicle region proposals to distinguish the three common types of vehicles (i.e., car, taxi, and bus) by a single convolutional neural network (CNN); and 3) coupling classification results with the detection process, which leads to fewer false positives. In experiments on high-resolution traffic images, our method achieves unique characteristics: 1) It matches the state-of-the-art detection accuracy; 2) it is more efficient in generating a smaller set of high-quality vehicle windows; 3) its searching time is decreased by about 30 times compared with the other two popular detection schemes; and 4) it recognizes different vehicles in each image using a single CNN model with eight layers.
Autors: Yanjie Yao;Bin Tian;Fei-Yue Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 1975 - 1984
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Covariance Matrix Estimation Under Degeneracy for Complex Elliptically Symmetric Distributions
Abstract:
In several adaptive algorithms, the data covariance matrix must be frequently estimated, particularly in modern wireless systems where, due to high mobility, signal statistics change in time. When the underlying distribution is degenerate, likelihood-based estimators of the covariance matrix and/or scatter matrix may not exist for non-Gaussian signals. A well-known class of non-Gaussian distributions is the family of complex elliptically symmetric (CES) distributions, which includes several well-known distributions as special cases. In this paper, we give some results on the degeneracy of CES distributions and derive the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator and -estimators of the scatter matrix for degenerate CES vectors. Estimation with insufficient data is addressed by a regularization approach. We also formulate the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) on the elements of the scatter matrix for degenerate CES vectors. Our results coincide with those of the nondegenerate CES vectors whenever the scatter matrix is full rank. Numerical results are presented to justify the efficiency of the proposed method.
Autors: Ebrahim Baktash;Mahmood Karimi;Xiaodong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2474 - 2484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CPV: Delay-Based Location Verification for the Internet
Abstract:
The number of location-aware services over the Internet continues growing. Some of these require the client’s geographic location for security-sensitive applications. Examples include location-aware authentication, location-aware access policies, fraud prevention, complying with media licensing, and regulating online gambling/voting. An adversary can evade existing geolocation techniques, e.g., by faking GPS coordinates or employing a non-local IP address through proxy and virtual private networks. We devise Client Presence Verification (CPV), a delay-based verification technique designed to verify an assertion about a device’s presence inside a prescribed geographic region. CPV does not identify devices by their IP addresses. Rather, the device’s location is corroborated in a novel way by leveraging geometric properties of triangles, which prevents an adversary from manipulating measured delays. To achieve high accuracy, CPV mitigates Internet path asymmetry using a novel method to deduce one-way application-layer delays to/from the client’s participating device, and mines these delays for evidence supporting/refuting the asserted location. We evaluate CPV through detailed experiments on PlanetLab, exploring various factors that affect its efficacy, including the granularity of the verified location, and the verification time. Results highlight the potential of CPV for practical adoption.
Autors: AbdelRahman Abdou;Ashraf Matrawy;P. C. van Oorschot;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 130 - 144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cramér–Rao Lower Bounds Comparison for 2D Hybrid–MIMO and MIMO Radar
Abstract:
The Hybrid MIMO Phased Array Radar (HMPAR) is a multisensor radar architecture that merges the concepts of a traditional phased array radar with the colocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. This radar system is composed of a large number of T/R elements, MP, organized into M subarrays of P elements each. The subarrays can be electronically steered in different directions and driven by separate transmit waveforms. Previous publications focused attention on the transmit signaling strategies and transmit beampatterns. Here, we provide the analytical Cramér–Rao lower bounds (CRLB) on the target location for a planar HMPAR. Fixing the total number of T/R elements, we create two scenarios, in order to compare the CRLB values of different HMPAR configurations to the MIMO CRLB. Moreover, we assume that the radar systems employ transmit signals that follow the intrapulse beamscan concept, namely signals that rapidly scan the field of view. Depending on the scenario, results show that the HMPAR is able to achieve lower CRLB values than the MIMO.
Autors: Marco La Manna;Daniel R. Fuhrmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 404 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Creating Affective Autonomous Characters Using Planning in Partially Observable Stochastic Domains
Abstract:
The ability to reason about and respond to their own emotional states can enhance the believability of Non-Player Characters (NPCs). In this paper, we use a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP)-based framework to model emotion over time. A two-level appraisal model, involving quick and reactive vs. slow and deliberate appraisals, is proposed for the creation of affective autonomous characters based on POMDPs, wherein the probability of goal satisfaction is used in an appraisal and reappraisal process for emotion generation. We not only extend Probabilistic Computation Tree Logic (PCTL) for reasoning about the properties of emotional states based on POMDPs but also illustrate how four reactive (primary) emotions and nine deliberate (secondary) emotions can be derived by combining PCTL with the belief-desire theory of emotion. The results of an empirical study suggest that the proposed model can be used to create characters that appear to be more believable and more intelligent.
Autors: Xiangyang Huang;Shudong Zhang;Yuanyuan Shang;Weigong Zhang;Jie Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 42 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Credibility of Threats to Jam Anonymous Traffic Remapping Attacks in Ad Hoc WLANs
Abstract:
In ad hoc networks, selfish stations can pursue a better quality of service (QoS) by performing traffic remapping attacks (TRAs), i.e., by falsely assigning their traffic to a higher priority class, which can hurt honest stations’ QoS. To discourage the attackers, honest stations can announce their dissatisfaction with the perceived QoS. If such a threat fails, a costly data frame jamming defense can be launched. We analyze the arising noncooperative game in which the attackers decide whether to continue a TRA when threatened and honest stations decide whether to start jamming when the TRA is continued. Using a Maynard Smith setting, we prove that the threats are credible to a rational attacker, who will then refrain from playing the game and remain honest.
Autors: Jerzy Konorski;Szymon Szott;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 624 - 627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Modal Hashing via Rank-Order Preserving
Abstract:
Due to the query effectiveness and efficiency, cross-modal similarity search based on hashing has acquired extensive attention in the multimedia community. Most existing methods do not explicitly employ the ranking information when learning hash functions, which is quite important for building practical retrieval systems. To solve this issue, this paper proposes a rank-order preserving hashing (RoPH) method with a novel regression-based rank-order preserving loss that has provable large margin property and is easy to optimize. Moreover, we jointly learn the binary codes and hash functions instead of using any relaxation trick. To solve the induced optimization problem, the alternating descent technique is adopted and each subproblem can be solved conveniently. Specifically, we show that the involved binary quadratic programming subproblem with respect to an introduced auxiliary binary variable satisfies submodularity, enabling us to use the off-the-shelf graph-cut algorithms to solve it exactly and efficiently. Extensive experiments on three benchmarks demonstrate that RoPH significantly improves the ranking quality over the state of the arts.
Autors: Kun Ding;Bin Fan;Chunlei Huo;Shiming Xiang;Chunhong Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 571 - 585
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Spectrum PM Noise Measurement, Thermal Energy, and Metamaterial Filters
Abstract:
Virtually all commercial instruments for the measurement of the oscillator PM noise make use of the cross-spectrum method (arXiv:1004.5539 [physics.ins-det], 2010). High sensitivity is achieved by correlation and averaging on two equal channels, which measure the same input, and reject the background of the instrument. We show that a systematic error is always present if the thermal energy of the input power splitter is not accounted for. Such error can result in noise underestimation up to a few decibels in the lowest-noise quartz oscillators, and in an invalid measurement in the case of cryogenic oscillators. As another alarming fact, the presence of metamaterial components in the oscillator results in unpredictable behavior and large errors, even in well controlled experimental conditions. We observed a spread of 40 dB in the phase noise spectra of an oscillator, just replacing the output filter.
Autors: Yannick Gruson;Vincent Giordano;Ulrich L. Rohde;Ajay K. Poddar;Enrico Rubiola;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 634 - 642
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crowd Behavior Analysis Using Local Mid-Level Visual Descriptors
Abstract:
Crowd behavior analysis has recently emerged as an increasingly important and dedicated problem for crowd monitoring and management in the visual surveillance community. In particular, it is receiving a lot of attention to detect potentially dangerous situations and to prevent overcrowdedness. In this paper, we propose to quantify crowd properties by a rich set of visual descriptors. The calculation of these descriptors is realized through a novel spatio-temporal model of the crowd. It consists of modeling time-varying dynamics of the crowd using local feature tracks. It also involves a Delaunay triangulation to approximate neighborhood interactions. In total, the crowd is represented as an evolving graph, where the nodes correspond to the tracklets. From this graph, various mid-level representations are extracted to determine the ongoing crowd behaviors. In particular, the effectiveness of the proposed visual descriptors is demonstrated within three applications: crowd video classification, anomaly detection, and violence detection in crowds. The obtained results on videos from different data sets prove the relevance of these visual descriptors to crowd behavior analysis. In addition, by means of comparisons to other existing methods, we demonstrate that the proposed descriptors outperform the state-of-the-art methods with a significant margin using the most challenging data sets.
Autors: Hajer Fradi;Bertrand Luvison;Quoc Cuong Pham;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 589 - 602
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crowded Scene Understanding by Deeply Learned Volumetric Slices
Abstract:
Crowd video analysis is one of the hallmark tasks of crowded scene understanding. While we observe a tremendous progress in image-based tasks with the rise of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), performance on video analysis has not (yet) attained the same level of success. In this paper, we introduce intuitive but effective temporal-aware crowd motion channels by uniformly slicing the video volume from different dimensions. Multiple CNN structures with different data-fusion strategies and weight-sharing schemes are proposed to learn the connectivity both spatially and temporally from these motion channels. To well demonstrate our deep model, we construct a new large-scale Who do What at someWhere crowd data set with 10 000 videos from 8257 crowded scenes, and build an attribute set with 94 attributes. Extensive experiments on crowd video attribute prediction demonstrate the effectiveness of our novel method over the state-of-the-art.
Autors: Jing Shao;Chen Change Loy;Kai Kang;Xiaogang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 613 - 623
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CSI Partitioning Method with PCA-Based Compression for Low-Complexity Feedback of Large-Dimensional Channels
Abstract:
This letter considers a codebook-based channel state information (CSI) feedback technique for large-dimensional channels, e.g., massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. We propose a CSI partitioning method, focus on the search complexity required in order to obtain the best beamforming vector, and investigate the tradeoff between the complexity and the performance. Then, we present an analytical framework that provides design guidelines for balancing the complexity, performance, and feedback overhead of practical large-scale MIMO systems.
Autors: Jingon Joung;Ernest Kurniawan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 544 - 547
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cultivating a Garden of Waves
Abstract:
While surfing is more than 3,000 years old, it was Hawaiian Duke Kahanamoku, the "father of modern surfing," who introduced the sport across the world, from the United States to Australia and New Zealand, during the first half of the 20th century. As a trailblazer, Kahanamoku amazed the crowds with his exploits in the water and inspired thousands of people to grab a board and seek out the surf. As a result, the surfing community and culture have grown to currently include over 23 million active participants, according to the International Surfing Association. One wonders how much more quickly the sport could have risen if Kahanamoku could reach those countless people who resided in landlocked areas that are devoid of waves.
Autors: Craig Causer;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 8 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current Degradation by Carrier Recombination in a Poly-Si TFET With Gate-Drain Underlapping
Abstract:
The drain lapping effect of tunneling FETs (TFETs) with polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) channel film is well investigated for the first time. The carrier transport mechanisms of poly-Si TFETs can be divided into several transport mechanisms due to the device structure of source to drain. The interband tunneling at source/channel junction, carrier drift in the channel region, and drain-to-gate underlap region are elemental carrier transport mechanisms of TFETs with single-crystalline channel material. The poly-Si channel has many grain boundary trap states among bandgap due to the grain boundary defects, resulting in strong recombination effect in the drain-to-gate underlap region of poly-Si TFETs. The recombination rate of the underlap region would be significantly enhanced with the increased temperature and lead to obvious ON-state current () degradation. Therefore, the behavior of the drain lapping effect is sensitive to the temperature and underlap length. In addition, the poly-Si TFETs with drain-to-gate overlap structure exhibit less temperature dependence and drain-to-gate overlap length dependence of the to exhibit stable electrical behavior. Consequently, the drain lapping structure of poly-Si TFETs would trade the suppression of ambipolar behavior of poly-Si TFETs by the drain-to-gate underlap structure off against the instability of temperature and device dimension.
Autors: William Cheng-Yu Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1390 - 1393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current Transformer Selection Techniques for Low-Voltage Motor Control Centers
Abstract:
This paper provides a clear set of procedures and equations to follow in optimal current transformer selection for low-voltage motor control centers. Methods of using protective relay settings to minimize current transformer cost and size are also shared. The selection criteria are explained from the fundamental principles of operation of a current transformer and a protective relaying device. This paper shows how the current transformer ratio, voltage knee points, and relay protection elements can be selected together simultaneously to provide a low-cost high-performance system. This paper describes a case study in which the authors developed a simplified set of current transformer selection criteria for compact IEC low-voltage motor-control center drawers at a large oil and gas field in Central Asia.
Autors: Scott Manson;Ashish Upreti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1677 - 1684
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current-Based Fault Detection and Identification for Wind Turbine Drivetrain Gearboxes
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new fault detection and identification framework for drivetrain gearboxes of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) based on the fusion of DFIG stator and rotor current signals. First, the characteristic frequencies of gearbox faults in DFIG stator and rotor currents are analyzed. Different time- and frequency-domain features of gearbox faults in DFIG stator and rotor current signals are then defined, and the methods to extract these features are introduced. These features are used as the inputs of multiclass support vector machines with probabilistic outputs for fault mode identification. Different schemes that use a single stator or rotor current signal or both stator and rotor current signals for the feature- or decision-level information fusion are designed. Experimental results obtained from a DFIG wind turbine drivetrain test rig are provided to validate the proposed current-based fault detection and identification framework.
Autors: Fangzhou Cheng;Yayu Peng;Liyan Qu;Wei Qiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 878 - 887
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current-Controlled Negative Resistance in High-Voltage 4H-SiC p-i-n Rectifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents current-controlled negative resistance (CCNR) phenomena observed in ultrahigh voltage (BV 10 kV) 4H silicon carbide implanted anode p-i-n rectifiers. CCNR under forward bias is believed to be caused by the presence of a thin layer under the anode with a low carrier lifetime, preventing efficient hole injection and leading to poor conductivity modulation of the drift layer.
Autors: Sauvik Chowdhury;Collin W. Hitchcock;Rajendra P. Dahal;Ishwara B. Bhat;T. Paul Chow;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 897 - 900
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Currents Passing Through the Human Body: The Numerical Viewpoint
Abstract:
In the case of direct or indirect contact with electrically energized parts, an electric current circulates through the body. When the magnitude and duration of the current through the heart exceed the ventricular fibrillation thresholds, the cardiac muscle starts uncoordinated contractions, greatly jeopardizing the life of the subject. Technical standards on electrical installations describe the protective measures against direct and indirect contact necessary to minimize the probability of inception of ventricular fibrillation. Safety considerations are based on experiments made in the past on animals, but the extrapolation of results to human beings is complex and rather questionable. The purpose of this study is to analyze the body factors that affect the distribution of currents passing through the human body with virtual anatomical models. A set of 16 models of individuals is used to simulate different electric contacts. The use of virtual models of a diverse population (i.e., eight males and eight females, ten adults and six children) provides a statistical support to the results. The obtained heart-current factors, are compared with values present in the literature. This paper provides a novel viewpoint on the problem, and supports the ongoing research activity and efforts to improve the electrical safety of persons.
Autors: Fabio Freschi;Massimo Mitolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 826 - 832
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cyber Inference System for Substation Anomalies Against Alter-and-Hide Attacks
Abstract:
Alarms reported to energy control centers are an indication of abnormal events caused by either weather interruptions, system errors, or possibly intentional anomalies. Although these initiating events are random, e.g., faults on transmission lines struck by lightning, the existence of electronically altered measurements may implicate the process to identify root causes of abnormal events. This paper is concerned with alter-and-hide (AaH) attacks by tampering the actual measurements to normal states with the background of disruptive switching actions that hide the true values of local events from operators at the control center. A cyber inference system framework is proposed to synthesize all sequential, missing, or altered alarms of related substations against AaH attacks. The stochastic nature of such attack events is modeled with probabilities as an integer programming problem with multiple scenarios. The proposed method is utilized to verify alarm scenarios for a conclusion of the potential AaH attacks on the substations.
Autors: Chong Wang;Chee-Wooi Ten;Yunhe Hou;Andrew Ginter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 896 - 909
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cyber Insurance for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging in Vehicle-to-Grid Systems
Abstract:
V2G systems bring many benefits to power systems in stabilizing energy demand and supply fluctuations as well as to PEV users in reducing energy costs. To achieve the maximum efficiency of V2G systems, data communication plays an important role. However, it is subject to cyber attack and failure, which hinder the effectiveness of V2G systems. In this article, we introduce a novel concept of using cyber insurance to "transfer" cyber risk from a user to a third party in PEV charging. We first introduce V2G systems and briefly discuss the cyber risks. Additionally, the basic concepts of cyber insurance are presented. We then introduce the use of cyber insurance to remove the risk of paying high energy costs of PEV charging due to the unavailability of data communication. We show that the PEV user can achieve the maximum benefit in deciding to charge its PEV and to buy insurance.
Autors: Dusit Niyato;Dinh Thai Hoang;Ping Wang;Zhu Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 38 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cybersecurity and Privacy Solutions in Smart Cities
Abstract:
The increasing proliferation and deployment of ICT in the infrastructure of cities has increased interest in smart cities. The long-term objective of a smart city is to enhance the quality of services provided to citizens and ultimately improve their quality of life. However, incorporating ICT opens up various security and privacy issues in smart cities, along with the people living in them. We briefly present the fundamental design concepts of a smart city and review recent smart city initiatives and projects. After identifying several security vulnerabilities and privacy issues within the context of smart cities that must be addressed, we then discuss various privacy and security solutions, recommendations, and standards for smart cities and their services.
Autors: Rida Khatoun;Sherali Zeadally;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 51 - 59
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cyberwarfare and Digital Governance
Abstract:
Dyn suffered multiple complex DDoS attacks in October 2016, constituting one of the largest cyberattacks of this nature ever documented. With this and other recent events in mind, the authors discuss conceptual and practical challenges around cyberwarfare and its impact on cyberspace governance.
Autors: Virgilio A.F. Almeida;Danilo Doneda;Jacqueline de Souza Abreu;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 68 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cylindrical Anisotropic Dielectric Resonator Antenna With Improved Gain
Abstract:
Uniaxial anisotropic material obtained by parallel layers of two different dielectrics is used to obtain a cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA). As a consequence of the anisotropy, the boresight gain of the antenna is increased. The effect of the height-to-radius ratio on the boresight gain variation is also investigated. It is shown that by increasing this ratio, the directivity of the antenna in the boresight direction can be increased. A prototype of the anisotropic CDRA is fabricated and measured. A reasonable agreement between the simulated and measured results is attained.
Autors: Saeed Fakhte;Homayoon Oraizi;Ladislau Matekovits;Gianluca Dassano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1404 - 1409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» D-Band Common-Base Amplifiers With Gain Boosting and Interstage Self-Matching in 0.18- $mutext{m}$ SiGe HBT Technology
Abstract:
This paper presents two D-band amplifiers fabricated in a 0.18- SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor process. A single-ended amplifier employs a five-stage common-base topology, and a differential amplifier combines two of the single-ended chains. To overcome the limited available gain of the given technology at D-band, a gain-boosting technique based on positive feedback is adopted for each gain cell. In addition, the input and output impedances of the gain cell are conjugate-matched by adjusting the positive feedback; thus, no external components are needed for interstage matching. This improves the gain and bandwidth while minimizing the chip size. The single-ended amplifier exhibits a measured gain of 7.5 dB at 123 GHz with a 3-dB bandwidth of 25 GHz. The differential amplifier shows a measured gain of 20.3 dB at 115 GHz with a 3-dB bandwidth of 13 GHz. The output power values of the two amplifiers are 2.6 and 6.7 dBm, respectively. The chip sizes are small at 0.22 and 0.40 mm2 , respectively.
Autors: Junho Ko;Dongkyo Kim;Sanggeun Jeon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 254 - 258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DANUBE: Data-Driven Meta-ANalysis Using UnBiased Empirical Distributions—Applied to Biological Pathway Analysis
Abstract:
Identifying the pathways and mechanisms that are significantly impacted in a given phenotype is challenging. Issues include patient heterogeneity and noise. Many experiments do not have a large enough sample size to achieve the statistical power necessary to identify significantly impacted pathways. Meta-analysis based on combining p-values from individual experiments has been used to improve power. However, all classical meta-analysis approaches work under the assumption that the p-values produced by experiment-level statistical tests follow a uniform distribution under the null hypothesis. Here, we show that this assumption does not hold for three mainstream pathway analysis methods, and significant bias is likely to affect many, if not all, such meta-analysis studies. We introduce DANUBE, a novel and unbiased approach to combine statistics computed from individual studies. Our framework uses control samples to construct empirical null distributions, from which empirical p-values of individual studies are calculated and combined using either a Central Limit Theorem approach or the additive method. We assess the performance of DANUBE using four different pathway analysis methods. DANUBE is compared to five meta-analysis approaches, as well as with a pathway analysis approach that employs multiple datasets (MetaPath). The 25 approaches have been tested on 16 different datasets related to two human diseases, Alzheimer's disease (7 datasets) and acute myeloid leukemia (9 datasets). We demonstrate that DANUBE overcomes bias in order to consistently identify relevant pathways. We also show how the framework improves results in more general cases, compared to classical meta-analysis performed with common experiment-level statistical tests such as Wilcoxon and t-test.
Autors: Tin Nguyen;Cristina Mitrea;Rebecca Tagett;Sorin Draghici;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 496 - 515
Publisher: IEEE
 

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