Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 15

» RC4-AccSuite: A Hardware Acceleration Suite for RC4-Like Stream Ciphers
Abstract:
We present RC4-AccSuite, a hardware accelerator, which combines the flexibility of an application specific instruction set processor and the performance of an application specific IC for the most widely deployed commercial stream cipher RC4 and its eight prominent variants, including Spritz (CRYPTO-2014 Rump-session). Our carefully designed instruction set architecture reuses combinational and sequential logic at its various pipeline stages and memories, saving up to 41% in terms of area, compared with the individual cores, while the power budget being dictated primarily by the variant used. Moreover, using state replication, noticeable throughput performance enhancement in RC4 variants is achieved. RC4-AccSuite possesses extensibility for future variants of RC4 with little or no tweaking.
Autors: Ayesha Khalid;Goutam Paul;Anupam Chattopadhyay;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1072 - 1084
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reachability Querying: Can It Be Even Faster?
Abstract:
As an important graph operator, reachability query has been extensively studied over decades, which is to check whether a vertex can reach another vertex over a large directed graph with vertices and edges. The efforts made in the reported studies have greatly improved the query time of answering reachability queries online, while reducing the offline index construction time to construct an index with a reasonable size given the approach taken, where an entry in an index for a vertex is called a label of the vertex. Among all the work, the recent development of IP (Independent Permutation) employs randomness using -min-wise independent permutations to process reachability queries, and shows the advantages for both query time and index construction time. In this paper, we propose a new Bloom filter Labeling, denoted as BFL. We show that the probability to answer reachability queries by BFL can be bounded, and BFL has high pruning power to answer more reachability queries directly. We give algorithms and analyze the pruning power of BFL. We conduct extensive studies using 19 large datasets. We show that BFL with an interval label performs best in the index construction time for all 19 cases, and performs best in query time for 16 out of 19 cases.
Autors: Jiao Su;Qing Zhu;Hao Wei;Jeffrey Xu Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 683 - 697
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reaching Out to the World
Abstract:
Autors: Harvey Freeman;Doug Zuckerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reading the Underlying Information From Massive Metagenomic Sequencing Data
Abstract:
Microorganisms are everywhere. Recent studies showed that the mixture of microbes or the microbiome on the human body plays important roles in human physiology and diseases. Metagenomic sequencing is a key technology for studying microbiomes. It produces massive amounts of data in the form of short sequencing reads. A single metagenomic sample can contain 10 7 to 10 8 reads of about 100-nucleotide (nt) length each in a typical shotgun metagenomic sequencing study. They contain rich information about microbiomes and their functions, but reading out those information from the huge highly fragmented data has multiple challenges for mathematical models, bioinformatics methods, and computer algorithms. In this paper, we review the basic bioinformatics tasks and existing methods in processing and analyzing metagenomic data, and discuss remaining open challenges and practical observations. The aim of the paper is to provide readers a whole picture of metagenomic data processing and analysis, and a reference and perspective to start with for computational scientists who are interested in this exciting field.
Autors: Xuegong Zhang;Shansong Liu;Hongfei Cui;Ting Chen;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 105, issue:3, pages: 459 - 473
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real Time Rotatable Waveguide Twist Using Contactless Stacked Air-Gapped Waveguides
Abstract:
A novel real-time rotatable rectangular waveguide twist is presented in this letter. The proposed waveguide twist is based on the contactless waveguide flange technique. The electromagnetic wave is confined inside the rectangular waveguide if the air gap between the two flanges does not exceed the maximum allowed distance. Therefore, relative rotation between the contactless flanges is allowed. Seven rectangular waveguide plates with smooth surface on one side of it but bed of nails on the other side are manufactured. They are stacked together layer by layer and are placed into a hollow circular housing. Two adjacent plates have a maximum twist angle of 15°. Therefore, the proposed stacked twist can realize any twist angle between 90°. A Ka-band prototype is designed, manufactured, and tested. The measured return loss is better than 15 dB, while the insertion loss is better than 0.3 dB over the whole Ka-band.
Autors: Dongquan Sun;Jinping Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 215 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Controllable and Multifunctional Metasurfaces Utilizing Indium Tin Oxide Materials: A Phased Array Perspective
Abstract:
In this paper, two electrically tunable dual-band reflectarray antennas are designed by the integration of a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO) into plasmonic multi-sized and multilayer unit cells. The presented geometries include two gold nanoribbons located next to each other with different widths and backed by a stack of alumina-ITO-metallic ground plane and two pairs of vertically stacked gold nanoribbon-alumina-ITO on a metallic ground plane. The double-resonance nature of the double metal-insulator-metal unit-cells is exploited to achieve two distinct operating frequencies in which the control over phase of the reflected beam is obtained via the tunable gate biasing of ITO. An in-depth phased array analysis is developed with emphasis on the accomplishment of a reconfigurable antenna with robust beam scanning and focusing characteristics. The proposed structures can be considered as dual-band bifunctional reflectarray antenna that can operate at two distinct frequencies in the near-infrared regime with two different functionalities as bending and focusing.
Autors: Ali Forouzmand;Hossein Mosallaei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 296 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Estimation of Temperature Distribution for Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Boundary Cooling
Abstract:
This paper presents a real-time estimation method for the temperature distribution of cylindrical batteries under boundary air cooling. A space-/time-separation-based analytical model is developed using Karhunen–Loève decomposition and Galerkin's method. The model parameters can be identified and optimized using data-based approaches. The developed analytical model demonstrates the robustness to variation of thermal parameters. However, the change of boundary cooling will significantly degrade the performance of the developed analytical model. For the known boundary cooling, the compensation model for cooling effects can be derived to improve the modeling performance. For the unknown boundary cooling in real practice, a dual-extended Kalman filter can be used to simultaneously estimate coupled parameters and convection coefficient in the compensation model. The proposed method can achieve satisfactory performance in the battery duty-cycle experiments.
Autors: Mingliang Wang;Han-Xiong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2316 - 2324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Optimal Control of a 3-Phase PMSM in 2-Phase Degraded Mode
Abstract:
This paper aims to optimize real-time control for the degraded mode of a fault-tolerant power architecture but not the fault detection and isolation procedure itself. Such power architecture is dedicated to electric vehicles in which it performs the three following essential functions: traction, battery charging, and electric-grid assistance. For safety reasons, in the degraded mode, power control is limited to the traction mode. Thus, for a given torque, the proposed innovative strategy uses a novel current/voltage transform that leads to efficient real-time control of the torque. The key idea is to drive the current without a priori restrictions on its waveform, while minimizing Joule losses, i.e., the effective value of the current. It has been validated on a laboratory test bench. The studied system is based on a three-phase open-end-winding synchronous machine powered by an inverter with three full H-bridges. The last section of the paper analyzes the comparison between the classic sinusoidal current waveforms and the proposed sinusoidal current waveforms while operating on the two remaining motor phases. It results in a 14% increase of the torque produced by the permanent-magnet machine under test and a 14% decrease of the global system losses in traction mode. As a result, the new control strategy enhances traction performance in degraded mode and increases electric-vehicle autonomy in a postfailure condition.
Autors: Olivier Béthoux;Eric Labouré;Ghislain Remy;Eric Berthelot;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2044 - 2052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Power-Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines
Abstract:
This paper presents the real-time (RT) power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) emulation of the two most popular variable-speed wind turbines (WT): the doubly-fed induction generator WT with partial-scale power converter and the permanent-magnet synchronous machine WT with full-scale power converter. RT-PHIL emulation offers a realistic, controlled, and easily reconfigurable test environment for analyzing grid integration problems, in which classic tools frequently show a lack of capacity. The proposed discrete-time models and implementation methodology result in creation of platform-independent models suitable for application on any RT platform. A voltage-source converter is used as PHIL power interface between the RT simulation and a microgrid testbed. This test environment is of interest for verification of high-level control strategies for wind farms and for evaluation of the response of hardware systems, such as active filters or static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) connected to a grid (or microgrid) in presence of wind power generation. The RT discrete models of both WTs are demonstrated in a grid-connection experiment.
Autors: Francisco Huerta;Ronald Lister Tello;Milan Prodanovic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1893 - 1904
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Real-Time Prediction and Control of Transient Stability Using Transient Energy Function
Abstract:
Real-time prediction of transient stability after a fault can potentially prevent occurrence of grid blackouts. In this paper, the measurement data obtained from phasor measurement unit (PMU) located at generator buses are used to compute the transient stability margin after a fault has occurred. For evaluating various control actions to be taken to stabilize severely disturbed and unstable generators, the stability margin is estimated using the transient energy function (TEF) technique. A look-up table of various modes of disturbance (MOD) is built offline for different fault locations and post fault topology. Following an actual fault, the most probable MODs are ranked by matching the “normalized” kinetic energy with the look-up table. The correct MOD is then chosen based on the lowest normalized potential energy margin and the Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) is calculated. This technique overcomes previously reported difficulties in finding the CUEP in real-time applications. With knowledge of prefault operating condition obtained from SCADA and the information of the tripped line by analyzing the PMU data, the first swing transient stability margin is computed. The amount of control action needed is subsequently calculated. The proposed method has been tested on the IEEE 39 Bus Test System.
Autors: Pratyasa Bhui;Nilanjan Senroy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 923 - 934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Recognition of 2016 Transactions and Magazine Papers Reviewers
Abstract:
Presents a listing of reviewers who contributed to this publication in 2016.
Autors: Dr. Thomas A. Nondahl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 790 - 818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Recognizing Our Peers [Awards]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of IAS society awards.
Autors: Mohammed Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 23, issue:2, pages: 93 - 94
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reconfigurable Inductorless Wideband CMOS LNA for Wireless Communications
Abstract:
Future hyper-connected devices must support several communication standards, across various frequency bands, with a low-area, single-chip, radio frequency frontend. In this paper, we present a reconfigurable, inductorless, wideband, low-noise amplifier (LNA) for multistandard applications. This LNA is based on a complementary current-reuse common source amplifier, combined with a low-current active feedback. A gyrator-C effect is used to achieve wideband input matching. High linearity is obtained through complementary derivative superposition and active shunt feedback. Implemented in 130-nm CMOS technology, the prototype exhibits a -3 dB bandwidth of 2.2 GHz. In high linearity mode, the LNA achieves a minimum of 2 dB, a voltage gain of 21.1 dB and an of +14.3 dBm, with 7 mW of power consumption. In low-power mode, it draws 1.5 mW, while providing a NF of 2.6 dB, a gain of 21 dB, and an of 4.7 dBm. The active die area is 0.0072 mm2.
Autors: Marcelo De Souza;André Mariano;Thierry Taris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 675 - 685
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reconfigurable Multiband Bandpass Filters in Evanescent-Mode-Cavity-Resonator Technology
Abstract:
The development of 3-D reconfigurable microwave multiband bandpass filters in substrate-integrated evanescent-mode-cavity-resonator technology is presented. The proposed filter approach exploits multiband quasi-bandpass sections whose tunable resonators do not directly interact with one another. In this manner, a multiband filtering transfer function with independently frequency-controllable passbands and interband transmission zeros is realized. Moreover, the number of active passbands can be dynamically selected in this filter architecture through their spectral merging as well as their intrinsic switching-OFF through resonators’ detuning. These operational capabilities are theoretically demonstrated by means of several coupling-matrix-level synthesis examples. Furthermore, for experimental-validation purposes, a triple-band second-order prototype with three electronically tunable transmission bands in the range 2.2–2.8 GHz is designed, manufactured, and tested.
Autors: Dimitra Psychogiou;Brian Vaughn;Roberto Gómez-García;Dimitrios Peroulis;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 248 - 250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reconfigurable Radio Access Unit for DWDM to W-Band Wireless Conversion
Abstract:
In this letter a reconfigurable remote access unit (RAU) is proposed and demonstrated, interfacing dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical and W-band wireless links. The RAU is composed of a tunable local oscillator, a narrow optical filter, and a control unit, making it reconfigurable via software. The RAU allows selection of a DWDM channel and tuning of the radio carrier frequency. Real-time transmission results at 2.5 Gbit/s and performance measurements with offline data processing at 4 and 5 Gbit/s are presented. Error free real-time transmission was achieved after 15 km of standard single mode fiber and 50 m of wireless transmission with carriers between 75 and 95 GHz.
Autors: Łukasz Chorchos;Simon Rommel;Jarosław P. Turkiewicz;Idelfonso Tafur Monroy;Juan José Vegas Olmos;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 489 - 492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reconstruction of Correlated Sources With Energy Harvesting Constraints in Delay-Constrained and Delay-Tolerant Communication Scenarios
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the reconstruction of time-correlated sources in a point-to-point communications scenario comprising an energy-harvesting sensor and a Fusion Center (FC). Our goal is to minimize the average distortion in the reconstructed observations by using data from previously encoded sources as side information. First, we analyze a delay-constrained scenario, where the sources must be reconstructed before the next time slot. We formulate the problem in a convex optimization framework and derive the optimal transmission (i.e., power and rate allocation) policy. To solve this problem, we propose an iterative algorithm based on the subgradient method. Interestingly, the solution to the problem consists of a coupling between a 2-D directional water-filling algorithm (for power allocation) and a reverse water-filling algorithm (for rate allocation). Then, we find a more general solution to this problem in a delay-tolerant scenario where the time horizon for source reconstruction is extended to multiple time slots. Finally, we provide some numerical results that illustrate the impact of delay and correlation in the power and rate allocation policies, and in the resulting reconstruction distortion. We also discuss the performance gap exhibited by a heuristic online policy derived from the optimal (offline) one.
Autors: Miguel Calvo-Fullana;Javier Matamoros;Carles Antón-Haro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1974 - 1986
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Rectangular Differential Spatial Modulation for Open-Loop Noncoherent Massive-MIMO Downlink
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel differential space-time coding scheme is conceived for open-loop noncoherent multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) downlink scenarios, where the transmission rate increases logarithmically in a scalable manner upon increasing the number of transmit antennas. More specifically, the proposed scheme relies on the projection of a differentially encoded square matrix to its rectangular counterpart and so is capable of reducing the number of symbol intervals needed for block transmission. This is especially beneficial for massive MIMO scenarios, in which the number of transmit antennas is very high. Another advantage exclusive to the presented scheme is that no channel state information (CSI) is required at either the transmitter or the receiver, which eliminates pilot overhead, CSI estimation, CSI feedback, and time-division duplex reciprocity. Furthermore, the rectangular transmission matrix of the proposed scheme contains only a single non-zero element per column, and hence, the transmitter may rely on only a single RF chain, similar to the conventional coherent spatial modulation scheme.
Autors: Naoki Ishikawa;Shinya Sugiura;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1908 - 1920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduced Complexity Node-Wise Scheduling of ADMM Decoding for LDPC Codes
Abstract:
Similar to the belief propagation decoder, linear programming decoding based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can also be seen as an iterative message-passing decoding algorithm. How to schedule messages efficiently is an important aspect since it will influence the convergence rate of iterative decoders. In this letter, we investigate the node-wise scheduling for ADMM decoders, named NS-ADMM. In particular, we propose a reduced-complexity method for the NS-ADMM decoder by avoiding Euclidean projections involved in the calculation of message residuals. Simulation results show that the proposed method converges much faster than the flooding and layered scheduling while keeping a lower complexity when compared with the NS-ADMM decoder.
Autors: Xiaopeng Jiao;Jianjun Mu;Haoyuan Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 472 - 475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduced Electromagnetic Edge Scattering Using Inhomogeneous Anisotropic Impedance Surfaces
Abstract:
Electromagnetic scattering characteristics highly depend on the geometry and material property of the scatterers. In particular, electromagnetic wave scattering occurs at the discontinuity of the propagation path, such as the edge of a scatterer. In this paper, the edge scattering from a triangular object is largely reduced by patterning the triangular surface with inhomogeneous and anisotropic impedance surface. Because surface waves propagate toward the direction with the lower surface refractive index on an anisotropic surface, the direction of the wave propagation can be controlled by designing the distribution of the refractive index. Consequently, the proposed anisotropic impedance surfaces can make the current flows toward or away from the edge so that the edge scattering can be reduced or redirected to a different angle. For demonstration, anisotropic unit cells are analyzed and designed. Also, the anisotropic impedance surfaces are simulated, fabricated, and measured. Here we propose two types of impedance profiles, which are capable of changing the surface current direction either toward or away from the scattering edge. The experimental measurement demonstrates a 7–10 dB edge scattering reduction.
Autors: Haijian Hou;Jiang Long;Junhong Wang;Daniel F. Sievenpiper;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1193 - 1201
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduced Miller Capacitance in U-Shaped Channel Tunneling FET by Introducing Heterogeneous Gate Dielectric
Abstract:
In this letter, a novel U-shaped channel tunneling FET (UTFET) with heterogeneous gate dielectric (HG-UTFET) is designed to reduce the Miller capacitance () and to improve the performance of TFET digital circuits. Because the HG-UTFET and UTFET have the same gate dielectric near the source region, these two devices nearly have the same on-state current. But due to the smaller gate-to-drain capacitance () caused by the low- gate dielectric near the drain region, the HG-UTFET has smaller compared with UTFET, which will enhance the switching performance of digital circuits. The simulation results reveal that the overshoot/undershoot and rising/falling delay of the output signal in the HG-UTFET inverter are reduced a lot compared with the UTFET inverter. Results show that the and falling delay of the HG-UTFET inverter are ~45.6% and ~30.7% less than that of the UTFET inverter, respectively. Therefore, by the application of HG-UTFET, the switching performance of inverter can be enhanced a lot.
Autors: Wei Li;Hongxia Liu;Shulong Wang;Shupeng Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 403 - 406
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduced-Complexity MIMO Detection via a Slicing Breadth-First Tree Search
Abstract:
A bottleneck in multiple-input multiple-output communications systems is the complexity of detection at the receiver. The complexity of optimum maximum-likelihood detection is often prohibitive, especially for large numbers of antennas and large alphabets. A suboptimal tree-search-based detector known as the -best detector is an effective scheme that provides a flexible performance-complexity tradeoff. In this paper, we identify scalar list detection as a key building block of the -best detector, and we propose an efficient low-complexity implementation of the scalar list detector for -ary QAM using a slicing operation. Embedding the slicing list detector into the -best framework leads to our proposed slicing -best detector. Simulation results show that the proposed detector offers comparable performance to the conventional -best detector, but with significantly reduced complexity when is less than the QAM alphabet size . Since the slicing list detection is performed at each visited node in the detection tree, the complexity reduction is especially significant when the number of antennas and the alphabet size are large, making the proposed detector a competitive option for high spectral-efficiency wireless systems.
Autors: Sangwook Suh;John R. Barry;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1782 - 1790
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reducing Complexity of TVWS Operation: Complying with European Regulations
Abstract:
License-exempt operation is considered to be a promising solution for spectrum-resource scarcity. Incumbent protection and coexistence management constitute two fundamental aspects of the successful operation. Under regulations for TV white space (TVWS), WS devices (WSDs) are required to access a WS database (WSDB) every time their individual location changes by >50 m. If the aggregate-interference effect is considered, one WSD's location change can incur frequent adjustment of the available spectrum for other WSDs. In this article, we present a practical low-complexity WSDB-assisted TVWS operation complying with the current regulatory progress in Europe. First, we propose a new procedure of setting emission limits for WSDs. By modeling the WSD distribution as the Poisson point process (PPP), we obtain a percentage emission limit valid for a WSD mobility region. By using the proposed procedure with the percentage emission limit in an example scenario, we reduce the complexity by 90% compared to the exiting procedure. Second, we present a succinct scheme to achieve the efficient coexistence of WSDs by deducing an upper bound on the number of cochannel WSDs over a given region.
Autors: Chen Sun;Xin Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 48 - 54
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reduction of Common-Mode Voltages for Five-Level Active NPC Inverters by the Space-Vector Modulation Technique
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel space-vector pulse-width modulation (PWM) scheme for reducing the common-mode voltage (CMV) in the three-phase five-level active neutral-point clamped (5L-ANPC) inverter is proposed, where only the 55 selected voltage vectors among the entire 125 that produce low values of the CMV are utilized. This PWM scheme can significantly reduce the CMV without the increase of switching losses and total harmonic distortion of the output voltages. With the 55 selected voltage vectors, the inverter can still operate up to the maximum modulation index. In addition, the capacitor voltages are controlled by redundant switches of the 5L-ANPC inverters. It has been shown that the peak value of the CMV is decreased to one-twelfth of the dc-link voltage from the simulation and experimental results.
Autors: Quoc Anh Le;Dong-Choon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1289 - 1299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Refractive Index Sensor Based on Spiral-Shaped Plastic Optical Fiber
Abstract:
A spiral shaped plastic optical fiber (POF) has been constructed and applied for sensing of the refractive index of a sucrose solution. The sensing mechanism is based on evanescent wave interaction between the light travelling within the fiber and the medium surrounding it. Difference in output voltage is observed as the concentration of sucrose solution is varied from 10% to 50%, demonstrating a uniform relation among them. By varying the pitch of the spiral shape and applying strain to the same, the sensitivity of the POF is refined. This spiral-shaped POF sensor is comparatively easy to fabricate, has low cost of operation, and provides real-time sensing-based data.
Autors: Subhashish Tiwari;Manuj Kumar Singh;Praveen C. Pandey;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1692 - 1695
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Region 8 MTT-S Chapter Chair Meeting in London [Around the Globe]
Abstract:
Presents information on MMTS Region 8 activities and events.
Autors: Jan Macháč;Daniel Pasquet;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 103 - 106
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Region Formation for Efficient Offline Location Prediction
Abstract:
As low-power devices continue to be integrated into daily life, we are presented with the challenge of deciding when it's beneficial for these devices to interrupt us. Predicting a user's movements provides valuable insight to solve this problem. Here, the authors present a new approach for offline location prediction for low-power devices, representing a user's mobility patterns as an optimal set of geographical regions. Their approach yielded a 27 percent increase in precision and a 13 percent increase in recall over standard time- and place-based approaches against GPS data for hundreds of users. Their approach requires minimal additional cost and opens up potential for further development.
Autors: Ian Craig;Mark Whitty;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 66 - 73
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Register-Less NULL Convention Logic
Abstract:
NULL Convention Logic (NCL) is a promising design paradigm for constructing low-power robust asynchronous circuits. The conventional NCL paradigm requires pipeline registers for separating two neighboring logic blocks, and those registers can account for up to 35% of the overall power consumption of the NCL circuit. This brief presents the Register-Less NCL (RL-NCL) design paradigm, which achieves low power consumption by eliminating pipeline registers, simplifying the control circuit, and supporting fine-grained power gating to mitigate the leakage power of sleeping logic blocks. Compared with the conventional NCL counterpart, the RL-NCL implementation of an 8-bit five-stage pipelined Kogge–Stone adder can reduce power dissipation by 56.4%–72.5% for the input data rate ranging from 10 to 900 MHz. Moreover, the RL-NCL implementation can reduce the transistor count of the adder by 49.5%.
Autors: Meng-Chou Chang;Po-Hung Yang;Ze-Gang Pan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 314 - 318
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Regulated Charge Pump With New Clocking Scheme for Smoothing the Charging Current in Low Voltage CMOS Process
Abstract:
A regulated cross-couple charge pump with new charging current smoothing technique is proposed and verified in a 0.18--V/3.3-V CMOS process. The transient behaviors of 3-stage cross-couple charge pump and the expressions for the charging current are described in detail. The experiment results show that the charging current ripples are reduced by a factor of three through using the proposed new clocking scheme. The voltage ripples in the power supply line, which is connected with the charge pump input, are also smoothed greatly as the filter circuit does. The proposed scheme is used to decrease the smoothing capacitance in the power line of charge pump for reducing the size of implantable devices in biomedical application. In addition, the power efficiency is improved. The proposed cross-couple charge pump can provide 10.5-V output voltage with 3.5-mA output current, and the power efficiency of the charge pump can be up to 69%.
Autors: Zhicong Luo;Ming-Dou Ker;Wan-Hsueh Cheng;Ting-Yang Yen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 528 - 536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Regulation of the Use of Nanotechnology in Armed Conflict
Abstract:
Before any means or method of warfare is deployed in armed conflict, the legality of its use should be confirmed by legal review, at the stage of "study, development, acquisition or adoption." This review should ensure that new means and methods of warfare comply with international law. International law is comprised of treaties, international custom, and general principles of law [1].
Autors: Kobi Leins;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 46 - 47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Relaxed Logarithmic Barrier Function Based Model Predictive Control of Linear Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the use of relaxed logarithmic barrier functions in the context of linear model predictive control. We present results that allow to guarantee asymptotic stability of the corresponding closed-loop system, and discuss further properties like performance and constraint satisfaction in dependence of the underlying relaxation. The proposed stabilizing MPC schemes are not necessarily based on an explicit terminal set or state constraint and allow to characterize the stabilizing control input sequence as the minimizer of a globally defined, continuously differentiable, and strongly convex function. The results are illustrated by means of a numerical example.
Autors: Christian Feller;Christian Ebenbauer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1223 - 1238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliability Analysis of Multiple-Outputs Logic Circuits Based on Structure Function Approach
Abstract:
Reliability is one of the principal characteristics in the design of many systems. Logic circuits are one of them. These systems are very interesting objects from the reliability point of view, because they have some characteristics that are not very common in classical approaches used in reliability engineering. First, their activity depends not only on the operability of its components (logic gates), but also on other influences, which are represented by values of the circuit input signals. Second, logic circuits are typical instances of noncoherent systems. We propose a new method of computing circuit availability (unavailability) and several measures for investigation of topological properties of a logic circuit. These measures allow us to detect components (logic gates) with the greatest influence on the circuit operability. The method is based on using the methodology of Boolean differential calculus. All the approaches presented in this paper are illustrated using the example of reliability analysis of a one-bit full adder.
Autors: Miroslav Kvassay;Elena Zaitseva;Vitaly Levashenko;Jozef Kostolny;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 398 - 411
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliability Evaluation of Active Distribution Networks Including Islanding Dynamics
Abstract:
This paper presents a model that incorporates the impact of islanding dynamics in reliability evaluation of active distribution networks. In order to do that, the effects of the islanding process in terms of voltage and frequency variations, as well as the impact of component failures, are taken into consideration in the reliability assessment. The proposed model is based on a combination of probabilistic reliability evaluation with the dynamic simulation of the islanding process. The reliability evaluation is performed by Non-Sequential Monte Carlo simulation, while the islanding process is evaluated by a transient stability simulation with complete models of synchronous machine and its voltage and speed regulators. Results are obtained for a MV distribution test system, where the influence of dynamics in the survivability rate of islanding is incorporated into the calculation of traditional reliability indices, leading to more realistic results.
Autors: Leonardo Fernandes Rocha;Carmen Lucia Tancredo Borges;Glauco Nery Taranto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1545 - 1552
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliability Improvement of the Cascaded Power Sensor Based on MIM Capacitor
Abstract:
A reliability-enhanced power sensor is proposed based on a metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor. The coupled power by the MIM capacitor is a small part and the transmitted power is most of the incident power. Hence, the transmitted power is for low power measurement while the coupled power is used as high power detection. The proposed power sensor is fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit process. The measured return loss is greater than 21 dB over the frequency band of 8–12 GHz. When the incident power increases from 1 to 100 mW, the output voltage increases linearly and the sensitivity is measured to be about 0.125 mV/mW at 8 GHz, 0.114 mV/mW at 10 GHz, and 0.109 mV/mW at 12 GHz, respectively. For the incident power from 100 to 200 mW, a part of the incident power is coupled by the MIM capacitor and the measured sensitivity is about 15.8 /mW at 8 GHz, /mW at 10 GHz, and 15.8 /mW at 12 GHz, respectively.
Autors: Zhenxiang Yi;Xiaoping Liao;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 272 - 274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliability-Based Traffic Signal Control for Urban Arterial Roads
Abstract:
It is widely accepted that travelers value both the reliability of travel time and its mean or expected value. Strategies for traffic signal control typically seek to optimize average travel times, although reliability is in general not explicitly taken into account. In this paper, we propose a new framework for evaluating the consequences of signal-control tactics on both reliability and expected values of travel time, based on an analytic model of travel time distribution. A genetic-algorithm-based approach is then employed to identify optimal multicriteria signal control strategies, including sensitivity analysis, to the relative weighting between reliability and expected value. We expose the properties of the proposed framework via an empirical case study of four alternative optimization approaches (the signal setting optimized with the traditional Webster's method, TRANSYT model, and the newly proposed model) under various traffic conditions. Results indicate that the newly proposed framework outperforms the alternative signal control strategies in terms of both travel-time variability and expected travel time.
Autors: Fangfang Zheng;Henk J. van Zuylen;Xiaobo Liu;Scott Le Vine;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 643 - 655
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Reliable and Robust Detection of Freezing of Gait Episodes With Wearable Electronic Devices
Abstract:
A wearable wireless sensing system for assisting patients affected by Parkinson’s disease is proposed. It uses integrated micro-electro-mechanical inertial sensors able to recognize the episodes of involuntary gait freezing. The system operates in real time and is designed for outdoor and indoor applications. Standard tests were performed on a noticeable number of patients and healthy persons and the algorithm demonstrated its reliability and robustness respect to individual specific gait and postural behaviors. The overall performances of the system are excellent with a specificity higher than 97%.
Autors: Ardian Kita;Paolo Lorenzi;Rosario Rao;Fernanda Irrera;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1899 - 1908
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Religion, Science, and Technology: An Interview with Metropolitan Kallistos Ware [Interview]
Abstract:
Born Timothy Ware in Bath, Somerset, England, Metropolitan Kallistos was educated at Westminster School (to which he had won a scholarship) and Magdalen College, Oxford, where he took a Double First in Classics as well as reading Theology. In 1966 Kallistos became a lecturer at the University of Oxford, teaching Eastern Orthodox Studies, a position he held for 35 years until his retirement. In 1979, he was appointed to a Fellowship at Pembroke College, Oxford.
Autors: Kallistos Ware;MG Michael;Katina Michael;
Appeared in: IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:1, pages: 20 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Remote Sensing of Snow Water Equivalent Using P-Band Coherent Reflection
Abstract:
A proof-of-concept experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of retrieving snow water equivalent (SWE) using P-band signals of opportunity. The fundamental observation is the change in the phase of the reflected waveforms as related to the change in SWE. Through theoretical modeling it was found that the change in SWE was approximately linearly dependent on the change in phase. This was verified by retrieving SWE data collected and processed from a tower-based experiment at Fraser, CO, USA. A linear regression was performed on measured phase and in situ SWE. The correlation was found to be 0.94 and root mean square deviation was found to be 7.5 mm.
Autors: Rashmi Shah;Xiaolan Xu;Simon Yueh;Chun Sik Chae;Kelly Elder;Banning Starr;Yunjin Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 309 - 313
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Renewable Energy Integration in Zonal Markets
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the impact of zonal network management in the operation of power systems with significant levels of renewable energy integration. Our study is inspired by the current state of the European energy market, and we focus on a case study of the Central Western European (CWE) system. First, we present a hierarchy of models that account for unit commitment, the separation of energy and reserves, and the simplified representation of transmission constraints in a zonal market, in order to examine the impact of these factors on efficiency in a regime of large-scale renewable energy integration. Second, we simulate operations of the CWE system under the zonal market design using a detailed instance that consists of 656 thermal generators, 679 nodes, and 1073 lines, with multiarea renewable energy production and 15-minute time resolution. Zonal market operations are compared against deterministic and stochastic unit commitment using high-performance computing in order to tackle the scale of the resulting models. We find that market design can have an influence on cost efficiency which far exceeds the benefits of stochastic unit commitment relative to deterministic unit commitment. We conduct a detailed analysis of the numerical results in order to explain the relative performance of the different models.
Autors: Ignacio Aravena;Anthony Papavasiliou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1334 - 1349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Repetitive Scenario Design
Abstract:
Repetitive Scenario Design (RSD) is a randomized approach to robust design based on iterating two phases: a standard scenario design phase that uses scenarios (design samples), followed by randomized feasibility phase that uses test samples on the scenario solution. We give a full and exact probabilistic characterization of the number of iterations required by the RSD approach for returning a solution, as a function of , , and of the desired levels of probabilistic robustness in the solution. This novel approach broadens the applicability of the scenario technology, since the user is now presented with a clear tradeoff between the number of design samples and the ensuing expected number of repetitions required by the RSD algorithm. The plain (one-shot) scenario design becomes just one of the possibilities, sitting at one extreme of the tradeoff curve, in which one insists in finding a solution in a single repetition: this comes at the cost of possibly high . Other possibilities along the tradeoff curve use lower values, but possibly require more than one repetition.
Autors: Giuseppe C. Calafiore;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1125 - 1137
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Report on the 2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE 2016)
Abstract:
The 2016 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE 2016) was held September 19 to 22, 2016, at the Days Hotel and Suites Dading, Chengdu, China. The conference was chaired by Prof. Jian Li from Chongqing University, China, and co-chaired by Prof. Guangning Wu and Stanislaw Grzybowski, respectively from Southwest Jiaotong University, China, and Mississippi State University, USA.
Autors: Jian Li;Guangning Wu;Stanislaw Grzybowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 33, issue:2, pages: 54 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Representation of Magnetic Coupling in Distribution System Feeders Using BW/FW
Abstract:
This letter presents a new method for representing the mutual coupling between feeders or sections of feeders in distribution systems using a backward/forward sweep method. Two distribution systems with magnetic coupling between the feeders are used to test the method and to show the impact of mutual coupling between feeders. Features of computational convergence are also analyzed.
Autors: Leandro Ramos de Araujo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1580 - 1581
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Research on Common-Mode and Dependent (CMD) Outage Events in Power Systems: A Review
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to present a review of some fundamental concepts and practical applications in the area of common-mode and dependent (CMD) outage events in power systems. The paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by the Probability Applications for Common and dependent Mode Events (PACME) Working Group (WG) of the Reliability, Risk and Probability Applications Subcommittee. The PACME WG was formed in 2010 to review, advance, and present the research and practical applications in the area of CMD outage events. This paper presents state-of-the-art in research, modeling, and applications of CMD outage events in power system planning and operation. Issues considered include: data monitoring and collection, and probabilistic modeling and evaluation in the planning, and operation of power generation and transmission systems. Additionally, some results obtained from outage data statistics corresponding to CMD outage events in systems such as Generating Availability Data System, Transmission Availability Data System, and Canadian Electrical Association are presented.
Autors: The RRPA Subcommittee Working Group PACME;Milorad Papic;Sudhir Agarwal;Ron N. Allan;Roy Billinton;Chris J. Dent;Svetlana Ekisheva;Daniel Gent;Kai Jiang;Wenyuan Li;Joydeep Mitra;Andrea Pitto;Alexander Schneider;Chanan Singh;Vijay Venu Vadlamudi;Matthe
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1528 - 1536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Resonant Quality [Enigmas, etc.]
Abstract:
Various puzzles, humorous definitions, or mathematical recreations - usually having some relevance to electrical engineering - that should engage the interest of readers.
Autors: Takashi Ohira;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 119 - 119
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Resource Savings in Submarine Networks Using Agility of Filterless Architectures
Abstract:
Filterless submarine networks based on broadcast-and-select nodes equipped with coherent transceivers are promising solutions for flexible capacity allocation. This letter shows how the agility allowed by filterless architectures can save resources through lightpath reconfiguration in subsea networks.
Autors: Md. Nooruzzaman;Nabih Alloune;Christine Tremblay;Paul Littlewood;Michel P. Bélanger;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 512 - 515
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Response-Time-Optimized Service Deployment: MILP Formulations of Piece-Wise Linear Functions Approximating Bivariate Mixed-Integer Functions
Abstract:
A current trend in networking and cloud computing is to provide compute resources at widely distributed sites; this is exemplified by developments such as network function virtualization. This paves the way for wide-area service deployments with improved service quality: e.g., user-perceived response times can be reduced by offering services at nearby sites. But always assigning users to the nearest site can be a bad decision if this site is already highly utilized. This paper formalizes two related decisions of allocating compute resources at different sites and assigning users to them with the goal of minimizing the response times while the total number of resources to be allocated is limited—a non-linear capacitated facility location problem with integrated queuing systems. To efficiently handle its non-linearity, we introduce five linear problem linearizations and adapt the currently best heuristic for a similar scenario to our scenario. All six approaches are compared in experiments for solution quality and solving time. Surprisingly, our best optimization formulation outperforms the heuristic in both time and quality. Additionally, we evaluate the influence of distributions of available compute resources in the network on the response time: the time was halved for some configurations. The presented formulation techniques for our problem linearizations are applicable to a broader optimization domain.
Autors: Matthias Keller;Holger Karl;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 121 - 135
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Results on Energy- and Spectral-Efficiency Tradeoff in Cellular Networks With Full-Duplex Enabled Base Stations
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the tradeoff between energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) for cellular networks with full-duplex (FD) communications enabled base stations. To be backward compatible with legacy LTE systems, it is assumed that user devices still work in the conventional half-duplex (HD) mode. There usually exists residual self-interference (RSI) in FD communications after advanced interference suppression techniques are applied. In this paper, we consider two different RSI models: constant RSI model and linear RSI model. First, the necessary conditions for an FD transceiver to achieve better EE-SE tradeoff than an HD one are derived for both the RSI models. Then, for the constant RSI model, a closed-form EE-SE expression is obtained in the scenario of single pair of users. We further extend our result and prove that EE is a quasi-concave function of SE in the scenario of multiple user pairs. Accordingly, an optimal algorithm to achieve the maximum EE based on the Lagrange dual decomposition technique is developed. For the linear RSI model, the EE-SE relation is difficult to deal with and we develop a heuristic algorithm by decoupling the problem into two sub-problems: power control and resource allocation. Our analysis and algorithms are finally verified by comprehensive numerical results.
Autors: Dingzhu Wen;Guanding Yu;Rongpeng Li;Yan Chen;Geoffrey Ye Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1494 - 1507
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Retrieval of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Statistical Method Without Synchronous Irradiance Data
Abstract:
Remote sensing of top-of-canopy (TOC) long-term sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) is necessary to better understand the SIF-photosynthesis relationship. Statistical methods provide an alternative to TOC SIF retrieval, as they are independent of synchronous irradiance measurements and may better describe actual irradiance. This letter aims to evaluate the feasibility of using statistical methods for time series TOC SIF retrieval in the absence of synchronous irradiance measurements. Results show that the training set should include nonfluorescent radiance spectra under a variety of solar zenith angles, and that water vapor is an important contributor of spectral variation within 717–745 nm. On the diurnal scale, atmospheric features trained from irradiance spectra can be used to retrieve SIF values from high-frequency upwelling radiance spectra. Features independently trained from nonfluorescent radiance spectra measured on one day can be used for SIF retrieval on a different day within a relatively short period. Our results show that statistical methods have the potential to simplify ground-based SIF measurements and data processing.
Autors: Lifu Zhang;Siheng Wang;Changping Huang;Yi Cen;Yongguang Zhai;Qingxi Tong;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:3, pages: 384 - 388
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Retrospective Interference Alignment: Degrees of Freedom Scaling With Distributed Transmitters
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the -user single-input single-output interference channel with delayed channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT). Our main contribution is to show that even with delayed CSIT and distributed transmitters, the achievable degrees of freedom (DoFs) still scale with the number of users. More specifically, we propose a method that achieves DoF. The main idea behind the proposed method is to use interference alignment (IA) at the receiver side in conjunction with repetition coding at the transmitters. Repetition coding repeats the data times while IA makes the interference generated by a given transmitter identical: 1) at all non-intended receivers and 2) all transmission repetitions. Therefore, one retransmission per transmitter is sufficient to cancel all the interference. This reduces significantly the overhead required for interference removal since the number of interference terms is reduced from to .
Autors: Daniel Castanheira;Adão Silva;Atílio Gameiro;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1721 - 1730
Publisher: IEEE
 
» RF Front-End Technologies--30 Years of Applied Research and Development [Book/Software Reviews]
Abstract:
The author, Mike Harris was a principal research engineer, division chief, and associate director in the Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory at Georgia Technical Research Institute. He has 40 years experience in semiconductor materials and device technology. He developed semiconductor processes for gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic HEMTs (pHEMTs). The second author, Rick Sturdivant, has industry experience designing products for microwave and millimeter-wave systems. He developed the world’s first array module for phased-array radar. He is currently president of Microwave Packaging Technology, Inc. This book focuses on RF application-specific integrated circuit chip set design for active electronically scanned arrays (AESAs) for radar and communication applications in both transmit and receive modules. It condenses 30 years of applied research and development of RF front-end technologies. T/R modules technology topics covered in the text include an introduction to phased arrays in radar and communication systems, T/R modules, and module components; monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs); T/R module packaging; RF interconnect materials; thermal management for T/R modules, and MMICs; T/R module manufacturing and testing; module costs; and next-generation T/R modules.
Autors: James Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 96 - 102
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Risk-Constrained Bidding and Offering Strategy for a Merchant Compressed Air Energy Storage Plant
Abstract:
Electricity price forecasts are imperfect. Therefore, a merchant energy storage facility requires a bidding and offering strategy for purchasing and selling the electricity to manage the risk associated with price forecast errors. This paper proposes an information gap decision theory (IGDT)-based risk-constrained bidding/offering strategy for a merchant compressed air energy storage (CAES) plant that participates in the day-ahead energy markets considering price forecasting errors. Price uncertainty is modeled using IGDT. The IGDT-based self-scheduling formulation is then used to construct separate hourly bidding and offering curves. The theoretical approach to develop the proposed strategy is presented and validated using numerical simulations.
Autors: Soroush Shafiee;Hamidreza Zareipour;Andrew M. Knight;Nima Amjady;Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 946 - 957
Publisher: IEEE
 
» River Extraction From High-Resolution SAR Images Combining a Structural Feature Set and Mathematical Morphology
Abstract:
Water bodies extraction using satellite images is of great importance due to its utility in several applications such as land use planning, floods management, and monitoring. Among the wide range of sensors orbiting the Earth, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a very effective tool in this context due to its robustness in the face of unfavorable weather conditions and its cloud penetration capabilities. This paper presents a novel river extraction algorithm from high-resolution SAR images mainly based on the combination of a local texture measurement and the global knowledge associated with the shape of the object of interest. A local texture measurement is first computed at every pixel of the image to extract the homogeneous surfaces contained in the image, and then a mathematical morphology operator is applied to eliminate the noise generated by speckle characterizing SAR images. Finally, the surface occupied by the object of interest is compared with the surface associated with the smallest rectangle that encloses this object in order to separate rivers from lakes in the image. The proposed approach was tested on SAR images acquired by the RADARSAT-2 satellite over numerous regions of Canada. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is robust and effective.
Autors: Moslem Ouled Sghaier;Samuel Foucher;Richard Lepage;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1025 - 1038
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robotics Leads Social Innovation Without Border for the Future of Humanity [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President's message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Satoshi Tadokoro;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Cooperative Secure Beamforming for Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer in Amplify-and-Forward Relay Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate cooperative secure beamforming for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) in amplify-and-forward (AF) relay networks. We propose a joint cooperative beamforming (CB) and energy signal (CB-ES) scheme for providing both secure communication and efficient wireless energy transfer. By considering colluding eavesdroppers with imperfect channel state information (CSI), we formulate an optimization problem for maximizing the secrecy rate between the source and the legitimate information receiver (IR) under both the power constraints at the relays and the wireless power transfer constraint at the energy-harvesting receiver (ER). Since such a problem is nonconvex and hard to tackle, we propose a two-level optimization approach that involves a 1-D search and the semidefinite relaxation (SDR) technique to solve this problem. The proposed robust scheme is compared with some other nonrobust schemes, such as a CB and artificial noise (CB-AN) scheme and a perfect scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed robust scheme achieves better worst-case secrecy rate performance than the other nonrobust schemes and the CB-AN scheme, while it approaches the perfect scheme.
Autors: Youhong Feng;Zhen Yang;Wei-Ping Zhu;Qiang Li;Bin Lv;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2354 - 2366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Energy Scheduling in Vehicle-to-Grid Networks
Abstract:
The uncertainties brought by intermittent renewable generation and uncoordinated charging behaviors of EVs pose great challenges to the reliable operation of power systems, which motivates us to explore the integration of robust optimization with energy scheduling in V2G networks. In this article, we first introduce V2G robust energy scheduling problems and review the stateof- the art contributions from the perspectives of renewable energy integration, ancillary service provision, and proactive demand-side participation in the electricity market. Second, for each category of V2G applications, the corresponding problem formulations, robust solution concepts, and design approaches are described in detail based on the characteristics of problem structures and uncertainty sets. Then, an adjustable robust energy scheduling solution is proposed to address the over-conservatism problem by exploring chance-constrained methods. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only can efficiently shift the peak load and reduce the total operation cost, but also provide great flexibility in adjusting the trade-off between economic performance and reliable operation. Finally, we present key research challenges and opportunities.
Autors: Zhenyu Zhou;Changhao Sun;Ruifeng Shi;Zheng Chang;Sheng Zhou;Yang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 30 - 37
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Feature Extraction and Classification of Acoustic Partial Discharge Signals Corrupted With Noise
Abstract:
Partial discharge (PD) can be used as an indicator of impending failure in electrical plant insulation making the accurate classification of particular occurrence patterns useful for anticipating forthcoming outages. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method that is robust to noise and can effectively select the most discriminant features of PD signals. Specifically, we follow three main steps. First, the spectrum of the PD signals is obtained using fast Fourier transform. Then, the low-frequency components are truncated and selected as PD representative features. Finally, these features are fed to the classifier and the detection accuracy is evaluated. In this paper, we consider the classification problem between three different types of acoustic PD signals, which are sharp, surface, and void PDs. Eight different classification models are adopted to test the PD detection accuracy along with the proposed scheme. Results on a benchmark data set illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on PD detection, while it yields a 100% classification accuracy (CA) for noise-free PD data. The robustness of the proposed method is also verified, where it achieves a CA up to 95.98% and 99.62% for noisy PD signals contaminated with high level of white and random noise, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to actual PD signals corrupted with real noise; a CA between 98.16% and 98.64% is achieved.
Autors: Ramy Hussein;Khaled Bashir Shaban;Ayman H. El-Hag;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 405 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Optimization of SC-FDE-Based Multihop DF Relay Systems With Imperfect CSI
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the robust transceiver optimization for a single-carrier frequency-domain equalization (SC-FDE)-based multihop half-duplex decode-and-forward (DF) relay system under imperfect channel state information (CSI). The goal is to maximize the system achievable bit rate (ABR) and to minimize the end-to-end bit error rate (BER) subject to a joint node power constraint. Due to the lack of analytical tractable expressions for ABR and BER under imperfect CSI, we resort to lower bounds of the hopwise ABRs and BERs and reformulate the original problem by using two approximated objective functions based on these lower bounds. For the reformulated problems, we show that the optimal equalization filters take the form of robust Wiener filters. Subsequently, we propose two efficient decentralized algorithms to obtain the optimal solutions for the resulting power-allocation problems. Numerical results are provided to confirm the ABR and BER performance of the proposed robust relaying schemes.
Autors: Peiran Wu;Xiuhua Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2862 - 2867
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Sampled-Data Output Synchronization of Nonlinear Heterogeneous Multi-Agents
Abstract:
The note studies the synchronization problem of a class of nonlinear heterogeneous multiple agents with distributed sampled-data controllers. Through the design of a group of reference models, the synchronization problem reduces to a perturbed output regulation problem for each individual agent. The perturbed output regulation problem aims to achieve reference tracking in the presence of constant unknown system parameters, where the references are generated by a non-autonomous exosystem with external perturbation. A dynamic sampled-data controller with a sampled-data internal model is proposed for the perturbed output regulation problem. An asymptotic bound on the tracking error as a function of the perturbation's magnitude and sampling period is derived.
Autors: Xi Chen;Zhiyong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1458 - 1464
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Scheduling for Wind Integrated Energy Systems Considering Gas Pipeline and Power Transmission N–1 Contingencies
Abstract:
The security of natural gas network and the wind power uncertainty bring new challenges for power system operation. This letter develops a robust scheduling model for wind-integrated energy systems with the considerations of both gas pipeline and power transmission N–1 contingencies. The proposed method is robust against wind power uncertainty to ensure that the system can sustain possible N–1 contingency event of gas pipeline or power transmission line. Case studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
Autors: Linquan Bai;Fangxing Li;Tao Jiang;Hongjie Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1582 - 1584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Set-Membership Filtering Techniques on GPS Sensor Jamming Mitigation
Abstract:
The global positioning system (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation sensor that supplies the consumer/military users with the proper equipment access to accurate positioning and timing information anywhere in the world. Interference has a significant influence on the acquisition and tracking of satellite signals from a GPS sensor. An adaptive BEACON filter based on optimal bounding ellipsoid (OBE) criterion is proposed for GPS interference mitigation applications. The OBE algorithm that provides the low computational efficiency and highly selective update mechanism is adopted to adjust the weights and thereby track swiftly the stationary and non-stationary frequency modulation (FM) waveforms. According to the GPS signal specification, a time-varying error bound mechanism is derived and incorporated into the BEACON method. The remarkable properties of the proposed BEACON canceller are their rapider convergence rate and favorable lower complexity burden. Simulation results demonstrate that its SNR improvement factor exceeds the factors of conventional NLMS, SM-NLMS, and SM-APA filters under the single-tone CWI, multi-tone CWI, pulse CWI, and FM jamming environments, respectively.
Autors: Wei-Lung Mao;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1810 - 1818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust TC-OLA Reception With Frequency Domain Equalization for Ultrawideband (UWB) Applications
Abstract:
A variant of time-compression overlap-add (TC-OLA) is proposed as an alternate physical layer scheme for ultrawideband communications. Although the construction of the transmitted signal is identical to other TC-OLA applications, this letter explores block-based receiver structures using frequency domain equalization (FDE) techniques that allow for a longer delay spread relative to the window size than time-domain TC-OLA processing. An important and novel contribution of this method is the reduction or elimination of the cyclic prefix (CP) overhead due to the way that redundancy is added to the transmitted signal by the TC-OLA process. Unlike overlap FDE, the CP overhead is eliminated without the increased processing load required to maintain a practically useful bit error rate floor. For very high delay spread channels, such as CM8, a long effective CP length can be obtained without requiring a much longer fast Fourier transform block length to maintain efficiency.
Autors: Stephen T. Harrison;Peter F. Driessen;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 656 - 659
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Visual Tracking via Basis Matching
Abstract:
Most existing tracking approaches are based on either the tracking by detection framework or the tracking by matching framework. The former needs to learn a discriminative classifier using positive and negative samples, which will cause tracking drift due to unreliable samples. The latter usually performs tracking by matching local interest points between a target candidate and the tracked target, which is not robust to target appearance changes over time. In this paper, we propose a novel tracking by matching framework for robust tracking based on basis matching rather than point matching. In particular, we learn the target model from target images using a set of Gabor basis functions, which have large responses on the corresponding spatial positions after a max pooling. During tracking, a target candidate is evaluated by computing the responses of the Gabor basis functions on their corresponding spatial positions. The experimental results on a set of challenging sequences validate that the performance of the proposed tracking method outperforms those of several state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Shengping Zhang;Xiangyuan Lan;Yuankai Qi;Pong C. Yuen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 27, issue:3, pages: 421 - 430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Robust Voltage Instability Predictor
Abstract:
This letter presents a robust voltage instability predictor using local noisy PMU measurements. A robust recursive least squares estimation is proposed to mitigate the impacts of gross PMU measurement errors on estimating the bus impedance and the Thevenin equivalent impedance used for voltage stability analysis. Numerical results on the IEEE 39-bus system validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Autors: Junbo Zhao;Zhaoyu Wang;Chen Chen;Gexiang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1578 - 1579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ROHOM: Requirement-Aware Online Hybrid On-Chip Memory Management for Multicore Systems
Abstract:
Many studies have shown that energy consumption of on-chip memory is a critical issue for multicore embedded systems. In order to reduce energy consumption, scratchpad memory (SPM), a software controlled on-chip memory, has been increasingly used. In a typical multicore embedded system that uses SPM in the on-chip memory, each core has local SPM and can access data in both local SPM and SPMs of other cores (i.e., remote SPM). Since the latency and energy of accessing remote SPMs is higher than accessing local SPM, how data are allocated in local and remote SPMs influences the performance and energy consumption of the system. This paper proposes a requirement-aware online hybrid on-chip memory management (ROHOM) method. This method contains an SPM supervisor that determines the SPM allocation of each task according to the dynamic access behavior and SPM requirements of the task. In addition, two policies: 1) free remote SPM space first and 2) get local SPM space first, are proposed in ROHOM to reduce the access frequency of remote SPMs. The experimental results show ROHOM can reduce energy delay product up to 69% (42% on average) in an 8-core system and up to 69% (50% on average) in a 16-core system when compared to a contention aware SPM allocation method. The hardware area overhead is insignificant (about 1.8%).
Autors: Da-Wei Chang;Ing-Chao Lin;Lin-Chun Yong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 36, issue:3, pages: 357 - 369
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Role of Oxygen Vacancies in Short- and Long-Term Instability of Negative Bias-Temperature Stressed SiC MOSFETs
Abstract:
We use hybrid-functional density functional theory to study the role of oxygen vacancies in negative bias-and-temperature stress-induced threshold voltage instability in 4H-silicon carbide power MOSFETs. According to our model, certain originally electrically “inactive” oxygen vacancies are structurally transformed into electrically “active” defects in the presence of strong negative bias and temperature. These newly generated defect configurations function as short-lived or long-lived switching oxide hole traps. The transients of their generation process are shown to correlate well with the measured “short-term” threshold voltage instability. Additionally, we show that the long-lived defects continue to degrade the room-temperature reliability of these devices even after stress removal.
Autors: Devanarayanan P. Ettisserry;Neil Goldsman;Aivars J. Lelis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1007 - 1014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Role of the Insulating Fillers in the Encapsulation Material on the Lateral Charge Spreading in HV-ICs
Abstract:
High electric fields and temperatures in high-voltage ICs (HV-ICs) can induce charge transport phenomena in the encapsulation material leading to reliability test failures. In this paper, the resistivity of epoxy-based resins with insulating microfiller weight fraction exceeding 70% has been experimentally and theoretically investigated for the first time. Electrical conductivity has been measured at high temperature (150 °C) using both dielectric spectroscopy analysis on bulk samples and charge-spreading characterizations on a dedicated test chip with integrated charge sensors. The use of a charge sensor close to the internal HV metallization leads to results more pertinent with the active area of HV-ICs. Remarkably, both experiments show an unexpected increase and a significant variability of the electrical conductivity as the microfiller fraction is increased. The strong correlation between bulk and lateral experiments clearly indicates that those features should be attributed to the bulk material. Numerical simulations of diffusion phenomenon in mold structures with random arrangements of spherical microfillers demonstrate that the conductivity increase with filler content can be ascribed to the role of the epoxy/filler interfaces.
Autors: Ilaria Imperiale;Susanna Reggiani;Giuseppe Pavarese;Elena Gnani;Antonio Gnudi;Giorgio Baccarani;Woojin Ahn;Muhammad A. Alam;Dhanoop Varghese;Alejandro Hernandez-Luna;Luu Nguyen;Srikanth Krishnan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1209 - 1216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Root Cause Analysis Based on Temporal Analysis of Metrics Toward Self-Organizing 5G Networks
Abstract:
By 2020, mobile networks will support a wide range of communication services while at the same time, the number of user terminals will be enormous. To cope with such increased complexity in network management, innovative solutions for the next generation of self-organizing networks (SONs) need to be deployed. In the field of self-healing, the heterogeneous character of future fifth-generation (5G) radio access networks (RANs) will provide a diversity of measurements and metrics that can be translated into valuable knowledge to support detection and diagnosis activities. The more complete the information gathered, the better the SON mechanisms will be able to effectively analyze and solve radio problems. However, temporal dependence between metrics has not been previously addressed in the literature. In this paper, a self-healing method based on network data analysis is proposed to diagnose problems in future RANs. The proposed system analyzes the temporal evolution of a plurality of metrics and searches for potential interdependence under the presence of faults. Performance is evaluated with real data from a mature Long-Term Evolution (LTE) network. Results show that the proposed method exploits the available data in the context of heterogeneous scenarios, reducing the diagnosis error rate.
Autors: Pablo Muñoz;Isabel de la Bandera;Emil J. Khatib;Ana Gómez-Andrades;Inmaculada Serrano;Raquel Barco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2811 - 2824
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Rotor Position Estimation of a Pseudo Direct-Drive PM Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter
Abstract:
The paper describes an improved method to control a pseudo direct-drive (PDD) permanent magnet machine with only one sensor on the low-speed rotor. Due to the magnetic coupling between the two rotors, the PDD machine exhibits low stiffness and nonlinear torque transmission characteristics, and hence, the position of the high-speed rotor (HSR) cannot be determined using a simple gear ratio relationship. An extended Kalman filter is proposed to accurately estimate the position of the HSR which is used to provide electronic commutation for the drive. The technique has been implemented on a prototype PDD subjected to various speed and load torque profiles.
Autors: Mohammed Bouheraoua;Jiabin Wang;Kais Atallah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1088 - 1095
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Route or Carry: Motion-Driven Packet Forwarding in Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks
Abstract:
Micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) provide data such as images and videos from an aerial perspective, with data typically transferred to the ground. To establish connectivity in larger areas, a fleet of MAVs may set up an ad-hoc wireless network. Packet forwarding in aerial networks is challenged by unstable link quality and intermittent connectivity caused by MAV movement. We show that signal obstruction by the MAV frame can be alleviated by adapting the MAV platform, even for low-priced MAVs, and the aerial link can be properly characterized by its geographical distance. Based on this link characterization and making use of GPS and inertial sensors on-board of MAVs, we design and implement a motion-driven packet forwarding algorithm. The algorithm unites location-aware end-to-end routing and delay-tolerant forwarding, extended by two predictive heuristics. Given the current location, speed, and orientation of the MAVs, future locations are estimated and used to refine packet forwarding decisions. We study the forwarding algorithm in a field measurement campaign with quadcopters connected over Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11n, complemented by simulation. Our analysis confirms that the proposed algorithm masters intermittent connectivity well, but also discloses inefficiencies of location-aware forwarding. By anticipating motion, such inefficiencies can be counteracted and the forwarding performance can be improved.
Autors: Mahdi Asadpour;Karin Anna Hummel;Domenico Giustiniano;Stefan Draskovic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 843 - 856
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Running a More Complete Market With the SLP-IV-ACOPF
Abstract:
The ACOPF is at the core of competitive electricity market design. It is the only ac-based algorithm that simultaneously co-optimizes real and reactive power dispatch for steady-state operations on ac power systems. In practice, independent system operators (ISOs) oversimplify the physical problem and settle the markets on locational marginal price (LMPs) based on real power but do not price reactive power dispatch or voltage control. This work proposes a market dispatch and pricing procedure based on the ACOPF to provide a more complete pricing mechanism. We formulate the dual problem of the SLP-IV-ACOPF as shown in [1], which is a successive linear program shown to solve the ACOPF to an acceptable quality of convergence to a best-known solution with linear scaling of computational time in proportion to network size. Therefore, the dual problem is also a linear program; as a result, the marginal value pricing of the optimal solution to the dual problem supports the market dispatch due to strong duality, i.e., this solution technique results in a revenue adequate and more complete market design. Furthermore, we show how to distribute the complete real-time market settlements. The analysis includes a direct comparison to DCOPF-based approaches similar to those applied in current ISO markets.
Autors: Paula Lipka;Shmuel S. Oren;Richard P. O’Neill;Anya Castillo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1139 - 1148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scalable Electric Vehicle Charging Protocols
Abstract:
Although electric vehicles are considered a viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, their uncoordinated charging could have adverse effects on power system operation. Nevertheless, the task of optimal electric vehicle charging scales unfavorably with the fleet size and the number of control periods, especially when distribution grid limitations are enforced. To this end, vehicle charging is first tackled using the recently revived Frank–Wolfe method. The novel decentralized charging protocol has minimal computational requirements from vehicle controllers, enjoys provable acceleration over existing alternatives, enhances the security of the pricing mechanism against data attacks, and protects user privacy. To comply with voltage limits, a network-constrained EV charging problem is subsequently formulated. Leveraging a linearized model for unbalanced distribution grids, the goal is to minimize the power supply cost while respecting critical voltage regulation and substation capacity limitations. Optimizing variables across grid nodes is accomplished by exchanging information only between neighboring buses via the alternating direction method of multipliers. Numerical tests corroborate the optimality and efficiency of the novel schemes.
Autors: Liang Zhang;Vassilis Kekatos;Georgios B. Giannakis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1451 - 1462
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scalable Image Retrieval by Sparse Product Quantization
Abstract:
Fast approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search technique for high-dimensional feature indexing and retrieval is the crux of large-scale image retrieval. A recent promising technique is product quantization, which attempts to index high-dimensional image features by decomposing the feature space into a Cartesian product of low-dimensional subspaces and quantizing each of them separately. Despite the promising results reported, their quantization approach follows the typical hard assignment of traditional quantization methods, which may result in large quantization errors, and thus, inferior search performance. Unlike the existing approaches, in this paper, we propose a novel approach called sparse product quantization (SPQ) to encoding the high-dimensional feature vectors into sparse representation. We optimize the sparse representations of the feature vectors by minimizing their quantization errors, making the resulting representation is essentially close to the original data in practice. Experiments show that the proposed SPQ technique is not only able to compress data, but also an effective encoding technique. We obtain state-of-the-art results for ANN search on four public image datasets and the promising results of content-based image retrieval further validate the efficacy of our proposed method.
Autors: Qingqun Ning;Jianke Zhu;Zhiyuan Zhong;Steven C.H. Hoi;Chun Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 586 - 597
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scalable Iterative Classification for Sanitizing Large-Scale Datasets
Abstract:
Cheap ubiquitous computing enables the collection of massive amounts of personal data in a wide variety of domains. Many organizations aim to share such data while obscuring features that could disclose personally identifiable information. Much of this data exhibits weak structure (e.g., text), such that machine learning approaches have been developed to detect and remove identifiers from it. While learning is never perfect, and relying on such approaches to sanitize data can leak sensitive information, a small risk is often acceptable. Our goal is to balance the value of published data and the risk of an adversary discovering leaked identifiers. We model data sanitization as a game between 1) a publisher who chooses a set of classifiers to apply to data and publishes only instances predicted as non-sensitive and 2) an attacker who combines machine learning and manual inspection to uncover leaked identifying information. We introduce a fast iterative greedy algorithm for the publisher that ensures a low utility for a resource-limited adversary. Moreover, using five text data sets we illustrate that our algorithm leaves virtually no automatically identifiable sensitive instances for a state-of-the-art learning algorithm, while sharing over 93 percent of the original data, and completes after at most five iterations.
Autors: Bo Li;Yevgeniy Vorobeychik;Muqun Li;Bradley Malin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 698 - 711
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scanning the Issue
Abstract:
Code-Aided Channel Tracking and Decoding Over Sparse Fast-Fading Multipath Channels With an Application to Train Backbone Networks
Autors: Petros Ioannou;A. V. ‘Bal’ Balakrishnan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 477 - 480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scanning the Issue*
Abstract:
Autors: ;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1026 - 1029
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scanning Voltage Microscopy for Emerging Electronic and Photonic Devices: Integrating nanotips with a single atom end for SVM
Abstract:
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have been developed and deployed to delineate the internal characteristics of electronic and photonic devices such as doping profiles, electric potential profile, electric field profile, and charge carrier profile, as they play a crucial role in the function and performance of biased and unbiased devices. Two of the most promising techniques, scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM), are now commercially available for two-dimensional (2-D) dopant profiling by the microelectronic and optoelectronic industries, but the techniques delineate only devices at equilibrium. Therefore, to directly observe the internal behavior of operating quantum optoelectronic devices, a new SPM technique, scanning voltage microscopy (SVM), has been developed.
Autors: Alam Mahmud;Ahmed Ali;Rudra S. Dhar;Seyed Ghasem Razavipour;Zbig Wasilewski;Moh'd Rezeq;Dayan Ban;
Appeared in: IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 4 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scattered Pilot Performance and Optimization for ATSC 3.0
Abstract:
The next-generation U.S. digital terrestrial television (DTT) standard ATSC 3.0 is the most flexible DTT standard ever developed, outperforming the state-of-the-art digital video broadcasting-terrestrial 2nd generation (DVB-T2) standard. This higher flexibility allows broadcasters to select the configuration that better suits the coverage and capacity requirements per service. Regarding the selection of pilot patterns, whereas DVB-T2 provides eight different patterns with a unique pilot amplitude, ATSC 3.0 expands up to 16, with five different amplitudes per pattern. This paper focuses on the pilot pattern and amplitude performance and optimization for time and power multiplexing modes, time division multiplexing and layered division multiplexing (LDM), respectively, of ATSC 3.0. The selection of the optimum pilot configuration is not straightforward. On the one hand, the pilots must be sufficiently dense to follow channel fluctuations. On the other hand, as long as pilot density is increased, more data overhead is introduced. Moreover, this selection is particularly essential in LDM mode, because the LDM implementation in ATSC 3.0 requires that both layers share all the waveform parameters, including pilot pattern configuration. In addition, there is an error proportional to the channel estimate of the top layer that affects to the lower layer performance.
Autors: Eduardo Garro;Jordi Joan Gimenez;Sung Ik Park;David Gomez-Barquero;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 282 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scattered Pilot-Based Channel Estimation for Channel Adaptive FBMC-OQAM Systems
Abstract:
Shaping the pulse of FilterBank MultiCarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation subcarrier modulation (FBMC-OQAM) systems offers a new degree of freedom for the design of mobile communication systems. In previous studies, we evaluated the gains arising from the application of Prototype Filter Functions (PFFs) and subcarrier spacing matched to the delay and Doppler spreads of doubly dispersive channels. In this paper, we investigate the impact of having imperfect channel knowledge at the receiver on the performance of Channel Adaptive Modulation (CAM) in terms of channel estimation errors and Bit Error Rate (BER). To this end, the channel estimation error for two different interference mitigation schemes proposed in the literature is derived analytically and its influence on the BER performance is analyzed for practical channel scenarios. The results show that FBMC-OQAM systems utilizing CAM and scattered pilot-based channel estimation provide a significant performance gain compared with the current one system design for a variety of channel scenarios (“one-fits-all”) approach. Additionally, we verified that the often used assumption of a flat channel in the direct neighborhood of a pilot symbol is not valid for practical scenarios.
Autors: Martin Fuhrwerk;Sanam Moghaddamnia;Jürgen Peissig;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1687 - 1702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scheme for Utilizing the Soft Feedback Information in Bit-Patterned Media Recording Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents a scheme that utilizes soft feedback information obtained from a decoder to eliminate detrimental interference in bit-patterned media recording (BPMR) systems. BPMR is a promising technology that can increase the storage area density of magnetic storage systems, but one of the main challenges is to overcome 2-D spatial interference. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with that of a conventional iterative detection scheme, and the results indicate that the proposed model is better by approximately 1 dB at 20% track misregistration. In particular, the performance of the system is quite superior, allowing the design of systems with higher area densities.
Autors: Chi Dinh Nguyen;Jaejin Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Schottky Diodes on ZnO Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition
Abstract:
Enhancement of the properties of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based Schottky diodes has been explored using a combination of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) ZnO thin films and silver oxide Schottky contacts deposited by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The electrical properties of the ZnO thin films were systematically tuned by varying the deposition temperature and oxygen plasma time during PE-ALD to optimize the performance of the diode. Low temperature (80 °C) coupled with relatively long oxygen plasma time (>30 s) PE-ALD is the key to produce ZnO films with net doping concentration lower than 1017 cm−3. Under the optimal deposition conditions identified, the diode shows an ideality factor of 1.33, an effective barrier height of 0.80 eV, and an ON/OFF ratio of .
Autors: Jidong Jin;Jacqueline S. Wrench;James T. Gibbon;David Hesp;Andrew Shaw;Ivona Z. Mitrovic;Naser Sedghi;Laurie J. Phillips;Jianli Zou;Vinod R. Dhanak;Paul R. Chalker;Steve Hall;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1225 - 1230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Scientific Communication, Networking, and Women In Robotics [Women in Engineering]
Abstract:
Reports on the activities and goals of the Robohub, a nonprofit organization dedicated to connecting the robotics community to the public. Robohub has been launched as a way to bring all the best robotics content together in one place and make it easy for the public to learn about real robots from the people who make them. By enabling roboticists to share their stories in their own words and by making research transparent and accessible, Robohub aims to fill the gap between researchers and the public, inspire future roboticists, spur innovation, and drive discussion. Robohub supporters are proactive for supporting women in robotics and promoting their visibility.
Autors: Laura Margheri;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 16 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» SDN-Based Framework for the PEV Integrated Smart Grid
Abstract:
In this article, we investigate the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integrated smart grid for efficient system operation. Due to the stochastic characteristics of PEVs, the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, and the heterogeneity of the devices, it is a great challenge to achieve system flexibility, reliability, and interoperability. To address these issues, we propose a two-tier SDN-based framework for the PEV integrated smart grid. The upper tier targets the primary feeder level to have a general view of the system, while the lower tier focuses on the secondary feeder level to achieve granular control of data and power operation. The framework is presented hierarchically, followed by a detailed explanation of the system operation in each tier. In particular, the integration of PEVs, which includes both PEV charging and V2G, is well illustrated in the SDNbased framework. Finally, we provide a case study to validate the emerging need for SDN deployment in the smart grid.
Autors: Nan Chen;Miao Wang;Ning Zhang;Xuemin Sherman Shen;Dongmei Zhao;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 14 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Second-Order Asymptotics of Conversions of Distributions and Entangled States Based on Rayleigh-Normal Probability Distributions
Abstract:
We discuss the asymptotic behavior of conversions between two independent and identical distributions up to the second-order conversion rate when the conversion is produced by a deterministic function from the input probability space to the output probability space. To derive the second-order conversion rate, we introduce new probability distributions named Rayleigh-normal distributions. The family of Rayleigh-normal distributions includes a Rayleigh distribution and coincides with the standard normal distribution in the limit case. Using this family of probability distributions, we represent the asymptotic second-order rates for the distribution conversion. As an application, we also consider the asymptotic behavior of conversions between the multiple copies of two pure entangled states in quantum systems when only local operations and classical communications (LOCC) are allowed. This problem contains entanglement concentration, entanglement dilution, and a kind of cloning problem with LOCC restriction as special cases.
Autors: Wataru Kumagai;Masahito Hayashi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1829 - 1857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secondary Electroluminescence of GaN-on-Si RF HEMTs: Demonstration and Physical Origin
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates that—for high-electric fields and drain current levels—the electroluminescence (EL) versus VGS curves of GaN-on-Si radio frequency HEMTs significantly deviate from the well-known bell-shape, due to the turn-on of a secondary EL process that has not been described so far in the literature. Based on the combined EL measurements, electrical characterization, and thermal analysis, we demonstrate that: 1) for moderate gate and drain voltages, the EL versus VGS curve has the characteristic bell shape, and light emission originates from hot electrons injected from the source; EL signal is stronger at the edges of the gate, due to the higher electric field; 2) at high drain/gate bias and temperature, a second process induces a monotonic increase in the EL versus VGS curve; in this case, the EL signal is stronger at the center of the gate, and the EL intensity is directly correlated with the gate leakage current. Based on the experimental evidence collected within this paper, the secondary luminescence process is ascribed to: 1) the injection of carriers from the gate metal to the channel; 2) the acceleration of these electrons by the high gate–drain field; and c) the subsequent radiative emission.
Autors: Matteo Meneghini;Alessandro Barbato;Isabella Rossetto;Andrea Favaron;Marco Silvestri;Simone Lavanga;Haifeng Sun;Helmut Brech;Gaudenzio Meneghesso;Enrico Zanoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1032 - 1037
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secondary Virtual Network Mapping onto Cognitive Radio Substrate: A Collision Probability Analysis
Abstract:
This letter proposes a wireless virtualization mapping process based on cognitive radio (CR). Primary virtual networks (PVNs) and secondary virtual networks (SVNs) are mapped onto the same CR substrate. The SVN mapping is an NP-hard problem in which both SVN demands and PVN activities must be considered, in order to ensure reduced interference level to the PVN. The interactions between PVNs and SVNs are modeled by an M/M/N/N queue with priority and preemptive service. In addition, a collision probability formulation is proposed, validated, and analyzed in order to assess the SVN mapping behavior under different primary and secondary loads.
Autors: Andson Balieiro;Marcos Falcão;Kelvin Dias;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 600 - 603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secrecy Capacity Scaling in Large Cooperative Wireless Networks
Abstract:
We investigate large wireless networks subject to security constraints. In contrast to point-to-point, interference-limited communications considered in prior works, we propose active cooperative relaying-based schemes. We consider a network with legitimate nodes, eavesdroppers, and path loss exponent . As long as , for some positive , we show that one can obtain unbounded secure aggregate rate. This means zero-cost secure communication, given fixed total power constraint for the entire network. We achieve this result through: 1) the source using Wyner randomized encoder and a serial (multi-stage) block Markov scheme, to cooperate with the relays and 2) the relays acting as a virtual multi-antenna to apply beamforming against the eavesdroppers. Our simpler parallel (two-stage) relaying scheme can achieve the same unbounded secure aggregate rate when holds, for some positive . Finally, we study the improvement (to the detriment of legitimate nodes) that the eavesdroppers achieve in terms of the information leakage rate in a large cooperative network in the case of collusion. We show that again the zero-cost secure communication is possible, if holds, for some positive ; that is, in the case of collusion slightly fewer eavesdroppers can be tolerated compared with the non-colluding case.
Autors: Mahtab Mirmohseni;Panagiotis Panos Papadimitratos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1923 - 1939
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secrecy Capacity Scaling of Large-Scale Networks With Social Relationships
Abstract:
Due to the nature of a wireless medium, a wireless channel is susceptible to malicious nodes, which encourages the consideration of secrecy in many applications such as satellite networks, social networking services, etc. Motivated by the social characteristic that makes nodes more likely to communicate with nearby neighbors, we study the secrecy capacity of large-scale wireless networks with social relationships. We consider two distributions of legitimate nodes: They are homogeneously placed based on a Poisson point process (PPP), or they are inhomogeneously distributed as multiclustering topology. In particular, we consider two scenarios: 1) the noncolluding case, where each eavesdropper decodes its receiving message independently; and 2) the colluding case, where eavesdroppers can cooperate to decode the message. We adopt a rank-based model to describe the social characteristic and investigate its impact on the secrecy capacity using the technique of self-interference cancelation. We employ a passive attack model, where eavesdroppers can only listen to transmissions among legitimate nodes. Our important findings include the following: 1) In the noncolluding case, secrecy capacity is not influenced by eavesdroppers in order sense, but it varies with the density of eavesdroppers and social impacts in the colluding case. 2) The proposed scheme can achieve optimal secrecy throughput neglecting polylogarithmic factor in homogeneous wireless networks.
Autors: Kechen Zheng;Jinbei Zhang;Xiaoying Liu;Luoyi Fu;Xinbing Wang;Xiaohong Jiang;Wenjun Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2688 - 2702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secrecy Outage Performance of Transmit Antenna Selection for MIMO Underlay Cognitive Radio Systems Over Nakagami- $m$ Channels
Abstract:
This paper considers a multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive wiretap system over Nakagami- channels with generalized selection combining (GSC), where confidential messages transmitted from a multiple-antenna transmitter to a multiple-antenna legitimate receiver are overheard by a multiple-antenna eavesdropper. Depending on whether the source node has the global channel state information (CSI) of both the main and wiretap channels, we investigate the secrecy outage performances of optimal antenna selection (OAS) and suboptimal antenna selection (SAS) schemes for MIMO underlay cognitive radio systems over Nakagami- channels, and we compare them with the space-time transmission (STT) scheme. The closed-form expressions for the exact and asymptotic secrecy outage probability (SOP) for various schemes are derived. Simulations are conducted to validate the accuracy of our derived analytical results.
Autors: Hongjiang Lei;Chao Gao;Imran Shafique Ansari;Yongcai Guo;Yulong Zou;Gaofeng Pan;Khalid A. Qaraqe;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2237 - 2250
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secure and Private Data Aggregation for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grids
Abstract:
The recent proposed solutions for demand side energy management leverage the two-way communication infrastructure provided by modern smart-meters and sharing the usage information with the other users. In this paper, we first highlight the privacy and security issues involved in the distributed demand management protocols. We propose a novel protocol to share required information among users providing privacy, confidentiality, and integrity. We also propose a new clustering-based, distributed multi-party computation (MPC) protocol. Through simulation experiments we demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed solution. The existing solutions typically usually thwart selfish and malicious behavior of consumers by deploying billing mechanisms based on total consumption during a few time slots. However, the billing is typically based on the total usage in each time slot in smart grids. In the second part of this paper, we formally prove that under the per-slot based charging policy, users have incentive to deviate from the proposed protocols. We also propose a protocol to identify untruthful users in these networks. Finally, considering a repeated interaction among honest and dishonest users, we derive the conditions under which the smart grid can enforce cooperation among users and prevents dishonest declaration of consumption.
Autors: Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman;Mohammad Hossein Manshaei;Ehab Al-Shaer;Mohamed Shehab;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 221 - 234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secure Communication via a Wireless Energy Harvesting Untrusted Relay
Abstract:
The broadcast nature of the wireless medium allows unintended users to eavesdrop on confidential information transmission. In this regard, we investigate the problem of secure communication between a source and a destination via a wireless energy harvesting untrusted node that acts as a helper to relay the information; however, the source and destination nodes wish to keep the information confidential from the relay node. To realize the positive secrecy rate, we use destination-assisted jamming. Being an energy-starved node, the untrusted relay harvests energy from the received radio-frequency (RF) signals, which include the source's information signal and the destination's jamming signal. Thus, we utilize the jamming signal efficiently by leveraging it as a useful energy source. At the relay, to enable energy harvesting and information processing, we adopt power splitting (PS) and time switching (TS) policies. To evaluate the secrecy performance of this proposed scenario, we derive analytical expressions for two important metrics, viz., the secrecy outage probability and the ergodic secrecy rate. The numerical analysis reveals design insights into the effects of different system parameters such as PS ratio, energy harvesting time, target secrecy rate, transmit signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), relay location, and energy conversion efficiency factor, on secrecy performance. Specifically, the PS policy achieves better optimal secrecy outage probability and optimal ergodic secrecy rate than that of the TS policy at higher target secrecy rate and transmit SNR, respectively.
Autors: Sanket S. Kalamkar;Adrish Banerjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2199 - 2213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Secure Degrees of Freedom of One-Hop Wireless Networks With No Eavesdropper CSIT
Abstract:
We consider three channel models: the wiretap channel with helpers, the -user multiple access wiretap channel, and the -user interference channel with an external eavesdropper, when no eavesdropper’s channel state information (CSI) is available at the transmitters. In each case, we establish the optimal sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) by providing achievable schemes and matching converses. We show that the unavailability of the eavesdropper’s channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) does not reduce the s.d.o.f. of the wiretap channel with helpers. However, there is loss in s.d.o.f. for both the multiple access wiretap channel and the interference channel with an external eavesdropper. In particular, we show that in the absence of eavesdropper’s CSIT, the -user multiple access wiretap channel reduces to a wiretap channel with helpers from a sum s.d.o.f. perspective, and the optimal sum s.d.o.f. reduces from to . For the interference channel with an external eavesdropper, the optimal sum s.d.o.f. decreases from to in the absence of the eavesdropper’s CSIT. Our results show that the lack of eavesdropper’s CSI does not have a significant impact on the optimal s.d.o.f. for any of the three channel models, especially when the number of users is large. This implies that physical layer security can be made robust to the unavailability of eavesdropper CSIT at high signal-to-noise ratio regimes by the careful modification of the achievable schemes as demonstrated in this paper.
Autors: Pritam Mukherjee;Jianwei Xie;Sennur Ulukus;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1898 - 1922
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Security Threats to Hadoop: Data Leakage Attacks and Investigation
Abstract:
As one of the most popular platforms for processing big data, Hadoop has low costs, convenience, and fast speed. However, it is also a significant target of data leakage attacks, as a growing number of businesses and individuals store and process their private data in it. How to investigate data leakage attacks in Hadoop is an important but long-neglected issue. This article first presents some possible data leakage attacks in Hadoop. Then an investigation framework is proposed and tested based on some simulated cases.
Autors: Xiao Fu;Yun Gao;Bin Luo;Xiaojiang Du;Mohsen Guizani;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 67 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Security-Constrained Transmission Topology Control MILP Formulation Using Sensitivity Factors
Abstract:
A transmission topology control (TC) framework for production cost reduction based on a shift factor (SF) representation of line flows is proposed. The framework can model topology changes endogenously while maintaining linearity in the overall Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation of the problem. In large power systems it is standard practice to optimize operations considering few but representative contingency constraints. Under these conditions and when tractably small switchable sets are analyzed, the SF framework has significant computational advantages compared to the standard B alternative used so far in TC research. These claims are supported and elaborated by numerical results on full models of PJM with over 13,000 buses. We finally present analytical investigations on locational marginal price (LMP) computation in our SF TC framework and their relation to LMPs computed for problems without TC. Also, we discuss practical implementation choices such as sufficient conditions on lower bounds that allow selection of large numbers employed in the MILP formulation.
Autors: Pablo Ariel Ruiz;Evgeniy Goldis;Aleksandr M. Rudkevich;Michael C. Caramanis;C. Russ Philbrick;Justin M. Foster;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1597 - 1605
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Seek-Efficient I/O Optimization in Single Failure Recovery for XOR-Coded Storage Systems
Abstract:
Erasure coding provides an effective means for storage systems to protect against disk failures with low redundancy. One important objective for erasure-coded storage systems is to speed up single disk failure recovery. Previous approaches reduce the amount of read data for recovery by reading only a small subset of data. However, they often incur high disk seeks, which may negate the resulting recovery performance. We propose SIOR, a seek-efficient I/O recovery algorithm for improving the performance of single disk failure recovery. SIOR carefully balances the trade-off between the amount of read data and the number of disk seeks by considering the data layout at the multi-stripe level. It then greedily determines the data to read for recovery using Tabu search. Experiments show that SIOR achieves similar performance to the brute-force enumeration method while keeping high search efficiency. Also, SIOR reduces percent of disk seeks during recovery and provides up to 150.0 percent recovery speed improvement, when compared to a state-of-the-art greedy recovery approach.
Autors: Zhirong Shen;Jiwu Shu;Patrick P. C. Lee;Yingxun Fu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 877 - 890
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Selective Transfer Machine for Personalized Facial Expression Analysis
Abstract:
Automatic facial action unit (AU) and expression detection from videos is a long-standing problem. The problem is challenging in part because classifiers must generalize to previously unknown subjects that differ markedly in behavior and facial morphology (e.g., heavy versus delicate brows, smooth versus deeply etched wrinkles) from those on which the classifiers are trained. While some progress has been achieved through improvements in choices of features and classifiers, the challenge occasioned by individual differences among people remains. Person-specific classifiers would be a possible solution but for a paucity of training data. Sufficient training data for person-specific classifiers typically is unavailable. This paper addresses the problem of how to personalize a generic classifier without additional labels from the test subject. We propose a transductive learning method, which we refer to as a Selective Transfer Machine (STM), to personalize a generic classifier by attenuating person-specific mismatches. STM achieves this effect by simultaneously learning a classifier and re-weighting the training samples that are most relevant to the test subject. We compared STM to both generic classifiers and cross-domain learning methods on four benchmarks: CK+ [44] , GEMEP-FERA [67] , RU-FACS [4] and GFT [57] . STM outperformed generic classifiers in all.
Autors: Wen-Sheng Chu;Fernando De la Torre;Jeffrey F. Cohn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 39, issue:3, pages: 529 - 545
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Self-driving cars have a bicycle problem [News]
Abstract:
Robotic cars are great at monitoring other cars, and they're getting better at noticing pedestrians, squirrels, and birds. The main challenge, though, is posed by the lightest, quietest, swerviest vehicles on the road. "Bicycles are probably the most difficult detection problem that autonomous vehicle systems face," says Steven Shladover, a research engineer at the University of California, Berkeley.
Autors: Peter Fairley;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 12 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Self-Powered Timekeeping and Synchronization Using Fowler–Nordheim Tunneling-Based Floating-Gate Integrators
Abstract:
Self-powered timers provide a mechanism to achieve temporal synchronization between two passive devices (for e.g., RF tags, credit/access cards, and thumb drives) without the need for any external powering or clocks. As a result, the timers could be used to implement dynamic SecureID type authentication involving random keys and tokens that need to be periodically generated and synchronized. We report a novel solid-state self-powered timer, which exploits a self-compensating mechanism in the physics of Fowler–Nordheim quantum transport of electrons tunneling onto a floating gate. The proposed devices have been fabricated using standard CMOS processing and are demonstrated to be operational for durations greater than three years using extrapolation studies. The fabricated devices were also found to be extremely robust to device mismatch and as a result of which, the proposed self-powered timers can be synchronized with respect to each other with an accuracy greater than 0.5%.
Autors: Liang Zhou;Shantanu Chakrabartty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1254 - 1260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Semi-Automated Tracking: A Balanced Approach for Self-Monitoring Applications
Abstract:
The authors present an approach for designing self-monitoring technology called "semi-automated tracking," which combines both manual and automated data collection methods. Through this approach, they aim to lower the capture burdens, collect data that is typically hard to track automatically, and promote awareness to help people achieve their self-monitoring goals. They first specify three design considerations for semi-automated tracking: data capture feasibility, the purpose of self-monitoring, and the motivation level. They then provide examples of semi-automated tracking applications in the domains of sleep, mood, and food tracking to demonstrate strategies they developed to find the right balance between manual tracking and automated tracking, combining each of their benefits while minimizing their associated limitations.
Autors: Eun Kyoung Choe;Saeed Abdullah;Mashfiqui Rabbi;Edison Thomaz;Daniel A. Epstein;Felicia Cordeiro;Matthew Kay;Gregory D. Abowd;Tanzeem Choudhury;James Fogarty;Bongshin Lee;Mark Matthews;Julie A. Kientz;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 74 - 84
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Semisupervised Tripled Dictionary Learning for Standard-Dose PET Image Prediction Using Low-Dose PET and Multimodal MRI
Abstract:
Objective: To obtain high-quality positron emission tomography (PET) image with low-dose tracer injection, this study attempts to predict the standard-dose PET (S-PET) image from both its low-dose PET (L-PET) counterpart and corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: It was achieved by patch-based sparse representation (SR), using the training samples with a complete set of MRI, L-PET and S-PET modalities for dictionary construction. However, the number of training samples with complete modalities is often limited. In practice, many samples generally have incomplete modalities (i.e., with one or two missing modalities) that thus cannot be used in the prediction process. In light of this, we develop a semisupervised tripled dictionary learning (SSTDL) method for S-PET image prediction, which can utilize not only the samples with complete modalities (called complete samples) but also the samples with incomplete modalities (called incomplete samples), to take advantage of the large number of available training samples and thus further improve the prediction performance. Results: Validation was done on a real human brain dataset consisting of 18 subjects, and the results show that our method is superior to the SR and other baseline methods. Conclusion: This paper proposed a new S-PET prediction method, which can significantly improve the PET image quality with low-dose injection. Significance: The proposed method is favorable in clinical application since it can decrease the potential radiation risk for patients.
Autors: Yan Wang;Guangkai Ma;Le An;Feng Shi;Pei Zhang;David S. Lalush;Xi Wu;Yifei Pu;Jiliu Zhou;Dinggang Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 569 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Sensing and Recognition for Multiple-Primary-Power-Level Scenario With Noise Uncertainty
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider spectrum sensing in a new cognitive radio (CR) scenario where the primary user (PU) could possibly transmit with multiple power levels and where the noise power at the secondary user (SU) side is uncertain. The target for the SU is not only to detect the presence of PU, as in the conventional “on–off” CR scenario, but to identify the PU's transmitting power level as well. With the aid of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), we prove that energy detection (ED) is still the optimal detection technique and then derive the closed-form decision thresholds and the corresponding analytical performance. Interestingly, a unique phenomenon called power ambiguity arises in this new CR scenario that demands careful investigation. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall in the conventional binary CR also exists here and separates all power levels into two groups: One group leads to robust recognition, whereas the other does not. To make the discussion complete, we further design a cooperative spectrum sensing scheme and derive the corresponding analytical performance expression. In the end, we validate our study through various numerical results.
Autors: Feifei Gao;Chen Qian;Han Qian;Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2289 - 2300
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Sensing Mechanism and Error Analysis of a Capacitive Long-Range Displacement Nanometer Sensor Based on Time Grating
Abstract:
In this paper, the sensing mechanism of a novel capacitive nanometer sensor based on the time grating approach is investigated. A mathematical model of the sensor is established using electric field coupling theory and the area integral method, which indicates that the measured displacement of the object is proportional to the phase shift of the output signal. High frequency time pulses serve as the measurement standard to realize the phase detection, and the displacement is measured by counting the time pulses. To evaluate the performance of the proposed sensor, periodic measurement errors are analyzed in detail. The primary periodic errors are quantified through the derivation of a mathematical error model. Experiments performed with a prototype sensor allow the causes of periodic first, second, and fourth harmonic errors to be traced back to cross interference, installation misalignment, and the effects of the electric field, respectively. After adopting a multilayer structure, adjusting the installation, and increasing the gap width to 0.3 mm, the primary periodic errors are sequentially eliminated. Therefore, the reasonability of the mathematical model and error analysis is validated by the designed experiments. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that the measurement accuracy attains a value of ±200 nm over a 200 mm measurement range. This paper provides the theoretical guidance for the optimal design of high-performance time grating capacitive sensors.
Autors: Kai Peng;Xiaokang Liu;Ziran Chen;Zhicheng Yu;Hongji Pu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1596 - 1607
Publisher: IEEE
 

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