Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 17

» Synthesis of Time-Modulated Frequency Diverse Arrays for Short-Range Multi-Focusing
Abstract:
The synthesis of frequency diverse arrays (FDAs) able to achieve time-invariant spatial focusing performance in the short-range is addressed. Two time-modulated optimized frequency offset schemes are presented that allow focusing the energy at a single target location and multiple target locations, respectively. A set of numerical examples is reported and discussed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions also in comparison with the already proposed FDA design approaches.
Autors: A-Min Yao;Paolo Rocca;Wen Wu;Andrea Massa;Da-Gang Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 282 - 294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» System Configuration Contributions to Vulnerability: Applications to Connected Personal Devices
Abstract:
There is a strong impetus to commercialize emerging technology, tempered by safety expectations and regulatory compliance requirements [1]. Such is the case for medical implant devices, where successful operation of devices can be life-saving, but while consequences of failure are severe. Recent advances in this technology aimed at enabling remote access to a device facilitate remote and more accurate monitoring of patient health. In doing so, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) both satisfy market pressures and potentially introduce new avenues of risk that increase end-user vulnerability [2]. Vulnerability contributed by technological systems is known to researchers [3]-[5] as an important consideration in individual vulnerability. This study aims to quantify the contribution of technological configuration to end-user vulnerability, specifically the additional risk of Internet-enabled medical implant devices.
Autors: Lindsay Robertson;Albert Munoz;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 52 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» System Times and Channel Availability for Secondary Transmissions in CRNs: A Dependability-Theory-Based Analysis
Abstract:
Reliability is of fundamental importance for the performance of secondary networks in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). To date, most studies have focused on predicting reliability parameters based on prior statistics of traffic patterns from user behavior. In this paper, we define a few reliability metrics for channel access in multichannel CRNs that are analogous to the concepts of reliability and availability in classical dependability theory. Continuous-time Markov chains are employed to model channel available and unavailable time intervals based on channel occupancy status. The impact on user access opportunities based on channel availability is investigated by analyzing the steady-state channel availability and several system times such as mean channel available time and mean time to first channel unavailability. Moreover, the complementary cumulative distribution function for channel availability is derived by applying the uniformization method, and it is evaluated as a measure of guaranteed availability for channel access by secondary users. The precision and the correctness of the derived analytical models are validated through discrete-event-based simulations. We believe that the reliability metric definitions and the analytical models proposed in this paper have their significance for reliability and availability analysis in CRNs.
Autors: Indika A. M. Balapuwaduge;Frank Y. Li;Vicent Pla;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2771 - 2788
Publisher: IEEE
 
» System-Level Analysis and Optimization of Cellular Networks With Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer: Stochastic Geometry Modeling
Abstract:
In this paper, a new mathematical approach for the analysis and optimization of cellular-enabled low-energy mobile devices with simultaneous wireless information and power transfer capabilities is introduced. The proposed methodology relies on modeling the locations of the base stations as points of a spatial Poisson point process, and it leverages stochastic geometry for system-level analysis. The tradeoffs emerging from simultaneous wireless information and power transfer transmission are characterized through the concept of “feasibility regions” and are quantified through the joint cumulative distribution function of harvested power and rate. To gain insight on the achievable performance, in addition, an upper bound is proposed, and its accuracy is discussed. The system model encompasses a realistic channel model that accounts for line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) links, different cell association criteria, practical receivers based on time switching and power splitting schemes, and directional beamforming. The analysis shows that optimal values for the time switching and power splitting ratios exist and that directional beamforming and network densification are capable of enhancing system performance. More specifically, high directional antennas lead cellular networks to operate in the noise-limited regime, which is proved to provide optimal performance, and because of the existence of LOS and NLOS links, an optimal deployment density for the base stations is proven to exist for typical system setups.
Autors: Marco Di Renzo;Wei Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2251 - 2275
Publisher: IEEE
 
» System-Level Optimization of Accelerator Local Memory for Heterogeneous Systems-on-Chip
Abstract:
In modern system-on-chip architectures, specialized accelerators are increasingly used to improve performance and energy efficiency. The growing complexity of these systems requires the use of system-level design methodologies featuring high-level synthesis (HLS) for generating these components efficiently. Existing HLS tools, however, have limited support for the system-level optimization of memory elements, which typically occupy most of the accelerator area. We present a complete methodology for designing the private local memories (PLMs) of multiple accelerators. Based on the memory requirements of each accelerator, our methodology automatically determines an area-efficient architecture for the PLMs to guarantee performance and reduce the memory cost based on technology-related information. We implemented a prototype tool, called Mnemosyne, that embodies our methodology within a commercial HLS flow. We designed 13 complex accelerators for selected applications from two recently-released benchmark suites (Perfect and CortexSuite). With our approach we are able to reduce the memory cost of single accelerators by up to 45%. Moreover, when reusing memory IPs across accelerators, we achieve area savings that range between 17% and 55% compared to the case where the PLMs are designed separately.
Autors: Christian Pilato;Paolo Mantovani;Giuseppe Di Guglielmo;Luca P. Carloni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 435 - 448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Systematic Design Space Exploration of Floating-Point Expressions on FPGA
Abstract:
In this brief, we propose novel methods to systematically explore the design space of floating-point expressions on a field-programmable gate array in order to extract a nondominated set that covers the whole design space in terms of the accuracy, area, and run-time numbers. We first introduce a regular selection method that consists of two main phases: 1) generating equivalent expressions and 2) using a Pareto algorithm to extract a nondominated set. Then, we introduce a fast selection method in which two phases are composed in order to speed up the optimization process, while the quality of the final results does not change significantly. The results show that regular selection enjoys up to a 35.3% run-time improvement in comparison with the state-of-the-art techniques. Furthermore, the fast selection method is approximately 45× faster than the regular selection.
Autors: Alireza Mahzoon;Bijan Alizadeh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 274 - 278
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Table of contents
Abstract:
This is the 3st issue of the IEEE Latin America Transactions of the year 2017. Volume 15 Issue 3, March 2017
Autors: Mirela Sechi Moretti Annoni Notare;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 381 - 382
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Taken Under Advisement: Perspectives on Advisory Boards From Across Technical Communication
Abstract:
Research problem: Advisory boards provide an opportunity for technical communication programs to connect consistently with industry practitioners and on-campus stakeholders, and yet few recent studies examine best practices for advisory boards in technical communication programs. Research questions: (1) What is the typical makeup of a technical communication program advisory board? (2) What function do these advisory boards serve? (3) What are the typical successes and challenges of starting and maintaining a technical communication advisory board? (4) What are best practices for starting and maintaining a successful advisory board? (5) What are the similarities and differences in how program administrators and board members perceive the benefits and functions of the board? Literature review: Literature on advisory boards in technical and business communication—and in related fields such as communication, journalism, and marketing—reports that advisory boards are beneficial and effective, though many include caveats or recommendations about ways to improve board function. Methodology: To provide perspectives from both sides of the academy-industry relationship, we conducted 18 semistructured phone, Skype, and in-person interviews with program administrators (n = 10) from a host of nationwide programs and with board members (n = 8) from a single advisory board. Results and discussion: The study finds that the typical advisory board involves a mix of industry, faculty, and student members, with an emphasis on industry members. They advise the program about its curricular concerns, often foster students' academic and professional maturation, and support the program in conflicts with university administration. The typical successes of advisory boards included positive curricular amendment and the recruitment of students for jobs and internships, whi- e characteristic challenges included meeting logistics and board members' concerns regarding the program's response to their advice. Program administrators and board members both perceive a board as useful, but some members expressed concern about the uncertainty of their role and influence. The results suggest that all technical communication programs should seriously consider forming an advisory board based on disciplinary best practices, that existing advisory boards should ensure that they have clarified the board's role for their program, and that stakeholders are aware of and attend to their board members' concerns.
Autors: Lars Söderlund;John Spartz;Ryan Weber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 76 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Taking the Long View of Nanotechnology's Societal Implications: The National Iranian Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 Years
Abstract:
New technologies may create benefits, but can also sometimes introduce or exacerbate societal problems. There is broad consensus that adequate and targeted innovation is a key factor for achieving more sustainable development [1]. It is essential to understand that the meaning of "adequate" cannot be understood using only technical parameters. The real impact of emerging technologies is always a byproduct of both the technical parameters of technology and their social "embodiment," embodiment being the social environment of technology including its social consequences, application patterns, side effects, etc. Examination of the societal implications of technology should be developed further and conclusions formed in a way that positive consequences can be realized for sustainable development and negative effects prevented or minimized.
Autors: Sepehr Ghazinoory;Fatemeh Saghafi;Sahar Kousari;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 71 - 80
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Taking Traction Control to Task: High-Adhesion-Point Tracking Based on a Disturbance Observer in Railway Vehicles
Abstract:
Railway vehicles have been based on a wheel-rail system since the system's origination. Therefore, the adhesion-coupling behavior between wheel and rail is the fundamental element of railway traction [1]. However, low vehicle wheel-rail adhesion caused by high humidity, rain, snow, oil, or decomposing leaves is a common problem that can cause damage to some elements of the traction system and decrease traction performance [2]. It may even give rise to safety problems and reduce comfort, not to mention delays and their corresponding economic impact. Good traction control to ensure the system is working at high adhesion point is therefore critical and mandatory for the traction control units (TCUs) [2]-[6].
Autors: Lijun Diao;Leiting Zhao;Zhemin Jin;Lei Wang;Suleiman M. Sharkh;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 51 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in an Integrated Airspace
Abstract:
This paper proposes a taxonomy of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) approaches for operating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in an integrated airspace. Possible approaches for UAVs are surveyed and broken down based on their types of surveillance, coordination, maneuvering, and autonomy. The factors are combined back selectively, with regard to their feasibility for operation in an integrated airspace, into several “generic approaches” that form the CD&R taxonomy. These generic approaches are then attributed to a number of available methods in the literature to determine their position in the overall CD&R scheme. The attribution shows that many proposed methods are actually unsuitable for operation in an integrated airspace. Furthermore, some part of the taxonomy does not have an adequate representative in the literature, suggesting the need to concentrate UAV CD&R research more in those particular parts. Finally, a multilayered CD&R architecture is built from the taxonomy, implementing the concept of defense in depth to ensure safe operation of UAVs in an integrated civil airspace.
Autors: Yazdi I. Jenie;Erik-Jan van Kampen;Joost Ellerbroek;Jacco M. Hoekstra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 558 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Technical and Economical Evaluation on the Use of Reconfiguration Systems in Some EU Countries for PV Plants
Abstract:
This paper shows the technical and economical evaluation of the application of a reconfiguration system for photovoltaic (PV) plants, considering the incentives system in some European Union countries. The reconfiguration system is an alternative to the distributed maximum power point tracking technique which used to increase the power production in the PV plants under the mismatch phenomenon. The reconfiguration techniques employ a microprocessor-based or field-programmable gate array-based system that modifies the layout of the PV plant through the change of the connections among modules. After having presented the main features working of the PV reconfiguration system allowing the improvement of the efficiency of the same plant and the relevant installation, the main strength and weakness points of the investment are evidenced in relation to different incentives policies in some country of UE.
Autors: Fabio Viola;Pietro Romano;Rosario Miceli;Ciro Spataro;Giuseppe Schettino;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1308 - 1315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Temporal Logics for Learning and Detection of Anomalous Behavior
Abstract:
The increased complexity of modern systems necessitates automated anomaly detection methods to detect possible anomalous behavior determined by malfunctions or external attacks. We present formal methods for inferring (via supervised learning) and detecting (via unsupervised learning) anomalous behavior. Our procedures use data to construct a signal temporal logic (STL) formula that describes normal system behavior. This logic can be used to formulate properties such as “If the train brakes within 500 m of the platform at a speed of 50 km/hr, then it will stop in at least 30 s and at most 50 s.” Our procedure infers not only the physical parameters involved in the formula (e.g., 500 m in the example above) but also its logical structure. STL gives a more human-readable representation of behavior than classifiers represented as surfaces in high-dimensional feature spaces. The learned formula enables us to perform early detection by using monitoring techniques and anomaly mitigation by using formal synthesis techniques. We demonstrate the power of our methods with examples of naval surveillance and a train braking system.
Autors: Zhaodan Kong;Austin Jones;Calin Belta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1210 - 1222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Testing Autonomous Vehicle Software in the Virtual Prototyping Environment
Abstract:
Modern vehicle is equipped with autonomous features, such as precollision system or adaptive cruise control to help people perform driving in a safer and more convenient way. The software complexity of those autonomous features is growing to accommodate various needs from users, which makes it more difficult to test their correctness. Virtual prototyping allows one to test the vehicle software in the virtual road environment. Even though several tools are available, original equipment manufacturers seem to be hesitating to fully integrate the virtual test as a part of the vehicle development plan. One of the obstacle is due to a lack of well-defined test criteria that can reasonably abstract the physical environment and test case generation methods that automatically visualize the virtual road environment. In this letter, we propose several associated research directions and potential approaches from the perspective of test criteria and test case generation.
Autors: Baekgyu Kim;Yusuke Kashiba;Siyuan Dai;Shinichi Shiraishi;
Appeared in: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 5 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Tests and Monitoring of Grounding Systems in HV/MV Substations
Abstract:
Each grounding system (GS) needs periodical measurements to control its adequacy to the safety conditions. The tests of step and touch voltages are the sole measurements available in urban or industrial areas with reduced accessibility. In fact, in these areas, the classic measurements used to verify the electrical characteristics of the GS generally present some operational difficulties. The auxiliary current electrodes can only be located at short distances, and thus, the test methods and techniques result in conservative values in comparison with the prospected true values measurable by adopting a remote auxiliary electrode. The locations of auxiliary current electrodes at short distance make it easier to keep them permanently installed and to permit the monitoring of the adequacy of GS. This paper presents the measuring touch/step voltages procedure that provides conservative results showing some case studies done in GS of high voltage/medium voltage substations. It is essential to have the map of the constitution and configuration of the GS to know its data and the location of the various equipment and buildings, the presence of extraneous conductive parts inside, and in proximity of the substation, such as other GS. The field measurements require a good experience of the operator that can be learned by carrying out measurements in cases of GS with influence zone accessible, so that it is possible to compare the traditional method with a remote electrode and the method at short distance.
Autors: Giuseppe Parise;Luigi Parise;Luigi Martirano;Filomena Tummolillo;Giuseppe Vagnati;Antonino Barresi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 929 - 935
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thank Maxwell for cellphones [Numbers Don't Lie]
Abstract:
Now that the world has become addicted to portable electronics, billions of people have come to see the companies providing these gadgets as the most innovative, and the people who head those companies as the most exalted, of all time. "Genius" is a starter category in this discussion. . But clever and appealing though today's electronic gadgets may be, to the historian they are nothing but the inevitable fifth-order elaborations of two fundamental ideas: electromagnetic radiation, the theory of which was formulated by James Clerk Maxwell in the 1860s, and miniaturized fabrication, which followed Richard Feynman's 1959 dictum that "there's plenty of room at the bottom."
Autors: Vaclav Smil;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 24 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thank You to Greg Adamson [News and Notes]
Abstract:
Autors: Katina Michael;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 6 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The 2016 IEEE Future of Robotics in Finland Seminar [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2016 IEEE Future of Robotics Seminar that will be held in Finland.
Autors: Quan Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 97 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The 2016 IEEE National Symposium of New Technologies [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2016 IEEE National Symposium of New Technologies.
Autors: Adrian Villarroel;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 99 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Analysis and Development of a Power Flow-Based Controller for Microgrid Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents the analysis, development, and implementation of a new controller for microgrid systems. The developed controller is structured to produce command values for the active and reactive powers ( and ), and – -axis voltage components ( and ) for each bus in the microgrid system at hand. Values for , and are obtained using a power flow formulated in the –-axis frame. The –-axis power flow (DQPF) produces values for , and that can meet load demands, respond to variations in power generation within the microgrid, and accommodate the mode of operating the microgrid (interconnected or standalone), while maintaining the voltage and frequency stability. The DQPF-based controller is implemented for performance evaluation using a five-bus microgrid system operated under vari- us conditions, including changes in power generation, step changes in load demands, and changes in mode of operation. Test results demonstrate that the DQPF-based controller can offer simple implementation, accurate and fast responses, and negligible sensitivity to the mode of microgrid operation.
Autors: S. A. Saleh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 843 - 854
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Art of Successful Communication [Memoirs]
Abstract:
Examines the importance of effective commuincations within the engineering profession.
Autors: Rasheek Rifaat;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 100 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Benchmarking Initiative for Multimedia Evaluation: MediaEval 2016
Abstract:
The Benchmarking Initiative for Multimedia Evaluation (MediaEval) organizes an annual cycle of scientific evaluation tasks in the area of multimedia access and retrieval. The tasks offer scientific challenges to researchers working in diverse areas of multimedia technology. The tasks, which are focused on the social and human aspects of multimedia, help the research community tackle challenges linked to less widely studied user needs. They also support researchers in investigating the diversity of perspectives that naturally arise when users interact with multimedia content. Here, the authors present highlights from the 2016 workshop.
Autors: Martha Larson;Mohammad Soleymani;Guillaume Gravier;Bogdan Ionescu;Gareth J.F. Jones;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 93 - 96
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Canadian Electrical Code for Hazardous Locations Has No Class—But it Does Have Significant Changes
Abstract:
The  world moved one step further from the U.S. National Electrical Code (NEC) [2]. For decades, both the CEC and NEC have used the term “Class” to identify the various types of hazardous materials. The 23rd edition of the CEC has removed the term “Class” from Section 18 and replaced it with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Zone system. Class I, which was changed in 1998 to include Zones, becomes simply Zones 0, 1, and 2. Class II and Class III were merged to become Zones 20, 21, and 22. Fig. 1 shows the introduction of hazardous location requirements into the CEC. All new construction must use the new system for area classification. The legacy “Class” and “Division” system was relocated to Appendix J. The CEC does allow for continued use of the Class/Division System in existing facilities. However, all new facilities must use the Zone System for all Explosive Atmospheres. This change does not prevent the use of Class/Division equipment in the Zone System. Tables were added that identify the types of Class/Division electrical equipment that can be used in the various Zones designated locations. The CEC approach differs considerably from the NEC. Although the NEC contains a variation of the IEC full system in Article 505 and Article 506, it permits the user to select either the Class/Division or Class/Zone system.

Canadian electric code covers.

Autors: Marty Cole;William G. Lawrence;David S. Adams;Tim Driscoll;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1635 - 1645
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Capacity of Gaussian MIMO Channels Under Total and Per-Antenna Power Constraints
Abstract:
The capacity of a fixed Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel and the optimal transmission strategy under the total power (TP) constraint and full channel state information are well known. This problem remains open in the general case under individual per-antenna (PA) power constraints, while some special cases have been solved. These include a full-rank solution for the MIMO channel and a general solution for the multiple-input single-output (MISO) channel. In this paper, the fixed Gaussian MISO channel is considered and its capacity and optimal transmission strategies are determined in a closed form under the joint total and PA power constraints in the general case. In particular, the optimal strategy is hybrid and includes two parts: first is equal-gain transmission and second is maximum-ratio transmission, which are responsible for the PA and TP constraints, respectively. The optimal beamforming vector is given in a closed form and an accurate yet simple approximation to the capacity is proposed. Finally, the above results are extended to the MIMO case by establishing the ergodic capacity of fading MIMO channels under the joint power constraints when the fading distribution is right unitary-invariant (of which i.i.d. and semi-correlated Rayleigh fading are special cases). Unlike the fixed MISO case, the optimal signaling is shown to be isotropic in this case.
Autors: Sergey Loyka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1035 - 1043
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Case for Teaching Computer Graphics with WebGL: A 25-Year Perspective
Abstract:
OpenGL has been the standard API for teaching computer graphics. There are now multiple versions of the standard, including WebGL. which is the JavaScript implementation of OpenGL ES 2.0. The author argues that WebGL is the version best suited for an introductory course in computer graphics.
Autors: Ed Angel;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 106 - 112
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Continuing Reinvention of Content-Based Retrieval: Multimedia Is Not Dead
Abstract:
In reviewing how content-based retrieval has evolved over the years, the authors argue that the next grand challenge for the multimedia community will be understanding and formally modeling the flow of life around us, over many modalities and scales. This will require supplementing generic signal/sensor-based retrieval with syntactical, semantic, and pragmatics-based approaches. To determine whether a data-driven approach supports their observations regarding the evolution of content-based retrieval, the authors examine the types of research reported at the ACM International Conference on Multimedia from 2005 to 2015.
Autors: William I. Grosky;Terry L. Ruas;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 6 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The deployment of Systems in Cloud Computing environment: A Methodology to Select and Prioritize projects
Abstract:
This paper presents a decision making methodology to aid decision makers in the process to select and prioritize projects of systems compatible with cloud computing technologies. The methodology is based on AHP method, the hierarchy structure is composed by multidisciplinary criteria such as: Financial Analysis, Technology Architecture, Strategic Objectives and Governance, totalizing four criteria categories and 20 subcriteria. It has been implemented in an education company, and the results obtained and discussed in this article suggests its efficacy and application.
Autors: Anderson Souza Ribeiro;David Bianchini;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 557 - 562
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Economics of CDNs and Their Impact on Service Fairness
Abstract:
Content delivery networks (CDNs) have become key telecommunication actors. They contribute to improve significantly the quality of services delivering content to end users. However, their impact on the ecosystem raises concerns about their “fairness,” and therefore the question of their inclusion in the neutrality debates, becomes relevant. This paper aims at analyzing the impact of a revenue-maximizing CDN on some other major actors, namely, the end-users, the network operators, and the content providers, at comparing the outcome with that of a fair behavior, and at providing tools to investigate whether some regulation should be introduced. We present a mathematical model and show that there exists a unique optimal revenue-maximizing policy for a CDN actor, in terms of dimensioning and allocation of its storage capacity, and depending on parameters such as prices for service/transport/storage. Numerical experiments are then performed with both synthetic data and real traces obtained from a major video-on-demand provider. In addition, using the real traces, we compare the revenue-based policy with policies based on several fairness criteria.
Autors: Eric Gourdin;Patrick Maillé;Gwendal Simon;Bruno Tuffin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 22 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Effect of Dimensionality Reduction on Software Vulnerability Prediction Models
Abstract:
Statistical prediction models can be an effective technique to identify vulnerable components in large software projects. Two aspects of vulnerability prediction models have a profound impact on their performance: 1) the features (i.e., the characteristics of the software) that are used as predictors and 2) the way those features are used in the setup of the statistical learning machinery. In a previous work, we compared models based on two different types of features: software metrics and term frequencies (text mining features). In this paper, we broaden the set of models we compare by investigating an array of techniques for the manipulation of said features. These techniques fall under the umbrella of dimensionality reduction and have the potential to improve the ability of a prediction model to localize vulnerabilities. We explore the role of dimensionality reduction through a series of cross-validation and cross-project prediction experiments. Our results show that in the case of software metrics, a dimensionality reduction technique based on confirmatory factor analysis provided an advantage when performing cross-project prediction, yielding the best F-measure for the predictions in five out of six cases. In the case of text mining, feature selection can make the prediction computationally faster, but no dimensionality reduction technique provided any other notable advantage.
Autors: Jeffrey Stuckman;James Walden;Riccardo Scandariato;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 17 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Effect of Surge Tank Throttling on Governor Stability, Power Control, and Hydraulic Transients in Hydropower Plants
Abstract:
This paper investigates the effect of surge tank throttling on governor stability, power control, and hydraulic transients in hydropower plants. The work is intended to be practical, but includes some new research. The practical contributions include a methodology for a combined evaluation of the effects of installing surge tank throttles in hydropower plants, and a demonstration of the throttle effects through a case study. The research contributions include the evaluation of the throttle effect on power control, and a comparison of the throttle effects on power control for governor systems with speed feedback exclusively versus combined speed and power feedback. Field measurements are used to calibrate a numerical model of the case-study hydropower plant. The results from the case study show that the throttle has an insignificant positive impact on governor stability. Power control is improved when a throttle is installed; the overshoot of produced power and the time until steady-state conditions occur are reduced. The throttle has a significant effect on the hydraulic transients, and increases the water hammer and reduces the mass oscillations in the system.
Autors: Kaspar Vereide;Bjørnar Svingen;Torbjørn Kristian Nielsen;Leif Lia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 91 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Effect of Vibrotactile Cuing on Recovery Strategies From a Treadmill-Induced Trip
Abstract:
Effective fall prevention technologies need to detect and transmit the key information that will alert an individual in advance about a potential fall. This study investigated advanced vibrotactile cuing that may facilitate trip recovery for balance-impaired individuals who are prone to falling. A split-belt treadmill that simulated unpredictable trip perturbations was developed to compare balance recovery without and with cuing. Kinetic and kinematic measures from force plates and full body motion capture system were used to characterize the recovery responses. Experiment I evaluated recovery adaptation resulting from repeated trip exposure without vibrotactile cuing. Experiment II investigated the effects of vibrotactile cuing as a function of cuing location (upper arm, trunk, lower leg) and lead time prior to a trip (250, 500 ms). Experiment I showed that trip recovery improved progressively from the fourth to the eighth trial. Experiment II showed that trip recovery was almost the same as the eighth trial in Experiment I, regardless of the location of the cuing stimulus and lead time. The results suggest that a combination of vibrotactile cuing and hazard detection technology could reduce the risk of trips and falls
Autors: Beom-Chan Lee;Bernard J. Martin;Timothy A. Thrasher;Charles S. Layne;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 235 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Effects of Water on the Dielectric Properties of Silicon-Based Nanocomposites
Abstract:
A series of polyethylene-based nanocomposites was prepared, utilizing silicon nitride or silicon dioxide (silica) nanopowders, and the effect of filler loading and conditioning (i.e., water content) on their morphology and electrical properties was examined. The addition of nanosilicon nitride led to systems that were free of obvious nanoparticle aggregates, whereas the nanosilica-based systems showed evidence of aggregation up to the micrometer scale. While the nanosilicon nitride composites remained essentially dry under ambient conditions, the nanosilica-based composites absorbed appreciable quantities of water from the ambient environment, indicating that interactions with water are dependent on the nanoparticle surface chemistry. Dielectric spectroscopy showed a broad relaxation peak due to adsorbed water at nanoparticle surfaces, which shifted to higher frequencies with increased water content. Similarly, the electrical conductivity was found to be highly sensitive to the presence of absorbed water, particularly for systems containing well-dispersed nanoparticles. We conclude that, in nanodielectric applications, nanoparticle surface chemistry is important in determining macroscopic properties, and not just as a means of compatibilizing the filler and the matrix. Additional factors can be critical, here, as exemplified by interactions with water.
Autors: Ian Lee Hosier;Matthew Praeger;Alun S. Vaughan;Steve G. Swingler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 169 - 179
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Emerging Enernet: Convergence of the Smart Grid with the Internet of Things
Abstract:
Bob Metcalfe, inventor of the Ethernet and a well-known technology visionary, once said, Over the past 63 years, we met world needs for cheap and clean information by building the Internet. Over the next 63 years, we will meet world needs for cheap and clean energy by building the Enernet. The Internet has resulted from revolutionary advances in electronics, telecommunications and information technologies, devices, and applications. Although it began as an Internet that connected people, by 2008 it connected more things than people. This exponential growth has primarily been as an Internet of Things (IoT). Cisco has predicted that 50 billion new connections will be made in this IoT by 2020. The U.S. electric utility grid has, until now, been a patchwork of monolithic, weakly interconnected, synchronous ac grids powered by a few thousand very large power plants that are centrally monitored and controlled. For a variety of reasons, this legacy grid approach is proving to be nonviable for the present and the future. It is being supplemented and may ultimately be supplanted by many smaller networks with literally millions of distributed generation, storage, and energy management nodes. The grid is exploding into a network of things. Many consider it to be the largest example of an IoT.
Autors: Steven E. Collier;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 12 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Fabrication, Implantation, and Stability of Intraspinal Microwire Arrays in the Spinal Cord of Cat and Rat
Abstract:
Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is currently under investigation for its ability to restore function following spinal cord injury and aid in addressing basic investigations of the spinal cord in feline and murine (rat) models. In this report we describe the procedures for fabricating and implanting intraspinal microwires, with special emphasis on the rat model. We also report our results on targeting success and long-term stability and functionality of the implants. Early targeting with implants fabricated based on general “average” dimensions of the spinal cord was approximately 50% successful in reaching the proper targets within the ventral grey matter in cats. Improvements in insertion technique and the use of multiple contact electrodes have raised the targeting success to 100%. Furthermore, the manufacturing of ISMS arrays has been improved by the use of magnetic resonance imaging to create subject-specific implants for cats and track the location of the arrays post-implant. In the rat, our procedures have produced desirable targeting of all recovered microwires. We speculate this is due to the different targeting parameters and the shorter depth of insertion in the rat spinal cord. Although there is a heightened mechanical mismatch between the -diameter microwires and the small rat spinal cord, chronic implantation and stimulation produce limited histological damage and do not compromise function. Furthermore, despite the increased difficulties of implanting into the smaller rat spinal cord, ISMS is effective in activating spinal cord networks in the lumbosacral enlargement in a manner that is safe, stable and reproducible.
Autors: Jeremy A. Bamford;R. Marc Lebel;Kian Parseyan;Vivian K. Mushahwar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 287 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Frequency Regulation Scheme of Interconnected Grids With VSC-HVDC Links
Abstract:
Nowadays interconnections of non-synchronous AC grids with VSC-HVDC links become attractive in preventing cascading outages. To share the spinning reserves, the VSC-HVDC link is expected to balance the frequencies of the interconnected grids under tolerable disturbances. Based on the synchronous generator emulation control (SGEC) strategy, this paper presents a communication-free scheme for the frequency regulation of interconnected grids with a VSC-HVDC link. Under a tolerable disturbance, the scheduled powers of the rectifier and the inverter are changed to their actual powers, respectively. As a result, the grid frequencies could be balanced and the adjacent grid will provide frequency support to the disturbed grid. If the disturbance becomes larger, the scheduled powers of the two converters are changed until the maximum or minimum limits and the frequency support to the disturbed grid is limited. Thus, the large disturbance results in a deeper frequency drop in the disturbed grid, which could be arrested by its under-frequency load shedding. As a result, the disturbance propagating to the adjacent grid is suppressed, which does not jeopardize security. The frequency regulation scheme coordinates well with the automatic generation control (AGC) of the grids. Time-domain simulation studies are performed in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment.
Autors: Minyuan Guan;Jingzhou Cheng;Chao Wang;Quanrui Hao;Wulue Pan;Jing Zhang;Xiang Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 864 - 872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Future of Automotive Localization Algorithms: Available, reliable, and scalable localization: Anywhere and anytime
Abstract:
Most navigation systems today rely on global navigation satellite systems (gnss), including in cars. With support from odometry and inertial sensors, this is a sufficiently accurate and robust solution, but there are future demands. Autonomous cars require higher accuracy and integrity. Using the car as a sensor probe for road conditions in cloud-based services also sets other kind of requirements. The concept of the Internet of Things requires stand-alone solutions without access to vehicle data. Our vision is a future with both invehicle localization algorithms and after-market products, where the position is computed with high accuracy in gnss-denied environments. We present a localization approach based on a prior that vehicles spend the most time on the road, with the odometer as the primary input. When wheel speeds are not available, we present an approach solely based on inertial sensors, which also can be used as a speedometer. The map information is included in a Bayesian setting using the particle filter (PF) rather than standard map matching. In extensive experiments, the performance without gnss is shown to have basically the same quality as utilizing a gnss sensor. Several topics are treated: virtual measurements, dead reckoning, inertial sensor information, indoor positioning, off-road driving, and multilevel positioning.
Autors: Rickard Karlsson;Fredrik Gustafsson;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 60 - 69
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Future of Industrial Communication: Automation Networks in the Era of the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0
Abstract:
With the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT) and cyberphysical system (CPS) concepts in industrial application scenarios, industrial automation is undergoing a tremendous change. This is made possible in part by recent advances in technology that allow interconnection on a wider and more fine-grained scale. The purpose of this article is to review technological trends and the impact they may have on industrial communication. We will review the impact of IoT and CPSs on industrial automation from an industry 4.0 perspective, give a survey of the current state of work on Ethernet time-sensitive networking (TSN), and shed light on the role of fifth-generation (5G) telecom networks in automation. Moreover, we will point out the need for harmonization beyond networking.
Autors: Martin Wollschlaeger;Thilo Sauter;Juergen Jasperneite;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 17 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Future of Pervasive Health
Abstract:
During the May 2016 Pervasive Health Conference Workshop, participants identified five general themes related to pervasive health solutions that must be addressed: technological challenges and opportunities, adoption and adherence, open data, methods and ethical issues, and education. Here, the authors discuss each of these themes in more detail.
Autors: Kay Connelly;Oscar Mayora;Jesus Favela;Maia Jacobs;Aleksandar Matic;Chris Nugent;Stefan Wagner;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 16 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Geodesic Distance between $mathcal {G}_I^0$ Models and its Application to Region Discrimination
Abstract:
The distribution is able to characterize different regions in monopolarized SAR imagery. It is indexed by three parameters: the number of looks (which can be estimated in the whole image), a scale parameter, and a texture parameter. This paper presents a new proposal for feature extraction and region discrimination in SAR imagery, using the geodesic distance as a measure of dissimilarity between models. We derive geodesic distances between models that describe several practical situations, assuming the number of looks known, for same and different texture and for same and different scale. We then apply this new tool to the problems of identifying edges between regions with different texture, and quantify the dissimilarity between pairs of samples in actual SAR data. We analyze the advantages of using the geodesic distance when compared to stochastic distances.
Autors: José Naranjo-Torres;Juliana Gambini;Alejandro C. Frery;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 987 - 997
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Harmonic Order Tracking Analysis Method for the Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors Under Time-Varying Conditions
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new approach for improving the fault diagnosis in induction motors under time-varying conditions. A significant amount of published approaches in this field rely on representing the stator current in the time-frequency domain, and identifying the characteristic signatures that each type of fault generates in this domain. However, time-frequency transforms produce three-dimensional (3-D) representations, very costly in terms of storage and processing resources. Moreover, the identification and evaluation of the fault components in the time-frequency plane requires a skilled staff or advanced pattern detection algorithms. The proposed methodology solves these problem by transforming the complex 3-D spectrograms supplied by time-frequency tools into simple graphs, similar to conventional Fourier spectra. These graphs display a unique pattern for each type of fault, even under supply or load time-varying conditions, making easy and reliable the diagnostic decision even for nonskilled staff. Moreover, the resulting patterns can be condensed in a very small dataset, reducing greatly the storage or transmission requirements regarding to conventional spectrograms. The proposed method is an extension to nonstationary conditions of the harmonic order tracking approach. It is introduced theoretically and validated experimentally by using the commercial induction motors feed through electronic converters.
Autors: Angel Sapena-Bano;Jordi Burriel-Valencia;Manuel Pineda-Sanchez;Ruben Puche-Panadero;Martin Riera-Guasp;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 244 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Hum Redux [Microwave Surfing]
Abstract:
Reports on efforts to detect and measure humming sounds. An earlier version of this column appeared originally in the October 2016 issue of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine. systems used by the U.S. Navy based on extremely low frequencies (ELF) and very low frequencies (3–30 kHz). As the latest (theoretical) explanation for the elusive phenomenon, I quoted a 2015 report [3] from the British newspaper The Independent: However, the search for the truth could now be over as researchers claim that microseismic activity from long ocean waves impacting the sea bed is what makes our planet vibrate and produces the droning sound.
Autors: Rajeev Bansal;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 18 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The IAS Annual Meeting - A Look Forward [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The IEEE Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems [Standards]
Abstract:
Reports on the scope, goals, and initiatives of the IEEE Global Initiative for Ethical Considerations in Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Systems.
Autors: Raja Chatila;Kay Firth-Butterflied;John C. Havens;Konstantinos Karachalios;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 110 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Impact of Hardware and Open-Source Initiatives on Robotics [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Bram Vanderborght;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The importance of IEEE Sections to Student Members [The Way Ahead]
Abstract:
Discusses the importance of IEEE Sections meetings and events to student members of the IEEE.
Autors: J. Patrick Donohoe;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:2, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Influence of Electrical Sheet on the Core Losses at No-Load and Full-Load of Small Power Induction Motors
Abstract:
This paper presents the core losses and performance characteristics of a small power induction motor with the core made from different electrical sheets, supplied from mains or PWM frequency inverter at 50, 100, and 200 Hz. Field-circuit and analytical methods are used for loss calculations, taking into account the nonlinear phenomena and additional core losses. In the calculations, the characteristics of mechanical losses measured against the speed for the motors and different electrical sheets magnetization, for frequencies up to 2000 Hz, as well as losses density characteristics against the flux density were used. The results show a significant increase in core losses concomitant with the motor load increase. In addition, analytical methods were used to calculate the performance characteristics versus load power. Calculated results were verified by measurements.
Autors: Maria Dems;Krzysztof Komeza;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2433 - 2442
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The International IEEE Siberian Conference on Control and Communications [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the International IEEE Siberian Conference on Control and Communications.
Autors: O.V. Stukach;B.G. Lvov;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 97 - 99
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Internet versus the State
Abstract:
Sometimes, with a little ingenuity, power dynamics regarding the Internet play out differently than you might expect.
Autors: Charles Petrie;
Appeared in: IEEE Internet Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:2, pages: 102 - 103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The IOPT-Flow Modeling Framework Applied to Power Electronics Controllers
Abstract:
The input–output place-transition (IOPT)-flow modeling framework was created to support the design of mixed embedded system controllers containing both reactive and data-driven parts, combining Petri net and dataflow elements. The reactive parts, whose evolution depends on external events, are modeled using Petri nets. Data manipulation operations that process input signals and events are expressed using dataflows. The framework is composed by a Web-based tool-chain including a graphical editor, a simulator, and automatic code generation tools to produce C and VHDL controller implementations. To demonstrate the language and the related tools, an example of a closed-loop brushless dc servo motor controller is presented. A prototype using the automatic generated VHDL code was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) board.
Autors: Fernando Pereira;Luís Gomes;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2363 - 2372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The IROS 2016 Competitions [Competitions]
Abstract:
Presents information on the IROS 2016 Competition.
Autors: Hyungpil Moon;Yu Sun;Jacky Baltes;Si Jung Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 20 - 29
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The millimeter wireless frontier [Reflections]
Abstract:
There is an eternal quality to how technology evolves. As existing areas get overworked, new frontiers open up at the fringes. Then innovators rush in to occupy the new territory before it, in turn, becomes overworked. There is an example of such a frontier today in wireless communications. IEEE's 5G wireless initiative has the goal of serving many more users with much higher transmission speeds. But with the existing cellular bands tightly packed, where does all the required additional network capacity come from?
Autors: Robert W. Lucky;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 25 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Misuse of IEEE Device 52- Medium Voltage Contactors and Breakers Are Not the Same!
Abstract:
Many standards and specifications, related to medium voltage (MV) motor and feeder circuits, continue to center around the generic use of the IEEE Device 52 as a circuit identifier for the switching device used within those power systems. IEEE Device 52 is defined as a device that is used to close and interrupt an ac power circuit under normal conditions or to interrupt this circuit under fault or emergency conditions. Many of the current standards include detailed protection and coordination recommendations that are centered on circuit breaker protective settings. Some of these recommended protective settings can be detrimental when MV vacuum contactors are used instead of ac circuit breakers to interrupt the circuit under fault conditions such as in motor and feeder applications. This paper will outline MV contactor and breaker rating differences, compare the appropriate protection variations and requirements between the two, and highlight the dangers to personnel and equipment when assuming that a MV vacuum contactor can provide the same performance and require the same protective settings as a MV circuit breaker.
Autors: John A. Kay;Lorraine K. Padden;David C. Mazur;Herman Weber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1646 - 1655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Modeling of Two Phosphors in Conversion White-Light LED
Abstract:
Because of the high color rendering property, the two phosphors that convert into white light in a light-emitting diode are essential in the general lighting applications. Predicting the spectrum after two phosphors mix is challenging because of the mutual interaction between the absorption of long wavelength phosphor and the emission of short wavelength phosphor. To efficiently model the target spectrum, this paper provides a systematic method for simulating the concentration and proportion of two phosphors by using empirical equations. The simulated and experimental spectra overlapped effectively. The results show that the maximum differences are about 0.0046 for CIE 1931 color coordinates (x, y), about 59 K for correlated color temperature, and about five for color rendering index, respectively. The results show that this spectral optimization is an effective approach.
Autors: Shang-Ping Ying;Han-Kuei Fu;Hsin-Hsin Hsieh;Hsuan-Wei Kuo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1088 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Need to Help Journalists with Data and Information Visualization
Abstract:
As news migrates to mobile phones, media companies are turning to data visualization to wet readers' appetites for stories they can read at length on their home or work computers. Journalists are trained to write stories, not in statistics or coding, however. The big news organizations have the funds to hire computer graphics experts, but local news organizations need help.
Autors: Susan Reilly;
Appeared in: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 8 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Origin of the Electromagnetic Vibration of Induction Motors Operating in Modern Industry: Practical Experience—Analysis and Diagnostics
Abstract:
Different kinds of anomalies in industrial power lines create a number of problems for normal operation of induction motors. One of them is an excessive amount of motor vibration. The industry today widely uses different kinds of nonlinear systems operating in the power lines, for example, adjustable speed drives, which cause voltage distortion in the power lines. Single-phase load in three-phase power systems may cause voltage imbalance. Induction motors operating under voltage distortion or voltage imbalance usually have experienced significant vibration of an electromagnetic nature. Vibration of an electromagnetic nature may also be a result of an internal fault in the motor. Motor vibration data contain substantial analytical information about stator and rotor winding and core condition, air gap eccentricity, current/voltage imbalance, and voltage distortions in the power line, etc. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of induction motors based on the vibration analysis technique are widely used in the modern industry. Accuracy of the machinery diagnosis made using vibration analysis depends on the ability to correctly analyze vibration data. The aim of this paper is to clarify the origin of the motor vibration of an electromagnetic nature at line frequency, twice line frequency, harmonics of line frequency, and at twice slip frequency. This opinion is based on the author's many years of experience in the field of vibration diagnostics on electrical machines from different industries.
Autors: Mikhail Tsypkin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1669 - 1676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Quest for Natural Machine Motion: An Open Platform to Fast-Prototyping Articulated Soft Robots
Abstract:
Soft robots are one of the most significant recent evolutions in robotics. They rely on compliant physical structures purposefully designed to embody desired characteristics. Since their introduction, they have shown remarkable applicability in overcoming their rigid counterparts in such areas as interaction with humans, adaptability, energy efficiency, and maximization of peak performance. Nonetheless, we believe that research on novel soft robot applications is still slowed by the difficulty in obtaining or developing a working soft robot structure to explore novel applications.
Autors: Cosimo Della Santina;Cristina Piazza;Gian Maria Gasparri;Manuel Bonilla;Manuel Giuseppe Catalano;Giorgio Grioli;Manolo Garabini;Antonio Bicchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 48 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Random Access Procedure in Long Term Evolution Networks for the Internet of Things
Abstract:
Network connectivity is a key issue in the realization of IoT, and LTE cellular technology is the most promising option for the provisioning of such connectivity. However, in LTE networks, a large number of IoT devices trying to access the medium can overload the RAN. In this article, we review the LTE random access procedure and its support for IoT applications. We also assess the performance of the RAN overload control schemes proposed by 3GPP, taking into consideration the interaction between the random access procedure and packet downlink control channel resource allocation.
Autors: Tiago P. C. de Andrade;Carlos A. Astudillo;Luiz R. Sekijima;Nelson L. S. da Fonseca;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 124 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Random Frequency Diverse Array: A New Antenna Structure for Uncoupled Direction-Range Indication in Active Sensing
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a new type of array antenna, termed the random frequency diverse array (RFDA), for an uncoupled indication of target direction and range with low system complexity. In RFDA, each array element has a narrow bandwidth and a randomly assigned carrier frequency. The beampattern of the array is shown to be stochastic but thumbtack-like, and its stochastic characteristics, such as the mean, variance, and asymptotic distribution are derived analytically. Based on these two features, we propose two kinds of algorithms for signal processing. One is matched filtering, due to the beampattern's good characteristics. The other is compressive sensing, because the new approach can be regarded as a sparse and random sampling of target information in the spatial-frequency domain. Fundamental limits, such as the Cramér–Rao bound and the observing matrix's mutual coherence, are provided as performance guarantees of the new array structure. The features and performances of RFDA are verified with numerical results.
Autors: Yimin Liu;Hang Ruan;Lei Wang;Arye Nehorai;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:2, pages: 295 - 308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Role of Haptic Feedback in Robotic-Assisted Retinal Microsurgery Systems: A Systematic Review
Abstract:
Retinal microsurgery is one of the most technically difficult surgeries since it is performed at the threshold of human capability. If certain retinal conditions are left untreated, they can lead to severe damage, including irreversible blindness. Thus, techniques for reliable retinal microsurgery operations are critical. Recent research shows promise for improving surgical safety by implementing various types of sensory input and output. Sensory information is used to inform the surgeon about the environment inside the eye in real time. This review examines literature that discusses human factors and ergonomics (HFE) of sensory inputs and outputs of retinal microsurgery instrumentation with a focus on force and haptic feedback. Thirty-four studies were reviewed on the following topics: (1) variation between different input sensory devices and their performance, (2) variation between alternative output sensory devices and their performance, and (3) variation between alternative output sensory devices and their user satisfaction. This review finds that the implementation of HFE is important for the consideration of retinal microsurgery devices, but it is largely missing from current research. The addition of direct comparisons between devices, measures of user acceptance, usability evaluations, and greater realism in testing would help advance the use of haptic sensory feedback for retinal microsurgery instruments.
Autors: Julia A. Griffin;Weihang Zhu;Chang S. Nam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 94 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Glioblastoma: A Mathematical Model
Abstract:
Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the deadliest human cancers and is characterized by tumor cells that hijack immune system cells in a deadly symbiotic relationship. Microglia and glioma infiltrating macrophages, which in principle should mount an immune response to the tumor, are subverted by tumor cells to facilitate growth in several ways. In this study, we seek to understand the interactions between the tumor cells and the microglia that enhance tumor growth, and for this purpose, we develop a mathematical and computational model that involves reaction-diffusion equations for the important components in the interaction. These include the densities of tumor and microglial cells, and the concentrations of growth factors and other signaling molecules. We apply this model to a transwell assay used in the laboratory to demonstrate that microglia can stimulate tumor cell invasion by secreting the growth factor TGF- . We show that the model can both replicate the major components of the experimental findings and make new predictions to guide future experiments aimed at the development of new therapeutic approaches. Sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most important parameters as an aid to future experimental work. This study is the first step in a program that involves development of detailed 3-D models of the mechanical and biochemical interactions between a glioblastoma and the tumor microenvironment.
Autors: Yangjin Kim;Hyejin Jeon;Hans Othmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 519 - 527
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Secrecy Capacity of Gaussian MIMO Channels With Finite Memory
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the secrecy capacity of Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channels (WTCs) with a finite memory, subject to a per-symbol average power constraint on the MIMO channel input. MIMO channels with finite memory are very common in wireless communications as well as in wireline communications (e.g., in communications over power lines). To derive the secrecy capacity of the Gaussian MIMO WTC with finite memory, we first construct an asymptotically equivalent block-memoryless MIMO WTC, which is then transformed into a set of parallel, independent, memoryless MIMO WTCs in the frequency domain. The secrecy capacity of the Gaussian MIMO WTC with finite memory is obtained as the secrecy capacity of the set of parallel, independent, memoryless MIMO WTCs, and is expressed as maximization over the input covariance matrices in the frequency domain. Finally, we detail two applications of our result: First, we show that the secrecy capacity of the Gaussian scalar WTC with finite memory can be achieved by waterfilling, and obtain a closed-form expression for this secrecy capacity. Then, we use our result to characterize the secrecy capacity of narrowband powerline channels, thereby resolving one of the major open issues for this channel model.
Autors: Nir Shlezinger;Daniel Zahavi;Yonathan Murin;Ron Dabora;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1874 - 1897
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Soft Robotics Toolkit: Strategies for Overcoming Obstacles to the Wide Dissemination of Soft-Robotic Hardware
Abstract:
The Soft Robotics Toolkit (SRT) is an open-access website containing detailed information about the design, fabrication, and characterization of soft-robotic components and systems (Figure 1). Soft robotics is a growing field of research concerned with the development of electromechanical technology composed of compliant materials or structures. The SRT website hosts design files, multimedia fabrication instructions, and software tutorials submitted by an international community of soft-robotics researchers and designers. In this article, we describe the development of the SRT and some challenges in developing widely disseminated robotic-hardware resources. Our attempts to overcome these challenges in the development of the toolkit are discussed by focusing on strategies that have been used to engage participants ranging from K-12 grade students to robotics research groups. A series of design competitions encouraged people to use and contribute to the toolkit. New fabrication methods requiring only low-cost and accessible materials were developed to lower the entry barriers to soft robotics and instructional materials and outreach activities were used to engage new audiences. We hope that our experiences in developing and scaling the toolkit may serve as guidance for other open robotic-hardware projects.
Autors: Donal Padraic Holland;Colette Abah;Marielena Velasco-Enriquez;Maxwell Herman;Gareth J. Bennett;Emir Augusto Vela;Conor James Walsh;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 57 - 64
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Structure of Dual Schubert Union Codes
Abstract:
In this paper, we prove that Schubert union codes are Tanner codes constructed from the point–line incidence geometry inherited from the Grassmannian. Our proof is based on an iterative encoding algorithm for Tanner codes. This encoder determines the entries of a code word of a Tanner code from the entries in a given subset of its positions. As a result, we find sufficient conditions on the initial positions such that a code word is determined from the component codes only. This algorithm has linear complexity in the code length. We also use this encoder to determine the minimum distance of Schubert union codes in terms of the minimum distance of the Schubert varieties contained therein.
Autors: Fernando L. Piñero;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1425 - 1433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Technology Evaluation and Selection Process for ATSC 3.0 Next Generation Audio
Abstract:
The transition from NTSC analog television to the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) 1.0 digital television (DTV) standard, with its AC-3 audio technology, brought a significant increase in capabilities and enjoyment to television, bringing wide-range cinema-like 5.1 surround sound to the audience. Roughly two decades later, ATSC 3.0 audio is poised to leverage these benefits and add groundbreaking enhancements that include greater efficiency, personalization and immersive surround sound for the listening audience.
Autors: Jim Starzynski;Skip Pizzi;Paul Thomsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 170 - 178
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Trench Power MOSFET—Part II: Application Specific VDMOS, LDMOS, Packaging, and Reliability
Abstract:
The technological development of application specific VDMOS and lateral trench power MOSFETs is described. Unlike general-purpose trench vertical DMOS, application specific trench DMOS comprise devices merged or optimized for a specific function or characteristic. Examples include the bidirectional lithium ion battery disconnect switch, the airbag squib driver with safety redundancy, the antilock breaking systems solenoid driver with repeated avalanche operation, and various forms of synchronous rectifiers (including integrated Schottky and pseudo-Schottky operation). Trench lateral DMOS include all implant quasi-vertical, lateral trench, and lateral trench charge balanced devices. Trench power MOSFET packaging addresses multichip surface mount, DrMOS, low inductance, and clip lead packages.
Autors: Richard K. Williams;Mohamed N. Darwish;Richard A. Blanchard;Ralf Siemieniec;Phil Rutter;Yusuke Kawaguchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 692 - 712
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Trench Power MOSFET: Part I—History, Technology, and Prospects
Abstract:
The historical and technological development of the ubiquitous trench power MOSFET (or vertical trench VDMOS) is described. Overcoming the deficiencies of VMOS and planar VDMOS, trench VDMOS innovations include pioneering efforts in reactive ion etching and oxidation of the silicon trench gate, polysilicon fill and recessed etchback, unit cell and distributed voltage clamping to protect the trench gate, and scaling active cells to high densities using deep submicron fabrication. Thereafter, gate–drain engineered trench VDMOS improved high-frequency switching capability with lower gate charge utilizing nonuniform gate oxides, field shaping, and charge balancing (superjunction, RSO) methods. The recent adaptation of trench gates in wide bandgap unipolar devices is also described.
Autors: Richard K. Williams;Mohamed N. Darwish;Richard A. Blanchard;Ralf Siemieniec;Phil Rutter;Yusuke Kawaguchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 674 - 691
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The use of shear responsive stress control mastics as void fillers in medium voltage cable accessories
Abstract:
In the majority of polymeric medium voltage cables the outer conductive insulation screen (shield) is connected to earth (ground), and this contains the radial electrical field within the insulation. The status quo is disrupted when the screen is removed during jointing or terminating and the screen cutback is left untreated. The stress at the screen cut will be much higher than the design stress of the cable (Figure 1), and cable accessories are designed to control this stress to a workable level [1]. The example illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 shows this effect with a nongeometric stress control method, but similar effects will occur with geometric systems. Use of an effective stress control system ensures that the stress lines are redistributed to reduce the highly localized stress at the screen cut.
Autors: Matt Letvenuk;Miriam Beninca;Horst Noglik;Paul Sheridan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 16 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» The Useful Impact of Carrier Aggregation: A Measurement Study in South Korea for Commercial LTE-Advanced Networks
Abstract:
Carrier aggregation (CA) is one of the main features of the long-term evolution (LTE)-Advanced network that was introduced in Third-Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Release 10 (Rel-10). CA was applied to commercial cellular networks in South Korea in the middle of 2013; however, the performance of CA in commercial networks has not yet been well studied. This article describes how CA technology is applied to a commercial network and how it performs. An extensive field drive test was conducted to compare CA technology performance with that of non-CA technology by using commercial evolved node B (eNB) and user equipment (UE) in a dense urban area and a suburban area. Downlink (DL) CA with two component carriers (CCs) of 30-MHz aggregated bandwidth (BW) was used in the network with one CC of 20-MHz BW at Band 7 and the other with 10-MHz BW at Band 5. The measurement results verified that the maximum DL data rate of CA reached 203 Mb/s, close to the theoretical peak bit rate of 225 Mb/s, and the average DL data rate was 76 Mb/s during the suburban drive test. As a comparison, the maximum DL data rate of single-carrier Band 7 was 141 Mb/s, and the average DL data rate was 51 Mb/s in the same area.
Autors: Sangmin Lee;Seungheon Hyeon;Joongheon Kim;Heejun Roh;Wonjun Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 55 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Theory of Controlled Aperture Field for Advanced Superstrate Design of a Resonance Cavity Antenna With Improved Radiations Properties
Abstract:
An insight based on a new theoretical approach has been developed to facilitate the design of a superstrate which plays a key role in realizing a high gain resonance cavity antenna (RCA). The work is aimed to address a profound theoretical basis of controlling the aperture fields by proper shaping of superstrate and to apply it to alleviate the earlier shortcomings along with further improvement in radiation characteristics. This demonstrates an interesting transformation of a metal superstrate from rectangle to an ellipse or an ellipse-circle combination to achieve significant improvements in the aperture fields and hence the sidelobe level (SLL). The antenna characteristics have been verified using simulated data followed by experiments using different sets of prototypes. About 50% reduction in size along with an improvement in the SLL by 5–17 dB compared to its immediate predecessor has been experimentally demonstrated. Proposed theory should find the potential applications in conceiving efficient RCA designs in the future.
Autors: Koushik Dutta;Debatosh Guha;Chandrakanta Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1399 - 1403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermal and Electromagnetic Characteristics for Cross-Sectional Design Optimization of the Integrated Production Umbilical
Abstract:
The main technological challenge for ultra-deep-water umbilical is the reliability of the integration of high-voltage power cables and production umbilical with respect to electromagnetic interference and high thermal effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the thermal and electromagnetic characteristics of a large bore central pipe and the polyvinyl chloride matrix, various metallic tubes for heating, hydraulic and service fluids, and the electrical/fiber-optic cables for development of design methodologies. Thermal and electrical analyses are performed to insure that the cable design will comply with the specification and is suitable for all operating conditions. A detailed numerical analysis-based parametric study was carried out with the aim of developing design procedure and making optimum integrated production umbilical umbilical system's recommendations.
Autors: So Young Bae;Gyu-Hong Kang;Jung Kwan Seo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1598 - 1604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermal Coupling Analysis in a Multichip Paralleled IGBT Module for a DFIG Wind Turbine Power Converter
Abstract:
Thermal coupling between adjacent insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) or diode chips is the result of nonuniform temperature distribution in a multichip IGBT module. This affects the junction temperatures and hence the total power loss predicted for the module. The study first investigates the impact of thermal coupling effect on the junction temperatures through a finite element method, and then develops a thermal coupling impedance model to represent such effects. The effect is shown to reduce with the distance exponentially. The model result agrees well with the test. The validated model is then used to predict the junction temperature swings during operational power cycling in a doubly fed induction generator wind turbine, showing the difference between the rotor and grid side converters. The model presented and the results obtained may be important for reliability evaluation and condition monitoring in the wind turbine power converters as well as in other multichip-paralleled power electronic systems.
Autors: Hui Li;Xinglin Liao;Zheng Zeng;Yaogang Hu;Yang Li;Shengquan Liu;Li Ran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 80 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermal Model of Electromagnetic Skin-Equivalent Phantom at Millimeter Waves
Abstract:
This paper reports the first thermal model and detailed analysis of the heating of an electromagnetic (EM) skin-equivalent phantom with a finite thickness at 60 GHz. The 1-D heat transfer equation is solved analytically for homogeneous phantoms with finite thicknesses. The temperature rise dynamics and heating distribution within the phantom are calculated for several phantom thicknesses (5, 10, and 15 mm) using measured thermal properties of the phantom. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical analysis based on EM-thermal cosimulations. Furthermore, the numerical model is validated by measurements using an experimental setup based on the high-resolution infrared thermometry. The impact of uncertainty of EM and the thermal parameters of the numerical model upon heat deposition is also studied. Our results reveal that, for short exposure durations (i.e., less than 1 min), the surface temperature is well described by the semi-infinite and finite-thickness phantom models, whereas, for longer exposures (more than 1 min), finite-thickness models must be used to properly account for heating accumulation close to the phantom boundaries. While the reported results cannot be directly used for predicting temperature increase in skin, they are of importance for temperature-based dosimetric assessment in the millimeter-wave band using currently available homogeneous phantoms.
Autors: Carole Leduc;Maxim Zhadobov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1036 - 1045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermal Models and Electrical Machine Performance Improvement Using Encapsulation Material
Abstract:
This paper presents thermal finite-element analysis and experiments to demonstrate improvement of electrical machine performance using end-turn encapsulation materials with high thermal conductivity. The thermal performance of electric machines is an extremely important factor for power density and operating life. Forced air and liquid cooling are used to achieve required thermal management and high power density in many modern applications, but addition of high thermal conductivity materials can be adopted and used to reduce temperature rise and increase the machine's output capabilities as well. Thermal finite-element models are developed and evaluated to compare different encapsulation materials under various operating points in this paper. Finally, experimental validation is performed for each case to prove the thermal analysis and to demonstrate the improved machine output capabilities when thermally conductive encapsulants are used.
Autors: Haodong Li;Keith W. Klontz;Victor E. Ferrell;Daniel Barber;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1063 - 1069
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermal Stability and Failure Mechanism of Schottky Gate AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Abstract:
This paper investigates the electrothermal stability and the predominant defect mechanism of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN HEMT. Calibrated 3-D electrothermal simulations are performed using a simple semiempirical dc model, which is verified against high-temperature measurements up to 440 °C. To determine the thermal limits of the safe operating area, measurements up to destruction are conducted at different operating points. The predominant failure mechanism is identified to be hot-spot formation and subsequent thermal runaway, induced by large drain-gate leakage currents that occur at high temperatures. The simulation results and the high temperature measurements confirm the observed failure patterns.
Autors: Manuela Mocanu;Christian Unger;Martin Pfost;Patrick Waltereit;Richard Reiner;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 848 - 855
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Thermodynamic Analysis Of An Energy High Performance Systems
Abstract:
The energy sector worldwide, every day comes with new challenges, whether it find renewable energy source, or when this energy source can degrade the environment and/or when its efficiency does not satisfy its implementation. In this work, an energy recycling system of two and three levels will be covered. In the tests performed, the primary source is an internal combustion engine 100 KVA powered by natural gas and generates electric power by a synchronous generator coupled to the motor shaft. Energy loss by the exhaust gas is reused in a absorption refrigeration system of 5TR. This first system is restructured to reuse the gases rejected by the absorption refrigeration system generator, in order to preheat the fluid oil used in biodiesel plant as a source of drive. The unit of high performance generation can be classified as cogeneration and / or trigeneration, depending on the type of arrangement which was tested and will meet the physical facilities, such as; the Control and Instrumentation Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, to Mechanical Workshop, to the Institute of sustainable energy of the UFPB, and also the building of RECOGÁS. In this study, it was evaluated the constituent energy power of each term of the polygeneration system considering the generator engine group as a main driven source and the results shown in a Sankey diagram, allowed to check the whole process since of the beginning of the burning fuel to end of the electricity production.
Autors: Antonio Wilton Araujo Cavalcante;Carlos Antonio Cabral Dos Santos;Alvaro Antonio Villa Ochoa;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 454 - 461
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Through Recess and Regrowth Gate Technology for Realizing Process Stability of GaN-Based Gate Injection Transistors
Abstract:
A new gate recess process technology has been successfully implemented in normally off GaN-based gate injection transistors, in order to improve the process stability. In this process, unlike the conventional gate recess process, the initial AlGaN barrier layer in the gate region is fully removed, and then, AlGaN is reproduced by epitaxial regrowth for the first time. By using this technology, the standard deviation of threshold voltage () improves drastically from 229 to 63 mV in 6-in substrate. Furthermore, values were easily controlled from 1.0 to 2.3 V by changing the regrown AlGaN thickness, without changing other dc characteristics and their distributions.
Autors: Hideyuki Okita;Masahiro Hikita;Akihiko Nishio;Takahiro Sato;Keiichi Matsunaga;Hisayoshi Matsuo;Michinobu Tsuda;Masaya Mannoh;Saichiro Kaneko;Masayuki Kuroda;Manabu Yanagihara;Ayanori Ikoshi;Tatsuo Morita;Kenichiro Tanaka;Yasuhiro Uemoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1026 - 1031
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Throughput Analysis in High Density WLANs
Abstract:
This letter proposes a simple but accurate approximation to analytically model both the inter-wireless local area networks (WLANs) interactions and the negative effect of collisions in the performance of high density WLAN scenarios. Inter-WLANs interactions are characterized using a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model, where states represent the set of active WLANs at a given time. Then, the effect of collisions is considered by analyzing the local dynamics between contending WLANs at every state of the CTMC. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of the presented approach.
Autors: Boris Bellalta;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 592 - 595
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Tight Focus Toward the Future: Tight Material Combination for Millimeter-Wave RF Power Applications: InP HBT SiGe BiCMOS Heterogeneous Wafer-Level Integration
Abstract:
The push to conquer the sparsely used electromagnetic spectrum between 100 and 1,000 GHz, commonly known as the millimeter-wave (mmW) and sub-mmW regions, is now in full force. The current rapid development of electronic circuits and subsystems beyond 100 GHz is enabled by improvements in high-frequency semiconductor technology and packaging techniques. In this article, we highlight recent advances we have developed in heterogeneous semiconductor-material chip integration for application toward the mmW frequency bands?in essence, a waferlevel integration approach that replaces chip-to-chip connections with monolithic integration.
Autors: Nils Weimann;Maruf Hossain;Viktor Krozer;Wolfgang Heinrich;Marco Lisker;Andreas Mai;Bernd Tillack;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 74 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time and Location: What Matters Most When Valuing Distributed Energy Resources
Abstract:
The Role and operation of the U.S. electric power system is changing as a result of policy incentives, technological improvements, and consumer choices in technology and service. Consumers have increasing choice and control over their electricity service. The range of choice is diverse: owning or leasing on-premises generating systems [such as solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and combined heat and power systems], subscribing to services with dynamic pricing and undertaking energy efficiency measures to save money by controlling electricity use, and using storage devices to manage when and how they consume grid-supplied electricity. Collectively, these demand-altering measures are referred to as distributed energy resources (DERs).
Autors: Jeff Smith;Bruce Rogers;Jason Taylor;Jeffrey Roark;Bernie Neenan;Thomas Mimnagh;Erik Takayesu;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 29 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time Synchronization for Molecular Communication With Drift
Abstract:
Molecular communication is a promising communication paradigm which enables information exchange by emitting and sensing molecules at a micro- or nano-scale. Time synchronization is a basic but important issue for molecular communication. This letter proposes a maximum likelihood estimator for the clock offset between two nanomachines in a molecular communication system with drift. In a directional fluid medium, the transmitter nanomachine records the message sending time instant and passes it to the receiver. The receiver uses this information to estimate the clock offset. Newton–Raphson method is used to approximate the maximum likelihood estimator. The conditions of the channel parameters, such as the flow velocity, the distance between the transmitter and the receiver, and the diffusion coefficient, are discussed. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed estimator.
Autors: Lin Lin;Jiali Zhang;Maode Ma;Hao Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 476 - 479
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time-Dependent Breakdown Mechanisms and Reliability Improvement in Edge Terminated AlGaN/GaN Schottky Diodes Under HTRB Tests
Abstract:
In this letter, we investigate the time-dependent breakdown mechanisms in edge terminated AlGaN/GaN lateral Schottky diodes under high-temperature reverse bias (HTRB) tests. Thanks to a combined experimental/simulation analysis, we ascribe the device failure to two distinct time-sequential breakdown mechanisms caused by a localized electric field peak at the edge termination corner. In particular, the combined effect of high electric field and temperature causes a first breakdown of the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD)-Si3N4 followed by a second one in the AlGaN barrier. To validate this hypothesis, a 2-D TCAD simulator was used, and the breakdown path in Si3N4 was modeled by an inclusion of a narrow metal filament. The electrical simulations well reproduce the characteristics of the fresh and degraded GaN diodes. Finally, we demonstrate that the diode reliability under HTRB tests can be significantly improved by using a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-Si3N4 dielectric in the edge termination. This reliability improvement is related to a better material quality of MOCVD-Si3N4, showing a higher breakdown field compared with the PEALD-Si3N4.
Autors: Jie Hu;Steve Stoffels;Ming Zhao;Andrea Natale Tallarico;Isabella Rossetto;Matteo Meneghini;Xuanwu Kang;Benoit Bakeroot;Denis Marcon;Ben Kaczer;Stefaan Decoutere;Guido Groeseneken;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 371 - 374
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time-Domain -Continuous OFDM: System Architecture and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
-continuous orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) is a promising technique to achieve significant sidelobe suppression for baseband OFDM signals. However, NC-OFDM usually has high implementation complexity that limits its practical applications. Based on conventional NC-OFDM, this paper proposes a new technique, termed time-domain -continuous OFDM (TD-NC-OFDM), which shifts the processing burden from the frequency domain to the time domain. This is achieved by adding a smooth signal, which is linearly combined by rectangularly pulsed OFDM basis signals consisting of a novel basis set. We prove that TD-NC-OFDM with the basis set is essentially equivalent to conventional NC-OFDM. Furthermore, using the time-domain structure, an asymptotic spectrum analysis of -continuous OFDM signals is obtained by developing a closed-form expression related to sidelobe decaying. This paper also examines the impact of TD-NC-OFDM on the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and derives closed-form expressions.
Autors: Peng Wei;Lilin Dan;Yue Xiao;Wei Xiang;Shaoqian Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2394 - 2407
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time-Domain -Continuous OFDM: System Architecture and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
-continuous orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (NC-OFDM) is a promising technique to achieve significant sidelobe suppression for baseband OFDM signals. However, NC-OFDM usually has high implementation complexity that limits its practical applications. Based on conventional NC-OFDM, this paper proposes a new technique, termed time-domain -continuous OFDM (TD-NC-OFDM), which shifts the processing burden from the frequency domain to the time domain. This is achieved by adding a smooth signal, which is linearly combined by rectangularly pulsed OFDM basis signals consisting of a novel basis set. We prove that TD-NC-OFDM with the basis set is essentially equivalent to conventional NC-OFDM. Furthermore, using the time-domain structure, an asymptotic spectrum analysis of -continuous OFDM signals is obtained by developing a closed-form expression related to sidelobe decaying. This paper also examines the impact of TD-NC-OFDM on the received signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and derives closed-form expressions.
Autors: Peng Wei;Lilin Dan;Yue Xiao;Wei Xiang;Shaoqian Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2394 - 2407
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Time-Domain Method Having a Naturally Diagonal Mass Matrix Independent of Element Shape for General Electromagnetic Analysis—2-D Formulations
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new time-domain method that has a naturally diagonal mass matrix and thereby a strict linear computational complexity per time step, regardless of whether the discretization is a structured grid or an unstructured mesh. This property is obtained independent of the element shape used for discretization. No interpolations, projections, and mass lumping are required. The accuracy and stability of the proposed method are both theoretically guaranteed. In addition, no dual mesh is needed and the tangential continuity of the fields is satisfied across the element interface. The flexible framework of the proposed method also allows for a straightforward extension to higher order accuracy in both electric and magnetic fields. Numerical experiments have been conducted on a variety of unstructured triangular-element meshes. Correlations with analytical solutions and the time-domain finite-element method have validated the accuracy and generality of the proposed new time-domain method.
Autors: Jin Yan;Dan Jiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1202 - 1214
Publisher: IEEE
 
» TJBot and Zooids: The Connection between Pervasive Computing and AI
Abstract:
Pervasive computing and artificial intelligence have amazing potential to reshape how humans interact with computers.
Autors: Maria R. Ebling;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 2 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» TMP: Tele-Medicine Protocol for Slotted 802.15.4 With Duty-Cycle Optimization in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks
Abstract:
Recently, adaptive duty cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocols based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard have been proposed to address the quality of service (QoS) requirements, including a specified and combined set of time bounded data transmission services, data rate, reliability, and energy consumption for wireless body area sensor networks. However, the current protocols suffer limitations in the context of providing a combined set of QoS. Moreover, for efficient energy consumption, these protocols adjust duty cycle values on estimations, such as active periods, buffer occupancy, and collision rates. These estimations consume resources in terms of delay and energy, which makes them hardly acceptable for medical applications. In this context, we propose a tele-medicine protocol (TMP) under the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA with beacon enabled mode on the basis of a novel idea which combines two optimizations methods, i.e., MAC layer parameter tuning optimization and duty cycle optimization. The TMP duty cycle is adjusted by three factors: offered network traffic load, delay-reliability factor, and superframe duration. The proposed protocol provides the required set of QoS (delay, reliability, and efficient energy consumption) at the same time for patient monitoring applications. Performance of the proposed protocol is computed on the basis of average end-to-end delay, reliability, packet delivery ratio, collision rate, and energy consumption by varying the number of nodes and offered network traffic. The TMP performed well in terms of delay, reliability, energy consumption, and collision rate in comparison of the other existing protocols under the constraints of patient monitoring applications.
Autors: Muhammad Sajjad Akbar;Hongnian Yu;Shuang Cang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1925 - 1936
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Top Downloads in IEEE Xplore [Reader's Choice]
Abstract:
Presents a list of articles published by the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) that ranked among the top 100 most downloaded IEEE Xplore articles.
Autors: Chungshui Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 12 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Top-Down Visual Saliency via Joint CRF and Dictionary Learning
Abstract:
Top-down visual saliency is an important module of visual attention. In this work, we propose a novel top-down saliency model that jointly learns a Conditional Random Field (CRF) and a visual dictionary. The proposed model incorporates a layered structure from top to bottom: CRF, sparse coding and image patches. With sparse coding as an intermediate layer, CRF is learned in a feature-adaptive manner; meanwhile with CRF as the output layer, the dictionary is learned under structured supervision. For efficient and effective joint learning, we develop a max-margin approach via a stochastic gradient descent algorithm. Experimental results on the Graz-02 and PASCAL VOC datasets show that our model performs favorably against state-of-the-art top-down saliency methods for target object localization. In addition, the dictionary update significantly improves the performance of our model. We demonstrate the merits of the proposed top-down saliency model by applying it to prioritizing object proposals for detection and predicting human fixations.
Autors: Jimei Yang;Ming-Hsuan Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 576 - 588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Topology-Aware Prediction of Virtual Network Function Resource Requirements
Abstract:
Network functions virtualization (NFV) continues to gain attention as a paradigm shift in the way telecommunications services are deployed and managed. By separating network function from traditional middleboxes, NFV is expected to lead to reduced capital expenditure and operating expenditure, and to more agile services. However, one of the main challenges to achieving these objectives is how physical resources can be efficiently, autonomously, and dynamically allocated to virtualized network function (VNF) whose resource requirements ebb and flow. In this paper, we propose a graph neural network-based algorithm which exploits VNF forwarding graph topology information to predict future resource requirements for each VNF component (VNFC). The topology information of each VNFC is derived from combining its past resource utilization as well as the modeled effect on the same from VNFCs in its neighborhood. Our proposal has been evaluated using a deployment of a virtualized IP multimedia subsystem, and real VoIP traffic traces, with results showing an average prediction accuracy of 90%, compared to 85% obtained while using traditional feed-forward neural networks. Moreover, compared to a scenario where resources are allocated manually and/or statically, our technique reduces the average number of dropped calls by at least 27% and improves call setup latency by over 29%.
Autors: Rashid Mijumbi;Sidhant Hasija;Steven Davy;Alan Davy;Brendan Jennings;Raouf Boutaba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 106 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Touch Sensor Array With Integrated Drivers and Comparator Using a-IGZO TFTs
Abstract:
Integration of an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc–oxide thin-film transistor (TFT)-based self-capacitive touch sensor array with its peripheral drivers and readout circuits is reported. Each pixel consists of one touch electrode and five TFTs that enable a pixel-by-pixel driving scheme via integrated row and column drivers made of shift registers. Outputs from all sensor pixels are fed into an integrated comparator and compared with a reference voltage to generate a more readable low or high output level. A ~7 V difference between the touch and untouched states could be detected, making the proposed touch sensor a promising candidate for flexible electronics.
Autors: Di Geng;Yuan Feng Chen;M. Mativenga;Jin Jang;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 391 - 394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Toward a More Generalized Doherty Power Amplifier Design for Broadband Operation
Abstract:
The conventional Doherty power amplifier (DPA) theory is limited to single carrier operations, leading to a nongeneric structure. This paper presents a new analysis that generalizes the conventional DPA (CDPA) theory for increased efficiency and bandwidth. We demonstrate that by introducing a theoretical parameter at the output combiner, we can redefine the relationships among the output combiner elements for a greater level of design flexibility than it was possible in the CDPA. We also show that previously published works in this area can be considered as special cases of the proposed general theory. As a demonstrator, a specific design, named reduced- DPA, realized using GaN HEMTs is provided to illustrate the robustness of the approach. This design proves effective for further improving the performance of the previously published 2.14-/2.655-GHz dual-band parallel DPA. A maximum drain efficiency of 84% and 67% at an average of 43-dBm peak and 6-dB back-off power levels, respectively, was measured with continuous wave signals. To quantify the linearity performance, the proposed DPA was tested using wideband CDMA and long-term evolution signals where the adjacent channel leakage ratio was recorded at −25 dBc with an average output power of 38.7 and 36.5 dBm at 2.14 and 2.655 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Ayman Barakat;Mury Thian;Vincent Fusco;Senad Bulja;Lei Guan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 846 - 859
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Toward a Tissue Model for Bipolar Electrosurgery: Block-Oriented Model Structure Analysis
Abstract:
High-frequency radio energy is applied to tissue therapeutically in a number of different medical applications. The ability to model the effects of RF energy on the collagen, elastin, and liquid content of the target tissue would allow for the refinement of the control of the energy in order to improve outcomes and reduce negative side effects. In this paper, we aim at studying the dynamics of voltage and current signals in bipolar electrosurgery whose dynamic relationship we describe by a nonlinear (NL) time-varying dynamical model. The different aspects and carefully designed tests allow getting insight in a possible candidate for such a dynamical model. We conclude, in this paper, that the impedance relationship may be modeled through a time-varying Wiener–Hammerstein system where the static NL function is a function of both the signal as well as time. In particular, we motivate that one can discriminate between different target tissues through this model by inspecting the time-varying NL function. As such, the model properties serve the realization of a possible simulator generating real-life current–voltage signals for training facilities among other applications.
Autors: Kurt Barbé;Carolyn Ford;Kenlyn Bonn;James Gilbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 460 - 469
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Toward Abnormal Trajectory and Event Detection in Video Surveillance
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a unified approach for abnormal behavior detection and group behavior analysis in video scenes. Existing approaches for abnormal behavior detection do either use trajectory-based or pixel-based methods. Unlike these approaches, we propose an integrated pipeline that incorporates the output of object trajectory analysis and pixel-based analysis for abnormal behavior inference. This enables to detect abnormal behaviors related to speed and direction of object trajectories, as well as complex behaviors related to finer motion of each object. By applying our approach on three different data sets, we show that our approach is able to detect several types of abnormal group behaviors with less number of false alarms compared with existing approaches.
Autors: Serhan Coşar;Giuseppe Donatiello;Vania Bogorny;Carolina Garate;Luis Otavio Alvares;François Brémond;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 683 - 695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Toward Automated Land Cover Classification in Landsat Images Using Spectral Slopes at Different Bands
Abstract:
For last two decades, various techniques have been advanced for classification of satellite imageries. A vast majority of them are supervised/semisupervised requiring manual selection of samples for each class. Some of the unsupervised approaches are based on hard thresholds and particular to image acquisition modules. In this study, we propose a spectral-slope-based classification technique and subsequently summarize the changes in temporal image sets. Using the properties of spectral slopes, we propose a set of rules for selection of training samples from Landsat imageries for classifying the land cover. The images are initially classified into three classes: water, vegetation, and vegetation-void. Further, vegetation and vegetation-void regions are classified into proper vegetation and dry cropland, and urban land and bare land, respectively. The initial classification is performed by support vector machines, and the second-level classification is performed through -means clustering and subsequent labeling of clusters to subclasses. Considering temporal images of the same scene, postclassification change summarization is carried out to quantize the land variations, both qualitatively (type of change) and quantitatively (volume of change).The approach has been used in the analysis of images acquired by different sensors operating under similar wavelength ranges.
Autors: Shashaank M. Aswatha;Jayanta Mukherjee;Prabir K. Biswas;Subhas Aikat;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1096 - 1104
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Toward Computer-Assisted Understanding of Dynamics in Symphonic Music
Abstract:
Many people enjoy classical symphonic music. Its diverse instrumentation makes for a rich listening experience. This diversity adds to conductors' expressive freedom to shape the sound according to their imagination. As a result, the same piece can sound quite different from one conductor to another. Differences in interpretation might be noticeable to listeners, but they are sometimes hard to pinpoint, presumably because of the acoustic complexity of the sound. This article describes a computational model that interprets dynamics--expressive loudness variations in performances--in terms of the musical score, highlighting differences between performances of the same piece. The authors demonstrate through experiments that the model has predictive power and give examples of conductor idiosyncrasies found by using the model as an explanatory tool. Although the present model is still in active development, it could pave the road for a consumer-oriented companion to interactive classical music understanding. This article is part of a special issue on multimedia technologies for enriched music.
Autors: Maarten Grachten;Carlos Eduardo Cancino-Chacón;Thassilo Gadermaier;Gerhard Widmer;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 36 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Towards a Verification Flow Across Abstraction Levels Verifying Implementations Against Their Formal Specification
Abstract:
The use of formal models to describe early versions of the structure and the behavior of a system has become common practice in industry. UML and OCL are the de-facto specification languages for these tasks. They allow for capturing system properties and module behavior in an abstract but still formal fashion. At the same time, this enables designers to detect errors or inconsistencies in the initial phases of the design flow—even if the implementation has not already started. Corresponding tools for verification of formal models got established in the recent past. However, verification results are usually not reused in later design steps anymore. In fact, similar verification tasks are applied again, e.g., after the implementation has been completed. This is a waste of computational and human effort. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a method which checks a given implementation of a system against its corresponding formal method. This allows for transferring verification results already obtained from the formal model to the implementation and, eventually, motivates a new design flow which addresses verification across abstraction levels. This paper describes the applied techniques as well as their orchestration. Afterwards, the applicability of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by means of examples as well as a case study from an industrial context.
Autors: Pablo González-de-Aledo;Nils Przigoda;Robert Wille;Rolf Drechsler;Pablo Sánchez;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 475 - 488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Towards Actionable Learning Analytics Using Dispositions
Abstract:
Studies in the field of learning analytics (LA) have shown students’ demographics and learning management system (LMS) data to be effective identifiers of “at risk” performance. However, insights generated by these predictive models may not be suitable for pedagogically informed interventions due to the inability to explain why students display these behavioral patterns. Therefore, this study aims at providing explanations of students’ behaviors on LMS by incorporating dispositional dimensions (e.g., self-regulation and emotions) into conventional learning analytics models. Using a combination of demographic, trace, and self-reported data of eight contemporary social-cognitive theories of education from 1,069 students in a blended introductory quantitative course, we demonstrate the potential of dispositional characteristics of students, such as procrastination and boredom. Our results highlight the need to move beyond simple engagement metrics, whereby dispositional learning analytics provide an actionable bridge between learning analytics and educational intervention.
Autors: Dirk T. Tempelaar;Bart Rienties;Quan Nguyen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 6 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Towards Detection of Bus Driver Fatigue Based on Robust Visual Analysis of Eye State
Abstract:
Driver's fatigue is one of the major causes of traffic accidents, particularly for drivers of large vehicles (such as buses and heavy trucks) due to prolonged driving periods and boredom in working conditions. In this paper, we propose a vision-based fatigue detection system for bus driver monitoring, which is easy and flexible for deployment in buses and large vehicles. The system consists of modules of head-shoulder detection, face detection, eye detection, eye openness estimation, fusion, drowsiness measure percentage of eyelid closure (PERCLOS) estimation, and fatigue level classification. The core innovative techniques are as follows: 1) an approach to estimate the continuous level of eye openness based on spectral regression; and 2) a fusion algorithm to estimate the eye state based on adaptive integration on the multimodel detections of both eyes. A robust measure of PERCLOS on the continuous level of eye openness is defined, and the driver states are classified on it. In experiments, systematic evaluations and analysis of proposed algorithms, as well as comparison with ground truth on PERCLOS measurements, are performed. The experimental results show the advantages of the system on accuracy and robustness for the challenging situations when a camera of an oblique viewing angle to the driver's face is used for driving state monitoring.
Autors: Bappaditya Mandal;Liyuan Li;Gang Sam Wang;Jie Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 545 - 557
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Towards Effective Trust-Based Packet Filtering in Collaborative Network Environments
Abstract:
Overhead network packets are a big challenge for intrusion detection systems (IDSs), which may increase system burden, degrade system performance, and even cause the whole system collapse, when the number of incoming packets exceeds the maximum handling capability. To address this issue, packet filtration is considered as a promising solution, and our previous research efforts have proven that designing a trust-based packet filter was able to refine unwanted network packets and reduce the workload of a local IDS. With the development of Internet cooperation, collaborative intrusion detection environments (e.g., CIDNs) have been developed, which allow IDS nodes to collect information and learn experience from others. However, it would not be effective for the previously built trust-based packet filter to work in such a collaborative environment, since the process of trust computation can be easily compromised by insider attacks. In this paper, we adopt the existing CIDN framework and aim to apply a collaborative trust-based approach to reduce unwanted packets. More specifically, we develop a collaborative trust-based packet filter, which can be deployed in collaborative networks and be robust against typical insider attacks (e.g., betrayal attacks). Experimental results in various simulated and practical environments demonstrate that our filter can perform effectively in reducing unwanted traffic and can defend against insider attacks through identifying malicious nodes in a quick manner, as compared to similar approaches.
Autors: Weizhi Meng;Wenjuan Li;Lam For Kwok;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 233 - 245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Tracking Social Groups Within and Across Cameras
Abstract:
We propose a method for tracking groups from single and multiple cameras with disjointed fields of view. Our formulation follows the tracking-by-detection paradigm in which groups are the atomic entities and are linked over time to form long and consistent trajectories. To this end, we formulate the problem as a supervised clustering problem in which a structural SVM classifier learns a similarity measure appropriate for group entities. Multicamera group tracking is handled inside the framework by adopting an orthogonal feature encoding that allows the classifier to learn inter- and intra-camera feature weights differently. Experiments were carried out on a novel annotated group tracking data set, the DukeMTMC-Groups data set. Since this is the first data set on the problem, it comes with the proposal of a suitable evaluation measure. Results of adopting learning for the task are encouraging, scoring a +15% improvement in F1 measure over a nonlearning-based clustering baseline. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proposal of its kind dealing with multicamera group tracking.
Autors: Francesco Solera;Simone Calderara;Ergys Ristani;Carlo Tomasi;Rita Cucchiara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 441 - 453
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z