Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 3

» An Efficient Zero Current Switching Control for L-Based DC–DC Converters in TEG Applications
Abstract:
This brief presents an improved zero current switching (ZCS) control for a high-gain inductor-based dc–dc converter targeting thermoelectric generator for wearable electronics. The proposed ZCS control is an all-digital circuit that utilizes a simple finite state machine and a 3-bit counter to locate the zero current point. In addition, an efficient push–pull circuit along with delay capacitance banks is used to tune the delay near the zero current point to reduce the estimated error. The proposed control circuit achieves 56 delay steps using 3 control bits while having a high resolution, which helps in maintaining the efficiency of the converter. The prototype chip is fabricated in 65-nm CMOS and occupies an area of less than 0.04 mm 2. The measured results of the converter confirm 81% peak efficiency at 55- output power and 50-mV input voltage.
Autors: Mohammad Alhawari;Baker Mohammad;Hani Saleh;Mohammed Ismail;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 294 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Eight-Phase In-Phase Injection-Coupled VCO in 65-nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
An eight-phase in-phase injection-coupled voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is presented in this letter. In the proposed VCO, in-phase coupling is realized through a symmetrical coupling network to obtain low phase noise and wide tuning range simultaneously. Implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology, the proposed VCO achieves tuning range of 73.5–81.4 GHz, phase noise of −100 dBc/Hz, and figure-of-merit value of −179.7 dBc/Hz both at 1-MHz offset frequency. Occupying about 0.1 mm2 area, the power consumption of the proposed VCO is 61.5 mW including output buffers.
Autors: Xiang Yi;Chirn Chye Boon;Guangyin Feng;Zhipeng Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 299 - 301
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Empirical Evaluation of Force Feedback in Body-Powered Prostheses
Abstract:
Myoelectric prostheses have many advantages over body-powered prostheses, yet the absence of sensory feedback in myoelectric devices is one reason body-powered devices are often preferred by amputees. While considerable progress has been made in the mechanical design and control of myoelectric prostheses, research on haptic feedback has not had a similar impact. In this study, we seek to develop a fundamental understanding of the utility of force feedback and vision in the functional operation of a body-powered upper-limb prosthesis. Using a custom body-powered prosthesis in which force feedback can be conditionally removed, we asked non-amputee participants to identify objects based on stiffness in four separate conditions with and without visual and/or force feedback. Results indicate that the combination of visual and force feedback allows for the best accuracy, followed by force feedback only, then visual feedback only. In addition, combining force feedback with visual feedback does not significantly affect identification timing compared to visual feedback alone. These findings suggest that consideration should be given to the development of force feedback displays for myoelectric prostheses that function like a Bowden cable, coupling the amputee’s control input to the resulting feedback.
Autors: Jeremy D. Brown;Timothy S. Kunz;Duane Gardner;Mackenzie K. Shelley;Alicia J. Davis;R. Brent Gillespie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 215 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Enduring Problem: Radioactive Waste From Nuclear Energy [Point of View]
Abstract:
Decades after the idea was first proposed, it appears that underground repositories to manage radioactive spent fuel from commercial reactors are finally going to be constructed. In November 2015, the ruling center-right party in Finland became the first government to grant a construction license for such a repository [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy is pursuing a consent-based process to set up a similar repository. Do these developments mean that a long-sought solution to the problem of nuclear waste is imminent?
Autors: M. V. Ramana;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 415 - 418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Energy-Efficient Miniaturized Intracranial Pressure Monitoring System
Abstract:
A miniaturized pressure-sensing microsystem targeting intracranial pressure monitoring is presented. The system takes full advantage of Invensense MEMS-CMOS process to heterogeneously integrate the sensor and interface. This integration type requires no fabrication postprocessing and results in sub-pF sensor-interface parasitic interconnection capacitance which is an order of magnitude smaller than previously reported . Since energy efficiency is of main concern, the minimum energy consumption for maintaining a certain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analytically calculated and compared for two energy-efficient sensor front ends, namely, the switched-capacitor (SC) capacitance-to-voltage converter (CVC) and the successive approximation register (SAR) capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC). The comparison reveals for small values of and for low-to-moderate SNR, the SAR CDC outperforms the SC CVC in terms of power consumption. Heterogeneous integration of sensor and CMOS electronics results in only 720 fF of which enables direct SAR capacitance-to-digital conversion. Correlated double sampling is also integrated into the proposed SAR switching scheme to combat 1/ noise and the input-referred offset voltage of the comparator. The entire pressure-sensing system measures mm3 in size, consumes 130 nW at 60-Hz sampling rate, and obtains 57-dB SNR with 0.2% sensor-electronics combined linearity over 520-mmHg pressure range.
Autors: Mohammad Meraj Ghanbari;Julius M. Tsai;Ampalavanapillai Nirmalathas;Rikky Muller;Simone Gambini;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 720 - 734
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Enhanced DC Voltage Droop-Control for the VSC--HVDC Grid
Abstract:
This paper introduces an enhanced droop-based dc-voltage control method, including dead-band, for applications to the high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) grid that utilizes the voltage-sourced converter (VSC) technology. The proposed droop-control structure also autonomously imposes energy balance between the HVDC grid and its host ac system. The droop-control method (1) divides the VSC stations into four groups, (2) activates the droop-control of each group based on a prespecified voltage margin, and (3) introduces an improved power-voltage characteristic for desirable VSC station dynamic performance. Feasibility and performance of the proposed control method are evaluated based on time-domain simulation studies in the PSCAD platform, using the IEEE-39-Bus system that imbeds a five-terminal VSC–HVDC grid. Each VSC station is a monopolar modular multilevel converter (MMC). The study results show that the proposed droop-control method enables the HVDC-AC system to reach a new steady state after transient events.
Autors: Haifeng Li;Chongru Liu;Gengyin Li;Reza Iravani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1520 - 1527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Ensemble of Invariant Features for Person Reidentification
Abstract:
This paper proposes an ensemble of invariant features (EIFs), which can properly handle the variations of color difference and human poses/viewpoints for matching pedestrian images observed in different cameras with nonoverlapping field of views. Our proposed method is a direct reidentification (re-id) method, which requires no prior domain learning based on prelabeled corresponding training data. The novel features consist of the holistic and region-based features. The holistic features are extracted by using a publicly available pretrained deep convolutional neural network used in generic object classification. In contrast, the region-based features are extracted based on our proposed two-way Gaussian mixture model fitting, which overcomes the self-occlusion and pose variations. To make a better generalization during recognizing identities without additional learning, the ensemble scheme aggregates all the feature distances using the similarity normalization. The proposed framework achieves robustness against partial occlusion, pose, and viewpoint changes. Moreover, the evaluation results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art direct re-id methods on the challenging benchmark viewpoint invariant pedestrian recognition and 3D people surveillance data sets.
Autors: Young-Gun Lee;Shen-Chi Chen;Jenq-Neng Hwang;Yi-Ping Hung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 470 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An FPGA-Based Cloud System for Massive ECG Data Analysis
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose a stand-alone system-on-a-programmable-chip (SOPC)-based cloud system to accelerate massive electrocardiogram (ECG) data analysis. The proposed system tightly couples network I/O handling hardware to data processing pipelines in a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA), offloading both networking operations and ECG data analysis. In this system, we first propose a massive-sessions optimized TCP/IP hardware stack using a macropipeline architecture to accelerate network packet processing. Second, we propose a streaming architecture to accelerate ECG signal processing, including QRS detection, feature extraction, and classification. We verify our design on XC6VLX550T FPGA using real ECG data. Compared to commercial servers, our system shows up to 38× improvement in performance and 142× improvement in energy efficiency.
Autors: Xu Wang;Yongxin Zhu;Yajun Ha;Meikang Qiu;Tian Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 309 - 313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Impedance Boundary Condition EFIE That Is Low-Frequency and Refinement Stable
Abstract:
A discretization of the impedance boundary condition electric field integral equation (IBC-EFIE) is introduced that: 1) yields the correct solution at arbitrarily small frequencies and 2) requires for its solution a number of matrix vector products bounded as the frequency tends to zero and as the mesh density increases. The low frequency stabilization is based on a projector-based discrete Helmholtz splitting, rescaling, and recombination that depends on the low frequency behavior of both the EFIE operator and the surface impedance condition. The dense mesh stabilization is a modification of the perfect electric conductor operator preconditioning approach taking into account the effect on the singular value spectrum of the IBC term.
Autors: Alexandre Dély;Francesco P. Andriulli;Kristof Cools;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1259 - 1266
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Concatenation Scheme of Polar Codes With Reed–Solomon Codes
Abstract:
An improved Reed–Solomon (RS)-polar code concatenation scheme with a threshold is proposed. It applies successive cancellation list and hard-decision decoding based on the low-complexity chase algorithm. A new multiplicity assignment module is proposed to make it possible to realize the RS-polar code concatenation and facilitate hardware decoder design. The proposed scheme achieves high decoding performance, low decoding complexity, and short latency. The simulation results show that the improved concatenation scheme gives a coding gain reaching about 0.4 dB compared with the traditional RS-polar scheme. Moreover, it can reduce the average number of RS codewords to be decoded in a concatenated code by 65% and decrease the decoding latency by 50% when the signal-to-noise ratio is 1.75 dB.
Autors: Yang Wang;Wei Zhang;Yanyan Liu;Lingyu Wang;Yu Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 468 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Improved Three-Phase AMB Distribution System State Estimator
Abstract:
State estimators (SEs) are required to enable the evolving and increasingly important role of communications and control in smart distribution systems. In this context, this paper presents an improved three-phase admittance matrix-based (AMB) SE for medium voltage systems to tackle issues related to zero injections, consistency, and the inclusion of voltage measurements. Here, the state variables are the real and imaginary parts of the complex bus voltages, while power and voltage measurements are converted into equivalent currents and voltages, respectively. The key improvements include: 1) considering zero injections through a linear nonweighted procedure, 2) using phasor rotation for calculation of the equivalent voltage measurements, and 3) including the covariance between real and imaginary parts of equivalent current measurements. Despite these new characteristics, the proposed improved AMB SE (ISE) features constant coefficient matrices, thus resulting in reduced computational times. The performance of the ISE is assessed considering a real UK medium voltage system. Its consistency is assessed via a Monte Carlo analysis. Comparisons with other AMB SEs demonstrate that the proposed three-phase ISE is more robust, statistically more consistent, and computationally very competitive.
Autors: Madson C. de Almeida;Luis F. Ochoa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1463 - 1473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Input Current Ripple-Free Flyback-Type Converter With Passive Pulsating Ripple Canceling Circuit
Abstract:
In order to solve the problems caused by the pulsating current ripple of switching-mode power converters, a passive pulsating ripple canceling circuit (PPRCC) is proposed in this paper. The features of the proposed PPRCC include simple, modular structure, and high degree of design flexibility. By integrating the proposed PPRCC, an input current ripple-free flyback-type converter is adopted and analyzed as an example because of its comprehensive utilization in small power rating commercial products. In addition, the switch voltage spike of flyback converter can be suppressed by integrating the proposed PPRCC without using snubbers, it turns out that the efficiency can be further improved. The corresponding operating principle, steady-state analysis, and zero ripple design criteria of the proposed PPRCC are provided. Finally, a 100 W laboratory prototype is constructed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed principle. Experimental results show that the resulting peak-to-peak input current ripple is reduced by 96% and nearly 0.5% and 1.7% improvement in efficiency can be achieved by the proposed PPRCC, at 80 W and 100 W load conditions, respectively.
Autors: Ming-Chieh Cheng;Ching-Tsai Pan;Jen-Hao Teng;Shang-Wen Luan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1210 - 1218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Approach to Characterize the Behavior of a Human Fingertip in Contact with a Silica Window
Abstract:
Understanding the mechanisms of human tactual perception represents a challenging task in haptics and humanoid robotics. A classic approach to tackle this issue is to accurately and exhaustively characterize the mechanical behavior of human fingertip. The output of this characterization can then be exploited to drive the design of numerical models, which can be used to investigate in depth the mechanisms of human sensing. In this work, we present a novel integrated measurement technique and experimental set up for in vivo characterization of the deformation of the human fingertip at contact, in terms of contact area, force, deformation, and pressure distribution. The device presented here compresses the participant's fingertip against a flat surface, while the aforementioned measurements are acquired and experimental parameters such as velocity, finger orientation, and displacement (indentation) controlled. Experimental outcomes are then compared and integrated with the output of a 3D finite element (FE) model of the human fingertip, built upon existing validated models. The agreement between numerical and experimental data represents a validation for our approach.
Autors: Maria Laura D'Angelo;Ferdinando Cannella;Matteo Bianchi;Mariapaola D'Imperio;Edoardo Battaglia;Mattia Poggiani;Gianluca Rossi;Antonio Bicchi;Darwin G. Caldwell;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 123 - 129
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Circuit for Simultaneous Extracellular Electrophysiology Recording and Optogenetic Neural Manipulation
Abstract:
Objective: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. Methods: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC. Results: The low input capacitance of the amplifier (9.7 pF) was achieved by adding a dedicated unity gain stage optimized for high impedance metal electrodes. The input referred noise of the amplifier is , which is lower than the estimated thermal noise of the metal electrode. Thus, the action potentials originating from a single neuron can be recorded with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 6.6. The LED/laser current driver delivers a maximum current of 330 mA, which is adequate for optogenetic control. The functionality of the IC was tested with an anesthetized Mongolian gerbil and auditory stimulated action potentials were recorded from the inferior colliculus. Spontaneous firings of fifth (trigeminal) nerve fibers were also inhibited using the optogenetic protein Halorhodopsin. Moreover, a noise model of the system was derived to guide the design. Significance: A single IC to measure and control action potentials using optogenetic proteins is realized so that more complicated behavioral neuroscience research and the translational neural disorder treatments become possible in the future.
Autors: Chang Hao Chen;Elizabeth A. McCullagh;Sio Hang Pun;Peng Un Mak;Mang I Vai;Pui In Mak;Achim Klug;Tim C. Lei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 557 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Dual Entropy Core True Random Number Generator
Abstract:
In this brief, we present the first integrated circuit implementation of our previously proposed dual entropy core true-random-number-generator architecture, which is designed following a novel parameter variation-aware approach. A prototype integrated circuit has been fabricated in 180-nm CMOS technology. The prototype chip achieved a 35-Mbps throughput with an approximately 33-pJ/b energy efficiency. Random numbers acquired from the prototype chip have successfully passed all National Institute of Standards and Technology 800.22 statistical tests without requiring any postprocessing.
Autors: Ihsan Cicek;Ali Emre Pusane;Gunhan Dundar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 329 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Integrated Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic-Based Clark-Type Oxygen Sensor
Abstract:
Low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) electronic packaging materials are applied for the advantages of their mechanical durability, low cost, flexibility of the layered manufacturing, and capability to integrate both electronic and microfluidic functions in a single LTCC module. Clark-type oxygen sensors are electrochemical devices that are widely used for sensing dissolved oxygen in biological applications. In this paper, a Clark-type oxygen sensor has been developed using the LTCC thick-film technique instead of the traditional silicone/glass micromachining, and it consisted of an LTCC substrate with three electrodes (working electrode, counter electrode, and Ag/AgCl reference electrode), a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oxygen permeable membrane and a PDMS reservoir. The fabricated Ag/AgCl reference electrode demonstrated high density with longtime stability. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were measured to evaluate the electrochemical properties of the LTCC-based Clark-type oxygen sensor. The reduction current had a linear relationship with oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, the LTCC-based Clark-type oxygen sensor exhibited comparative performances, including low residual current, <5%, and fast response time, 7.5 s, compared with the literatures.
Autors: Jin Luo;Richard Eitel;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1590 - 1595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Inverse Halftoning Algorithms Based on Neural Networks and Atomic Functions
Abstract:
Halftoning and inverse halftoning algorithms are very important image processing tools, widely used in the development of digital printers, scanners, steganography and image authentication systems. Because such applications require to obtain high quality gray scale images from its halftone versions, the development of efficient inverse halftoning algorithms, that be able to provide gray scale images with Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) higher than 25, have been research topic during the last several years. Although a PSNR of about 25dB may be enough for several applications, exist several other that require higher image quality. To reduce this problem, this paper proposes inverse halftoning algorithms based on Atomic Function and multi-layer perceptron neural network which provides gray scale images with PSNRs higher than 30dB independently of the method used to generate the halftone image.
Autors: Fernando Pelcastre Jimenez;Mariko Nakano Miyatake;Karina Toscano Medina;Gabriel Sanchez Perez;Hector Perez Meana;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 488 - 495
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An MEMS Phase Shifter With High Power Handling for Electronic Beam Tilt in Base Station Antennas
Abstract:
This letter presents the implementation of RF MEMS-based phase shifter with high power handling capabilities (measured IP3 >63 dBm), high phase, and amplitude linearity (measured rms deviation <±1.56° and ±0.16 dB) for cellular applications. Two phase shifter circuits are designed and tested with steps of ±3° and ±17.5° at 900 MHz to efficiently perform an electronic beam tilt for an eight-element array with more than 0.9° accuracy and up to 10° tilt can be obtained. The measured insertion and return loss for the largest phase state are 1.3 and 13 dB, respectively. For experimental validation, a 3 2 array of angled dipole patch antennas is designed and fabricated and four different scans are successfully measured showing a maximum deviation of ±0.6° only for the scan angle.
Autors: Sarah Adel Ibrahim;Ziming Wang;Ronan Farrell;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 269 - 271
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Offline Framework for the Diagnosis of Time Reliability by Automatic Vehicle Location Data
Abstract:
Time reliability problems are unavoidable, owing to the stochastic context in which bus services are operated. Therefore, characterizing their reliability and understanding possible sources of unreliability provides an opportunity to keep buses on schedule and/or maintain planned headways. Measuring time reliability is technologically feasible by automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems, which can collect disaggregated data on the delivered service and disclose information on its performance. This paper proposes the first offline framework applicable to any bus route in order to accurately characterize the bus stops and the time periods in which reliability is insufficient, and to disclose the systematic unreliability sources from collected AVL data and select preventive strategies, accordingly. The framework is tested on the real case study of a bus route, using about 40 000 AVL data records provided by the bus operator CTM in Cagliari, Italy. The experimentation shows that this framework can be adopted by transit managers for accurate reliability analysis.
Autors: Benedetto Barabino;Massimo Di Francesco;Sara Mozzoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 583 - 594
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Online and Distributed Approach for Modulation Classification Using Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Based on an online and distributed implementation of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, a hybrid likelihood-based modulation classifier is proposed for a sensor network subject to unknown nonidentical flat fading. The proposed algorithm compares favorably in terms of computational complexity with respect to other maximum likelihood classifiers that rely on the batch (offline) EM algorithm for parameter estimation. Upon the reception of a new sample, each sensor computes the a posteriori probability of the corresponding symbol based on the average consensus algorithm, which relies on local communications among nearby sensors and promotes scalability and power efficiency. Then, each sensor updates its statistics with the innovation obtained from the samples received during the last symbol interval and new estimates for local sensor parameters are computed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed online and distributed EM-based classifier can achieve performance close that of a clairvoyant classifier equipped with perfect channel state information.
Autors: Berkan Dulek;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1781 - 1787
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Online Auction Mechanism for Dynamic Virtual Cluster Provisioning in Geo-Distributed Clouds
Abstract:
It is common for cloud users to require clusters of inter-connected virtual machines (VMs) in a geo-distributed IaaS cloud, to run their services. Compared to isolated VMs, key challenges on dynamic virtual cluster (VC) provisioning (computation + communication resources) lie in two folds: (1) optimal placement of VCs and inter-VM traffic routing involve NP-hard problems, which are non-trivial to solve offline, not to mention if an online efficient algorithm is sought; (2) an efficient pricing mechanism is missing, which charges a market-driven price for each VC as a whole upon request, while maximizing system efficiency or provider revenue over the entire span. This paper proposes efficient online auction mechanisms to address the above challenges. We first design SWMOA, a novel online algorithm for dynamic VC provisioning and pricing, achieving truthfulness, individual rationality, computation efficiency, and -competitiveness in social welfare, where is related to the problem size. Next, applying a randomized reduction technique, we convert the social welfare maximizing auction into a revenue maximizing online auction, PRMOA, achieving -competitiveness in provider revenue, as well as truthfulness, individual rationality and computation efficiency. We investigate auction design in different cases of resource cost functions in the system. We validate the efficacy of the mechanisms through solid theoretical analysis and trace-driven simulations.
Autors: Weijie Shi;Chuan Wu;Zongpeng Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 677 - 688
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Online UPS System That Eliminates the Inrush Current Phenomenon While Feeding Multiple Load Transformers
Abstract:
Numerous industrial facilities involve the installation of load transformers with their respective loads. As these loads are engaged and disengaged, their transformers are also energized and de-energized, respectively. An inrush current, which typically occurs when a transformer is energized, can easily be observed for an online uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system feeding such loads. This paper proposes an online UPS system that eliminates the inrush current phenomenon caused by the switching-in of the load transformers. The UPS inverter specifically utilizes a fast acting current control scheme which enables it to regulate the load current during all energizing conditions of the load transformer connected to the UPS system. Experimental results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed UPS system.
Autors: Syed Sabir Hussain Bukhari;Thomas A. Lipo;Byung-il Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1149 - 1156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Optimal Single-Path Routing Algorithm in the Datacenter Network DPillar
Abstract:
DPillar has recently been proposed as a server-centric datacenter network and is combinatorially related to (but distinct from) the well-known wrapped butterfly network. We explain the relationship between DPillar and the wrapped butterfly network before proving that the underlying graph of DPillar is a Cayley graph; hence, the datacenter network DPillar is node-symmetric. We use this symmetry property to establish a single-path routing algorithm for DPillar that computes a shortest path and has time complexity , where parameterizes the dimension of DPillar (we refer to the number of ports in its switches as ). Our analysis also enables us to calculate the diameter of DPillar exactly. Moreover, our algorithm is trivial to implement, being essentially a conditional clause of numeric tests, and improves significantly upon a routing algorithm earlier employed for DPillar. Furthermore, we provide empirical data in order to demonstrate this improvement. In particular, we empirically show that our routing algorithm improves the average length of paths found, the aggregate bottleneck throughput, and the communication latency. A secondary, yet important, effect of our work is that it emphasises that datacenter networks are amenable to a closer combinatorial scrutiny that can significantly improve their computational efficiency and performance.
Autors: Alejandro Erickson;Abbas E. Kiasari;Javier Navaridas;Iain A. Stewart;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 689 - 703
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Orthogonal Fisher Transformation-Based Unmixing Method Toward Estimating Fractional Vegetation Cover in Semiarid Areas
Abstract:
Remote estimation of fractional vegetation cover (FVC) in arid and semiarid areas is crucial for understanding their roles in global climate changes and maintaining their ecological sustainability. Among the existing algorithms for remote estimation of FVC, the linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) has been widely adopted owing to its simplicity and flexibility. However, the spectral variability of endmembers is still a big challenge that would largely decrease the estimation accuracy of LSMA. In this letter, we proposed a novel unmixing algorithm by integrating an orthogonal Fisher transformation into the LSMA (fLSMA). Two evaluation experiments were conducted: one was based on simulations; the other was based on a field survey in Xilingol grassland, China. The proposed fLSMA yielded remarkably higher accuracies and precisions than the conventional LSMA (cLSMA), weighted SMA (wSMA) in the first experiment. In the second experiment, a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.11 was derived for the fLSMA, compared with the RMSE values larger than 0.36 for the cLSMA and wSMA. Although the performance of fLSMA was somehow similar to the multiple endmember SMA (MESMA) in the two evaluation experiments, the fLSMA was much less time-consuming than the MESMA in massive computations. The results indicate the potential of the proposed fLSMA in long-term monitoring of FVC in semiarid areas based on satellite observations.
Autors: Meng Liu;Wei Yang;Jin Chen;Xuehong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 449 - 453
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Overview on Time/Frequency Modulated Array Processing
Abstract:
Time and frequency modulated arrays have numerous application areas including radar, navigation, and communications. Specifically, a time modulated array can create a beampattern with low sidelobes via connecting and disconnecting the antenna elements from the feed network, while the frequency modulated frequency diverse array produces a range-dependent pattern. In this paper, we aim to introduce these advanced arrays to the signal processing community so that more investigations in terms of theory, methods, and applications, can be facilitated. The research progress of time/frequency modulated array studies is reviewed and the most recent advances are discussed. Moreover, potential applications in radar and communications are presented, along with their technical challenges, especially in signal processing aspects.
Autors: Wen-Qin Wang;Hing Cheung So;Alfonso Farina;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 228 - 246
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An SDN/NFV-Enabled Enterprise Network Architecture Offering Fine-Grained Security Policy Enforcement
Abstract:
In recent years, the number of attacks and threat vectors against enterprise networks have been constantly increasing in numbers and variety. Despite these attacks, the main security systems, for example network firewalls, have remained rather unchanged. In addition, new challenges arise not only to the level of provided security, but also to the scalability and manageability of the deployed countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems. Due to the tight integration into the physical network's infrastructure, a dynamic resource allocation to adapt the security measures to the current network conditions is a difficult undertaking. This article covers different architectural design patterns for the integration of SDN/NFV-based security solutions into enterprise networks.
Autors: Claas Lorenz;David Hock;Johann Scherer;Raphael Durner;Wolfgang Kellerer;Steffen Gebert;Nicholas Gray;Thomas Zinner;Phuoc Tran-Gia;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 217 - 223
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Ultracompact Butterworth Low-Pass Filter Based on Coaxial Through-Silicon Vias
Abstract:
Based on through-silicon-via technology, we propose an ultracompact Butterworth low-pass filter (LPF) with area of 0.01 mm2. An equivalent circuit model of the proposed LPF is exploited, analyzed, and simplified. The comparisons of filtering characteristics among ideal 4-GHz fifth-order Butterworth LPF, equivalent circuit model, and full wave simulation of proposed LPF validate the accuracy of the equivalent circuit model. And the proposed LPF exhibits ultracompact size and superior filtering characteristics compared with the existing LPF.
Autors: Fengjuan Wang;Ningmei Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1164 - 1167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Ultralow Power System on Chip for Automatic Sleep Staging
Abstract:
This paper presents an ultralow power system on chip (SoC) for automatic sleep staging using a single electroencephalogram (EEG) channel. The system integrates an analog front end for EEG data acquisition and a digital processor to extract spectral features from these data and classify them into one of the sleep stages. The digital processor consists of multiple blocks implementing an automatic sleep staging algorithm that uses a set of contextual decision trees controlled by a state machine. The processor is designed to stay in the idle mode at most times waking up only when computations are required. In addition, the mathematical operations are implemented in a way such that the number of datapath components needed is very small. The SoC is implemented in an AMS 0.18- CMOS technology and is powered using a single 1.25-V supply. Its power consumption is measured to be , while its classification accuracy using real EEG data is 98.7%.
Autors: Syed Anas Imtiaz;Zhou Jiang;Esther Rodriguez-Villegas;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 52, issue:3, pages: 822 - 833
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Unexpected Career Path [Pathways]
Abstract:
Reports on the career experience of sales engineers.
Autors: David Eng;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 95 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Active Damping of Multiple High Frequency Resonances in DFIG System
Abstract:
As the wind power generation develops, the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind power system is more and more likely to operate in the emerging weak network rather than in the conventional stiff network. Due to the comparatively large impedance of the weak network than the stiff grid, the DFIG system may be subject to the resonances due to the impedance interaction between the DFIG system and the weak network. Especially, when connected to a series π sections weak network, the multiple high-frequency resonances (MHFR) may occur and require careful studies. The impedance modeling of the DFIG system and the series π sections weak network is first demonstrated in this paper. Then, due to the multiple magnitude peaks of the series π sections of the weak network, the MHFR will be produced and can be theoretically explained based on the impedance modeling results. For the purpose of mitigating the MHFR, an active damping strategy which introduces a virtual impedance, including a phase leading compensation unit and a virtual positive resistance, is proposed and demonstrated. Simulations are conducted to validate the DFIG system MHFR as well as the proposed active damping strategy.
Autors: Yipeng Song;Frede Blaabjerg;Xiongfei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 369 - 381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Design of APWM Half-Bridge Series Resonant Converter With Magnetizing Current Assisted ZVS
Abstract:
In an asymmetrical pulse-width-modulated half-bridge (APWM HB) series resonant converter, an auxiliary LC network is provided for ensuring zero-voltage switching (ZVS) over a wide range of line and load variations. However, it comes at the cost of increased number of components and reduced efficiency and reliability. This paper presents a novel design methodology for the standard APWM HB resonant topology, which uses the magnetizing current and eliminates the need for extra components. The converter with the proposed design methodology operates at the resonant frequency of the tank and features load-independent ZVS for a wide range of input voltage variation with minimal magnetizing current. Empirical formulae are derived to design the resonant network and the magnetizing inductance of the high-frequency transformer systematically in a flowchart-based manner. The proposed design is validated by using simulations as well as experiments and is compared with a reference APWM HB series resonant converter design that uses an auxiliary LC circuit for ZVS. Two separate experimental prototypes of the two converters rated for 30 W, 48 V/5 V with a switching frequency of 500 kHz were built and tested in the laboratory. It was found that the converter with the proposed design methodology, apart from having lower component count, is about 3% more efficient than the reference topology at the rated power.
Autors: Kawsar Ali;Pritam Das;Sanjib Kumar Panda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1993 - 2003
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Design of Impulse-Commutated Zero-Current-Switching Single-Inductor Current-Fed Three-Phase Push–Pull Converter
Abstract:
Impulse commutation obtains zero current commutation of devices in a circuit with a short resonance impulse using a simple resonant tank. This concept has been studied, extended, and implemented for a three-phase push–pull current-fed single-inductor topology to achieve soft commutation and device voltage clamping solving the traditional issue of device turn-off voltage overshoot. The push–pull topology is attractive owing to single inductor, all common source devices connected to common supply ground, and reduced gate driving requirements. Detailed operation, analysis, and design of this topology have been reported with impulse commutation. With a small resonant tank and partial resonance, impulse commutation procures merits of voltage clamping, low circulating current, and load adaptive zero-current switching of the devices. Variable-frequency modulation regulates load voltage and maintains the impulse commutation with source voltage variation. Experimental results on a 1-kW proof-of-concept hardware prototype are demonstrated to observe the operation, performance, and verify the proposed concept and claims.
Autors: K. Radha Sree;Akshay Kumar Rathore;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1517 - 1526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Design of Secure Massive MIMO Systems in the Presence of Hardware Impairments
Abstract:
To keep the hardware costs of future communications systems manageable, the use of low-cost hardware components is desirable. This is particularly true for the emerging massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems which equip base stations (BSs) with a large number of antenna elements. However, low-cost transceiver designs will further accentuate the hardware impairments, which are present in any practical communication system. In this paper, we investigate the impact of hardware impairments on the secrecy performance of downlink massive MIMO systems in the presence of a passive multiple-antenna eavesdropper. Thereby, for the BS and the legitimate users, the joint effects of multiplicative phase noise, additive distortion noise, and amplified receiver noise are taken into account, whereas the eavesdropper is assumed to employ ideal hardware. We derive a lower bound for the ergodic secrecy rate of a given user when matched filter data precoding and artificial noise (AN) transmission are employed at the BS. Based on the derived analytical expression, we investigate the impact of the various system parameters on the secrecy rate and optimize both the pilot sets used for uplink training and the AN precoding. Our analytical and simulation results reveal that: 1) the additive distortion noise at the BS may be beneficial for the secrecy performance, especially if the power assigned for AN emission is not sufficient; 2) all other hardware impairments have a negative impact on the secrecy performance; 3) despite their susceptibility to pilot interference in the presence of phase noise, so-called spatially orthogonal pilot sequences are preferable unless the phase noise is very strong; and 4) the proposed generalized null-space AN precoding method can efficiently mitigate the negative effects of phase noise.
Autors: Jun Zhu;Derrick Wing Kwan Ng;Ning Wang;Robert Schober;Vijay K. Bhargava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 2001 - 2016
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Detection of Forced Oscillation in Power System
Abstract:
To mitigate forced oscillation and avoid confusion with modal oscillation, fundamentals of forced oscillation in multimachine power system are investigated. First, the explicit formulation of the oscillation is formulated in terms of forced disturbances and system mode shapes. Then, forced oscillation amplitude, components and envelope are intensively studied. Consequently, measures for mitigating the oscillation are obtained. Forced oscillation can also be effectively detected and discriminated from modal oscillation by utilizing its uniqueness of components properties and envelope shapes. Study results of the 10-machine 39-bus New England test system and a real-life power system demonstrate the correctness of theoretical analyses and effectiveness of detection methods for forced oscillation.
Autors: Hua Ye;Yutian Liu;Peng Zhang;Zhengchun Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1149 - 1160
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Diagnosis of SLA Violations in a Production SaaS Cloud
Abstract:
A software-as-a-service (SaaS) needs to provide its intended service as per its stated service-level agreements (SLAs). While SLA violations in a SaaS platform have been reported, not much work has been done to empirically characterize failures of SaaS. In this paper, we study SLA violations of a production SaaS platform, diagnose the causes, unearth several critical failure modes, and then, suggest various solution approaches to increase the availability of the platform as perceived by the end user. Our approach combines field failure data analysis (FFDA) and fault injection. Our study is based on 283 days of operational logs of the platform. During this time, the platform received business workload from 42 customers spread over 22 countries. We have first developed a set of home-grown FFDA tools to analyze the log, and second implemented a fault injector to automatically inject several runtime errors in the application code written in .NET/C#, and then, collate the injection results. We summarize our finding as: first, system failures have caused 93% of all SLA violations; second, our fault injector has been able to recreate a few cases of bursts of SLA violations that could not be diagnosed from the logs; and third, the fault injection mechanism could recreate several error propagation paths leading to data corruptions that the failure data analysis could not reveal. Finally, the paper presents some system-level implication of this study and how the joint use of fault injection and log analysis may help in improving the reliability of the measured platform.
Autors: Catello Di Martino;Santonu Sarkar;Rajeshwari Ganesan;Zbigniew T. Kalbarczyk;Ravishankar K. Iyer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 54 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Estimation of MIMO-SAR for Multi-antenna Mobile Handsets
Abstract:
Measuring multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) specific absorption rate (SAR) is an important part of mobile handset evaluation, following the introduction of uplink MIMO transmission schemes in long-term evolution advanced systems. However, the measurement of MIMO-SAR is complex and time consuming. In this communication, six unique dual-antenna mobile handsets, including both typical and novel designs, are analyzed to determine the dependence of MIMO-SAR on antenna configuration and correlation. It is found that, for certain antenna configurations, the location of the maximum MIMO-SAR and the corresponding relative phase between the ports can be predicted. This can be applied to drastically reduce measurement time. In addition, dual antennas with low envelope correlation coefficients in the radiation patterns also offer near-orthogonal electric near fields. This leads to smaller MIMO-SAR than stand-alone SAR (S-SAR) over all relative phases, making MIMO-SAR measurement unnecessary. The results also provide guidelines for designing multi-antenna handsets with low SARs. For verification, the S-SAR and MIMO-SAR at a relative phase of 0° were measured for several prototypes. The measured SAR distributions showed good agreement with the simulated ones.
Autors: Hui Li;Apostolos Tsiaras;Buon Kiong Lau;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1522 - 1527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Modeling of Cross-Coupling and Substrate Capacitances in GaN HEMTs for Power-Electronic Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a capacitance model for field-plate AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMTs) accounting for the contribution of substrate capacitances and cross-coupling between field plates. TCAD simulations are performed to analyze both these contributions and analytical expressions for charges corresponding to the cross-coupling and substrate capacitances are presented in terms of our existing surface-potential-based model. The modeled results are validated by comparing the time-domain waveforms of a test circuit using a mixed-mode simulation setup in which the impact of cross-coupling and substrate capacitances on accuracy of switching transients predicted by the model is discussed.
Autors: Sheikh Aamir Ahsan;Sudip Ghosh;Sourabh Khandelwal;Yogesh Singh Chauhan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 816 - 823
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis and Restraining of Eddy Current Damping Effects in Rotary Voice Coil Actuators
Abstract:
Rotary voice coil actuators (RVCAs) have been widely used for precision motion control applications and have drawn more and more attention in recent years. In this paper, the eddy current damping effects of RVCAs of both dual and single magnetic circuit types are studied, the electromotive forces in rotor frame arms of the RVCAs are analyzed and verified by FEM calculation, then corresponding restraining measures are proposed. Especially, influencing factors of magnetic field margin effect and influence of magnetic field structure on the margin effect are analyzed in detail, which are the unique problems in RVCAs. The research results are good references for practical engineering applications of this type of motor.
Autors: Yiqian Li;Yong Li;Liuyang Ren;Zhe Lin;Qian Wang;Yongxiang Xu;Jibin Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 309 - 317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Experimental Results on Pseudospark Discharge-Based Electron Beams With Simulation Model
Abstract:
In this paper, simulation studies have been performed to analyze the role of plasma for sheet-electron beam propagation inside a drift space region filled with argon gas using particle-in-cell simulation code VSim6.2. The sheet-electron beam has been propagated inside the drift space of size 100 mm mm mm. A beam emitter of size 7 mm mm, which is equal to size of anode aperture, has been taken at the entrance of the drift space with identical operating conditions to the experiments, i.e., beam voltage 17 kV, beam current 156 A, and argon gas pressure 11 Pa. The transversal and longitudinal distribution of the sheet-electron beam is mainly dependent on beam voltage and current and also on gas pressure inside the drift space. The simulated images of the sheet-electron beam inside the drift space region have been compared with the experimental ones under these conditions. A good agreement has been found between the experimental and simulation results. This analysis has helped in obtaining transient plasma parameters, such as ion density, space charge neutralization time, and secondary electron temperature, simultaneously. These parameters are also analyzed at different operating conditions in the drift space region for sheet-beam stability. The operating condition at which a sheet-electron beam propagation up to 80 mm without any external magnetic field and instability has been obtained and the same has been explained on the basis of charge neutralization factor.
Autors: Niraj Kumar;Arvind Singh Jadon;Prasoon Shukla;Udit Narayan Pal;Ram Prakash;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 405 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Geometric Multibounced Virtual Scattering Channel Model for Dense Urban Street Environments
Abstract:
This paper presents a generalized visual scattering channel model for car-to-car (C2C) mobile radio environments, in which an asymmetric directional antenna is deployed at the mobile transmitter (MT). The signals received at the mobile receiver (MR) from the MT are assumed to experience multibounced propagation paths. More importantly, the proposed model first separates the multibounced propagation paths into odd- and even-numbered-bounced propagation conditions. General formulations of the marginal probability density functions (pdfs) of the angle of departure (AoD) at the transmitter and the angle of arrival (AoA) at the receiver have been derived for the given two conditions, respectively. From the proposed model, we derive an expression for the Doppler frequency due to the relative motion between the MT and the MR, which broadens the research of the proposed visual street scattering channel model. The results show that the proposed model can fit those of the previous scattering channel models and the measurement results for dense urban street environments very well, which validate the generalization of the proposed virtual street channel model.
Autors: Hao Jiang;Zaichen Zhang;Jian Dang;Liang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 1903 - 1912
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Millimeter-Wave LC Oscillators Based on Two-Port Network Theory
Abstract:
In this brief, a cross-coupled oscillator is analyzed based on the two-port network theory and the - parameter model for a transistor. Contrary to the previous works, the proposed analysis shows that LC cross-coupled oscillators have an additional and higher pure imaginary natural frequency at which the circuit cannot oscillate. The analysis investigates the sufficient condition at which the circuit is able to oscillate at this higher frequency. For the oscillation at the higher frequency mode, we propose adding an extra stage and making a three-stage ring oscillator. The equations obtained from this analysis indicate that the oscillation start-up condition depends on the oscillation frequency. Hence, increasing the speed of the oscillator does not satisfy the start-up condition of oscillators. Our analysis shows that the maximum frequency, in which the circuit stops oscillation in the ring oscillator, is higher than the cross-coupled oscillator and this maximum frequency is very close to the maximum frequency of the transistor.
Autors: Reza Bostani;Gholamreza Ardeshir;Hossein Miar-Naimi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 239 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Second-Order Intermodulation in Miller Bandpass Filters
Abstract:
Miller bandpass filters combine the properties of N-path circuits with the Miller effect to achieve a narrow bandwidth and high out-of-channel rejection. This brief investigates the second-order intermodulation behavior of such filters in the context of direct-conversion receivers. It is shown that the second intercept point rises by an amount equal to the circuit's out-of-channel rejection.
Autors: Joung Won Park;Behzad Razavi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 264 - 268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Slider Dynamics Considering the Mechanical Spacing in the Slider-Lubricant Contact Regime
Abstract:
This paper analyzed the effect of lubricant contact on slider dynamics under the unsteady proximity condition, which is related to the intermolecular forces between the slider and disk. To investigate the slider dynamics, an experiment was conducted with a commercial drive, and the slider dynamics were analyzed during touch-down and takeoff (TO) considering the approach and withdrawal speeds of the slider. The instability of the slider dynamics increased under the rapid withdrawal condition during TO.
Autors: Jonghak Choi;No-Cheol Park;Young-Pil Park;Kyoung-Su Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of the Influence of the Ramp and Disk Dynamics on the HDI Response of 2.5-in Hard Disk Drive to a Shock
Abstract:
Operational shock (op-shock) analysis has been developed to consider the dynamics of components of a hard disk drive (HDD). Op-shock simulation uses simplified models. However, the dynamics of the components affect the head–disk interface (HDI) response, especially the disk curvature and ramp–disk contact. This paper investigated the effect of the dynamics of HDD components on the HDI response. As the HDD is more sensitive to external shock and vibration, the effects of the dynamics of HDD components need to be considered for accurate op-shock analysis. The ramp–disk contact is an important factor in an op-shock simulation, because ramp–disk contact and disk deformation occur during the shock. Therefore, this op-shock simulation modeled the ramp–disk contact and considered the disk curvature. To obtain an accurate result, a two-way coupled method was used to investigate the HDD dynamic response during op-shock. Using the op-shock model, the fluid-structure coupling effect was investigated and compared with a decoupled model that used linear springs to replace the air bearing. Then, we investigated the effect of the ramp–disk contact and disk curvature on the HDI response during a shock.
Autors: Geonyup Lim;Kyoung-Su Park;No-Cheol Park;Young-Pil Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of the Loading Process of a Slider With Reflowed Lubricant in a Hard Disk Drive
Abstract:
As the recording density of hard disk drives has increased exponentially recently, the load/unload process can be affected severely by the nanolevel changes in the air-bearing surface (ABS) induced by the reflow behavior of perfluoropolyether molecules. In this paper, clean-up time and reflow time were first measured by using thermal flying controller measurements to check whether reflowed lubricant can affect loading performance. The measured clean-up time and reflow time were 120 s and 40 min, respectively. Because the clean-up time is so much longer than the loading process, almost all the reflowed lubricant remained on the bottom of the ABS during the loading process. Next, the lubricant behavior at rest was modeled and simulated theoretically by using a diffusion process. At rest, the time-dependent profiles of the reflowed lubricant were investigated. In addition, the ABS was modified with reflowed profiles at various time intervals and loading process was carried out with the modified ABS for various parameters such as reflow time and loading velocity. As a result, the slider–disk contact distinctly occurred during the loading process in the case with reflowed lubricant profiles. The simulation results were verified with the experimental results. Consequently, the effects of reflowed lubricant should be considered when designing the loading process of a slider to improve head–disk interface reliability.
Autors: Kyoung-Su Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analysis of Urban Population Dynamics Based on Residential Buildings Volume in Six Provinces of Pakistan Using Operational Linescan System Sensors
Abstract:
Historically, an accurate knowledge of the size, behavior, and spatial distribution of the human population has been useful for understanding many social and political processes and phenomenon. The quality and availability of census data for a growing proportion of the world’s population is continuing to deteriorate. Night lights have shown encouraging agreement between temporally stable lighted areas and the various definitions of urban extent. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Optical Line Scanner (DMSP-OLS) sensor of USA acquires images at night. Night-time satellite imagery is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. Models derived from night-time satellite imagery have the potential to dramatically improve our knowledge of the spatial distribution and intensity of human presence on the surface of the plane. The area of Pakistan is 881913 km2 having population of about 200 million (2015), which is equivalent to 2.57% of the world population. By using the known population of urban areas in every year (1992–2013), a total national population is also estimated using the regression analysis having r . Finally, we conclude that DMSP-OLS can be used to monitor the population and their activities.
Autors: Pavan Kumar;Haroon Sajjad;Rahinatu S. Alare;Christopher D. Elvidge;Raihan Ahmed;Vinay Prasad Mandal;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1656 - 1662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Design of Compact Dual-Band Filters Using Dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Resonators
Abstract:
A new kind of compact dual-mode dual-composite right-/left-handed resonators is proposed. Dual-band bandpass filters (BPFs) are consequently designed with over 88% size reduction. To assist the filter design, an analytical design method is further presented, with which one filter can be designed flexibly according to the desired frequencies and bandwidths (BWs). To alleviate the design difficulties, a synthesis design technique and a feedback-based optimization process are both employed. In addition, the independent control of frequencies, BWs, and coupling coefficients are also realized, which provide large freedom for designing BPFs. To ensure the feasibility of the design method, the valid ranges of center frequency and BW ratios are first determined. Furthermore, four compact BPFs are designed with a large/small center frequency ratio (3.11/1.6) and a large/small BW ratio (2.52/0.52). Good agreement between the measurements and simulations are observed, indicating the validity of the proposed design method.
Autors: Guangxu Shen;Wenquan Che;Wenjie Feng;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 804 - 814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Evaluation of Saturation Throughput of a Cognitive WLAN Overlaid on a Time-Scheduled OFDMA Network
Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze the saturation throughput of a cognitive WLAN overlaid on a primary OFDMA TDD network (e.g., LTE or WiMAX). In this scenario, after the contention among the secondary nodes, the winner node transmits its data packet in the empty resource blocks (RBs) of downlink and uplink subframes of the primary network. Regarding the OFDMA structure as well as time-scheduled resources in the primary network, the time duration of opportunities for the secondary network does not follow simple exponential on-off pattern. To model the dynamic behavior of opportunities for secondary nodes as well as contentions to exploit the opportunities, we propose an analytical model comprised of a discrete-time Markov chain and two inter-related open multi-class queueing networks (QNs). The effects of the random number of empty resource blocks at different frames as the result of random amount of download and upload data, random packet transmission time at WLAN, the dependency of the number of empty RBs at consecutive frames, and the details of 802.11 MAC protocol are included in our analytical approach. We include different resource allocations in the primary network in our analysis. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of our analytical approach in different conditions.
Autors: Parisa Rahimzadeh;Farid Ashtiani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 634 - 647
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Framework for Space Shift Keying MIMO Systems With Hardware Impairments and Co-Channel Interference
Abstract:
This letter provides a general analytical framework for multiple-input multiple-output space shift keying systems considering hardware impairments, at the transmitter and receiver sides, and co-channel interference. Specifically, a closed-form expression for the average bit error probability (ABEP) in the case of two transmit antennas and arbitrary number of receive antennas is derived. As well, a tight upper bound ABEP expression in the general case of arbitrary number of transmit and receive antennas is obtained. Besides, an asymptotic simple expression is found over Rayleigh fading channels. Analytical results, which are validated via simulation ones, explicitly demonstrate that non-zero bounds of the ABEP exist in the high power region, which is in contrast to the case of ideal hardware, where the ABEP asymptotically goes to zero.
Autors: Ali Afana;Salama Ikki;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 488 - 491
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Model and Performance Evaluation of Long-Term Evolution for Vehicle Safety Services
Abstract:
In a traffic jam or dense vehicle environment, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) cannot meet the safety requirement due to serious packet collisions. The traditional cellular network solves packet collisions but suffers from long end-to-end delay. Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) overcomes both drawbacks; thus, it may be used, instead of VANETs, in some extreme environments. We use Markov models with dynamic scheduling and semipersistent scheduling (SPS) to evaluate how many idle resources of LTE can be provided for safety services and how safety applications impact LTE traditional users. Based on the analysis, we propose to reserve the idle radio resources in LTE for vehicular safety services (LTE-V). Additionally, we propose the weighted-fair-queuing (WFQ) algorithm to schedule beacons for safety services using the LTE reserved resources. Numerical results verify that the proposed mechanism can significantly improve the reliability of safety applications by borrowing limited LTE bandwidth. We also build an NS3 simulation platform to verify the effectiveness of the proposed Markov models. Finally, the reliability of applications, including cooperation collision warning (CCW), slow vehicle indication (SVI), and rear-end collision warning (RCW), using dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) with LTE-V, are evaluated. The simulation results demonstrate that the stringent quality-of-service (QoS) requirement of the aforementioned three applications can be satisfied, even under heavy traffic.
Autors: Wenfeng Li;Xiaomin Ma;Jun Wu;Kishor S. Trivedi;Xin-Lin Huang;Qingwen Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 1926 - 1939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Model for Elastic Scaling of Cloud-Based Firewalls
Abstract:
This paper shows how to properly achieve elasticity for network firewalls deployed in a cloud environment. Elasticity is the ability to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible. Elasticity for cloud-based firewalls aims to satisfy an agreed-upon performance measure using only the minimal number of cloud firewall instances. Our contribution lies in determining the number of firewall instances that should be dynamically adjusted in accordance with the incoming traffic load and the targeted rules within the firewall rulebase. To do so, we develop an analytical model based on the principles of Markov chains and queueing theory. The model captures the behavior of a cloud-based firewall service comprising a load balancer and a variable number of virtual firewalls. From the analytical model, we then derive closed-form formulas to determine the minimal number of virtual firewalls required to meet the response time specified in the service level agreement. The model takes as input key system parameters including workload, processing capacity of load balancer and virtual machines, as well as the depth of the targeted firewall rules. We validate our model using discrete-event simulation, and real-world experiments conducted on Amazon Web Services cloud. We also provide numerical examples to show how our model can be used in practice by cloud performance/security engineers to achieve proper elasticity under fluctuating traffic load and variable depth of targeted firewall rules.
Autors: Khaled Salah;Prasad Calyam;Raouf Boutaba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 136 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Analytical Modeling and Optimization of Small Solenoid Coils for Millimeter-Sized Biomedical Implants
Abstract:
The new trend towards minimally invasive millimeter-sized and free-floating distributed implants promises to enable emerging applications, such as chronic neural recording with minimal damage to the surrounding tissue. However, wireless power transmission (WPT) to these medical devices is quite challenging. The magnetic field produced by external transmitter (Tx) coils at the position of small implants can be considered homogeneous to separate the optimization of Tx and receiver (Rx) coils for efficient WPT. This paper focuses on the optimization of the solenoid-type Rx coils, which are suitable for this application. We have developed an analytical model of solenoid coils that includes the impact of tissue and coating around the coils, verified through simulations and measurements. Using the proposed model, under a given size restriction and a specific load, we find the optimal operating frequency and coil geometry to maximize a figure of merit (FoM) for the Rx that includes the loaded quality factor and its internal efficiency as well as a factor related to the coupling coefficient. For a millimeter-sized coil, the optimal operating frequency for the Rx and the number of turns are found to be 500 MHz and six, respectively, if the coil is closely wound using AWG36 copper wires. If the pitch is also optimized, then 700 MHz and four turns provide the best FoM for the solenoid Rx.
Autors: Yuhua Cheng;Gaofeng Wang;Maysam Ghovanloo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1024 - 1035
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AndroidBLP for Confidentiality Management in Android Environments
Abstract:
Users employ smartphones and tablets to manage and store personal information as well as corporate information. However, storing different types of information in the same device may lead to information leakage. Users need tools to define different confidentiality requirements over their data, and to enforce different access policies according to those requirements. Android is the most used mobile operating system, and although it implements various mechanisms to protect user information, it does not have any tool to meet the mentioned needs. This paper presents AndroidBLP, a tool based on the Bell-LaPadula confidentiality model that implements a predefined mandatory access control policy, enables users to define confidentiality requirements, and enforces a confidentiality policy based on those requirements.
Autors: Jorge Luis Corchuelo;Sandra Julieta Rueda;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 496 - 502
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Angle Stability Analysis of Power System With Multiple Operating Conditions Considering Cascading Failure
Abstract:
A method to analyze the angle stability of power system with multiple operating conditions considering cascading failure is proposed in this paper. First, considering stochastic events such as uncertain operation of protection/breaker and system hardware failure, the system operating condition set is determined based on the flow transfer theory and the matrix of transfer probability between different operating conditions is calculated. On this basis, the discrete Markov power system model with multiple operating conditions considering cascading failure is established. And then, construct the Lyapunov functional containing the Markov model, and derive the robust stochastic stability criterion which satisfies the disturbance attenuation degree γ by iteration and the angle stability of power system could be identified according to the criterion using linear matrix inequality tools. Finally, stability index μ is defined to establish the relationship between transfer probability and system stability. Time-domain simulation tests on the IEEE 16-machine 68-bus system verify that, the proposed method could identify the stability of power system with multiple operating conditions effectively, with no need to obtain the operating trajectory of the system. Compared with traditional time-domain simulation method, the computation amount is reduced. Besides, it is simple and easy to implement.
Autors: Jing Ma;Shangxing Wang;Yang Qiu;Yinan Li;Zengping Wang;James S. Thorp;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 873 - 882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Antenna Deembedding in WBAN Channel Modeling Using Spherical Wave Functions
Abstract:
Body area network (BAN) is a fundamental technology to realize future ICT-based healthcare services and applications, where channel modeling plays an important role in designing more reliable BAN systems. The greatest challenge of the WBAN channel modeling is that the antennas operate in proximity to the human body. Near-field interactions between the antenna and the human body make it difficult to distinguish the contribution of the antennas within the channel response, i.e., the antennas are embedded in the channel. As a result, the characterized channels had to be always specific to the given antenna, and antenna optimization is difficult. Therefore, this paper proposed antenna deembedding by applying the spherical wave function channel modeling into the on-body channel. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was utilized to implement the concept. The proposed implementation was validated against the conventional antenna-embedded simulation. Furthermore, the antenna performance evaluation in terms of mean path gain during a specific body motion was demonstrated as an application. The simplified but practical version of the proposed approach, involving only the fundamental modes, was introduced. The obtained mean path gain was compared with the measurement.
Autors: Jun-ichi Naganawa;Jun-ichi Takada;Takahiro Aoyagi;Minseok Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1289 - 1300
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Antenna Port Selection in a Coordinated Cloud Radio Access Network
Abstract:
We investigate the optimization of antenna port selection in the downlink of a cloud radio access network in which a user terminal can be served by multiple ports. The goal is to maximize the minimum weighted signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios observed by the users while satisfying their quality-of-service requirements. This optimization is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem and solved using semidefinite relaxation and Gaussian randomization. It is shown that our technique outperforms baseline schemes by 6–8 dB.
Autors: Gurhan Bulu;Talha Ahmad;Ramy H. Gohary;Cenk Toker;Halim Yanikomeroglu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 588 - 591
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Antenna Slewing Time Aware Mission Scheduling in Space Networks
Abstract:
The slow antenna slewing rate on data relay satellites is a main performance bottleneck for space networks. This letter investigates the antenna slewing time aware schedule problem aiming at maximizing the number of successful delivered missions. Particularly, we extend the traditional time-expanded graph into a new model, with which the impact of antenna slewing time on the serving sequence of antennas is well depicted. Then, we formulate the schedule problem into a mixed integer non-linear programming and propose a polynomial time algorithm to solve it. Simulation results show that our scheme can improve the number of successfully scheduled missions significantly while guaranteeing good fairness.
Autors: Runzi Liu;Min Sheng;Chao Xu;Jiandong Li;Xijun Wang;Di Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 516 - 519
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Anti-Eavesdropping Scheme Based on Quadrature Spatial Modulation
Abstract:
To resist the passive eavesdropping while reserving the same hardware cost and receiver structure of the legitimate receiver, a secure quadrature spatial modulation (QSM) scheme is proposed in this letter. Instead of the information symbol, a mixture of the information symbol and artificial noise is transmitted through the activated transmit antennas. The mixed signals are designed, so that the artificial noise is cancelled at the legitimate receiver but cause random interference to the eavesdropper. The secrecy rate is analyzed and the optimal power allocation between the artificial noise and the information signal is investigated. The influence of the number of the eavesdropper’s antennas is discussed. Simulation results show that, for multiple-input-single-output systems, the proposed secure QSM scheme achieves the best secrecy performance among the existing similar schemes by using less radio frequency chains. For multiple-input-multiple-output systems, the secure QSM scheme performs better than the existing secure SM scheme does under the same power constraint and transmission rate.
Autors: Zhijie Huang;Zhenzhen Gao;Li Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 532 - 535
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Anti-Jamming Rendezvous Scheme for Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), channel hopping-based communications are widely used to improve channel utilization. However, channel hopping schemes for CRNs are usually vulnerable to jamming attacks, especially when jammers have cognitive radios to perform channel sensing and fast channel switching. Many mitigating approaches for coping with jamming attacks in wireless communications rely on pre-shared secrets (e.g., pre-shared hopping sequences). In CRNs, pre-sharing secrets between senders and receivers is usually impractical (because neighborhood dynamically changes, and receivers of a broadcast may be unknown to the sender). Hence, anti-jamming channel hopping approaches without pre-shared secrets have gained more and more research interests. However, existing approaches either have unbounded time to rendezvous on an available channel (even no signals of jammers and PUs appear), or require role pre-assignment (SUs should be pre-assigned as a sender or receiver). Role pre-assignment is not applicable to environments where each SU may play a sender and a receiver, simultaneously. In this paper, we propose an anti-jamming channel hopping scheme, Sec-CH. Sec-CH has bounded time to rendezvous and can work without role pre-assignment.
Autors: Jen-Feng Huang;Guey-Yun Chang;Jian-Xun Huang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 648 - 661
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Anytime Capacity of a Class of Markov Channels
Abstract:
Several new expressions for the anytime capacity of Sahai and Mitter are presented for a time-varying rate-limited channel with noiseless output feedback. These follow from a novel parametric characterization obtained in the case of Markov time-varying rate channels, and include an explicit formula for the -bit Markov erasure channel, as well as formulas for memoryless rate processes including Binomial, Poisson, and Geometric distributions. Beside the memoryless erasure channel and the additive white Gaussian noise channel with input power constraint, these are the only cases where the anytime capacity has been computed. At the basis of these results is the study of the threshold function for -th moment stabilization of a scalar linear system controlled over a Markov time-varying digital feedback channel that depends on and on the channel's parameters. This threshold is shown to be a continuous and strictly decreasing function of and to have as extreme values the Shannon capacity and the zero-error capacity as tends to zero and infinity, respectively. Its operational interpretation is that of achievable communication rate, subject to a reliability constraint.
Autors: Paolo Minero;Massimo Franceschetti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1356 - 1367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applicability of Fractional Slot Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines in the Field Weakening Region
Abstract:
In this paper, a complete sensitivity analysis of the optimal parameters for the axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines working in the field weakening region is implemented. Thanks to the presence of a parameterized accurate analytical model, it is possible to obtain all the required parameters of the machine. The two goals of the ideal design are to maximize the power density: and the ratio of maximal to rated speed: , which is an inductance related parameter keeping the efficiency at the target speed above 90. Different slots/poles/phases combinations are studied to reveal the optimum combination for each phase. This paper has studied the effect of the ratio of number of stator slots to number of rotor poles on the and . It is shown that a low value of this parameter results in a better and . The effect of the outer diameter, and the inner to outer diameter ratio are studied with respect to the two design goals. In addition, a comparison between the finite and the theoretical infinite speed designs is implemented. A complete 3D finite element validation has proven the robustness of the analytical model.
Autors: Ahmed Hemeida;Mohamed Taha;Ahmed A.-E. Abdallh;Hendrik Vansompel;Luc Dupré;Peter Sergeant;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 111 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application Considerations for Operating VSI-FED MV Motors in Hazardous Locations
Abstract:
Determining the suitability of a medium-voltage motor which will be installed within a hazardous location as outlined in IEEE 1349, powered by a multilevel, voltage source, adjustable speed drive that is not isolated by a phase-shifting transformer requires two key items to be investigated: thermal heating due to the current harmonics, and the energy contained in uncontrolled sparking from the motor shaft to ground. This paper reviews the process that was used for a possible application of a drive with a motor in a Class I, Division 2 environment, along with modifications that were made to the design and operation of the drive to meet the stated requirements.
Autors: Frederick L. Hoadley;Robert F. McElveen;Timothy R. Obermann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1656 - 1668
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application of Game Theory in Reliability-Centered Maintenance of Electric Power Systems
Abstract:
As the electricity market undergoes continuous evolutions, along with the widely-recognized outdated nature of the grid, system operators would have to be able to more effectively manage the system operation expenses since waves of maintenance costs and equipment investments would be anticipated in a few years to come. Strategic implementation of cost-effective reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approaches seems to be a key solution. This paper proposes an efficient method to assess the component criticality for system overall reliability and further maintenance focuses. A solution concept of game theory, called shapely value, is proposed that is able to fairly identify the contribution of every single equipment's to the system reliability performance once a high-order contingency occurs under different loading conditions. The identified critical components are then systematically involved in a new optimization framework for effective scheduling of RCM implementation in power systems. The suggested framework helps in realizing where investments and maintenance to be made in the grid to ensure a desirable system reliability performance. Implemented on the IEEE reliability test system, the effectiveness of the suggested framework is confirmed by comparing to conventional techniques under various scenarios.
Autors: Farzaneh Pourahmadi;Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad;Payman Dehghanian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 936 - 946
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application of Random Forest Classifier by Means of a QCM-Based E-Nose in the Identification of Chinese Liquor Flavors
Abstract:
Chinese liquors from different plants have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Accurately identifying the flavor of Chinese liquors is not always possible through the subjective consciousness of a taster. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic nose (e-nose) can perform this task because of its keen ability to imitate human senses. It does so by using a sensor array and a pattern-recognition system. In this paper, the behavior of a pattern-recognition system based on a random forest (RF) classifier is optimized by revising the number of decision trees and the number of variables in the decision trees of the RF. Raw data from the characteristics of Chinese liquors collected from the QCM-based e-nose were used by the RF classifier without processes of feature extraction and data pretreatment, which can reserve detailed information as much as possible. The prediction accuracies and computation times indicate a superior performance by the RF classifier over three other classifiers (linear discriminant analysis, backpropagation artificial neural network, and support vector machine). Taking both the application of the e-nose and the validation of the RF classifier into account, an available method is obtained to identify flavors of Chinese liquors.
Autors: Qiang Li;Yu Gu;Nan-fei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1788 - 1794
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application Oriented Dynamic Resource Allocation for Data Centers Using Docker Containers
Abstract:
Docker offers an opportunity for further improvement in data centers’ (DCs) efficiency. However, existing models and schemes fall short to be efficiently used for Docker container-based resource allocation. We design a novel application oriented Docker container (AODC)-based resource allocation framework to minimize the application deployment cost in DCs, and to support automatic scaling while the workload of cloud applications varies. We then model the AODC resource allocation problem considering features of Docker, various applications’ requirements, and available resources in cloud data centers, and propose a scalable algorithm for DCs with diverse and dynamic applications and massive physical resources.
Autors: Xinjie Guan;Xili Wan;Baek-Young Choi;Sejun Song;Jiafeng Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 504 - 507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Application-Specific Cache and Prefetching for HEVC CABAC Decoding
Abstract:
Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is the entropy coding module in the HEVC/H.265 video coding standard. As in its predecessor, H.264/AVC, CABAC is a well-known throughput bottleneck due to its strong data dependencies. Besides other optimizations, the replacement of the context model memory by a smaller cache has been proposed for hardware decoders, resulting in an improved clock frequency. However, the effect of potential cache misses has not been properly evaluated. This work fills the gap by performing an extensive evaluation of different cache configurations. Furthermore, it demonstrates that application-specific context model prefetching can effectively reduce the miss rate and increase the overall performance. The best results are achieved with two cache lines consisting of four or eight context models. The 2 × 8 cache allows a performance improvement of 13.2 percent to 16.7 percent compared to a non-cached decoder due to a 17 percent higher clock frequency and highly effective prefetching. The proposed HEVC/H.265 CABAC decoder allows the decoding of high-quality Full HD videos in real-time using few hardware resources on a low-power FPGA.
Autors: Philipp Habermann;Chi Ching Chi;Mauricio Alvarez-Mesa;Ben Juurlink;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 72 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Applications of Micro/Nano Automation Technology in Detecting Cancer Cells for Personalized Medicine
Abstract:
The coming era of personalized cancer treatment is presenting automation with unprecedented opportunities. Currently, the drug susceptibility test of clinical cancer patients is mainly dependent on manual labor with a low level of automation. Automating the process of primary cancer cell detection will potentially have tremendous economic benefits and social significance. Automated cancer cell detection means developing robotic and automation equipments to handle single cells and molecules at the micro/nanometer-scale. The achievements of information science, engineering technology, life sciences, and nanotechnology in the past decades have led to the birth of robots that can perform effective manipulations on single living cells at the micro/nanometer-scale in aqueous conditions, opening the door to automated cancer cell detection. However, there is still a huge gap between current single-cell micro/nano automation technology and clinical requirements for personalized medicine. In this paper, we will review the progress of single-cell micro/nano automation technology in recent years and discuss the facing challenges and future directions in three aspects, including automated cell isolation and delivery, automatically acquiring the physiological features of cells and data analysis.
Autors: Mi Li;Lianqing Liu;Ning Xi;Yuechao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 217 - 229
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Approaches to Determining Box Consistent Parameter Sets for Polytopic Output Constraints on Linear Fractional Models Using Structured Singular Values
Abstract:
This technical note considers the problem of maximizing the volume of a box of parameters that satisfy polytopic output constraints for linear fractional models using the structured singular value . In particular, four kinds of boxes are considered: 1) a hypercube centered at a specified location; 2) a freely located hypercube; 3) a freely located box of free shape; and 4) a freely located box of free shape and rotation. It is found that the problem for 1) can be solved by computing for the number of scalar constraints, while problems for 2)–4) can be reformulated as a constant-matrix -synthesis problem, which can be approached by iteration.
Autors: Masako Kishida;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1417 - 1423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Approximate Message Passing-Based Joint User Activity and Data Detection for NOMA
Abstract:
This letter focuses on joint user activity and data detection in the uplink grant-free non-orthogonal multiple access systems based on approximate message passing (AMP) and expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The proposed Joint-EM-AMP detection algorithm consists of three steps in each iteration. First, AMP decouples the superimposed received signal into uncoupled scalar problems. Then, at the denoising step, AMP computes the posterior means and variances of the transmitted symbols with the extended modulation constellation. The third step is to estimate user activity parameters using EM based on the frame-wise joint sparsity of user activity. In contrast to existing state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed Joint-EM-AMP algorithm demonstrates significant performance gain in terms of bit error rate, which will be verified in simulation results.
Autors: Chao Wei;Huaping Liu;Zaichen Zhang;Jian Dang;Liang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 640 - 643
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Approximated Complementary Cloak With Diagonally Homogeneous Material Parameters Using Shifted Parabolic Coordinate System
Abstract:
In this communication, a parabolic shaped complementary cloak is proposed which makes the object invisible by reducing its scattering under different incidence angles of electromagnetic wave. The proposed design is based on transforming a line segment into an enclosed space that is surrounded by the core region. The enclosed space is symmetrically divided into two regions, namely, cloaked region and complementary region. The shifted parabolic coordinate system introduced in the present work enhances the area of cloaked region and provides diagonally anisotropic but optimized homogeneous material properties in the core region. The cloaked region is mapped onto the complementary region using a simple one directional folding transformation, which yields homogeneous and isotropic material properties in the complementary region and also eases the creation of antiobject. Numerical results confirm the cloaking effect of the proposed approximate complementary cloak. The metamaterial unit cell designs are also presented for realizing the proposed material properties of core and complementary regions.
Autors: Archana Rajput;Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1458 - 1463
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Approximation of Markov Processes by Lower Dimensional Processes via Total Variation Metrics
Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to approximate a Finite-State Markov (FSM) process by another process defined on a lower dimensional state space, called the approximating process, with respect to a total variation distance fidelity criterion. The approximation problem is formulated as an optimization problem using two different approaches. The first approach is based on approximating the transition probability matrix of the FSM process by a lower-dimensional transition probability matrix, resulting in an approximating process which is a Finite-State Hidden Markov (FSHM) process. The second approach is based on approximating the invariant probability vector of the original FSM process by another invariant probability vector defined on a lower-dimensional state space. Going a step further, a method is proposed based on optimizing a Kullback-Leibler divergence to approximate the FSHM processes by FSM processes. The solutions of these optimization problems are described by optimal partition functions which aggregate the states of the FSM process via a corresponding water-filling solution, resulting in lower-dimensional approximating processes which are FSHM or FSM processes. Throughout the paper, the theoretical results are justified by illustrative examples that demonstrate our proposed methodology.
Autors: Ioannis Tzortzis;Charalambos D. Charalambous;Themistoklis Charalambous;Christoforos N. Hadjicostis;Mikael Johansson;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1030 - 1045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Flash Pressure Measurement by the Physical Method, Effect of Metal Vapor on Arc Blast
Abstract:
The effects of arc flash or arc blasts have received much attention in the electrical safety industry. Although many papers to date have focused on noise (auditory damage) and prediction of pressure, no consensus standard or unified method exists to predict the pressure or thermoacoustic blast created by an arc. There is strong belief in the industry that metal vaporization is a major contributor to the damaging effects and hazards of an arc blast. Our work was to determine if the effects of metal vaporization are the factor in the pressure and thermal hazards resulting from an arc blast. First, the relevant literature reviewed was to compare existing methods for practical measurements of arc blast pressure. Published methods were evaluated to determine if these may be suitable for prediction of pressure in enclosed equipment. To date, few papers provide practical equations that have the necessary parameters to accurately predict pressure that can be used to evaluate the switchgear failure or the effect on workers. The Crawford–Clark–Doughty paper appears to be the most promising. Second, we performed two types of controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the effects of metal vapor expansion during an arc blast. This is commonly thought to be a significant factor in the pressure generated from an arc blast. The first experiment measured the displacement of an ejected door from which the acceleration and maximum velocity were calculated. The second experiment measured the pressure generated from an arc blast inside a closed box. The second experiment also served as a comparison to existing models. These experiments were done using two electrode materials.
Autors: Elihu Hugh Hoagland;Claude Maurice;Andrew Haines;André Maurice;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1576 - 1582
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc Welding Processes: An Electrical Safety Analysis
Abstract:
Manual metal arc welding can be a hazardous practice if proper precautions are not taken. The welding procedure uses an open electric arc between an electrode and the metals to be joined. Besides the obvious risks of burns and inflammation of the cornea, which are prevented by using proper personal protective equipment, the operator may also be subject to the risk of electric shock from the exposed parts of the welding circuit, both the electrode and the workpiece. In addition, the welding current, by straying from the intended path, can cause localized heating of parts, with the risks of triggering fires and/or explosive atmospheres. Because of the high current required by the arc welding equipment, operators are exposed also to strong electromagnetic fields. This paper seeks to clarify the aforementioned issues, especially in light of the fact that the risk associated with electric shocks may be unknown to welders and their supervisors.
Autors: Fabio Freschi;Luca Giaccone;Massimo Mitolo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 819 - 825
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Arc-Flash Risks in Switchgear Metering Compartments
Abstract:
Power quality metering is a situation that often does not afford the safety of deenergizing equipment before connecting probes; this is especially true for continuous processes such as those found in refineries. In this situation, a connection to energized equipment may be more common. When potential and current transformers are present in switchgear, it is usually desirable to make the probe connections to the secondary of these transformers. Generally, these connections are made in switchgear metering compartments, which are presumed to have low arc-flash risk due to the limited exposure to energized power conductors. Often in these situations only shock hazard is considered and arc-flash hazard is not, but is it safe to assume there is no arc-flash hazard? The NFPA 70E-2015 Standard states that opening doors to expose bare energized parts requires arc-flash personal protective equipment (PPE). The standard also states that work on control circuits with exposed energized parts greater than 120 V requires arc-flash PPE. Therefore, according to the NFPA 70E, in a control cabinet containing, for example, voltage transformers with exposed primary terminals above 120 V, an arc-flash hazard exists and arc-flash PPE is required. However, the question remains, what level is the hazard and how should it be assessed? This paper will evaluate arc-flash energy in metering compartments, determine if arc-flash hazard should be a legitimate concern when working in energized metering compartments, and improve overall awareness when working in these situations.
Autors: Marissa A. Spencer;Thomas J. Natali;William S. Vilcheck;Jeffery A. Brode;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1694 - 1703
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Are Technologies Innocent?: Part Six: The Dilution of Responsibility Argument [Commentary]
Abstract:
Autors: Michael Arnold;Christopher Pearce;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 86 - 87
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Are You a Pessibot or an Optibot? [Student's Corner]
Abstract:
Discusses both the negative as well as positive aspects of developing robotics products and services for the future.
Autors: Megan Emmons;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 95 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ART: Adaptive fRequency-Temporal Co-Existing of ZigBee and WiFi
Abstract:
Recent large-scale deployments of wireless sensor networks have posed a high demand on network throughput, forcing all (discrete) orthogonal ZigBee channels to be exploited to enhance transmission parallelism. However, the interference from widely deployed WiFi networks has severely jeopardized the usability of these discrete ZigBee channels, while the existing CSMA-based ZigBee MAC is too conservative to utilize each channel temporally. In this paper, we propose ART (Adaptive fRequency-Temporal co-existing) as a framework consisting of two components: FAVOR (Frequency Allocation for Versatile Occupancy of spectRum) and P-CSMA ( Probabilistic CSMA), to improve the co-existence between ZigBee and WiFi in both frequency and temporal perspectives. On one hand, FAVOR allocates continuous (center) frequencies to nodes/links in a near-optimal manner, by innovatively converting the problem into a spatial tessellation problem in a unified frequency-spatial space. This allows ART to fully exploit the “frequency white space” left out by WiFi. On the other hand, ART employs P-CSMA to opportunistically tune the use of CSMA for leveraging the “temporal white space” of WiFi interference, according to real-time assessment of transmission quality. We implement ART in MicaZ platforms, and our extensive experiments strongly demonstrate the efficacy of ART in enhancing both throughput and transmission quality.
Autors: Feng Li;Jun Luo;Gaotao Shi;Ying He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 662 - 674
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Neural Network for Classification and Analysis of Degraded Soils
Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to establish a classification and analysis of degraded soils and its recovery in response to lime and gypsum application. The analyzed degraded soil was classified as Oxisol, and the physical attributes considered were: soil density, soil porosity (macroporosity and microporosity) and soil penetration resistance. The ANN used in this study is the backpropagation composed of two layers, the middle layer and the output layer, with supervised training. The network has four inputs, that are the physical attributes of the soil, in the middle layer the network contains ten neurons and the output layer only one neuron, which has the function of informing if the soil was recovered (R), partially recovered (PR) or not recovered (NR). The analyzed data come from the year 2012, concerning the depths 0.0 - 0.1 m, 0.1 - 0.2 m and 0.2 - 0.4 m. Considering the performance of ANN, it was verified that the network obtained an adequate training to classify the degraded soils, showing low mean square error of analyzed data. Therefore, ANN is considered an interesting alternative and a powerful automatic tool to classify degraded soils during recovery process.
Autors: Alfredo Bonini Neto;Carolina dos Santos Batista Bonini;Beatriz Santos Bisi;Andre Rodrigues dos Reis;Luiz Fernando Sommaggio Coletta;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 503 - 509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Artificial Noise-Aided User Scheduling for Optimal Secrecy Multiuser Diversity
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a user scheduling scheme, which enables non-scheduled users to generate artificial noise in order to enhance wireless security in a multiuser wiretap network, where there exist users, a single desired receiver, and eavesdroppers. Our proposed scheme can achieve the optimal multiuser diversity gain (i.e., ) by adopting appropriate threshold values for scheduling feedback, which is also able to significantly reduce signaling overhead. We mathematically prove the achievability based on the derivation of a secure user-scaling law. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieves a better average secrecy rate than the conventional scheme in a finite case, even if both schemes obtain the same secure user-scaling law as .
Autors: Inkyu Bang;Su Min Kim;Dan Keun Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 528 - 531
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessing Route Choice to Mitigate Older Driver Risk
Abstract:
Older drivers face decline in perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities, and yet, increased fragility largely explains their increased risk of fatal crashes. Adaptation and self-regulation explain why older drivers can be safe drivers in the face of declining ability. Left turns and U-turns are particularly challenging, accounting for 10% of crashes for drivers aged 60–69 and increasing to 32% for those over 80. To mitigate these driving challenges through more effective adaptation, a route risk measure was developed. The route risk measure quantifies the risk of driving challenges such as left turns, U-turns, and trip length using older driver crash statistics from the General Estimates System. We applied the risk measure to 1253 trips taken by 39 urban and rural older drivers residing in Wisconsin. A search for a low-risk alternative route was conducted by applying the measure to corresponding routes suggested by Google Maps. Results showed that the low-risk alternative reduced risk for 77.7% of the older drivers' trips, on average, by 61.4%. The low-risk alternative had 1.50 fewer left turns and 0.23 fewer U-turns and were 0.44 mi shorter. Thus, selecting low-risk alternatives from the routes suggested by Google could help drivers avoid challenging maneuvers, potentially reducing their crash risk by promoting more effective adaptation to their declining abilities.
Autors: Rashmi P. Payyanadan;Fabrizzio A. Sanchez;John D. Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 527 - 536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Assessing the Coexistence of Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies With an SDR-Based Signal Emulator: A Case Study of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
Abstract:
Wireless network deployments in industry often grow organically with new technologies added over time, among which many use the non-licensed spectrum to avoid licensing costs. As a result, technologies competing for the same spectrum end up deployed in the same area, causing coexistence problems to manifest themselves at a later stage. To avoid unexpected performance degradation, there is a need to evaluate the impact of additional wireless technologies on an existing network before the actual deployment. This paper proposes to simplify the impact assessment by emulating the signals of the potential wireless network with a single software-defined radio. To evaluate the emulator’s performance, the impact of Bluetooth on Wi-Fi technology is considered as the reference scenario. A series of real-life experiments with configurable traffic load and network scale are conducted to estimate the impact of Bluetooth network on a Wi-Fi link, and the corresponding measurements are repeated with the emulated Bluetooth signals. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, we are the first to propose such a solution, and it is shown that the use of our emulator gives a reliable indication of the expected impact at the location of the Wi-Fi link. As such, this paper provides an important step toward a simple, cost efficient, and reliable solution, to assess the impact of a wireless network prior to its deployment.
Autors: Wei Liu;Eli De Poorter;Jeroen Hoebeke;Emmeric Tanghe;Wout Joseph;Pieter Willemen;Michael Mehari;Xianjun Jiao;Ingrid Moerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1755 - 1766
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asymmetrical SVPWM Fault-Tolerant Control of Five-Phase PM Brushless Motors
Abstract:
In this paper, an asymmetrical space vector pulse-width modulation (SVPWM) fault-tolerant control is proposed for the five-phase permanent-magnet motor under the open-circuit condition of a single phase. The key of this method comes from two parts. First, the voltage vector diagram is rebuilt in the event of an open-circuit fault. Second, the switching signals constructing an asymmetry waveform are selected in one sector. Then, this asymmetrical SVPWM control can reduce the amplitude and total harmonic distribution of currents in healthy phases, though it has limitation for the open-circuit condition of two phases. Additionally, both simulated and experimental results are provided to validate the good performances of the proposed fault-tolerant drive, maintaining average torque, and low torque ripple during fault. Finally, the dynamic responses of open-loop and close-loop condition are measured. The results show that the proposed method can offer comparable dynamic performance of normal SVPWM control that is widely used in healthy five-phase motor drive.
Autors: Qian Chen;Guohai Liu;Wenxiang Zhao;Li Qu;Gaohong Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 12 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Asymptotic Analysis of Rayleigh Product Channels: A Free Probability Approach
Abstract:
The Rayleigh product channel model is useful in capturing the performance degradation due to rank deficiency of MIMO channels. In this paper, such a performance degradation is investigated via the distribution of mutual information assuming the block fading channels and the uniform power transmission scheme. Using techniques of free probability theory, the asymptotic variance of mutual information is derived when the dimensions of the channel matrices approach infinity. In this asymptotic regime, the mutual information is rigorously proven to be Gaussian distributed. Using the obtained results, a fundamental tradeoff between multiplexing gain and diversity gain of Rayleigh product channels under the uniform power transmission can be characterized by the closed-form expression at any finite signal-to-noise ratio. Numerical results are provided to compare the outage performance between the Rayleigh product channels and the conventional Rayleigh MIMO channels.
Autors: Zhong Zheng;Lu Wei;Roland Speicher;Ralf R. Müller;Jyri Hämäläinen;Jukka Corander;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1731 - 1745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» At-home electric headband for depression could go mainstream [News]
Abstract:
A doctor's prescription for clinical depression could one day sound like this: In the comfort of your own home, slip on a brain-zapping headband a few times per week. For 20 minutes, it will send a tiny stream of electricity through your brain. The treatment would be delivered by a userfriendly type of brain stimulation called tDCS (transcranial direct-current stimulation). This mindaltering technique has become a hot topic in neuroscience research over the last decade, and it's now beginning the transition from lab to doctor's office.
Autors: Eliza Strickland;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 10 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ATM: a New Heuristic Algorithm Based on Genetic Algorithm and Betting Theory
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new heuristic algorithm for combinatorial optimization. This algorithm is based on genetic algorithm and betting theory. It applies probabilistic recombination to a solution given as input and returns a new solution much more optimized. Experiments using arrays from the library of the Travel Salesman Problem have been done and the obtained results have demonstrated that this algorithm is very efficient, mainly for dense arrays
Autors: Aluizio Lima Filho;Danilo Vettorazzi;Adriano Cruz;Cabral Lima;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 510 - 516
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ATSC 3.0 Transmitter Identification Signals and Applications
Abstract:
In the ATSC 3.0 PHY layer standard, a transmitter identification (TxID) signal is defined in order to provide the identification of an ATSC 3.0 transmitter. TxID signal can also be used to find the co-channel and adjacent interference signals, to assist accurate location finding calculation, and to obtain the channel estimation for each transmitter, which can help local service (e.g., targeted advertisement) reception, as well as for emergency alert. For efficient use of spectrum and quality of service improvement, single frequency network (SFN) where all transmitters share a single RF channel is often implemented. The recently developed ATSC 3.0 physical layer standard has been designed to support SFN. For efficient designing, fine-tuning and operating an SFN, it is crucial to identify each transmitter, as well as to adjust transmitting power and emission time of each transmitter. This paper presents TxID for ATSC 3.0, and analyzes its detection performance under very low signal to noise ratio environments and other applications, such as location finding, and channel estimation etc. for each SFN transmitter.
Autors: Sung-Ik Park;Wei Li;Jae-Young Lee;Yiyan Wu;Xianbin Wang;Sunhyoung Kwon;Bo-Mi Lim;Heung Mook Kim;Namho Hur;Liang Zhang;Jeongchang Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 240 - 249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ATSC 3.0—The Next Step in the Evolution of Digital Television
Abstract:
The goals of ATSC 3.0 are to improve the television viewing experience with higher audio and video quality, compression efficiency, robust transmission for reception on both fixed and mobile devices, and more accessibility, personalization, and interactivity. ATSC is also addressing changing consumer behavior and preferences, providing TV content on a wide variety of devices. Furthermore, ATSC is working to add value to the broadcasting service platform, extending its reach and adding new business models—all without the restriction of backward compatibility with the legacy system. Formal planning for ATSC 3.0 began back in 2010 in a planning team tasked with looking at what a next-generation system might look like. Requirements were subsequently developed based on the usage scenarios. Formal standards development work began in 2012, with the first specification completed and published in March 2016. ATSC 3.0 is being built to last. Technology advances rapidly and so methods to gracefully evolve have been built into the core of the system. An essential capability is to signal when a layer or components of a layer evolve—including the ability to signal minor version changes and updates, and major version changes and updates. The goal of this flexibility is to avoid disruptive technology transitions, and to enable graceful transitions from one technology to another.
Autors: Richard Chernock;Jerry C. Whitaker;Yiyan Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 166 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Attempt to Evaluate the Building Factor of a Stator Core in Inverter-Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Abstract:
This paper presents an attempt to evaluate the building factor of a stator core made of nonoriented silicon steel laminations. The stator core is used in a synchronous motor with buried permanent magnets driven by a voltage source three-phase inverter with classical pulse-width modulation (PWM) control. The building factor is the ratio between the iron loss density in the stator core and the specific iron loss density of the material. It then gives an evaluation of the impact of the core manufacture and the motor geometrical configuration on the stator iron losses. A first experiment is conducted to measure the iron losses of the inverter-fed motor in no-load condition. The material-specific iron losses are then evaluated by trying to apply similar magnetic flux density conditions in a wound laminated ring. The results show a decrease of the building factor with the PWM carrier frequency.
Autors: Nicolas Denis;Shunya Odawara;Keisuke Fujisaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2424 - 2432
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Auction-Based Frameworks for Secure Communications in Static and Dynamic Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
This paper investigates the secure communication issue for both static and dynamic cognitive radio networks (CRNs), where multiple nonaltruistic primary users (PUs), secondary users (SUs), and eavesdroppers exist. The design objective is to provide secure communications for PUs and, meanwhile, to ease the starvation of transmission opportunities for SUs. To achieve this goal, we propose a barter-like trading model to incentivize the cooperation among nonaltruistic users. Specifically, PUs leverage the assistance of SUs in the form of cooperative relaying or friendly jamming and, in return, yield certain licensed spectrum accessing time to the aided SUs. We propose a truthful nonmonetary double auction framework (FONDA) toward secure communications for static CRN where PUs and SUs interact in a single round. Then, we extend our framework to d-FONDA for dynamic CRN, where SUs who have patience (tolerant of traffic delay) arrive and leave the network dynamically. We prove that both FONDA and d-FONDA preserve nice economic properties, including truthfulness, individual rationality, and budget balance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed frameworks provide substantial performance gains compared with the baseline scheme and suffer acceptable performance degradation over ideal schemes.
Autors: Xiaoyan Wang;Yusheng Ji;Hao Zhou;Jie Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2658 - 2673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Augmenting Human Intellect and Amplifying Perception and Cognition
Abstract:
This first installment of the new Human Augmentation department looks at various technologies designed to augment the human intellect and amplify human perception and cognition. Linking back to early work in interactive computing, Albrecht Schmidt considers how novel technologies can create a new relationship between digital technologies and humans.
Autors: Albrecht Schmidt;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 6 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Autofocusing for Sparse Aperture ISAR Imaging Based on Joint Constraint of Sparsity and Minimum Entropy
Abstract:
Sparsity and Shannon entropy have been widely used in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. The minimum entropy criterion is usually applied in the translational motion compensation and the sparse constraint is used in the azimuth imaging. In this paper, we combine these two criteria to develop a novel autofocusing algorithm for sparse aperture ISAR (SA-ISAR) imaging. First, the Laplace approximation-based variational Bayesian inference with the Laplacian scale mixture prior is proposed for SA-ISAR imaging. Then, the autofocusing is accomplished by minimizing the image entropy of the radar image reconstructed within the sparse Bayesian framework. During the iterations, the sparse constraint and the minimum entropy criteria are interactively used to improve the convergence speed and the robustness to noise. Additionally, the proposed autofocusing algorithm is adaptive and does not need to specifically initialize the phase error with other autofocusing approaches. Experimental results, based on both simulated and measured data, validate that the proposed algorithm can even obtain a well-focused image with SA data containing only 12.5% randomly sampled pulses.
Autors: Shuanghui Zhang;Yongxiang Liu;Xiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 998 - 1011
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Autoinspection and Permitting With a PV Utility Interface (PUI) for Residential Plug-and-Play Solar Photovoltaic Unit
Abstract:
Renewable energy resources are becoming popular with mass adoption in residential and commercial applications because of gradual cost reduction along with continuous technical advancements. Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the biggest players of renewable energy installations although soft costs remain as the major barrier for higher penetration of PV systems. To address the cost challenges, a plug-and-play (PnP) system for a quick, low-cost installation is proposed and designed. The method is much less invasive and labor intensive than the traditional installation methods. This paper presents the PnP electrical system, with emphasis on the controls, software, and system-level communications within the system. A PV utility interface circuit has been developed for automated electrical safety checks and authentication for the PnP PV system. A data protocol has been used to deal with the master–slave controller setup in the system. This research has the potential to reduce the residential PV system price by $0.6/W.
Autors: Md Tanvir Arafat Khan;Gregory Norris;Ritwik Chattopadhyay;Iqbal Husain;Subhashish Bhattacharya;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1337 - 1346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automated High-Resolution Satellite Image Registration Using Supraglacial Rivers on the Greenland Ice Sheet
Abstract:
High-resolution satellite imagery raises new prospects for detailed study of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface processes and ice discharge. However, dramatic spatiotemporal variability of ice surface reflectance and features poses significant challenges for registration of satellite imagery. This study proposes a new feature-based registration method to register high-resolution panchromatic images of the ice sheet ablation zone. Its idea is to use relatively stable supraglacial rivers as tie points for automated image registration. A first demonstration is made using WorldView-1/2/3 panchromatic images (spatial resolution 0.5 m) as follows: first, supraglacial rivers are delineated using spectral analysis, nonlocal means denoising, Gabor filtering, and path opening. Next, buffer and overlay tools are combined to generate an area of interest and eliminate tie point outliers, yielding subset of high-confidence tie points for registration. Finally, a coherent point drift algorithm is applied to match these tie points and implement registration. Results show that the proposed method demonstrates good performance, despite a heterogeneous ice surface background that complicates river delineation. Accuracy of image registration negatively correlates with seasonal spatiotemporal variability of supraglacial river patterns, suggesting that for the best results, repeat images and time-adaptive techniques should be used. For time-stable meltwater channels, however, the method offers a novel, automated way to register high-resolution satellite imagery of the GrIS ablation zone. Well-registered ice surface high-resolution images reveal that short-term (1-2 week) variations in surface melting rate affect channel morphology (drainage densities and channel widths) significantly, whereas a signal from background advection by flowing ice is not apparent.
Autors: Kang Yang;Leif Karlstrom;Laurence C. Smith;Manchun Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 845 - 856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automated Intersection Mapping From Crowd Trajectory Data
Abstract:
Driver assistance systems and automated driving are known to strongly benefit from digital maps. Keeping map attributes up to date is a challenge, particularly for the current manual measuring approach. In this paper, we present methods to extract information about intersections and traffic lights through a crowdsourcing approach. We use position and dynamic data from a fleet of test vehicles with close-to-market sensors. A statistical hypothesis test is proposed to identify groups of driving directions at an entry of an intersection, which have synchronous traffic light signaling. This information is used to improve the detection of the relevant traffic light signal in case there is a different signaling for the driving directions. Based on a test data set, we classified whether the signaling is synchronous or not with an accuracy of 93.8%. To assess the usefulness of our mapping scheme, we have investigated its contribution to a camera-based traffic light recognition system. An evaluation of the use of additional map information for the traffic light detection was performed on a set of 344 logged intersection crossings from this vehicle. We showed that there is an improvement in the accuracy up to 5.2%, dependent on the test conditions.
Autors: Christian Ruhhammer;Michael Baumann;Valentin Protschky;Horst Kloeden;Felix Klanner;Christoph Stiller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 666 - 677
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Classification of Player Complaints in Social Games
Abstract:
Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques are not only useful for creating plausible behaviors for interactive game elements, but also for the analysis of the players to provide a better gaming environment. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for automatic classification of player complaints in a social gaming platform. We use features that describe both parties of the complaint (namely, the accuser and the suspect), as well as interaction features of the game itself. The proposed classification approach, based on gradient boosting machines, is tested on the COPA Database of 100 000 unique users and 800 000 individual games. We advance the state of the art in this challenging problem.
Autors: Koray Balcı;Albert Ali Salah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 103 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Hot Test of Gyrotron-Traveling Wave Tubes by Adaptive PID Feedback Control
Abstract:
It is of great importance in many applications to provide a stable output power of a gyrotron-traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) during a long operation time (over several hours). In order to achieve this goal, an automatic hot test platform of gyro-TWTs was set up and the power stabilization was obtained by an adaptive scheme of proportional integral derivative (PID) feedback by the beam current controlled by the filament heating power and cathode-anode beam voltage. With determined operating parameters, the PID controller can adaptively adjust the beam current and voltage, and then maintain the output power on a target. This PID controlling process can effectively eliminate the influence of the power supply voltage surge and cathode emission instability. Automatic hot test of the gyro-TWTs shows that the PID feedback controlling accuracy of the output power is better than 2%.
Autors: Guo Liu;Zhaodong Wang;Guohui Zhao;Ran Yan;Yong Xu;Jianxun Wang;Youlei Pu;Wei Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1310 - 1314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Multihorizons Recognition for Seismic Data Based on Kalman Filter Tracker
Abstract:
Horizon recognition is an important but difficult task for a seismic interpreter. A novel automatic recognition method based on the Kalman filter tracker is proposed. According to the properties of the seismic reflection profile, a pair of new linear state and measurement equations is built. Combined with three aided steps including the threshold detection, which finds the candidate measurements, the logic method, which automatically starts a new possible horizon, and the probabilistic data association, which judges the probability of each candidate measurement belonging to each of all the existing horizons, the Kalman filter tracker can reduce the noise involved in the candidate measurements and recognize the multihorizons automatically and simultaneously. Unlike the common picking methods, the proposed method can get the detailed time-space location data for each identified horizon, which is very important for the followed processing and interpretation. The experimental results on the synthetic and real data show that the proposed method can not only track the faint horizons, but also improve the continuity of horizons. The proposed method outperforms the common Canny edge detector.
Autors: Xiaoying Deng;Zhengjun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 319 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Scoring of Multiple Semantic Attributes With Multi-Task Feature Leverage: A Study on Pulmonary Nodules in CT Images
Abstract:
The gap between the computational and semantic features is the one of major factors that bottlenecks the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance from clinical usage. To bridge this gap, we exploit three multi-task learning (MTL) schemes to leverage heterogeneous computational features derived from deep learning models of stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE) and convolutional neural network (CNN), as well as hand-crafted Haar-like and HoG features, for the description of 9 semantic features for lung nodules in CT images. We regard that there may exist relations among the semantic features of “spiculation”, “texture”, “margin”, etc., that can be explored with the MTL. The Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) data is adopted in this study for the rich annotation resources. The LIDC nodules were quantitatively scored w.r.t. 9 semantic features from 12 radiologists of several institutes in U.S.A. By treating each semantic feature as an individual task, the MTL schemes select and map the heterogeneous computational features toward the radiologists’ ratings with cross validation evaluation schemes on the randomly selected 2400 nodules from the LIDC dataset. The experimental results suggest that the predicted semantic scores from the three MTL schemes are closer to the radiologists’ ratings than the scores from single-task LASSO and elastic net regression methods. The proposed semantic attribute scoring scheme may provide richer quantitative assessments of nodules for better support of diagnostic decision and management. Meanwhile, the capability of the automatic association of medical image contents with the clinical semantic terms by our method may also assist the development of medical search engine.
Autors: Sihong Chen;Jing Qin;Xing Ji;Baiying Lei;Tianfu Wang;Dong Ni;Jie-Zhi Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 802 - 814
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Segmentation and Quantification of White and Brown Adipose Tissues from PET/CT Scans
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the automatic detection of white and brown adipose tissues using Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) scans, and develop methods for the quantification of these tissues at the whole-body and body-region levels. We propose a patient-specific automatic adiposity analysis system with two modules. In the first module, we detect white adipose tissue (WAT) and its two sub-types from CT scans: Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT). This process relies conventionally on manual or semi-automated segmentation, leading to inefficient solutions. Our novel framework addresses this challenge by proposing an unsupervised learning method to separate VAT from SAT in the abdominal region for the clinical quantification of central obesity. This step is followed by a context driven label fusion algorithm through sparse 3D Conditional Random Fields (CRF) for volumetric adiposity analysis. In the second module, we automatically detect, segment, and quantify brown adipose tissue (BAT) using PET scans because unlike WAT, BAT is metabolically active. After identifying BAT regions using PET, we perform a co-segmentation procedure utilizing asymmetric complementary information from PET and CT. Finally, we present a new probabilistic distance metric for differentiating BAT from non-BAT regions. Both modules are integrated via an automatic body-region detection unit based on one-shot learning. Experimental evaluations conducted on 151 PET/CT scans achieve state-of-the-art performances in both central obesity as well as brown adiposity quantification.
Autors: Sarfaraz Hussein;Aileen Green;Arjun Watane;David Reiter;Xinjian Chen;Georgios Z. Papadakis;Bradford Wood;Aaron Cypess;Medhat Osman;Ulas Bagci;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 734 - 744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Automatic Tracking and Motility Analysis of Human Sperm in Time-Lapse Images
Abstract:
We present a fully automated multi-sperm tracking algorithm. It has the demonstrated capability to detect and track simultaneously hundreds of sperm cells in recorded videos while accurately measuring motility parameters over time and with minimal operator intervention. Algorithms of this kind may help in associating dynamic swimming parameters of human sperm cells with fertility and fertilization rates. Specifically, we offer an image processing method, based on radar tracking algorithms, that detects and tracks automatically the swimming paths of human sperm cells in timelapse microscopy image sequences of the kind that is analyzed by fertility clinics. Adapting the well-known joint probabilistic data association filter (JPDAF), we automatically tracked hundreds of human sperm simultaneously and measured their dynamic swimming parameters over time. Unlike existing CASA instruments, our algorithm has the capability to track sperm swimming in close proximity to each other and during apparent cell-to-cell collisions. Collecting continuously parameters for each sperm tracked without sample dilution (currently impossible using standard CASA systems) provides an opportunity to compare such data with standard fertility rates. The use of our algorithm thus has the potential to free the clinician from having to rely on elaborate motility measurements obtained manually by technicians, speed up semen processing, and provide medical practitioners and researchers with more useful data than are currently available.
Autors: Leonardo F. Urbano;Puneet Masson;Matthew VerMilyea;Moshe Kam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 792 - 801
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z