Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 4

» Automating Live Update for Generic Server Programs
Abstract:
The pressing demand to deploy software updates without stopping running programs has fostered much research on live update systems in the past decades. Prior solutions, however, either make strong assumptions on the nature of the update or require extensive and error-prone manual effort, factors which discourage the adoption of live update. This paper presents Mutable Checkpoint-Restart (MCR), a new live update solution for generic (multiprocess and multithreaded) server programs written in C. Compared to prior solutions, MCR can support arbitrary software updates and automate most of the common live update operations. The key idea is to allow the running version to safely reach a quiescent state and then allow the new version to restart as similarly to a fresh program initialization as possible, relying on existing code paths to automatically restore the old program threads and reinitialize a relevant portion of the program data structures. To transfer the remaining data structures, MCR relies on a combination of precise and conservative garbage collection techniques to trace all the global pointers and apply the required state transformations on the fly. Experimental results on popular server programs (Apache httpd, nginx, OpenSSH and vsftpd) confirm that our techniques can effectively automate problems previously deemed difficult at the cost of negligible performance overhead (2 percent on average) and moderate memory overhead (3.9 on average, without optimizations).
Autors: Cristiano Giuffrida;Clin Iorgulescu;Giordano Tamburrelli;Andrew S. Tanenbaum;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 43, issue:3, pages: 207 - 225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automation and Optimization of Multipulse Laser Zona Drilling of Mouse Embryos During Embryo Biopsy
Abstract:
Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Objective: Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. Methods: A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. Results: A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Conclusion: Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. Significance: LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.
Autors: Christopher Yee Wong;James K. Mills;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 629 - 636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automotive Radars: A review of signal processing techniques
Abstract:
Automotive radars, along with other sensors such as lidar, (which stands for "light detection and ranging"), ultrasound, and cameras, form the backbone of self-driving cars and advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs). These technological advancements are enabled by extremely complex systems with a long signal processing path from radars/sensors to the controller. Automotive radar systems are responsible for the detection of objects and obstacles, their position, and speed relative to the vehicle. The development of signal processing techniques along with progress in the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) semiconductor technology plays a key role in automotive radar systems. Various signal processing techniques have been developed to provide better resolution and estimation performance in all measurement dimensions: range, azimuth-elevation angles, and velocity of the targets surrounding the vehicles. This article summarizes various aspects of automotive radar signal processing techniques, including waveform design, possible radar architectures, estimation algorithms, implementation complexity-resolution trade off, and adaptive processing for complex environments, as well as unique problems associated with automotive radars such as pedestrian detection. We believe that this review article will combine the several contributions scattered in the literature to serve as a primary starting point to new researchers and to give a bird's-eye view to the existing research community.
Autors: Sujeet Milind Patole;Murat Torlak;Dan Wang;Murtaza Ali;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 22 - 35
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Autonomy and User Experience Enhancement Control of an Electrically Assisted Bicycle With Dual-Wheel Drive
Abstract:
This paper presents a control strategy study of a dual-wheel drive electric bicycle by taking the human–bicycle coupling into consideration. Containing two electric motors (one on the hub of each wheel), the bicycle is controlled by a fuzzy controller, which ensures a sharing of the total power between the front and rear motors. The goal of this paper is to develop a control method for an electric bicycle with regenerative braking and dual-wheel drive. The proposed method can achieve a better user experience (response time and speed control) than the one currently proposed to the market. The two motors are controlled by two separate torque references and the control algorithm is carefully designed in order to consider the coupling between human reaction time and motor driving response time. In addition, both wheels are equipped with kinetic energy recovering breaks allowing an increased autonomy. The developed controller also has the ability to adapt different road conditions, in the objective of user experience improvement and power saving.
Autors: Michael Guarisco;Fei Gao;Damien Paire;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1476 - 1484
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Backpressure on the Backbone: A Lightweight, Non-Intrusive Traffic Engineering Approach
Abstract:
The present study proposes a novel collaborative traffic engineering scheme for networks of autonomous systems (ASes). Backpressure routing principles are used for deriving priority routing rules that optimally stabilize a network, while maximizing its throughput under latency considerations. The routing rules are deployed to the network following simple software-defined networking principles. The proposed scheme requires minimal, infrequent interaction with a central controller, limiting its imposed workload. Furthermore, it respects the internal structure of the ASes and their existing peering relations. In addition, it co-exists smoothly with underlying distance vector-based routing schemes. The proposed scheme combines simplicity with substantial gains in served transit traffic volume, as shown by simulations in realistic setups and proven via mathematical analysis.
Autors: Christos Liaskos;Xenofontas Dimitropoulos;Leandros Tassiulas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 176 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bandwidth Analysis of Multiport Radio Frequency Systems—Part I
Abstract:
When multiple radio frequency sources are connected to multiple loads through a passive multiport matching network, perfect power transfer to the loads across all frequencies is generally impossible. In this two-part paper, we provide analyses of bandwidth over which power transfer is possible. Our principal tools include broadband multiport matching upper bounds, presented herein, on the integral over all frequency of the logarithm of a suitably defined power loss ratio. In general, the larger the integral, the larger the bandwidth over which power transfer can be accomplished. We apply these bounds in several ways. We show how the number of sources and loads, and the coupling between loads, affect achievable bandwidth. We analyze the bandwidth of networks constrained to have certain architectures. We characterize systems whose bandwidths scale as the ratio between the numbers of loads and sources. The first part of this paper presents the bounds and uses them to analyze loads whose frequency responses can be represented by analytical circuit models. The second part analyzes the bandwidth of realistic loads whose frequency responses are available numerically. We provide applications to wireless transmitters where the loads are antennas being driven by amplifiers. The derivations of the bounds are also included.
Autors: Ding Nie;Bertrand M. Hochwald;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1081 - 1092
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Basis Marking Representation of Petri Net Reachability Spaces and Its Application to the Reachability Problem
Abstract:
In this paper, a compact representation of the reachability graph of a Petri net is proposed. The transition set of a Petri net is partitioned into the subsets of explicit and implicit transitions in such a way that the subnet induced by implicit transitions does not contain directed cycles. The firing of implicit transitions can be abstracted so that the reachability set of the net can be completely characterized by a subset of reachable markings called basis makings. We show that to determine a max-cardinality- basis partition is an NP-hard problem, but a max-set- basis partition can be determined in polynomial time. The generalized version of the marking reachability problem in a Petri net can be solved by a practically efficient algorithm based on the basis reachability graph. Finally, this approach is further extended to unbounded nets.
Autors: Ziyue Ma;Yin Tong;Zhiwu Li;Alessandro Giua;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1078 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bayesian Compressive Sensing Approaches for Direction of Arrival Estimation With Mutual Coupling Effects
Abstract:
The problem of estimating the dynamic direction of arrival (DOA) of far-field signals impinging on a uniform linear array, with mutual coupling effects, is addressed. This paper proposes two novel approaches able to provide accurate solutions, including at the endfire regions of the array. First, a Bayesian compressive sensing Kalman filter is developed, which accounts for the predicted estimated signals rather than using the traditional sparse prior. The posterior probability density function of the received source signals and the expression for the related marginal likelihood function are derived theoretically. Next, a Gibbs sampling-based approach with indicator variables in the sparsity prior is developed. This allows sparsity to be explicitly enforced in different ways, including when an angle is too far from the previous estimate. The proposed approaches are validated and evaluated over different test scenarios and compared to the traditional relevance vector machine (RVM)-based method. An improved accuracy in terms of average root-mean-square error values is achieved (up to 73.39% for the modified RVM-based approach and 86.36% for the Gibbs sampling-based approach). The proposed approaches prove to be particularly useful for DOA estimation when the angle of arrival moves into the endfire region of the array.
Autors: Matthew Hawes;Lyudmila Mihaylova;François Septier;Simon Godsill;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1357 - 1368
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bayesian Degradation Analysis With Inverse Gaussian Process Models Under Time-Varying Degradation Rates
Abstract:
Degradation observations of modern engineering systems, such as manufacturing systems, turbine engines, and high-speed trains, often demonstrate various patterns of time-varying degradation rates. General degradation process models are mainly introduced for constant degradation rates, which cannot be used for time-varying situations. Moreover, the issue of sparse degradation observations and the problem of evolving degradation observations both are practical challenges for the degradation analysis of modern engineering systems. In this paper, parametric inverse Gaussian process models are proposed to model degradation processes with constant, monotonic, and S-shaped degradation rates, where physical meaning of model parameters for time-varying degradation rates is highlighted. Random effects are incorporated into the degradation process models to model the unit-to-unit variability within product population. A general Bayesian framework is extended to deal with the degradation analysis of sparse degradation observations and evolving observations. An illustrative example derived from the reliability analysis of a heavy-duty machine tool's spindle system is presented, which is characterized as the degradation analysis of sparse degradation observations and evolving observations under time-varying degradation rates.
Autors: Weiwen Peng;Yan-Feng Li;Yuan-Jian Yang;Jinhua Mi;Hong-Zhong Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 84 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bayesian Modeling of Temporal Coherence in Videos for Entity Discovery and Summarization
Abstract:
A video is understood by users in terms of entities present in it. Entity Discovery is the task of building appearance model for each entity (e.g., a person), and finding all its occurrences in the video. We represent a video as a sequence of tracklets, each spanning 10-20 frames, and associated with one entity. We pose Entity Discovery as tracklet clustering, and approach it by leveraging Temporal Coherence (TC): the property that temporally neighboring tracklets are likely to be associated with the same entity. Our major contributions are the first Bayesian nonparametric models for TC at tracklet-level. We extend Chinese Restaurant Process (CRP) to TC-CRP, and further to Temporally Coherent Chinese Restaurant Franchise (TC-CRF) to jointly model entities and temporal segments using mixture components and sparse distributions. For discovering persons in TV serial videos without meta-data like scripts, these methods show considerable improvement over state-of-the-art approaches to tracklet clustering in terms of clustering accuracy, cluster purity and entity coverage. The proposed methods can perform online tracklet clustering on streaming videos unlike existing approaches, and can automatically reject false tracklets. Finally we discuss entity-driven video summarization- where temporal segments of the video are selected based on the discovered entities, to create a semantically meaningful summary.
Autors: Adway Mitra;Soma Biswas;Chiranjib Bhattacharyya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 430 - 443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beam Pattern Analysis of Antenna Array on Complex Platform Using AEP Method Based on Hybrid UTD-ACGF Technique
Abstract:
For accurate beam analysis of a radiating antenna array on a complex platform, the mutual coupling and platform scattering effects are important. We proposed a beam pattern analysis method for an antenna array on a complex platform, which combines the active element pattern method of the receiving mode and hybrid geometrical theory of diffraction antenna current Green’s function technique. This proposed method clearly and mathematically divides the beam pattern of the antenna array on a complex platform into mutual coupling and platform scattering components. For a 12 linear dipole array embedded in a complex aircraft, analyses of the beam pattern and boresight error using the proposed method were verified with the method of moment results, which were simulated with FEKO. With reasonably good accuracy, the proposed method can efficiently analyze a beam pattern reflecting the mutual coupling effect and the platform scattering effect. Additionally, convex optimization with the proposed method is simply applied to synthesize the compensated beam pattern.
Autors: Young-Dam Kim;Dong-Woo Yi;Sung-Jun Yang;Heeduck Chae;Je-Woo Yu;Noh-Hoon Myung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1511 - 1516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beam-Steering SIW Leaky-Wave Subarray With Flat-Topped Footprint for 5G Applications
Abstract:
A novel double-layered vertically stacked substrate integrated waveguide leaky-wave antenna (SIW LWA) is presented. An array of vias on the narrow wall produces leakage through excitation of TE10 fast-wave mode of the waveguide. Attenuation and phase constants of the leaky mode are controlled independently to obtain desired pattern in the elevation. In the azimuth, top and bottom layers radiate independently, producing symmetrically located beams on both sides of broadside. A new near-field analysis of single LWA is performed to determine wavenumbers and as a way to anticipate radiation characteristics of the dual layer antenna. In addition to frequency beam steering in the elevation plane, this novel topology also offers flexibility for multispot illumination of the azimuth plane with flat-topped beams at every -cut through excitation of each layer separately or both antennas simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed antenna solution is a qualified candidate for 5G base station antenna (BSA) applications due to its capability of interference mitigation and latency reduction. Moreover, from the point of view of highly reliable connectivity, users can enjoy seamless mobility through the provided spatial diversity. A 15-GHz prototype has been fabricated and tested. Measured results are in good agreement with those of simulations.
Autors: Fatemeh M. Monavar;Souren Shamsinejad;Rashid Mirzavand;Jordan Melzer;Pedram Mousavi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1108 - 1120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beamformer With Constant-Gm Vector Modulators and Its Spatial Intermodulation Distortion
Abstract:
Spatial interference rejection in analog adaptive beamforming receivers can improve the distortion performance of the circuits following the beamforming network, but is susceptible to the nonlinearity of the beamforming network itself. This paper presents an analysis of intermodulation product cancellation in analog active phased array receivers and verifies the distortion improvement in a four-element adaptive beamforming receiver for low-power applications in the 1.0–2.5-GHz frequency band. In this architecture, a constant-Gm vector modulator is proposed that produces an accurate equidistance square constellation, leading to a sliced frontend design that is duplicated for each antenna element. By moving the transconductances to RF, a fourfold reduction in power is achieved, while simultaneously providing input impedance matching. The 65-nm implementation consumes between 6.5 and 9 mW per antenna element and shows a +1 to +20 dBm in-band and out-of-beam third-order intercept point due to intermodulation distortion reduction.
Autors: Michiel C. M. Soer;Eric A. M. Klumperink;Dirk-Jan van den Broek;Bram Nauta;Frank E. van Vliet;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 735 - 746
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Beamforming for Full-Duplex Multiuser MIMO Systems
Abstract:
We solve a sum rate maximization problem of full-duplex (FD) multiuser multiple-input–multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems. Since additional self-interference (SI) in the uplink channel and cochannel interference (CCI) in the downlink channel are coupled in FD communication, the downlink and uplink multiuser beamforming vectors are required to be jointly designed. However, the joint optimization problem is nonconvex and difficult to solve due to the coupled effect. To properly address the coupled design issue, we reformulate the problem into an equivalent uplink channel problem by using the uplink and downlink channel duality known as multiple-access channel–broadcast channel duality (MAC–BC duality). Then, using a minorization–maximization (MM) algorithm based on an affine approximation, we obtain a solution for the reformulated problem. In addition, without any approximation and thus performance degradation, we develop an alternative algorithm based on iterative water filling (IWF) to solve the nonconvex problem. The proposed algorithms warrant fast convergence and low computational complexity.
Autors: Jinwoo Kim;Wan Choi;Hyuncheol Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2423 - 2432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Belt-Type Corona-Electrostatic Separator for the Recovery of Conductive and Nonconductive Products From Micronized Wastes
Abstract:
The commercial roll-type corona-electrostatic separators, which are currently employed for the recovery of metals and plastics from millimeter-size granular mixtures, are inappropriate for the processing of finely grinded wastes. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that a belt-type corona-electrostatic separator could be an appropriate solution for the selective sorting of conductive and nonconductive products contained in micronized wastes. The experiments are carried out on a laboratory-scale multifunctional electrostatic separator designed by the authors. The corona discharge is generated between a wire-type dual electrode and the surface of the metal belt conveyor. The distances between the wire and the belt and the applied voltage are adjusted to values that permit particles charging without having an electric wind that puts them into motion on the surface of the belt. The separation is performed in the electric field generated between a high-voltage roll-type electrode (diameter 30 mm) and the grounded belt electrode. The study is conducted according to the experimental design methodology, to enable the evaluation of the effects of the various factors that affect the efficiency of the separation: position of the roll-type electrode and applied high voltage. The conclusions of this study will serve at the optimum design of an industrial belt-type corona-electrostatic separator for the recycling of metals and plastics from the waste electric and electronic equipment.
Autors: Sara Messal;Thami Zeghloul;Abdelkader Mekhalef Benhafssa;Lucian Dascalescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1424 - 1430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Benefits of Using a Voice and EMG-Driven Actuated Glove to Support Occupational Therapy for Stroke Survivors
Abstract:
Many mechatronic devices exist to facilitate hand rehabilitation, however few directly address deficits in muscle activation patterns while also enabling functional task practice. We developed an innovative voice and electromyography-driven actuated (VAEDA) glove, which is sufficiently flexible/portable for incorporation into hand-focused therapy post-stroke. The therapeutic benefits of this device were examined in a longitudinal intervention study. Twenty-two participants with chronic, moderate hand impairment [Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment Stage of Hand (CMSA-H = 4)] enrolled > 8 months post-stroke for 18 1-h training sessions ( week) employing a novel hand-focused occupational therapy paradigm, either with (VAEDA) or without (No-VAEDA) actuated assistance. Outcome measures included CMSA-H, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Action Research Arm Test, Fugl-Meyer Upper Extremity Motor Assessment (FMUE), grip and pinch strength and hand kinematics. All outcomes were recorded at baseline and endpoint (immediately after and four weeks post-training). Significant improvement was observed following training for some measures for the VAEDA group (n = 11) but for none of the measures for the No-VAEDA group (n = 11). Specifically, statistically significant gains were observed for CMSA-H (p = 0.038) and WMFT (p = 0.012) as well as maximum digit aperture subset (p = 0.003, n = 7), but not for the FMUE or grip or pinch strengths. In conclusion, therapy effectiveness appeared to be increased by employment of the VAEDA glove, which directly targets deficits in muscle activation patterns.
Autors: Kelly O. Thielbar;Kristen M. Triandafilou;Heidi C. Fischer;Jake M. O’Toole;Molly L. Corrigan;José M. Ochoa;Mary Ellen Stoykov;Derek G. Kamper;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 297 - 305
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Better Control for a Solar Energy System: Using Improved Enhanced Phase-Locked Loop-Based Control Under Variable Solar Intensity
Abstract:
An improved enhanced phase-locked loop (EPL)-based control algorithm for a double-stage solar photovoltaic (PV) grid-interfaced powergenerating system is presented in this article. It also mitigates power quality (PQ) problems in a three-phase, four-wire (3P4W) distribution system under variable solar intensity. The proposed solar PV grid-interfaced system consists of a solar PV array, a boost converter, a four-leg voltage source converter (VSC), and connected linear/nonlinear loads. The suggested improved EPLbased synchronization method is implemented to meet grid requirements such as PQ improvement, distortion-free signals under variable solar intensity, and load unbalancing.
Autors: Sanjay Kumar;Arun Kumar Verma;Ikhlaq Hussain;Bhim Singh;Chinmay Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 24 - 36
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Better Platooning Control Toward Autonomous Driving : An LTE Device-to-Device Communications Strategy That Meets Ultralow Latency Requirements
Abstract:
Platooning is the first step toward fully autonomous driving, which is deemed as one of the most representative fifth-generation (5G) use cases. Spacing and speed in a platoon of vehicles are regulated by a fully automated control system that relies on updated vehicles? kinematics data. In this article, we investigate the potential of long-term evolution (LTE) device-todevice (D2D) communications for data dissemination in the platoon. Exploiting pooled LTE resources and the coordination by the in-front vehicle of the platoon, the proposed solution is shown to fulfill the ultralow latency requirements of messaging in the platoon. As a further advantage, our proposal is able to provide spatial reuse of LTE resources among members of the same platoon and of different platoons, thus drastically reducing the capacity demand.
Autors: Claudia Campolo;Antonella Molinaro;Giuseppe Araniti;Antoine O. Berthet;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 30 - 38
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bias Temperature Instability Mitigation via Adaptive Cache Size Management
Abstract:
Bias temperature instability (BTI) is one of the major CMOS reliability issues in nanoscales. The main impact of BTI on SRAM memory cells is the degradation of the static noise margin (SNM), which leads to a higher susceptibility to failures. A variety of techniques for mitigating the impact of BTI on caches have been proposed at architecture level. However, their considerable overheads limit the application of such techniques. Recent studies showed that the utilization of the cache capacity widely varies from one workload to another and even within a workload. When cache utilization is low, for the majority of the cells, the same value is stored for a very long period, which significantly degrades SNM due to BTI. In this paper, we propose a technique to dynamically adjust the cache size according to the running workload cache requirement by monitoring the cache miss rate. The unused cache capacity is power gated to increase the energy efficiency and mitigate aging of the entire cache. The experimental results show that the proposed technique reduces hold and read SNM degradation by up to 48.1% and 33.3%, respectively, at the cost of 2.0% performance penalty.
Autors: Nezam Rohbani;Mojtaba Ebrahimi;Seyed-Ghassem Miremadi;Mehdi B. Tahoori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1012 - 1022
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biased Photoresponse Analysis of Al–ZnO Heterojunctions with n- and p-Type Silicon
Abstract:
Al–ZnO/(n)Si and Al–ZnO/(p)Si heterojunction structures were fabricated by RF-sputtering of Al–ZnO thin film on Si substrates and their electrical and photoresponse properties were comparatively analyzed. The Al–ZnO/(n)Si heterojunction exhibited excellent diode behavior with an equivalent barrier height of 0.72 eV and an rectification ratio of at ±0.5 V, while no rectifying behavior was observed for Al–ZnO/(p)Si device. Illuminated I–V analysis performed with different light intensities revealed excellent photoresponse properties and the strong dependence of the photocurrent on external bias for both Al–ZnO/(n)Si and Al–ZnO/(p)Si structures. The Al–ZnO/(n)Si structure requires smaller reverse bias than Al–ZnO/(p)Si for similar photoresponse. Based on dark I–V, illuminated I–V, and the energy band diagrams, photoresponse mechanisms were explained. In order to further understand the photoresponse mechanisms, quantum efficiency measurements were carried out, with applied external voltage bias. A general descriptive model was presented for the first time for the photogenerated current density in both Al–ZnO/(n)Si and Al–ZnO/(p)Si heterojunctions at different voltage bias.
Autors: Zhen Gao;Navid M. S. Jahed;Siva Sivoththaman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1100 - 1107
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bicomponent Conformal Electrode for Radiofrequency Sequential Ablation and Circumferential Separation of Large Tumors in Solid Organs: Development and In Vitro Evaluation
Abstract:
Objective: Complete destruction of large tumors by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with surrounding tumor-free margin is difficult because of incomplete or nonuniform heating due to both heat-sink effect of circulating blood and limitations of existing RF electrode design. A new RF electrode is described to overcome this limitation. Methods: A bicomponent conformal (BCC) RFA probe providing sectorial sequential ablation followed by circumferential cutting is designed and evaluated. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis model was developed with temperature feedback-controlled simulation of RFA for electrode design and optimization. The prototype bipolar BCC probe with three embedded thermocouples was constructed and evaluated in tissue-mimicking phantoms. Results: Maximum tissue temperature was kept <100 ºC with power applied <15 W. A 10-min ablation time was used for each sequence and after four sequential RFA, a large ablation zone of 55 cm3 was achieved. Our experiment confirmed that lesions exceeding 3.7 cm could be ablated and separated from the surrounded tissue. Conclusion: The new BCC probe is, thus, capable of controlled ablation followed by circumferential separation of the lesions, when required. Significance: The results of these experiments provide the proof of concept validation that the BCC probe has the potential to ablate by sequential heating tumors in solid organs >3.5 cm then separate them by electrosurgical cutting from the surrounding normal parenchyma. The combined RF ablation and physical separation could completely destroy the cancer cells at the ablation site, thus, avoid any local recurrence of cancer. It requires further in vivo validation studies in large animals.
Autors: Zhigang Wang;Hongyan Luo;Stuart Coleman;Alfred Cuschieri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 699 - 705
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bidirectional AF Relaying With Underlay Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates the impact of primary transmissions on the performance of a dual-hop bidirectional cognitive radio system. The secondary users (SUs) communicate with each other in an underlay mode with the assistance of amplify-and-forward (AF) relays in the presence of primary users (PUs). Depending on whether there exists interference at the secondary transceivers, originating from the primary transmissions, or there is a possibility of employing the best relay selection technique at the secondary side, two operating cases are considered for the secondary network (SN). For both cases, tight lower bounds on the outage probability (OP) and the average symbol error probability (SEP) are derived in closed form. Moreover, a novel and general closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER) of -ary square quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) for both single- and multiple-relay systems, under additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) when Gray coded bit mapping is employed, is presented. In addition, we provide an upper bound and closed-form approximate expression for the ergodic capacity (EC). Numerical results provide important insights into the impact of system parameters on performance; for instance, it is demonstrated that, in both cases, under consideration of power constraints on the secondary nodes as dictated by the underlay mode of operation, the SN always achieves the full diversity order similar to the noncognitive counterpart.
Autors: Saeed Vahidian;Ehsan Soleimani-Nasab;Sonia Aïssa;Mahmoud Ahmadian-Attari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2367 - 2381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Biocompatible Near-Infrared Three-Dimensional Tracking System
Abstract:
A fundamental challenge in soft-tissue surgery is that target tissue moves and deforms, becomes occluded by blood or other tissue, and is difficult to differentiate from surrounding tissue. We developed small biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers with a novel fused plenoptic and NIR camera tracking system, enabling three-dimensional tracking of tools and target tissue while overcoming blood and tissue occlusion in the uncontrolled, rapidly changing surgical environment. In this work, we present the tracking system and marker design and compare tracking accuracies to standard optical tracking methods using robotic experiments. At speeds of 1 mm/s, we observe tracking accuracies of 1.61 mm, degrading only to 1.71 mm when the markers are covered in blood and tissue.
Autors: Ryan S. Decker;Azad Shademan;Justin D. Opfermann;Simon Leonard;Peter C. W. Kim;Axel Krieger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 549 - 556
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bioinformatics of DNA [Scanning the Issue]
Abstract:
This special issue introduces current developments in bioinformatics, the use of computational techniques in the service of the life sciences, in the specific context of the analysis and interpretation of DNA molecules, where DNA is the primary informational molecule of all life. To fully appreciate the papers in this issue, some background knowledge in biology is required. The DNA in a cell is organized into a genome consisting of one or more chromosomes, each of which is a DNA molecule, which can be thought of as a long string over the alphabet of nucleotides, A, C, G, and T. Within a DNA string or sequence are substrings that are genes that normally encode the recipe for the functional proteins in the cell. The human genome is organized into 23 pairs of chromosomes, one maternal and one paternal chromosome set, containing a total of approximately six billion nucleotides. Amazingly, all ~1 trillion cells in one’s body, of diverse form and function, contain the same “molecular blueprint” with a near perfect copy of their genome.
Autors: Lenwood S. Heath;Héctor Corrada Bravo;Mario Caccamo;Michael Schatz;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 419 - 421
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bivariate Lifetime Model for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Abstract:
Despite advantages of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays over liquid crystal displays, reliability concerns persist. These concerns must be addressed before OLED displays are widely adopted. In particular, existing methods are unable to reliably estimate the lifetime of large OLED displays (i.e., displays of 55 in or larger). This study proposes a novel model that incorporates physical and statistical uncertainty to estimate the lifetime of large OLED panels under normal usage conditions. A likelihood-ratio-based validation method is presented to determine the validity of the calculated model parameters. A bivariate acceleration model with two critical factors—temperature and luminance—is presented. The lifespan predicted by the proposed lifetime model shows a good agreement with the experimental results.
Autors: Dae Whan Kim;Hyunseok Oh;Byeng Dong Youn;Dongil Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2325 - 2334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Blind Robust Estimation With Missing Data for Smart Sensors Using UFIR Filtering
Abstract:
Smart sensors are often designed to operate under harsh industrial conditions with incomplete information about noise and missing data. Therefore, signal processing algorithms are required to be unbiased, robust, predictive, and desirably blind. In this paper, we propose a novel blind iterative unbiased finite impulse response (UFIR) filtering algorithm, which fits these requirements as a more robust alternative to the Kalman filter (KF). The tradeoff in robustness between the UFIR filter and KF is learned analytically. The predictive UFIR algorithm is developed to operate in control loops under temporary missing data. Experimental verification is given for carbon monoxide concentration and temperature measurements required to monitor urban and industrial environments. High accuracy and precision of the predictive UFIR estimator are demonstrated in a short time and on a long baseline.
Autors: Miguel Vazquez-Olguin;Yuriy S. Shmaliy;Choon Ki Ahn;Oscar G. Ibarra-Manzano;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1819 - 1827
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Block-Layer Reliability Method for Distribution Systems Under Various Operating Scenarios
Abstract:
This paper formulates a block-layer method for the reliability assessment of distribution systems. The characteristics of the method include: 1) identifying the impact of distribution component reliability on the system and load points using a block-layer structured assessment; 2) incorporating time-dependent failure parameters; and 3) taking account of the topological, seasonal, and meteorological features of the distribution systems under analysis. The proposed method first identifies the three critical parts of the distribution system: main supply, feeder, and secondary substation. It can also include reserve connections and distributed generation. Second, the method frames these parts into the layered structure, each corresponding to the zone of total load curtailment. To verify this reliability technique, this paper simulates distribution feeders assembled in a number of topologies and compares them with the state sampling technique. Data provided by the local utility company are processed to model the equipment and load for the base year. The results show that the proposed method can provide a wide range of partial and system indices. These values assist in the identification of parts of the distribution system and scenarios with low reliability and to determine possible remedial actions.
Autors: Bruno Jorge de Oliveira e Sousa;Muhammad Humayun;Atte Pihkala;R. John Millar;Matti Lehtonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 978 - 988
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Review
Abstract:
Imaging and sensing technologies are essential in many applications. The recent volume, “Advances in Imaging and Sensing” edited by Shuo Tang and Daryoosh Saeedkia, introduces state-of-the-art advances in optical and terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies, including device design, system development and current applications, both medical and nonmedical. The book consists of 12 chapters in three sections from 30 authors.
Autors: Shuo Tang;Daryoosh Saeedkia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 859 - 860
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Reviews
Abstract:
Autors: Piotr Borylo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Book Reviews [8 Reviews]
Abstract:
The following books are reviewed: Electrical and Control Engineering & Materials Science and Manufacturing by S. Qin and X. Li; Power Cable Technology by S.K. Ganguli and V. Kohli; Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Information Science (EEEIS2015) by J. Wang and X. Li; Electronic Design Automation for IC System Design, Verification, and Testing (Volume 1), 2nd Edition by L. Lavagno, I.L. Markov, G. Martin, and L.K. Scheffer; Electronic Design Automation for IC Implementation, Circuit Design, and Process Technology (Volume 2), 2nd Edition by L. Lavagno, I.L. Markov, G. Martin, and L.K. Scheffer; High Temperature Corrosion by A. S. Khanna; Micro Energy Harvesting D. Briand, E. Yeatman, and S. Roundy; Introduction to the RF Design Using EM Simulators by H. Kogure, Y. Kogure, and J.C. Rautio.
Autors: John J. Shea;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 65 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Boosting the SOI MOSFET Electrical Performance by Using the Octagonal Layout Style in High Temperature Environment
Abstract:
This paper describes an experimental comparative study between the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) field effect transistors (MOSFETs) implemented with the octagonal gate geometries and their typical rectangular counterparts operating in high-temperature conditions. The 1 fully depleted SOI complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology was employed to manufacture the devices. We observe that the octagonal layout style for MOSFETs is capable of maintaining its better electrical performance (for 573 K: a reduction of the leakage drain current of 65%, an increase of 159% in the saturation drain current, and an increase of 175% in the unit voltage gain frequency) in comparison to the standard rectangular counterpart. This happens because the longitudinal corner effect and parallel connection of MOSFETs with different channel lengths effect continue to function at high temperatures. Therefore, the octagonal layout style can be considered as an alternative hardness-by-design approach to boost the electrical performance of n-type SOI MOSFETs in high-temperature environments, without causing any extra burden for any current planar SOI MOSFET manufacturing process.
Autors: Egon Henrique Salerno Galembeck;Christian Renaux;Denis Flandre;Saulo Finco;Salvador Pinillos Gimenez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 221 - 228
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Brain Implants and Memory [Commentary]
Abstract:
Autors: R.E. Burnett;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 30 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bridging Histology and Bioinformatics—Computational Analysis of Spatially Resolved Transcriptomics
Abstract:
It is well known that cells in tissue display a large heterogeneity in gene expression due to differences in cell lineage origin and variation in the local environment. Traditional methods that analyze gene expression from bulk RNA extracts fail to accurately describe this heterogeneity because of their intrinsic limitation in cellular and spatial resolution. Also, information on histology in the form of tissue architecture and organization is lost in the process. Recently, new transcriptome-wide analysis technologies have enabled the study of RNA molecules directly in tissue samples, thus maintaining spatial resolution and complementing histological information with molecular information important for the understanding of many biological processes and potentially relevant for the clinical management of cancer patients. These new methods generally comprise three levels of analysis. At the first level, biochemical techniques are used to generate signals that can be imaged by different means of fluorescence microscopy. At the second level, images are subject to digital image processing and analysis in order to detect and identify the aforementioned signals. At the third level, the collected data are analyzed and transformed into interpretable information by statistical methods and visualization techniques relating them to each other, to spatial distribution, and to tissue morphology. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art techniques used at all three levels of analysis. Finally, we discuss future perspective in this fast-growing field of spatially resolved transcriptomics.
Autors: Marco Mignardi;Omer Ishaq;Xiaoyan Qian;Carolina Wählby;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 530 - 541
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bringing Robotics to Formal Education: The Thymio Open-Source Hardware Robot
Abstract:
Mobile robots are valuable tools for education because of both the enthusiasm they raise and the multidisciplinary nature of robotics technology. Mobile robots give access to a wide range of fields, such as complex mechanics, sensors, wireless transmission, mathematics, and computer science. However, despite their potential as educational tools, robots are still not as widespread in schools as they could be. In this article, we identify five key reasons: lack of diversity, high cost, noninclusive design, lack of educational material, and lack of stability over time. Then, we describe our answers to these problems, as we implemented them in the Thymio project: a mature mass-produced open-hardware robot, at a low price, with a multiage and gender-neutral feature set, and with a design promoting creativity, facilitating learning, and providing a wide range of interaction possibilities from built-in behaviors to text programming, passing through different visual programming environments. We highlight some neglected key issues that differentiate open-source hardware from open-source software, for instance the legal uncertainty of designing open hardware using professional computer-aided design (CAD) tools and the difficulty to distribute the development. Our solution to these being to increase the awareness of CAD editors to open-source hardware and to provide a two-layer development model for hardware.
Autors: Francesco Mondada;Michael Bonani;Fanny Riedo;Manon Briod;Lea Pereyre;Philippe Retornaz;Stephane Magnenat;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 77 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bringing Together Researchers in Robot Mechanisms and Design [TC Spotlight]
Abstract:
Reports on major areas of robotics research that focus on robotic mechanisms and design methodologies. Also reports on various workshops and social events in this area that brings together robotics engineers developing new and innovative robotic technologies.
Autors: Arron Dollar;Claudio Semini;Kyujin Cho;Matei Ciocarlie;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 18 - 19
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadband SIW-to-Waveguide Transition in Multilayer LCP Substrates at W-Band
Abstract:
In this letter, we present a substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) to air-filled rectangular waveguide (WG) transition in multilayer liquid crystal polymer substrates at W-band. The proposed transition is achieved by using a SIW-fed linearly flared antipodal slot line inserted into a WG. To minimize packaging leakage, no guided vias are utilized in the slot line region. Full-wave simulation reveals a low insertion loss of 0.8 dB for the proposed transition at W-band. To experimentally demonstrate this design, a WG-to-SIW-to-WG transition was fabricated and characterized. The measured insertion and reflection loss of the back-to-back transition is less than 1.8 and −11 dB, respectively, at W-band.
Autors: Yifei Zhang;Shouyuan Shi;Richard D. Martin;Dennis W. Prather;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 224 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Broadcast Coded Modulation: Multilevel and Bit-Interleaved Construction
Abstract:
The capacity of the AWGN broadcast channel is achieved by superposition coding, but the superposition of individual coded modulations expands the modulation alphabet and distorts its configuration. Hierarchical modulations, which appear in the literature mostly in the context of unequal error protection, can approach only a few isolated points on the boundary of the broadcast capacity region. This paper studies multilevel coding (MLC) for constellation-constrained broadcast-coded modulation. The conditions under which multilevel codes can achieve the constellation-constrained capacity of the AWGN broadcast channel are derived. We propose a pragmatic multilevel design technique with near-constellation-constrained-capacity performance where the coupling of the superposition inner and outer codes is localized to each bit-level. It is shown that this can be further relaxed to a code coupling on only one bit-level, with a little or no penalty under natural labeling. The rate allocation problem between the bit levels of the two users is studied and a pragmatic method is proposed, again with near-capacity performance. In further pursuit of lower complexity, a hybrid MLC-bit-interleaved-coded modulation is proposed, whose performance is shown to be very close to the boundary of the constellation-constrained capacity region. Simulation results show that good point-to-point LDPC codes produce excellent performance in the proposed coded modulation framework.
Autors: Ahmed Attia Abotabl;Aria Nosratinia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 969 - 980
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buckling and Postbuckling Failure Analyses on a Rectangular Membrane for Touch Panel Applications
Abstract:
Thin conductive polymer membranes are the major sensing structure in resistive touch panels. However, device malfunctions such as early touching and false triggering have been reported during product development and reliability assessment. A surface profile examination has indicated that these membranes have considerable initial warpage, which could be a sign of membrane buckling, since the clamped design of the assembly may cause additional in-plane compression, in turn causing structural buckling. As a result, it is important to analyze the buckling and post-buckling behaviors of conductive polymer membranes due to initial imperfections, residual stress, or assembly issues in order to develop engineering solutions to ensure quality assurance. In this paper, both finite-element analyses and experimental characterizations are performed as the first step toward solving the observed problems. For the buckling analysis, we focus on the correlations between the calculated mode shapes and the observed surface warpage. Post-buckling analysis is also performed for exploring the performance of touch panels with initial warpage. In addition, several experimental investigations are conducted to validate the above mentioned mechanical analyses. The simulation results essentially agree with the observations. Both simulation and experimental investigations indicate that in-plane compression and shear can contribute to the observed failures. Engineering methods to increase buckling rigidity can be helpful for enhancing device reliability.
Autors: Chang-Hsin Chuang;Yu-Kai Chang;Kuo-Shen Chen;Chun-Chih Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 204 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buffer Layer Engineering for High ( $geq 10^{mathrm {13}}$ cm $^{mathrm {-2}}$ ) 2-DEG Density in ZnO-Based Heterostructures
Abstract:
In this paper, we report on the prospect of achieving very high values ( cm) of 2-D electron gas (2-DEG) density in ZnO-based heterostructures through buffer layer engineering. A physics-based analytical model is developed and utilized to demonstrate up to higher 2-DEG values in MgZnO/CdZnO as compared with that in the MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure at lower Mg composition of 0.10 in barrier layer. It is shown that a lower spontaneous polarization in buffer layer due to more electronegative Cd and higher lattice constant of CdZnO, which introduces tensile piezoelectric strain in the barrier layer, favorably add up, and increase polarization difference at barrier-buffer interface, which eventually enhances 2-DEG density. This paper demonstrates new opportunities to effectively utilize buffer layer properties to significantly improve the 2-DEG sheet density (~ cm) in ZnO heterostructures.
Autors: Md Arif Khan;Rohit Singh;Shaibal Mukherjee;Abhinav Kranti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1015 - 1019
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Buffer-Aided Relay Selection With Reduced Packet Delay in Cooperative Networks
Abstract:
Applying data buffers at relay nodes significantly improves the outage performance in relay networks, but the performance gain is often at the price of long packet delays. In this paper, a novel relay selection scheme with significantly reduced packet delay is proposed. The outage probability and average packet delay of the proposed scheme under different channel scenarios are analyzed. Simulation results are also given to verify the analysis. The analytical and simulation results show that, compared with non-buffer-aided relay selection schemes, the proposed scheme has not only significant gain in outage performance but also similar average packet delay when the channel signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is high enough, making it an attractive scheme in practice.
Autors: Zhao Tian;Yu Gong;Gaojie Chen;Jonathon A. Chambers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2567 - 2575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building and Improving Reference Genome Assemblies
Abstract:
A genome sequence assembly provides the foundation for studies of genotypic and phenotypic variation, genome structure, and evolution of the target organism. In the past four decades, there has been a surge of new sequencing technologies, and with these developments, computational scientists have developed new algorithms to improve genome assembly. Here we discuss the relationship between sequencing technology improvements and assembly algorithm development and how these are applied to extend and improve human and nonhuman genome assemblies.
Autors: Karyn Meltz Steinberg;Valerie A. Schneider;Can Alkan;Michael J. Montague;Wesley C. Warren;Deanna M. Church;Richard K. Wilson;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 422 - 435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building Detection Using Enhanced HOG–LBP Features and Region Refinement Processes
Abstract:
Building detection from two-dimensional high-resolution satellite images is a computer vision, photogrammetry, and remote sensing task that has arisen in the last decades with the advances in sensors technology and can be utilized in several applications that require the creation of urban maps or the study of urban changes. However, the variety of irrelevant objects that appear in an urban environment and resemble buildings, and the significant variations in the shape and generally the appearance of buildings render building detection a quite demanding task. As a result, automated methods that can robustly detect buildings in satellite images are necessary. To this end, we propose a building detection method that consists of two modules. The first module is a feature detector that extracts histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) and local binary patterns (LBP) from image regions. Using a novel approach, a support vector machine classifier is trained with the introduction of a special denoising distance measure for the computation of distances between HOG–LBP descriptors before their classification to the building or nonbuilding class. The second module consists of a set of region refinement processes that employs the output of the HOG–LBP detector in the form of detected rectangular image regions. Image segmentation is performed and a novel building recognition methodology is proposed to accurately identify building regions, while simultaneously discard false detections of the first module of the proposed method. We demonstrate that the proposed methodology can robustly detect buildings from satellite images and outperforms state-of-the-art building detection methods.
Autors: Dimitrios Konstantinidis;Tania Stathaki;Vasileios Argyriou;Nikolaos Grammalidis;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 888 - 905
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building Extraction from Remotely Sensed Images by Integrating Saliency Cue
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel two-step building extraction method from remote sensing images by integrating saliency cue. We first utilize classical features such as shadow, color, and shape to find out initial building candidates. A fully connected conditional random field model is introduced in this step to ensure that most of the buildings are incorporated. While it is hard to further remove the mislabled rooftops from the building candidates by only using classical features, we adopt saliency cue as a new feature to determine whether there is a rooftop in each segmentation patch obtained from previous step. The basic idea behind the use of saliency information is that rooftops are more likely to attract visual attention than surrounding objects. Based on a specifically designed saliency estimation algorithm for building object, we extract saliency cue in the local region of each building candidate, which is integrated into a probabilistic model to get the final building extraction result. We show that the saliency cue can provide an efficient probabilistic indication of the presence of rooftops, which helps to reduce false positives while without increasing false negatives at the same time. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets highlight the advantages of the integration of saliency cue and demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Er Li;Shibiao Xu;Weiliang Meng;Xiaopeng Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 906 - 919
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Building Outline Extraction Using a Heuristic Approach Based on Generalization of Line Segments
Abstract:
Efficient and fully automatic building outline extraction and simplification methods are highly demanded for three-dimensional model reconstruction tasks. In spite of the efforts put into developing such methods, the results of the recently proposed methods are still not satisfactory, especially for satellite images, due to object complexities and the presence of noise. Dealing with this problem, in this article, we propose a new approach that detects rough building boundaries (building mask) from Digital Surface Model data and then refines the resulting mask by classifying the geometrical features of the high spatial resolution panchromatic satellite image. The refined mask represents finer details of the building outlines, which are close to the original building edges. These outlines are then simplified through a parameterization phase wherein a tracing algorithm detects the building boundary points from the refined masks and a set of line segments is fitted to them. After that, for each building, the existing main orientations are determined based on the length and arc lengths of the building's line segments. Our method is able to determine the multiple main orientations of complex buildings. Through a regularization process, the line segments are then aligned and adjusted according to the building's main orientations. Finally, the adjusted line segments are intersected and connected to each other in order to form a polygon representing the building's outlines. Experimental results demonstrate that the computed building outlines are highly accurate and simple, even for large and complex buildings with inner yards.
Autors: Tahmineh Partovi;Reza Bahmanyar;Thomas Krauß;Peter Reinartz;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 933 - 947
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Bump Hunting in the Dark: Local Discrepancy Maximization on Graphs
Abstract:
We study the problem of discrepancy maximization on graphs: given a set of nodes of an underlying graph , we aim to identify a connected subgraph of that contains many more nodes from than other nodes. This variant of the discrepancy-maximization problem extends the well-known notion of “bump hunting” in the Euclidean space [1] . We consider the problem under two access models. In the unrestricted-access model, the whole graph is given as input, while in the local-access model we can only retrieve the neighbors of a given node in using a possibly slow and costly interface. We prove that the basic problem of discrepancy maximization on graphs is -hard, and empirically evaluate the performance o four heuristics for solving it. For the local-access model, we consider three different algorithms that aim to recover a part of large enough to contain an optimal solution, while using only a small number of calls to the neighbor-function interface. We perform a thorough experimental evaluation in order to understand the trade offs between the proposed methods and their dependencies on characteristics of the input graph.
Autors: Aristides Gionis;Michael Mathioudakis;Antti Ukkonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 529 - 542
Publisher: IEEE
 
» C-band Dual-Polarization Radar Observations of a Massive Volcanic Eruption in South America
Abstract:
The eruption of Calbuco volcano on April 22–23, 2015 is the first volcanic eruption detected by a weather radar in South America. The detection was performed by the first domestically produced Argentinean weather radar, called RMA0 and located at Bariloche International Airport. It is a C-band Doppler dual-polarization system, manufactured by INVAP S.E. as a part of the new radar network of Argentina. The aim of this study is to present analysis of the time evolution of the structure of the volcanic plume using polarimetric observables. In order to explore the potential of this new data set for the analysis of the Calbuco volcano eruption column and dispersed ash cloud, synthetic backscattering signatures at C-band have been simulated and used to set up a threshold-based algorithm for tephra-type classification. An evaluation of lightning activity and its relationships with the volcanic particle spatial distribution and attendant polarimetric radar signatures are also discussed.
Autors: Luciano Vidal;Stephen W. Nesbitt;Paola Salio;Camila Farias;María Gabriela Nicora;María Soledad Osores;Luigi Mereu;Frank S. Marzano;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 960 - 974
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CACheck: Detecting and Repairing Cell Arrays in Spreadsheets
Abstract:
Spreadsheets are widely used by end users for numerical computation in their business. Spreadsheet cells whose computation is subject to the same semantics are often clustered in a row or column as a cell array. When a spreadsheet evolves, the cells in a cell array can degenerate due to ad hoc modifications. Such degenerated cell arrays no longer keep cells prescribing the same computational semantics, and are said to exhibit ambiguous computation smells. We propose CACheck, a novel technique that automatically detects and repairs smelly cell arrays by recovering their intended computational semantics. Our empirical study on the EUSES and Enron corpora finds that such smelly cell arrays are common. Our study also suggests that CACheck is useful for detecting and repairing real spreadsheet problems caused by smelly cell arrays. Compared with our previous work AmCheck, CACheck detects smelly cell arrays with higher precision and recall rate.
Autors: Wensheng Dou;Chang Xu;S.C. Cheung;Jun Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 43, issue:3, pages: 226 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calibrated Nanoscale Dopant Profiling and Capacitance of a High-Voltage Lateral MOS Transistor at 20 GHz Using Scanning Microwave Microscopy
Abstract:
We quantitatively image the doping concentration and the capacitance of a high-voltage lateral metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor device with a channel length of 0.5 μm at 20-GHz frequency using scanning microwave microscopy (SMM). The transistor is embedded in a deep n-well forming a flat pn-junction with the p-substrate, with the shape of the pn-junction resolved in the SMM images. Calibrated dC/dV imaging of the device revealed doping concentration values in the range of 1015–1019 atoms/cm 3, including the p-body, n-drift region, n-source-diffusion, as well as all the pn-junctions and the silicon/oxide interfaces at a minimum feature size of 350 nm and SMM electrical resolution of 60 nm. SMM doping concentrations have been compared with technology computer-aided design simulations, resulting in a quantitative agreement between model and experiment. dC/dV images have been acquired at different tip dc bias voltages, allowing to determine the p and n dopant polarity. From the reflection scattering S11 signal calibrated capacitance measurements have been obtained from the various transistor regions in the range of 300 aF to 1 fF. The results suggest that both dC/dV dopant profiling and capacitance measurements can be used for quantitative nanoscale semiconductor device imaging.
Autors: Enrico Brinciotti;Giorgio Badino;Martin Knaipp;Georg Gramse;Juergen Smoliner;Ferry Kienberger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 245 - 252
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Calibration of SiC Detectors for Nitrogen and Neon Plasma Emission Using Gas-Puff Target Sources
Abstract:
A silicon carbide (SiC) detector was calibrated in terms of quantum efficiency (QE) as well as its spectral responsivity at two different wavelength radiations ( nm and nm), using two different calibrated Si detectors, sensitive to the soft X-ray radiation ( nm). An Nd:YAG laser was employed to irradiate a nitrogen and a neon gas-puff target, producing a plasma, which is emitting radiation used for estimation of the detector parameters. A possibility to characterize a new generation of not commercial SiC detectors, with a higher band gap with respect to Si, employing a gas-puff target source, will be presented. Measurements show the SiC detectors QE, equal to 3.4 and 7.1 e/ph for 2.88- and 1.35-nm wavelength radiations, respectively. Calculations and results are reported and discussed.
Autors: Alfio Torrisi;Przemyslaw W. Wachulak;Andrzej Bartnik;Tomasz Fok;Łukasz Wȩgrzyński;Henryk Fiedorowicz;Massimo Mazzillo;Antonella Sciuto;Lorenzo Torrisi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1120 - 1126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Call Admission Control With Inter-Network Cooperation for Cognitive Heterogeneous Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, a call admission control algorithm based on inter-network cooperation is proposed via a Stackelberg game framework for cognitive heterogeneous networks. The call admission control problem is subject to the variable bandwidth rate traffic, network service selection, feasible subchannel allocation, and call blocking probability. The call admission control algorithm is based on spectrum price at primary heterogeneous networks and subchannel allocation price and network selection at cognitive heterogeneous networks. In order to determine the call blocking probability, a probability upper bound of exceeding the maximum admission number for secondary mobile terminals (MTs) is analyzed based on model. Then, the subchannel allocation price and network selection are designed via the dual decomposition method, and the vacant spectrum price is determined with Bertrand game theory. Finally, a call admission control algorithm is proposed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only improves quality of service at each secondary MT, but also reduces the call blocking probability for cognitive heterogeneous networks.
Autors: Lei Xu;Ping Wang;Qianmu Li;Yinwei Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1963 - 1973
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Can Game-Based Learning Enhance Engineering Communication Skills?
Abstract:
Research problem: The enhancement of communication skills among engineering students has been a focus within the engineering curriculum for many years. Despite this emphasis, continual published reports document that engineering graduates are not well versed in the areas of written and oral communication when they graduate and transition into industrial-based positions. This study focuses on examining whether game-based pedagogy could serve as a potential tool for enhancing the written and oral communication skills of engineering undergraduates. Research questions: (1) What is the relationship between communication game exposure and oral and written communication skills achievement in engineering students? (2) Do engineering students' perceptions of their oral and written communication skills development associated with participation in communication games align with their achievement in these areas? Literature review: This study examines the ability of games to enhance engineering student communication skills by using the lens of activity theory. This communication theory was chosen because it describes how the creation of a piece of communication goes beyond traditional features such as grammar and syntax to include grappling with the objective or goal of the work, the system within which the product must be completed, and the methods selected to subdivide the work. These same constraints were imposed on the students within this study, in which they were assigned a technical design report and infomercial (or elevator pitch) to assess their oral and written communication skills. Methodology: Three groups of a sophomore-level Introduction to Chemical Product Design course compared non-games, games, and games-plus instructional methods. Student design reports and infomercials were scored by two analysts using reliable and validated rubrics. Team-based performance scores for each of the three sections were compared- to determine whether any resulting differences in communication achievement were associated with the incorporation of game-based activities within the classroom. Students' perceptions of their communication skill development were measured through survey instruments and focus groups. The focus group data were content-analyzed by the same two analysts using a coding scheme developed from an emergent qualitative analysis of the focus group data. Results and conclusion: We found that the use of game-based pedagogy within engineering classes can enhance oral and written communication skills even though this method of instruction is not always perceived by students as relevant to their achievement in these areas.
Autors: Cheryl A. Bodnar;Renee M. Clark;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 24 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Can Implants Be Weapons under the Law?: Implications for Regulation
Abstract:
Might there be circumstances in which development of an implantable technology or device, intended to enhance performance of military personnel, should be regulated as weapon development? The question is timely and relevant given the effort currently being expended on development of implants for military use; devices within the scope of what can be considered "weapons" for regulatory purposes would enliven additional, and onerous, legal obligations for States and military personnel in relation to their development, possession, and use.
Autors: Timothy McFarland;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 62 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Can Robotics Help Move Researchers Toward Open Science? [From the Field]
Abstract:
Open science (OS) is a growing trend in the scientific community. The idea is very simple: science can progress better and faster if scientific results published by a group of scientists can be reproduced, validated, and extended by other researchers. To achieve this goal, the classical publication of results in a scientific article should be associated with the publication of all the elements required to reproduce the presented results, such as data, software, etc. (Figure 1). OS also facilitates the transfer of research results to industry, so companies can directly access the methods and data.
Autors: Francesco Mondada;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 111 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity of Nakagami- $m$ Fading Channel With BPSK/QPSK Modulations
Abstract:
In this letter, we develop a recurrence formula for the capacity of Nakagami- fading channel with BPSK/QPSK modulations when channel state information is available at the receiver. For each fading parameter , a simply constructed series representation with a fast-convergence rate can be obtained through the recurrence formula. The series expansion provides a numerically efficient way to calculate the capacity for both Rayleigh and Nakagami- fading channels. The simulation results show that the recurrence formula is a good alternative for estimating the capacity of Nakagami fading channel.
Autors: Pei Yang;Yue Wu;Hongwen Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 564 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity of Remotely Powered Communication
Abstract:
Motivated by the recent developments in wireless power transfer, we study communication with a remotely powered transmitter. We propose an information-theoretic model where a charger can dynamically decide on how much power to transfer to the transmitter based on its side information regarding the communication, while the transmitter needs to dynamically adapt its coding strategy to its instantaneous energy state, which in turn depends on the actions previously taken by the charger. We characterize the capacity as an -letter mutual information rate under various levels of side information available at the charger. When the charger is finely tunable to different energy levels, referred to as a “precision charger,” we show that these expressions reduce to single-letter form and there is a simple and intuitive joint charging and coding scheme achieving capacity. The precision charger scenario is motivated by the observation that in practice the transferred energy can be controlled by simply changing the amplitude of the beamformed signal. When the charger does not have sufficient precision, for example, when it is restricted to use a few discrete energy levels, we show that the computation of the -letter capacity can be cast as a Markov decision process if the channel is noiseless. This allows us to numerically compute the capacity for specific cases and obtain insights on the corresponding optimal policy, or even to obtain closed-form analytical solutions by solving the corresponding Bellman equations, as we demonstrate through examples. Our findings provide some surprising insights on how side information at the charger can be used to increase the overall capacity of the system.
Autors: Dor Shaviv;Ayfer Özgür;Haim H. Permuter;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1364 - 1391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity of the Gaussian Two-Hop Full-Duplex Relay Channel With Residual Self-Interference
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the capacity of the Gaussian two-hop full-duplex (FD) relay channel with residual self-interference. This channel is comprised of a source, an FD relay, and a destination, where a direct source-destination link does not exist and the FD relay is impaired by residual self-interference. We adopt the worst case linear self-interference model with respect to the channel capacity, and model the residual self-interference as a Gaussian random variable whose variance depends on the amplitude of the transmit symbol of the relay. For this channel, we derive the capacity and propose an explicit capacity-achieving coding scheme. Thereby, we show that the optimal input distribution at the source is Gaussian and its variance depends on the amplitude of the transmit symbol of the relay. On the other hand, the optimal input distribution at the relay is discrete or Gaussian, where the latter case occurs only when the relay-destination link is the bottleneck link. The derived capacity converges to the capacity of the two-hop ideal FD relay channel without self-interference and to the capacity of the two-hop half-duplex (HD) relay channel in the limiting cases when the residual self-interference is zero and infinite, respectively. Our numerical results show that significant performance gains are achieved with the proposed capacity-achieving coding scheme compared with the achievable rates of conventional HD relaying and/or conventional FD relaying.
Autors: Nikola Zlatanov;Erik Sippel;Vahid Jamali;Robert Schober;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1005 - 1021
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Capacity-Achieving Sparse Superposition Codes via Approximate Message Passing Decoding
Abstract:
Sparse superposition codes were recently introduced by Barron and Joseph for reliable communication over the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel at rates approaching the channel capacity. The codebook is defined in terms of a Gaussian design matrix, and codewords are sparse linear combinations of columns of the matrix. In this paper, we propose an approximate message passing decoder for sparse superposition codes, whose decoding complexity scales linearly with the size of the design matrix. The performance of the decoder is rigorously analyzed and it is shown to asymptotically achieve the AWGN capacity with an appropriate power allocation. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the decoder at finite blocklengths. We introduce a power allocation scheme to improve the empirical performance, and demonstrate how the decoding complexity can be significantly reduced by using Hadamard design matrices.
Autors: Cynthia Rush;Adam Greig;Ramji Venkataramanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1476 - 1500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CardBot - Assistive Technology for Visually Impaired in Educational Robotics: Experiments and Results
Abstract:
We proposes an educational assistive methodology aiming to provide the access to educational robotics activities to students with visual impairments or low vision. As an approach to soften the main issues related to this challenging problem, we introduce a low cost, assistive technology, called CardBot 2.0. Basically, this model for teaching-learning is composed by a programming environment, a mobile application, and several geometric cards, each of them representing a specific action that is recognized by the application with a tag. So, the student can program the robot by selecting and organizing geometric cards on the surface of a board or on a table. Also a contribution of this work being part of the solution, the professor can create new cards and register the respective actions and tags. This allows the professor to add new actions for the robot or even to create a new language. We validated our approach by performing experimental classes for students with different visual impairments and ages, and for students without impairment, with an analysis of the results, qualitative.
Autors: Renata Pitta Barros;Aquiles Medeiros Filgueira Burlamaqui;Samuel Oliveira de Azevedo;Sarah Thomaz de Lima Sa;Luiz Marcos Garcia Goncalves;Akynara Aglae R S. da Silva Burlamaqui;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 517 - 527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Carrier Sensing for OFDMA-Based D2D Group-Casting Systems
Abstract:
Device-to-device (D2D) communications refer to direct communications between two or more devices without transferring data through the base station or other infrastructure. For synchronous D2D communication systems in most recent researches and development, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) or single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA) is considered to increase the communication coverage and to maintain the similarity with the cellular communication systems. One important design consideration for OFDMA-based (or SC-FDMA-based) D2D communication systems, particularly in an ad-hoc network mode, is the in-band emission effect, which corresponds to the mutual interference between different signals over other subchannels in the same time slot. To avoid interference from other transmitters or to other receivers, a transmitter may perform carrier sensing, which allows for transmission only when the measured interference is below the given threshold. Since the characteristics of the performance degradation due to other-channel interference (OCI) can be quite different from those by cochannel interference (CCI), the interference measurement must be carefully considered for carrier sensing in OFDMA-based D2D communication systems. This paper discusses physical carrier sensing for interference management in D2D group-casting or broadcasting systems and proposes a mechanism that efficiently avoids the interference from other subchannels. More specifically, outage probability is derived by taking both OCI and CCI into account and is then employed as a reference for the carrier sensing level in the course of selecting the resource blocks (RBs) for D2D communication. We demonstrate that our proposed carrier sensing scheme can significantly increase the areal capacity subject to the given target outage performance.
Autors: Minjoong Rim;Chung G. Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2301 - 2310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cascade of Two $W$ -Band Helical-Waveguide Gyro-TWTs With High Gain and Output Power: Concept and Modeling
Abstract:
In order to realize a high-power (100 s of kilowatts at the W-band) wideband microwave amplifier, we suggest to use a cascade of two gyrotron traveling-wave tubes (gyro-TWTs), one of which possesses a relatively high gain (40–50 dB) while the other provides a high output power at a moderate (15–20 dB) gain. Both gyro-TWTs are assumed to use helically corrugated waveguides and operate at the second cyclotron harmonic. A principal scheme of such an amplifier chain is discussed, including issues on the microwave input, output, and transmission between the tubes. Computer modeling of the beam-wave interaction using CST Particle Studio PIC Solver shows the possibility of achieving of 200–370-kW output power with 8–10-GHz bandwidth when driving by a 50-mW input source at the W-band.
Autors: Sergey V. Samsonov;Alexander A. Bogdashov;Gregory G. Denisov;Igor G. Gachev;Sergey V. Mishakin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1305 - 1309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cascaded Acoustic Wave Sensors Based on Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Dynamics for Intrusion Zone Identification
Abstract:
Optical based acoustic wave sensors have been implemented recently for intrusion detection. These sensors commonly involve the use of an optical time-domain reflectometer to pinpoint location, which is costly and slow. This paper reports on an acoustic sensor based on laser transient of an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) which offers almost instantaneous response to external perturbations. The proposed sensor is cost-effective, simple with fast response time and is able to detect high frequency vibrations. In addition, the inherent high sensitivity of the sensor enables it to sense airborne acoustic wave. Zone identification capability was demonstrated using a sensor setup with two EDFLs. The time delay due to the relative positions of the two fibers allows the user to identify the position of the impact. The sensing length can be easily increased for long range zone identification with length up to 25 km.
Autors: Sin-Ling Woon;Kar-Meng Kwan;Wu-Yi Chong;Horng-Sheng Lin;Chang-Hong Pua;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1893 - 1898
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cascaded Adaptation Framework for Fast Calibration of Myoelectric Control
Abstract:
In spite of several decades of intensive research and development, the existing algorithms of myoelectric pattern recognition (MPR) are yet to make significant clinical and commercial impact. This study focuses on the one of the limiting factors of current algorithms: degradation of algorithm performance due to the inherent non-stationarity in electromyography (EMG) signals and the consequent need for frequent re-training and re-calibration. In order to reduce the re-calibration time required for donning/doffing between sessions and avoid to need to re-calibrate within a given session while donning, we propose a cascaded adaptation (CA) framework based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), which automatically incorporates models from previous sessions in the model calibration for the current session. The framework also updates the model parameters according to new data samples and the corresponding recognized labels. Both off-line analysis (with data from eight intact-limbed subjects and three trans-radial amputees) and online testing with 9 intact-limbed subjects were conducted to evaluate the proposed method. Results show that the LDA embedded with CA (LDA-CA) is able to classify 11 types of motion with a small training data set, beginning from the second session of the experiment. The proposed LDA-CA obtains better performance as compared with three other methods—baseline LDA (LDA-BL), LDA with self-enhancing (LDA-SE), and LDA with domain adaptation (LDA-DA). The online test demonstrates that LDA-CA requiring an initial 1 min training session can be reliably used for 8 h without re-training. The proposed myoelectric control framework with low calibration burden has the potential to move the MPR based prostheses from academic research to clinical application.
Autors: Xiangyang Zhu;Jianwei Liu;Dingguo Zhang;Xinjun Sheng;Ning Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 254 - 264
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cascading Power Outages Propagate Locally in an Influence Graph That is Not the Actual Grid Topology
Abstract:
In a cascading power transmission outage, component outages propagate nonlocally; after one component outages, the next failure may be very distant, both topologically and geographically. As a result, simple models of topological contagion do not accurately represent the propagation of cascades in power systems. However, cascading power outages do follow patterns, some of which are useful in understanding and reducing blackout risk. This paper describes a method by which the data from many cascading failure simulations can be transformed into a graph-based model of influences that provides actionable information about the many ways that cascades propagate in a particular system. The resulting “influence graph” model is Markovian, in that component outage probabilities depend only on the outages that occurred in the prior generation. To validate the model, we compare the distribution of cascade sizes resulting from contingencies in a 2896 branch test case to cascade sizes in the influence graph. The two distributions are remarkably similar. In addition, we derive an equation with which one can quickly identify modifications to the proposed system that will substantially reduce cascade propagation. With this equation, one can quickly identify critical components that can be improved to substantially reduce the risk of large cascading blackouts.
Autors: Paul D. H. Hines;Ian Dobson;Pooya Rezaei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 958 - 967
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Case History: Arc Flash Incident on a Locked Out (LO/TO) 3.3-kV-Fused Contactor
Abstract:
As part of a drive to improve electrical safety in heavy industry, this paper presents a case history on an electrical arc flash accident. The accident occurred on a 3.3-kV-fused contactor which was locked out and tagged out. This paper describes the scenario leading up to the accident, the damage causing mechanisms, and concludes with certain root causes. It is envisaged that this paper will provide awareness on the importance of adequate management systems and the need to improve safety through design.
Autors: Zarheer Jooma;Jessica Hutchings;Hugh Hoagland;Ian R. Jandrell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1583 - 1588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CCM–DCM Power-Multiplexed Control Scheme for Single-Inductor Multiple-Output DC–DC Power Converter With No Cross Regulation
Abstract:
Single-inductor multiple-output (SIMO) switching dc–dc power converter architecture is a cost-effective alternative to multiple individual switching power converters solution in many power distribution system applications where multiple voltage rails are required at reduced cost. However, with multiple output voltage rails coupled to the same switching node, the SIMO power converters suffer from cross regulation between the multiple outputs, which complicates the closed-loop controller design of the SIMO converter and degrades regulation performance. In this paper, a power-multiplexed (PM) control scheme is proposed aiming to completely decouple the operations of multiple outputs from one another. The proposed PM control scheme results in eliminating the cross regulation among the multiple outputs while maintaining desired voltage regulation performance for each output under both steady-state and dynamic operations. Low-cost microcontroller or analog circuitries can be used to implement the proposed controller. Experimental proof of concept prototype results verify the feasibility and advantages of the proposed controller.
Autors: Wangxin Huang;Jaber A. Abu Qahouq;Zhigang Dang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1219 - 1231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Celebrating Phenomenal Growth in Chapter Development [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Presents information on recent IAS society chapter activities and events.
Autors: Peter Magyar;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 91 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cell-Free Massive MIMO Versus Small Cells
Abstract:
A Cell-Free Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) system comprises a very large number of distributed access points (APs), which simultaneously serve a much smaller number of users over the same time/frequency resources based on directly measured channel characteristics. The APs and users have only one antenna each. The APs acquire channel state information through time-division duplex operation and the reception of uplink pilot signals transmitted by the users. The APs perform multiplexing/de-multiplexing through conjugate beamforming on the downlink and matched filtering on the uplink. Closed-form expressions for individual user uplink and downlink throughputs lead to max–min power control algorithms. Max–min power control ensures uniformly good service throughout the area of coverage. A pilot assignment algorithm helps to mitigate the effects of pilot contamination, but power control is far more important in that regard. Cell-Free Massive MIMO has considerably improved performance with respect to a conventional small-cell scheme, whereby each user is served by a dedicated AP, in terms of both 95%-likely per-user throughput and immunity to shadow fading spatial correlation. Under uncorrelated shadow fading conditions, the cell-free scheme provides nearly fivefold improvement in 95%-likely per-user throughput over the small-cell scheme, and tenfold improvement when shadow fading is correlated.
Autors: Hien Quoc Ngo;Alexei Ashikhmin;Hong Yang;Erik G. Larsson;Thomas L. Marzetta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1834 - 1850
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cement Plant Fan Efficiency Upgrades
Abstract:
The preheater induced draft (ID) fan, the raw mill fan, and the baghouse ID fan are all major consumers of electrical power in a cement plant. Given such a fierce, competitive marketplace, it is wise, if not imperative, to evaluate these fans and their draft systems to optimize operating efficiency to save input horsepower and, in turn, consumed electrical power. These power-reducing upgrades can also substantially reduce the emissions and the overall carbon footprint of the process. An opportunity arose at a cement plant while the rotor of one of the preheater ID fans was becoming a maintenance issue and reaching the end of its operational life. The foresight of plant personnel reasoned that if it had to be replaced, an upgrade of the rotor should be considered, particularly considering the fact that their electricity provider was offering rebates for power savings. This paper presents a case history including all the challenges along the way to replace the original, antiquated radial blade rotor design with a more efficient, properly selected, and modern backward curved design. The result of this commitment to modernization dramatically lowered the input electrical requirements creating considerable operational savings with an attractive rate on the return of investment.
Autors: Allen L. Ray;Derek Couse;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1562 - 1568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Centralized Versus Decentralized Optimization of Distributed Stochastic Differential Decision Systems With Different Information Structures-Part I: A General Theory
Abstract:
Decentralized optimization of distributed stochastic dynamical systems with two or more controls of the decision makers (DMs) has been an active area of research for over half a century. Although, such decentralized optimization problems are often formulated utilizing static team and person-by-person (PbP) optimality criteria, the corresponding static team theory results have not been extended to dynamical systems. In this first part of the two-part paper, we derive team and PbP optimality conditions for distributed stochastic differential systems, when the controls of the DMs generate actions based on different information structures. The necessary conditions are given by a Hamiltonian System described by coupled backward and forward stochastic differential equations (SDEs) and a conditional Hamiltonian, conditioned on the information structures available to the controls of the DMs. The sufficient conditions state that PbP optimality implies team optimality, if the Hamiltonian is convex in the state and/or actions spaces of the controls of the DMs. We show existence of relaxed team optimal strategies, when the information structures are not affected by the controls of the DMs. Throughout the paper we discuss similarities to analogous optimality conditions of centralized decision or control of stochastic systems, and we note a connections to mean field stochastic optimal control problems.
Autors: Charalambos D. Charalambous;Nasir U. Ahmed;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1194 - 1209
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chain-Based Approach for Fast Through-Silicon-Via Coupling Delay Estimation
Abstract:
A chain-based coupling delay estimation method for through-silicon-vias (TSVs) in 3-D integrated circuits is proposed. Existing works target the worst case scenarios and this leads to inaccurate TSV coupling delay estimations, as the worst case may not occur during normal operation. The proposed method calculates the TSV coupling delay using simulation-based switching data. In addition, our TSV chain method allows us to capture the effects of nonneighboring TSVs accurately. Our simulations show that the error introduced by our method without using HSPICE is less than 10 ps even in TSV-crowded regions.
Autors: Jaewon Jang;Minho Cheong;Jin-Ho Ahn;Sung Kyu Lim;Sungho Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1178 - 1182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Challenges and Software Architecture for Fog Computing
Abstract:
This article presents a detailed description of fog computing (also known as edge computing) and explores its research challenges and problems. Based on the authors' understanding of these challenges and problems, they propose a flexible software architecture, which can incorporate different design choices and user-specified polices. They present their design of WM-FOG, a computing framework for fog environments that embraces this software architecture, and evaluate their prototype system.
Autors: Zijiang Hao;Ed Novak;Shanhe Yi;Qun Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 44 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Change Detection in Multispectral Landsat Images Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a novel method for unsupervised change detection in multitemporal multispectral Landsat images using multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). The proposed method minimizes two different objective functions using MOEA to provide tradeoff between each other. The objective functions are used for evaluating changed and unchanged regions of the difference image separately. The difference image is obtained by using the structural similarity index measure method, which provides combination of the comparisons of luminance, contrast, and structure between two images. By evolving a population of solutions in the MOEA, a set of Pareto optimal solution is estimated in a single run. To find the best solution, a Markov random field fusion approach is used. Experiments on semisynthetic and real-world data sets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Amir Yavariabdi;Huseyin Kusetogullari;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 414 - 418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Change in Brooklyn and Queens: How New York?s Reforming the Energy Vision Program and Con Edison Are Reshaping Electric Distribution Planning
Abstract:
The New York City boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are undergoing a period of gentrification, infrastructure rebuilding, new construction, and load growth not experienced in decades. Significant numbers of residents are moving in, and structures that had been abandoned or were in disrepair are being refurbished and modernized to accommodate the burgeoning population. Homes, businesses, and industries are reviving areas long in decline, and Brooklyn's growth has made it the nation?s fourth most populous city, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.
Autors: Michael Coddington;Damian Sciano;Jason Fuller;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 40 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Changes to the Editorial Board
Abstract:
It is my pleasure to welcome Dr. B. Gunnar Malm to the Editorial Board of IEEE Electron Device Letters. A biography and sketch of Dr. Malm’s research interests can be found below. His subject areas are Solid-State Power and High-Voltage Devices and Silicon and Column IV Semiconductor Devices.
Autors: Tsu-Jae King Liu;Bengt Gunnar Malm;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 298 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Stress and Ballistic Performance Advantages of Gate-All-Around FETs and Inserted-Oxide FinFETs
Abstract:
Detailed stress modeling of various three-dimensional (3-D) MOSFET designs reveals that the “inserted-oxide” FinFET and gate-all-around (GAA) stacked-nanowire MOSFET (GAAFET) exhibit increased longitudinal stress and decreased transverse stress in both p-channel and n-channel devices, as compared against the bulk FinFET. By combining 3-D electrostatics modeling with mid-channel Schrödinger–Poisson calculations for transport characteristics, it is projected that these changes in stress profile together with the addition of (100)-oriented channel surfaces in the iFinFET and GAAFET affect the carrier effective mass and therefore injection velocity, enhancing the electron transport, but retarding hole transport. Combining the effect on injection velocity with the effect of improved electrostatic integrity, the GAAFET and iFinFET are each found to have a higher drive current for the same off current, relative to the bulk FinFET, with the iFinFET trading some drive current relative to the GAAFET for a substantially shorter gate stack height and simpler structure. These results suggest the iFinFET is a strong candidate for continued MOSFET scaling.
Autors: Daniel Connelly;Peng Zheng;Tsu-Jae King Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 209 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Channel Upgradation for Non-Binary Input Alphabets and MACs
Abstract:
Consider a single-user or multiple-access channel with a large output alphabet. A method to approximate the channel by an upgraded version having a smaller output alphabet is presented and analyzed. The original channel is not necessarily symmetric and does not necessarily have a binary input alphabet. Also, the input distribution is not necessarily uniform. The approximation method is instrumental when constructing capacity achieving polar codes for an asymmetric channel with a non-binary input alphabet. Other settings in which the method is instrumental are the wiretap setting as well as the lossy source coding setting.
Autors: Uzi Pereg;Ido Tal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1410 - 1424
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristic Mode Analysis and Metasurface- Based Suppression of Higher Order Modes of a $2times2$ Closely Spaced Phased Array
Abstract:
This paper studies the design tradeoffs and modal excitation of closely spaced finite-sized ground plane backed phased arrays in the framework of characteristic mode theory, and proposes a method to suppress the higher order modes using a metasurface. The characteristic mode analysis also reveals the dominant modes and the excited modes for wideband operation. From the generalized method of moments impedance matrix and N-port network impedance matrix, key parameters are derived for the analysis, such as modal currents, modal radiation patterns, modal significance, modal weighting, modal radiated power, and modal near fields. The analysis includes the broadside and beamsteering radiation of closely spaced bowtie array antennas. The simulated and measured results show that it is essential for the beamsteering to have multiple modes excited simultaneously. By suppressing the higher order modes using the metasurface, the aperture efficiency and the realized gain can be improved for beamsteering cases. This analysis can be extended to a larger array and used to identify array impedance bandwidth performance in scan cases.
Autors: Ashraf Adam Salih;Zhi Ning Chen;Koen Mouthaan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1141 - 1150
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristic Mode Formulation for Dielectric Coated Conducting Bodies
Abstract:
In this paper, characteristic mode (CM) formulations are developed from surface integral equation (SIE) for the modal analysis of dielectric coated conducting bodies. The electric field integral equation-Poggio, Miller, Chang, Harrington, Wu, and Tsai SIE is used for modeling the dielectric coated conducting bodies. By ensuring the field continuity on the interface boundary, two types of generalized eigenvalues equations are formulated to determine the resonant behavior of the dielectric coated conducting bodies. Following Poynting’s theorem, the resultant eigenvalues indicate the ratio of the imaginary and real part of the complex power for each CM. Zero eigenvalues indicate the resonance in dielectric coated conducting bodies. The corresponding modal fields provide with clear physical insights into the radiation/scattering mechanisms. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed CM formulations.
Autors: Liwen Guo;Yikai Chen;Shiwen Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1248 - 1258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of an Atmospheric Nonthermal Microplasma Actuator
Abstract:
In this study, a micrometer-size plasma actuator, microplasma actuator, was developed and investigated for active flow control. The microplasma actuator could be driven by a relatively low voltage of less than 2 kVpp owing to its micrometer discharge gap. Such a low voltage is easily controllable with semiconductor switches. Discharge diagnostics included measurements of the discharge voltage, energy, and ozone generation. Emission spectra were also measured to determine the characteristics of the microplasma. The air flow induced by the microplasma actuator was measured by the particle tracking velocimetry method. Incense smoke of a submicron diameter was used as the tracer particles and a laser was used for irradiation. Driving of the microplasma actuator generated an air flow in the order of 0.1 m/s and its direction was controlled with semiconductor switches.
Autors: Kazuo Shimizu;Yoshinori Mizuno;Marius Blajan;Hitoki Yoneda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1452 - 1458
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characteristics of Resistive Memory Read Fluctuations in Endurance Cycling
Abstract:
We report on new fluctuation dynamics of the high resistance state of Hafnia-based RRAM devices after RESET. We observe that large amplitude fluctuations occur more frequently immediately after programming and their frequency of occurrence decays in the tens of microseconds. The fluctuation amplitude, on the other hand, does not decay noticeably over the entire millisecond read time. While post-programming instability and post-programming resistance dispersion have both been reported in the literature, the relaxation in the frequency of occurrence without a commensurate amplitude decay is new. Since picosecond pulses were used for our RESET operation, post-programming thermalization occurs on the nanosecond time scale. This clearly eliminates a thermally driven mechanism as the cause of the observed fluctuation behavior. Furthermore, reducing the READ voltage by tenfold does not have any effect and also eliminates read disturb as possible cause.
Autors: David M. Nminibapiel;Dmitry Veksler;Pragya R. Shrestha;Ji-Hong Kim;Jason P. Campbell;Jason T. Ryan;Helmut Baumgart;Kin P. Cheung;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 326 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Admissible Marking Sets in Petri Nets With Conflicts and Synchronizations
Abstract:
In this paper we study the problem of constraint transformation for Petri nets with uncontrollable transitions and containing both conflicts and synchronizations. We show that given an arbitrary net and a set of legal markings, the admissible marking set cannot always be represented by a finite number of disjunctions of GMECs. Moreover, we characterize the GMEC inflation phenomenon, that is, the case in which the representation of the admissible marking set may be too complex to be efficiently implemented in a closed-loop net. To rule out the possibility of GMEC inflation we consider a subclass of constraints called singular GMECs with an acyclic backward-conflict-free uncontrollable subnet. By these assumptions we propose an algorithm to transform a given singular GMEC into a controllable OR-GMEC which precisely characterizes its admissible marking set.
Autors: Ziyue Ma;Zhiwu Li;Alessandro Giua;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1329 - 1341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Bespoke Force Sensors for Tailored Applications
Abstract:
Bespoke force sensors made with active polymer composites are inexpensive, thin and flexible, hence popular in wearable electronics, however their wider application is limited due to the lack of literature studying their voltage response related errors. We present the voltage response characterization of bespoke force sensors made with an active polymer composite, silver coated fabric, stainless steel thread, and silver epoxy. Characterization of the effects of static and dynamic loading was completed with a mechanical testing machine. Static tests consisted of loading and unloading at 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 N/s, and drift tests for 120 minutes up to 10 N every 1 N. Dynamic tests consisted of a sinusoidal load of 5 N ±1 N applied at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 Hz for 60 min. The force-voltage relationships were modeled using an exponential function. Maximum mean drift error was observed when applying different static loads for 120 minutes each. Drift error is minimal at 5 s (<1%) and at 60 min (<5%) with loads under 1 N. Maximum hysteresis of 18% was observed at the 1 N/s loading rate. The maximum drift error after 1 h of dynamic loading was observed at 0.5 Hz and is minimal (−0.00004%). The cost of fabricating these sensors is very low compared with commercially available options. These sensors can be fabricated in any shape and size with the added advantage of being able to set the location of the electronic connections as desired.
Autors: Dafne Zuleima Morgado Ramirez;Maria del Pilar Garcia Souto;Benjamin M. Oldfrey;Peter Smitham;Mark Miodownik;Catherine Holloway;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1727 - 1734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Interface Defects With Distributed Activation Energies in GaN-Based MIS-HEMTs
Abstract:
Charge trapping is one of the main reliability issues for GaN-based MIS-high-electron-mobility-transistor technologies. In this paper, we focus on the defects located at or close to the interface with the dielectric, which are responsible for the threshold voltage instability at positive gate bias conditions. We present a methodology to analyze the experimental data based on the nonradiative multiphonon model for charge trapping. In particular, we show how to extract the density of interface traps as a function of their activation energy from stress and recovery experiments performed at various temperatures. Our approach is applied to two GaN/AlGaN/SiN samples with different trapping properties, at temperatures ranging from −190 °C to 200 °C. We evaluate their response to forward bias stress and finally, we extract the activation energy distribution for electron capture and emission over a continuous energy range.
Autors: Roberta Stradiotto;Gregor Pobegen;Clemens Ostermaier;Michael Waltl;Alexander Grill;Tibor Grasser;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1045 - 1052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Characterization of Signal Integrity Due to Pitch–Roll–Yaw Rotation Tolerance in Magnetic Position Sensing Systems
Abstract:
Magnetoresistive sensor is commonly used as a read head to detect sine and cosine waveforms from magnetic patterned medium for determining precision position in engineering applications. The sensor utilizes its magnetoresistivity ability to change its resistance under the influence of magnetic fields. The resistance changes proportionally to square of the sine of the angle between the magnetization vector () and current flow vector (). Therefore, the assembly tolerances, such as the pitch, roll, and yaw rotations, between the sensor and the medium would cause angle changes with respect to external magnetic field and magnetization vector, leading to distorted waveforms in microprocessor that result in undesirable subdivision position error. In this paper, parameter studies are conducted with results validated by experiment in determining the characteristic relationship between the assembly tolerances on the measured magnetic signals for manufacturing and real-time dynamic control applications.
Autors: Heng-Sheng Hsiao;Jen-Yuan James Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Charge Trapping Analysis of Metal/Al2O3/SiO2/Si, Gate Stack for Emerging Embedded Memories
Abstract:
For Al2O3 charge trapping analysis, Metal/Al2O3/SiO2/Si (MAOS) structures are fabricated from atomic layer deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition-based Al2O3 and SiO2 thin films, respectively. The fabricated MAOS devices showed high memory window of ~7.81V@16V sweep voltage and leakage current density of /cm@−1V. The charge trapping and decay mechanism are investigated with the variation of alumina thickness by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). It reveals that vertical charge decay is a dominant phenomenon of charge loss for Al2O3 in contrast to lateral charge spreading. Constant current stress (CCS) measurements mark the location of charge trap centroid at ~10.30 nm from metal/Al2O3 interface attributes that bulk traps present close to the Al2O3/SiO2 interface are dominant charge trap centres. In addition, a simple method is proposed to estimate the trap density using KPFM and CCS method at room temperature. Furthermore, there is ~28% exponential decay in high state capacitance observed after s in capacitance-time analysis at room temperature. This material engineering of charge traps will improve the performance and functionality of bilayer Al2O3/SiO2 structure for embedded memory applications.
Autors: Robin Khosla;Erlend Granbo Rolseth;Pawan Kumar;Senthil Srinivasan Vadakupudhupalayam;Satinder K. Sharma;Jörg Schulze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 80 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Children and Technology: Guidelines for Parents-Rules for Every Age [Leading Edge]
Abstract:
Autors: Kimberly Young;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 27 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chip-Scale Implementation and Cascade Assembly of Particulate Matter Collectors With Embedded Resonant Mass Balances
Abstract:
This paper presents design, fabrication, characterization, and cascade assembly of chip-scale aerosol inertial impactors (airborne micro/nanoparticle collector). Microelectromechanical resonant mass balances are integrated within the fabricated chip-scale aerosol impactors for real-time particulate matter (PM) concentration measurement. A microfabrication process including only three-lithography steps has been developed to form the main impactor stage components: mass balance, impactor nozzle, and impaction micro-chamber on a single silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. This approach enables dramatic miniaturization of the conventional bulky impactors while adding real-time measurement capability. Furthermore, utilization of microfabrication techniques can address some of the existing manufacturing and precision assembly challenges for such devices. Smaller nozzle diameters down to enabled by micro-lithography minimize the air flow, typically in the few liters per minute range, to milliliters per minute, and consequently the pump capacity and power requirements. Fabricated devices are tested as individual stages as well as cascaded dual-stages. Tests performed in different environments with different particle mass concentrations show an evident correlation between the resonator response and the expected particle concentrations. scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the deposited particles for single impactor stages shows particle sizes as small as ~12 nm. For the cascade impactors, the SEM images show particles of ~150 and 41 nm for first and second stage, respectively. This paper demonstrated that segregation of nano-particles was achieved with the proposed dual stage chip-scale aerosol inertial impactor.
Autors: Maribel Maldonado-Garcia;Varun Kumar;James C. Wilson;Siavash Pourkamali;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1617 - 1625
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chirped Bragg Gratings in PMMA Step-Index Polymer Optical Fiber
Abstract:
In this letter, we report for the first time, a chirped fiber Bragg grating photo-inscribed in undoped PMMA polymer optical fibre (POF). The chirped polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (CPOFBGs) were inscribed using an UV KrF excimer laser operating at 248 nm and a 25-mm long chirped phase mask customized for 1550-nm grating inscription. The used laser pulsing frequency was 1 Hz with an energy of 5 mJ per exposure and only few shots for each grating inscription were employed. The reflection amplitude spectrum evolution of a CPOFBG is investigated as a function of the applied strain, temperature, and pressure. These results can potentiate further developments in different sensing fields, such as liquid level monitoring, splits, and transverse cracks in structural health monitoring by local pressure analysis or even biomedical field. Furthermore, CPOFBGs could present some critical advantages preferably replacing their silica counterparts as well as the uniform polymer FBGs.
Autors: C. A. F. Marques;P. Antunes;P. Mergo;D. J. Webb;P. André;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 500 - 503
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chitosan-Based Electrolyte Gated Low Voltage Oxide Transistor With a Coplanar Modulatory Terminal
Abstract:
Indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) using chitosan-based bio-polysaccharide electrolytes as the gate dielectric are fabricated. The TFTs show a good electrical performance with a very low operation voltage of ~1.0 V. Specific gate capacitance of the electrolyte film and electrical performance of the TFTs can be effectively modulated by the coplanar modulatory terminal due to synergic proton gating effects. Furthermore, a resistor-loaded inverter is investigated, and balanced noise margin is obtained. Such oxide-based TFTs with additional modulatory terminal may find potential applications in portable electronics.
Autors: Li Qiang Zhu;Jin Yu Chao;Hui Xiao;Rui Liu;Qing Wan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 322 - 325
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circuit Model for Double-Energy-Level Trap Centers in GaN HEMTs
Abstract:
Measurement results performed on a GaN high-electron-mobility transistor that show the presence of a double-energy-level (DEL) trap center in the device are presented. A novel, yet simple, circuit implementation of a DEL trap center in an FET is presented that is immediately extendableto a trap centerwithmore than two energy levels. The model is based on the Shockley–Read–Hall statistics of the trapping process. The implementation is suitable for both time-domain and harmonic-balance simulations. Simulation results validate the proposed model.
Autors: Sayed Ali Albahrani;Anthony Parker;Michael Heimlich;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 998 - 1006
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circular Sphere Decoding: A Low Complexity Detection for MIMO Systems With General Two-dimensional Signal Constellations
Abstract:
We propose a low-complexity, complex-valued sphere decoding (CV-SD) algorithm, which is referred to as circular sphere decoding (CSD) and is applicable to multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) systems with arbitrary 2-D constellations. CSD provides a new constraint test. This constraint test is carefully designed so that the elementwise dependence is removed in the metric computation for the test. As a result, the constraint test becomes simple to perform without restriction on its constellation structure. By additionally employing this simple test as a prescreening test, CSD reduces the complexity of the CV-SD search. We show that the complexity reduction is significant, while its maximum-likelihood (ML) performance is not compromised. We also provide a powerful tool to estimate the pruning capacity of any particular search tree. Using this tool, we propose the predict-and-change strategy, which leads to a further complexity reduction in CSD. Extension of the proposed methods to soft output sphere decoding (SD) is also presented.
Autors: Hwanchol Jang;Saeid Nooshabadi;Kiseon Kim;Heung-No Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2085 - 2098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of Urban Point Clouds: A Robust Supervised Approach With Automatically Generating Training Data
Abstract:
To reduce the cost of manually annotating training data for parsing outdoor scenes, we propose a supervised approach with automatically generating training data for classifying 3-D point clouds of large-scale urban scenes. In this approach, the input point cloud is aggregated into point clusters, and the disjoint set union issue is combined with geometric attributes of each point cluster to obtain object segments. The prior knowledge among different classes is used to label the segments by using the decision-tree model. Then, the initialized training samples are generated automatically. The confidence estimation for the labeling is employed to filter the mislabeled training samples. With the generated training data, we train a random forest classifier to create the initial classification of the 3-D scene on the set of descriptors for each 3-D point. The classification results are further optimized by multilabel conditional Random Fields. Experimental results on five urban point clouds captured by different types of scanners (i.e., terrestrial laser scanning, vehicle laser scanning, and airborne laser scanning datasets) demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves a competitive classification performance.
Autors: Zhuqiang Li;Liqiang Zhang;Ruofei Zhong;Tian Fang;Liang Zhang;Zhenxin Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1207 - 1220
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clipping Noise Mitigation in Optical OFDM Systems
Abstract:
This letter describes a new non-linear algorithm for clipping noise mitigation in intensity modulation/direct detection dc biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DCO-OFDM) systems. Clipping noise is often the major limitation in DCO-OFDM. In this letter, we show that extra information about the clipped signal can be extracted using a non-linear process and then used to mitigate the clipping noise. The effectiveness of the new algorithm is demonstrated by simulation and in an optical wireless experiment.
Autors: Cuiwei He;Jean Armstrong;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 548 - 551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Loop Flux-Weakening Control of Hybrid-Excitation Synchronous Machine Drives
Abstract:
This paper presents a closed-loop flux-weakening controller for hybrid-excitation synchronous machine drives based on separate regulation of amplitude and phase angle of the armature voltage. Operating point analysis is carried out to investigate the dynamic properties of the drive and to give guidelines in the tuning of the controller. Finally, experimental tests validating the theoretical derivations are performed on a prototype hybrid-excitation drive.
Autors: Gabriele Borocci;Fabio Giulii Capponi;Giulio De Donato;Federico Caricchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1116 - 1126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cloudde: A Heterogeneous Differential Evolution Algorithm and Its Distributed Cloud Version
Abstract:
Existing differential evolution (DE) algorithms often face two challenges. The first is that the optimization performance is significantly affected by the ad hoc configurations of operators and parameters for different problems. The second is the long runtime for real-world problems whose fitness evaluations are often expensive. Aiming at solving these two problems, this paper develops a novel double-layered heterogeneous DE algorithm and realizes it in cloud computing distributed environment. In the first layer, different populations with various parameters and/or operators run concurrently and adaptively migrate to deliver robust solutions by making the best use of performance differences among multiple populations. In the second layer, a set of cloud virtual machines run in parallel to evaluate fitness of corresponding populations, reducing computational costs as offered by cloud. Experimental results on a set of benchmark problems with different search requirements and a case study with expensive design evaluations have shown that the proposed algorithm offers generally improved performance and reduced computational time, compared with not only conventional and a number of state-of-the-art DE variants, but also a number of other distributed DE and high-performing evolutionary algorithms. The speedup is significant especially on expensive problems, offering high potential in a broad range of real-world applications.
Autors: Zhi-Hui Zhan;Xiao-Fang Liu;Huaxiang Zhang;Zhengtao Yu;Jian Weng;Yun Li;Tianlong Gu;Jun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 704 - 716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clustering Smart Card Data for Urban Mobility Analysis
Abstract:
Smart card data gathered by automated fare collection (AFC) systems are valuable resources for studying urban mobility. In this paper, we propose two approaches to cluster smart card data, which can be used to extract mobility patterns in a public transportation system. Two complementary standpoints are considered: a station-oriented operational point of view and a passenger-focused one. The first approach clusters stations based on when their activity occurs, i.e., how trips made at the stations are distributed over time. The second approach makes it possible to identify groups of passengers that have similar boarding times aggregated into weekly profiles. By applying our approaches to a real data set issued from the metropolitan area of Rennes, France, we illustrate how they can help reveal valuable insights about urban mobility, such as the presence of different station key roles, including residential stations used mostly in the mornings and work stations used only in the evening and almost exclusively during weekdays, as well as different passenger behaviors ranging from the sporadic and diffuse usage to typical commute practices. By cross comparing passenger clusters with fare types, we also highlight how certain usages are more specific to particular types of passengers.
Autors: Mohamed K. El Mahrsi;Etienne Côme;Latifa Oukhellou;Michel Verleysen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 712 - 728
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clustering-Based Geometrical Structure Retrieval of Man-Made Target in SAR Images
Abstract:
In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, scattering centers (SCs) from the same geometric structure of the man-made target usually have the same scattering type and similar coordinates. Inspired by this observation, a novel clustering-based geometrical structure retrieval (C-GSR) method is proposed to estimate the geometrical structure of targets by clustering SCs according to their types and coordinates. The C-GSR method considers each peak in a SAR image as a single SC and extracts both frequency and polarization features for classification. Then, SCs are efficiently clustered using the density-distance-based clustering algorithm. Finally, the geometrical structure corresponding to each canonical scatterer can be retrieved by computing the coordinates of SCs associated with the corresponding cluster. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed C-GSR method.
Autors: Jiani Wu;Yongguang Chen;Dahai Dai;Siwei Chen;Xuesong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 279 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CMCS: Current-Mode Clock Synthesis
Abstract:
In a high-performance VLSI design, the clock network consumes a significant amount of power. While most existing methodologies use voltage-mode (VM) signaling, these clock distributions lose a tremendous amount of dynamic power to charge/discharge the large global clock capacitance. New circuit approaches for current-mode (CM) clocking save significant clock power, but have been limited to only symmetric networks, while most application specific integrated circuits have asymmetric clock distributions. In this paper, we propose the first CM clock synthesis (CMCS) methodology to reduce the overall clock network power with low skew. The method can integrate with traditional clock routing followed by transmitter and receiver sizing. We validate the proposed methodology using ISPD 2009 and 2010 industrial benchmarks using an extracted SPICE model distributed in 1.4–275.6-mm2 area and consists of 81–2249 sinks. This methodology saves 39%–84% average power with similar skew on the benchmarks using 45-nm CMOS technology simulation of clock frequencies range from 1–3 GHz. In addition, the CMCS methodology takes less running time and consumes 20%–26% less transistor area compared with synthesized, buffered VM clock distributions.
Autors: Riadul Islam;Matthew R. Guthaus;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1054 - 1062
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Code, Cache and Deliver on the Move: A Novel Caching Paradigm in Hyper-Dense Small-Cell Networks
Abstract:
Caching popular content files at small-cell base stations (SBSs) has emerged as a promising technique to meet the overwhelming growth in mobile data demand. Despite the plethora of work in this field, a specific aspect has been overlooked. It is assumed that all users remain stationary during data transfer and therefore a complete copy of the requested file can always be downloaded by the associated SBSs. In this work, we revisit the caching problem in realistic environments where moving users intermittently connect to multiple SBSs encountered at different times. Due to connection duration limits, users may download only parts of the requested files. Requests for files that failed to be delivered on time by the SBSs are redirected to the coexisting macro-cell. We introduce an optimization framework that models user movements via random walks on a Markov chain aimed at minimizing the load of the macro-cell. As the main contribution, we put forward a distributed caching paradigm that leverages user mobility predictions and innovative information-mixing methods based on the principle of network coding. Systematic experiments based on measured traces of human mobility patterns demonstrate that our approach can offload more macro-cell traffic than existing caching schemes in realistic settings.
Autors: Konstantinos Poularakis;Leandros Tassiulas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 675 - 687
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Code-Aided Channel Tracking and Decoding Over Sparse Fast-Fading Multipath Channels With an Application to Train Backbone Networks
Abstract:
In a fast-fading environment, e.g., high-speed railway communications, channel estimation and tracking require the availability of a number of pilot symbols that is at least as large as the number of independent channel parameters. Aiming at reducing the number of necessary pilot symbols, this work proposes a novel technique for joint channel tracking and decoding, which is based on the following three ideas. 1) Sparsity: While the total number of channel parameters to be estimated is large, the actual number of independent multipath components is generally small; 2) Long-term versus short-term channel parameters: Each multipath component is typically characterized by long-term parameters that slowly change with respect to the duration of a transmission time slot, such as delays or average power values, and by fast-varying fading amplitudes; and 3) Code-aided methods: Decision-feedback techniques can optimally leverage past, and partially reliable, decisions on the data symbols to obtain “virtual” pilots via the expectation–maximization (EM) algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed code-aided EM algorithm is effective in performing joint channel tracking and decoding even for velocities as high as 350 km/h, as in high-speed railway communications, and with as few as four pilots per orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing data symbol, as in the IEEE 802.11a/n/p standards, outperforming existing schemes at the cost of larger computational complexity.
Autors: Shahrouz Khalili;Jianghua Feng;Osvaldo Simeone;Jun Tang;Zheng Wen;Alexander M. Haimovich;MengChu Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 481 - 492
Publisher: IEEE
 

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