Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2017 sorted by title, page: 12

» Mobile Edge Computing Potential in Making Cities Smarter
Abstract:
This article proposes an approach to enhance users' experience of video streaming in the context of smart cities. The proposed approach relies on the concept of MEC as a key factor in enhancing QoS. It sustains QoS by ensuring that applications/services follow the mobility of users, realizing the "Follow Me Edge" concept. The proposed scheme enforces an autonomic creation of MEC services to allow anywhere anytime data access with optimum QoE and reduced latency. Considering its application in smart city scenarios, the proposed scheme represents an important solution for reducing core network traffic and ensuring ultra-short latency through a smart MEC architecture capable of achieving the 1 ms latency dream for the upcoming 5G mobile systems.
Autors: Tarik Taleb;Sunny Dutta;Adlen Ksentini;Muddesar Iqbal;Hannu Flinck;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 38 - 43
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modal Activity-Based Stochastic Model for Estimating Vehicle Trajectories from Sparse Mobile Sensor Data
Abstract:
Probe vehicles that measure position and speed have emerged as a promising tool for traffic data collection and performance measurement, but the sampling rates of most probe vehicle sensor data available today are low (ranging from 10 to 60 s per sample), and the data coverage is limited. Therefore, it is challenging to accurately estimate the vehicle dynamic states in both space and time based on these sparse mobile sensor data. In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed to estimate the second-by-second vehicle speed trajectories by examining all possible sequences of modal activities (i.e., acceleration, deceleration, cruising, and idling) between consecutive data points from sparse position and speed measurements. The likelihood of occurrence of each sequential pattern is first quantified by mode-specific a priori distributions. The vehicle dynamic state probability is then formulated as the product of probabilities for multiple independent events. Therefore, a detailed vehicle speed trajectory can be reconstructed using the optimal modal activity sequence, which maximizes the likelihood. The proposed model is calibrated and validated using the Next-Generation SIMulation dataset. The results show the substantial improvements on the accuracy of estimated vehicle trajectories compared with a baseline method based on linear interpolation. The proposed model is applied to a large-scale vehicle activity dataset to demonstrate the estimation of hourly traffic delay variation.
Autors: Peng Hao;Kanok Boriboonsomsin;Guoyuan Wu;Matthew J. Barth;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 701 - 711
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Event/Fault Trees With Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph for Better Probabilistic Safety Assessment
Abstract:
Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been widely applied to large complex industrial systems like nuclear power plants, chemical plants, etc. Event trees (ET) and fault trees (FT) are the major tools, but dependences and logic cycles may exist among and within them, and are not well addressed, leading to even optimistic estimates. Repeated representations and calculations exist. Causalities are assumed deterministic, while sometimes they are uncertain. This paper applies dynamic uncertain causality graph (DUCG) in PSA to overcome these problems. DUCG is a newly presented approach for uncertain causality representation and probabilistic reasoning, and has been successfully applied to online fault diagnoses of large complex industrial systems. This paper suggests to model all ETs and FTs of a target system as a single DUCG allowing uncertain causalities and avoiding repeated representations, and calculate the probabilities/frequencies of the undesired events by using the DUCG algorithm. In the calculation, the problems of dependencies and circular loops are solved. The suggested DUCG representation mode and calculation algorithm are presented and illustrated with examples. The results reveal the effectiveness and feasibility of this methodology.
Autors: Zhenxu Zhou;Qin Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 178 - 188
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Optimization of EULAG Kernel on Intel Xeon Phi Through Load Imbalancing
Abstract:
Load balancing is a widely accepted technique for performance optimization of scientific applications on parallel architectures. Indeed, balanced applications do not waste processor cycles on waiting at points of synchronization and data exchange, maximizing this way the utilization of processors. In this paper, we challenge the universality of the load-balancing approach to optimization of the performance of parallel applications. First, we formulate conditions that should be satisfied by the performance profile of an application in order for the application to achieve its best performance via load balancing. Then we use a real-life scientific application, EULAG MPDATA kernel, to demonstrate that its performance profile on a modern parallel architecture, Intel Xeon Phi, significantly deviates from these conditions. Based on this observation, we propose a method of performance optimization of scientific applications through load imbalancing. In the case of data parallel application, the method uses functional performance models of the application to find partitioning that minimizes its computation time but not necessarily balances the load of processors. We apply this method to optimization of MPDATA on Intel Xeon Phi. Experimental results demonstrate that the performance of this carefully optimized load-balanced application can be further improved by 15percent using the proposed load-imbalancing technique.
Autors: Alexey Lastovetsky;Lukasz Szustak;Roman Wyrzykowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 787 - 797
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Small Cells Based on Clustered Stochastic Geometry
Abstract:
A cellular network is usually modeled and analyzed as a Poisson point process (PPP). However, small cells are ordinarily clustered around hotspots in urban areas, which cannot be accurately modeled with a PPP. This letter presents an analysis of the downlink coverage of small cells that are modeled with a Matern cluster process (MCP). A new accurate formula for the probability generating function of an MCP is derived. We also propose a new distribution function for the desired distance (i.e., between the user and serving small cell) based on the spherical contact distribution function of the Boolean model. The above two formulas can be used to obtain a closed-form expression for the downlink average coverage probability of small cells. Simulation results confirm the accuracy of our derived formulas. Our derived MCP-based coverage is accurate and can be used to guide the small cell configuration of a cellular network.
Autors: Ying Wang;Qi Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 576 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Experimental Study of a Wind Turbine System in Hybrid Connection With Compressed Air Energy Storage
Abstract:
This paper presents a new hybrid wind turbine system that is formed by a continuously variable transmission connection of the turbine drive shaft with an air expander/compressor. A mechanical power split device is designed to synthesize the power delivered by the wind turbine and the air expander/compressor. A small-scale hybrid wind turbine system is mathematically modeled, analyzed, and validated using a laboratory-scale experimental test rig. By utilizing compressed air energy storage, it is shown that the hybrid wind turbine system can provide smooth power output under fluctuating wind speed conditions. Such a direct connection structure reduces the overall system cost by using one generator instead of two compared with the conventional CAES system structure. The study demonstrates the benefit of improved efficiency and flexibility brought to the turbine operation by the hybridization of wind energy and stored energy.
Autors: Christopher Krupke;Jihong Wang;Jonathan Clarke;Xing Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 137 - 145
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Measurement of Magnetic Hysteresis of Soft Magnetic Composite Materials Under Different Magnetizations
Abstract:
The soft magnetic composite (SMC) materials and their application in electromagnetic devices have undergone significant development due to their unique advantages, such as low eddy-current loss, quasi-isotropy of mechanical and magnetic properties, low cost, and low material consumption during the production process. However, the magnetic properties of the SMC materials are very different from that of the laminated SiFe materials, which are particularly challenging for the design and application of electrical machines. This paper presents the modeling and measurement of magnetic properties of the SMC materials under both alternating and rotational magnetic excitations. Based on the underlying magnetization mechanisms, a vectorial elemental operator with biaxial anisotropy is introduced, and the concept of distribution function is utilized to describe the density of operators in the specimen. To verify this proposed model, the magnetic hysteresis of the SMC material is simulated and compared with the experimental results obtained by the three-dimensional magnetic property measurement system. The good agreement shows the validity and practicability of this vectorial elemental operator.
Autors: Weijie Xu;Nana Duan;Shuhong Wang;Youguang Guo;Jianguo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2459 - 2467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Parameter Design of Thyristor-Controlled LC-Coupled Hybrid Active Power Filter (TCLC-HAPF) for Unbalanced Compensation
Abstract:
In this paper, a new modeling and parameter design method for the thyristor-controlled LC-coupled hybrid active power filter (TCLC-HAPF) is proposed, which includes the analysis of the inner flowed three-phase unbalanced power during unbalanced condition. Different from the conventional method which ignores the inner flowed three-phase unbalanced power, the proposed design method can achieve better performance during unbalanced compensation. To verify the validity and advantages of the proposed modeling and parameter design method of TCLC-HAPF, the mathematical analysis, representative simulation and experimental results for compensating different unbalanced loading situation are presented in comparison with the conventional design method.
Autors: Lei Wang;Chi-Seng Lam;Man-Chung Wong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1827 - 1840
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Simulation of a Grid-Integrated Photovoltaic System Using a Real-Time Digital Simulator
Abstract:
This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of a grid-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system on a real-time digital simulator. The modeling of the PV array on the simulator, as well as, the power converter and controls for the PV system is discussed. An analysis of the real-time operation of the PV system, is presented. The benefits and considerations of power hardware in the loop simulations with a physical PV-grid converter are discussed.
Autors: Onyinyechi Nzimako;Rudi Wierckx;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1326 - 1336
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Verifying Combinatorial Interactions to Test Data Intensive Systems: Experience at the Norwegian Customs Directorate
Abstract:
Data-intensive systems in e-governance collect and process data to ensure conformance to a set of business rules. Testers meticulously verify data in test databases, extracted from different steps of a live production stream , for correct application of business rules. We simplify the process by allowing testers to model a test domain on a relational database and automatically generate test cases representing data interactions satisfying combinatorial interaction coverage criteria. This paper also introduces test cases with self-referential interactions, which is a necessity in real-world databases. We verify these test cases using our human-in-the-loop tool, Depict. Depict, with expert assistance, generates complex SQL queries for test cases and produces a visual report of test case satisfaction. We apply the approach to two scenarios: 1) simplify and optimize a periodic archiving operation and 2) verify fault codes within the testing environment of the Custom directorate's TVINN system.
Autors: Sagar Sen;Dusica Marijan;Carlo Ieva;Astrid Grime;Atle Sander;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:1, pages: 3 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Interconnect Variability at Advanced Technology Nodes and Potential Solutions
Abstract:
The advent of multigate transistor technology for 20-nm technology node and beyond, has increased the importance of wire parasitics, in particular, wire resistance in determining the circuit delay computation. Variability in wire dimensions directly impacts the wire parasitics, hence, the overall system performance. For the first time, in this paper, we study circuit variability for 11- and 7-nm technology nodes based on GDSII-level layouts. We propose novel hybrid multipatterning flows, which combine the litho-etch-litho-etch and self-aligned-spacer technologies, to reduce circuit variability induced by the lithography process. We engineer the hybrid solutions to have reduced variability in wire resistance, and circuit performance, and develop variability models for each patterning proposal. We also find the increasing need of these hybrid solutions at the 7-nm technology node. For Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to enable higher circuit performance than the proposed patterning regimes, it requires a high precision in core variation of less than 1 nm.
Autors: Divya Prasad;Chenyun Pan;Azad Naeemi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1246 - 1253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling Spectra of Low-Power SMD LEDs as a Function of Ambient Temperature
Abstract:
The information of spectral changes with various parameters is a key for optimizing the performance and thus improving long-term reliability of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in solid-state lighting applications. In this paper, the extension of spectrum model was used to estimate the spectral flux of indium gallium aluminum phosphide (InGaAlP)-based low-power surface-mounted device (SMD) LEDs. The spectra and photometric parameters of LED packages were measured at several ambient temperatures to test the spectrum model extension. The spectrum model is constructed at 298 K to predict the spectral fluxes of the LED at any ambient temperature. Carrier temperature, peak frequency, and bandgap energy variations with ambient temperature are included in this extension. The agreement between the measured and theoretical results of spectrum, luminous flux, and International Commission on Illumination (CIE) color coordinates validates the extended spectral model for low-power LEDs.
Autors: Muna E. Raypah;Mutharasu Devarajan;Fauziah Sulaiman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1180 - 1186
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling the Effect of Cutting on the Magnetic Properties of Electrical Steel Sheets
Abstract:
Various approaches for modeling the degrading effect of cutting on the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets have been proposed. They differ significantly with respect to their underlying concept, applicability, and need for measurements for parameter adjustment. In this paper, we propose a classification of the different models, study their differences, and analyze the respective implementation efforts. We hereby aim to provide a tool that enables the selection of the most suitable modeling approach for a given design task, taking the influence of the cutting into consideration.
Autors: Madeleine Bali;Annette Muetze;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2547 - 2556
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modernizing the Calfornia Grid : Preparing for a Future with High Penetrations of Distributed Energy Resources
Abstract:
California is at the forefront of the power grid evolution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enable customer self-generation. Distributed energy resources (DERs) are the latest in a series of technology advancements that challenge the electric industry to evolve. While there is a long history of disruptive technologies that have impacted the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, one of the unique challenges of DER s is that they are adopted directly by customers with minimal utility management and control (Figure 1).
Autors: Robert Sherick;Robert Yinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 20 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular Active Charge Balancing for Scalable Battery Packs
Abstract:
High-voltage battery packs consist of series-connected lithium-ion cells and require sophisticated battery management systems (BMSs) to maintain safe operating conditions. Active cell balancing is an important task of a BMS, performed in order to improve the usable capacity of the battery pack by equalizing the charge levels of individual cells. With the emerging trend of distributed BMS topologies, the associated balancing architectures are required to be modular, consisting of homogeneous units that minimize integration efforts. In this paper, we propose a modular active charge balancing architecture along with its control scheme for implementation toward such distributed BMSs. Compared with existing approaches, our proposed architecture provides increased charge transfer capabilities, with reduced hardware and control complexity. We propose a closed-form analytical model of the balancing architecture, which can be used to perform fast system-level simulation studies and design space exploration for analyzing efficient device combinations. A hardware implementation of the proposed balancing architecture is developed and measurements made with it are used to validate each part of our analytical model. Using the validated analytical model, we performed a case study, which shows that our proposed architecture provides a 14.5 % improvement in charge transfer efficiency compared with existing approaches.
Autors: Swaminathan Narayanaswamy;Matthias Kauer;Sebastian Steinhorst;Martin Lukasiewycz;Samarjit Chakraborty;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 974 - 987
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Molecular Channel Fading Due to Diffusivity Fluctuations
Abstract:
Molecular communications via diffusion is sensitive to environmental changes, such as the diffusion coefficient (mass diffusivity). The diffusivity is directly related to a number of parameters, including the ambient temperature, which varies slowly over time. While molecular noise models have received significant attention, channel fading has not been extensively considered. Using experimental data, we show that the ambient temperature varies approximately according to a normal distribution. As a result, we analytically derive the fading distribution and validate it using numerical simulations. We further derive the joint distribution of the channel gain and the additive noise, and examine the impact of such interactions on the ISI distribution, which is shown to conform to a generalized extreme value distribution.
Autors: Song Qiu;Taufiq Asyhari;Weisi Guo;Siyi Wang;Bin Li;Chenglin Zhao;Mark Leeson;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 21, issue:3, pages: 676 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monolithic Tunable Coupled-Cavity WDM Transmitter in a Generic Foundry Platform
Abstract:
We present the monolithic integration of an extended tuning range coupled-cavity laser with traveling-wave Mach–Zehnder modulators in a low-cost generic photonic foundry platform for 10 Gb/s operation. Using an intra-cavity Michelson interferometer combined with on-chip reflectors, the coupled-cavity laser shows a tuning range of 25 nm. The modulator building blocks with optimized traveling wave electrodes exhibit efficient modulation and 8.5-GHz electro-optic bandwidth, enabling 10 Gb/s ON–OFF keying. We demonstrate error-free operation of the tunable transmitter in a full photonic circuit environment. The laser modulator combination neither requires Bragg grating formation for wavelength tuning nor additional growth steps for multiquantum-well material in the modulator section and is therefore well suited for cost effective foundry platforms specifically for low-cost applications.
Autors: Weiming Yao;Giovanni Gilardi;Domenico D’Agostino;Meint K. Smit;Michael J. Wale;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:6, pages: 496 - 499
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Monte Carlo Simulation for Planning and Decisions Making in Transmission Project of Electricity
Abstract:
This research aims to propose guidelines for decisions in the planning stage in electric transmission project. The focus is on capital and labor intensive projects, extremely complex. This research is exploratory and seeks to qualify and quantify a planning electric power transmission project. This planning aims to good preparation, structuring, and assessment to support decision on the organization's strategy for the enterprise contract. The goal is to compose a model to be studied based on the planning and risks review, generating scenarios derived from Monte Carlo simulations to guide decision making and also provide the probabilistic reference to the sequence of the project implementation and its inherent uncertainties. The data were modeled and simulated from a real case of an energy transmission auctioned in 2012. The simulation presented probabilistic outcomes for scenarios based on estimates, scope understanding and measured risks as the maturity of the available information and perceived uncertainties.
Autors: Guilherme Leite Saboya;Osvaldo Luiz Goncalves Quelhas;Rodrigo Goyannes Gusmao Caiado;Sergio Luiz Braga Franca;Marcelo Jasmim Meirino;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 431 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MOOCs come back to earth [Resources_Education]
Abstract:
In 2011, Stanford computer scientists Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig came up with the bright idea of streaming their robotics lectures on demand over the Internet, and letting anyone sign up and participate in the coursework. When more than 160,000 enrolled, the professors thought they had a tiger by the tail. The MOOC-massive open online course-had arrived. To date, about 58 million people have signed up for MOOCs. Thrun promptly cofounded Udacity to commercialize MOOCs. He predicted that in 50 years, streaming lectures would so subvert face-to-face education that only 10 higher-education institutions would remain. Campuses would become obsolete, replaced by "star" faculty streaming to screens all over the world.
Autors: Robert Ubell;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 54, issue:3, pages: 22 - 22
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Morphological and Optical Evolution of Silver Nanoparticles on Sapphire (0001) Along With the Concurrent Influence of Diffusion, Ostwald's Ripening, and Sublimation
Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have found a number of applications in various fields such as optoelectronics, sensors, and catalysts, and the optical, physical, and chemical properties of Ag NPs can be modified by the control of size, density, and configuration as well as their spacing. Therefore, in this paper, we demonstrate the size, shape, and spacing control of Ag NPs by the systematic control of annealing duration between 0 and 3600 s on sapphire (0001) (Al2O3). The Ag NPs show a sharp distinction in morphology along with the controlled duration at 20 and 14 nm thickness, and the evolution trend is systematically discussed based on the concurrent influence of surface diffusion, Ostwald's ripening, and sublimation. With the relatively thicker film of 20 nm, the fabrication of irregular and round NPs is demonstrated along with the gradually reduced size up on the annealing at 750 °C for the duration between 0 and 900 s. Between 1800 and 3600 s, tiny grain-like particles result as a consequence of an extensive sublimation. Meanwhile, with the film thickness of 14 nm at 400 °C, densely packed small NPs are resulted between 0 and 3600 s due to the limited surface diffusion. At the same time, the optical characterizations such as Raman and reflectance spectroscopy show a distinctive trend of spectra, i.e., intensity, peak position, and FWHM, based on the evolution of Ag NPs and are discussed in conjunction with the specific morphology and surface coverage of the Ag NPs.
Autors: Puran Pandey;Sundar Kunwar;Mao Sui;Quanzhen Zhang;Ming-Yu Li;Jihoon Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 321 - 332
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Motion Control and Performance Evaluation of a Magnetic-Geared Dual-Rotor Motor in Hybrid Powertrain
Abstract:
The magnetic-geared dual-rotor motor (MGDRM) has been proposed as a power split device for several years, but there is not an evaluation work for an MGDRM in a real hybrid powertrain so far. As a pilot demo, an MGDRM-based hybrid powertrain with a real engine is built and tested in a real hybrid test bench. The closed-loop speed control is developed for the MGDRM, with which two pragmatic functions of the hybrid powertrain are realized by the MGDRM. First, the engine can be started by the MGDRM outer rotor no matter whether the vehicle is parked or traveling. Second, the torque coordination function of the MGDRM can help the engine to stabilize at a fixed work situation. This feature is the basement to adjust the operation and efficiency of engine. The power conversion efficiency map of the MGDRM is tested, based on which the performance of the power split in different operating situations can be evaluated.
Autors: Le Sun;Ming Cheng;Honghui Wen;Lihua Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1863 - 1872
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moving Hadoop into the Cloud with Flexible Slot Management and Speculative Execution
Abstract:
Load imbalance is a major source of overhead in parallel programs such as MapReduce. Due to the uneven distribution of input data, tasks with more data become stragglers and delay the overall job completion. Running Hadoop in a private cloud opens up opportunities for expediting stragglers with more resources but also introduces problems that often outweigh the performance gain: (1) performance interference from co-running jobs may create new stragglers; (2) there exists a semantic gap between the Hadoop task management and resource pool-based virtual cluster management preventing tasks from using resources efficiently. In this paper, we strive to make Hadoop more resilient to data skew and more efficient in cloud environments. We present FlexSlot, a user-transparent task slot management scheme that automatically identifies map stragglers and resizes their slots accordingly to accelerate task execution. FlexSlot adaptively changes the number of slots on each virtual node to balance the resource usage so that the pool of resources can be efficiently utilized. FlexSlot further improves mitigation of data skew with an adaptive speculative execution strategy. Experimental results show that FlexSlot effectively reduces job completion time up to percent compared to stock Hadoop and two recently proposed skew mitigation and speculative execution approaches.
Autors: Yanfei Guo;Jia Rao;Changjun Jiang;Xiaobo Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 28, issue:3, pages: 798 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MPPT of Photovoltaic Systems Using Sensorless Current-Based Model Predictive Control
Abstract:
Variability in the solar irradiance level and ambient temperature of photovoltaic (PV) systems necessitates the use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of PV systems to ensure continuous harvesting of maximum power. This paper presents a sensorless current (SC) MPPT algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). The main contribution of this paper is the use of model-based predictive control principle to eliminate the current sensor that is usually required for well-known MPPT techniques such as perturb and observe (P&O). By predicting the PV system states in horizon of time, the proposed method becomes an elegant, embedded controller that allows faster response and lower power ripple in steady state than the conventional P&O technique under rapidly changing atmospheric conditions. This becomes possible without requiring expensive sensing and communications equipment and networks for direct measurement of solar irradiation changes. The performance of the proposed SC-MPC-MPPT with reduced load sensitivity is evaluated on the basis of industrial European Efficiency Test, EN 50530, that assesses the performance of PV systems under dynamic environmental conditions. The proposed control technique is implemented experimentally using dSPACE DS1007 platform to verify the simulation results.
Autors: Morcos Metry;Mohammad B. Shadmand;Robert S. Balog;Haitham Abu-Rub;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1157 - 1167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MSE-Based Precoder Designs for Transmitter-Preprocessing-Aided Spatial Modulation Under Per-Antenna Power Constraints
Abstract:
In this correspondence, we investigate mean-square-error-based precoder designs for transmitter-preprocessing-aided spatial modulation (PSM) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In contrast to the existing precoders that are designed almost exclusively under the average total power constraint (ATPC), we focus on design problems under more realistic per-antenna power constraints (PAPCs). We first identify two different types of PAPCs for PSM-MIMO systems, including the average PAPC and the strict PAPC (SPAPC). We then derive the associated optimal minimum mean square error (MMSE) and zero forcing (ZF) precoders under these two constraints. To achieve a more balanced performance–complexity tradeoff, suboptimal SPAPC precoder designs, including a linear-programming-assisted ZF/MMSE ATPC with a power backoff precoder, are proposed. Finally, the performance of the proposed precoders is demonstrated through numerical simulations.
Autors: Chiao-En Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2879 - 2883
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MSSTC-Based MIMO-ARQ System With Two Transmit Antennas
Abstract:
A multiple-input–multiple-output automatic repeat request (MIMO-ARQ) system with two transmit antennas using modified multistrata space–time codes (MSSTCs) is proposed. We propose a low-complexity detection algorithm composed of interlayer interference cancelation, linear postprocessing after which intralayer interference does not exist, and a slicing operation. The proposed detection algorithm is performed in a successive layer-by-layer manner through multiple transmissions. Phases of two layers are adaptively assigned to mitigate the effect of interlayer interference through multiple transmissions with a low amount of additional feedback system overhead. We analytically obtain the approximation for the block error rate (BLER) of the proposed MIMO-ARQ system, and based on this, we propose a transmit power-allocation scheme, which minimizes the BLER of the MIMO-ARQ system at each transmission round. Numerical analyses and simulations show that the proposed MIMO-ARQ system results in low BLER and high throughput performances with low computational complexity.
Autors: Chanyong Jeon;Inho Hwang;Jeong Woo Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2128 - 2143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Cuts Outer Approximation Method for Unit Commitment
Abstract:
This letter introduces a deterministic global optimization methods for unit commitment (UC) problem based on outer approximation method (OAM). The proposed Multi-cuts OAM (MCs-OAM) decomposes the UC problem into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) master problem and several nonlinear programming (NLP) subproblems, whereas only one NLP in classic OAM. After elaborately designing the terminating criterion for solving the bigger but tighter MILP master problems, MCs-OAM can obtained higher quality solutions with fewer main iterations and less total CPU times, although solving more NLPs consumes more CPU times than OAM. The numerical results on 42 test systems of up to 200 units show that the MCs-OAM is very promising for large scale UC problems because that it can obtain high-quality solutions in reasonable time.
Autors: Linfeng Yang;Jinbao Jian;Zhaoyang Dong;Chunming Tang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1587 - 1588
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Factor Authentication with OpenId in Virtualized Environments
Abstract:
Despite the number of users accessing and storing your personal information in cloud services has increased considerably, there still is a certain barrier regarding to cloud adoption. Data security and confidentiality can be considered one of main reasons that affect both sides, clients and cloud providers. Some techinques has been implemented to hamper the data violation and inapropriated access, such as two-factor authentication, that requires two or more factors to liberate the service access to an user. This work presents a performance analisys of two-factor authentication system considering three different virtual environments (KVM, Xen, and VMware Player hypervisors). For the two-factor authentication process, we use the traditional login and password mechanism, and the One Time Password (OTP), as second factor; and for the identity management, we use the OpenID protocol that allows a Single Sign One access. Results show KVM hypervisor has the best performance when compared to two others.
Autors: Jairo Matheus Alves;Thiago Gomes Rodrigues;David W Beserra;Jorge Cavalcanti Fonseca;Patricia Takako Endo;Judith Kelner;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 528 - 533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Objective Based Congestion Management Using Generation Rescheduling and Load Shedding
Abstract:
This paper proposes a new congestion management (CM) approach by using the generation rescheduling and load shedding, with the realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper presents several objective functions such as generation and load shedding cost minimization (GLCM)/social welfare maximization including demand response offers (SWM), load shedding minimization ( M), load served maximization (LSM), and load served error minimization. To the best of our knowledge, all previous CM efforts considered constant load models. Using voltage-dependent load models, the paper clearly brings out the inappropriateness of conventional single objectives for CM, such as GLCM/SWM and M, due to the reduction of amount of load served. Therefore, multi-objective optimization is required and the objectives can be judiciously combined depending on the loading condition. Multi-objective strength pareto evolutionary algorithm 2+ has been employed to solve the proposed CM problem. The effectiveness of the developed approach is confirmed from the simulation results on IEEE 30 bus test system.
Autors: S. Surender Reddy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 852 - 863
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Provider Service Chain Embedding With Nestor
Abstract:
Network function (NF) virtualization decouples NFs from the underlying middlebox hardware and promotes their deployment on virtualized network infrastructures. This essentially paves the way for the migration of NFs into clouds (i.e., NF-as-a-Service), achieving a drastic reduction of middlebox investment and operational costs for enterprises. In this context, service chains (expressing middlebox policies in the enterprise network) should be mapped onto datacenter networks, ensuring correctness, resource efficiency, as well as compliance with the provider’s policy. The network service embedding (NSE) problem is further exacerbated by two challenging aspects: 1) traffic scaling caused by certain NFs (e.g., caches and WAN optimizers) and 2) NF location dependencies. Traffic scaling requires resource reservations different from the ones specified in the service chain, whereas NF location dependencies, in conjunction with the limited geographic footprint of NF providers (NFPs), raise the need for NSE across multiple NFPs. In this paper, we present a holistic solution to the multi-provider NSE problem. We decompose NSE into: 1) NF-graph partitioning performed by a centralized coordinator and 2) NF-subgraph mapping onto datacenter networks. We present linear programming formulations to derive near-optimal solutions for both problems. We address the challenging aspect of traffic scaling by introducing a new service model that supports demand transformations. We also define topology abstractions for NF-graph partitioning. Furthermore, we discuss the steps required to embed service chains across multiple NFPs, using our NSE orchestrator (Nestor). We perform an evaluation study of multi-provider NSE with emphasis on NF-graph partitioning optimizations tailored to the client and NFPs. Our evaluation results further uncover significant savings in terms of service cost and resource consumption due to the demand transformations.
Autors: David Dietrich;Ahmed Abujoda;Amr Rizk;Panagiotis Papadimitriou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 91 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multi-Stage Optimization-Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors
Abstract:
This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change cost, and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal voltage/var dispatch by including a security margin in the voltage magnitude constraints. The robustness of the MORPF solution considering the voltage security margin is therefore improved. A platform is built for the offline investigations, employing the measurement data from the Danish national electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements.
Autors: Nan Qin;Claus Leth Bak;Hans Abildgaard;Zhe Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1073 - 1088
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multibeam Antennas Based on Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons Mode Coupling
Abstract:
Wireless link has need of an omnidirectional antenna like dipole, but with higher gains. Of course, there is no way of achieving both of them simultaneously. To solve this contradiction, we propose to design multibeam antennas, which divide the radiation pattern of omnidirectional antennas into several beams. The antenna, based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) mode coupling, consists of a feed monopole and N double-side corrugated metallic strips circling around the feed. The fields of the feed are coupled into SSPP waves that propagate along the strips and radiate at the end, dividing the omnidirectional radiation pattern into several beams. Three X-band prototypes of multibeam antennas with different radiation characteristics were designed, fabricated, and measured. Both numerical simulations and experimental results verify that the antennas are efficient in generating multiple beams with high gain at the predesigned directions.
Autors: Yajuan Han;Yongfeng Li;Hua Ma;Jiafu Wang;Dayi Feng;Shaobo Qu;Jieqiu Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1187 - 1192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicast-Aware High-Performance Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures
Abstract:
Today’s multiprocessor platforms employ the network-on-chip (NoC) architecture as the preferable communication backbone. Conventional NoCs are designed predominantly for unicast data exchanges. In such NoCs, the multicast traffic is generally handled by converting each multicast message to multiple unicast transmissions. Hence, applications dominated by multicast traffic experience high queuing latencies and significant performance penalties when running on systems designed with unicast-based NoC architectures. Various multicast mechanisms such as XY-tree multicast and path multicast have already been proposed to enhance the performance of the traditional wireline mesh NoC incorporating multicast traffic. However, even with such added features, the multihop nature of the wireline mesh NoC leads to high network latencies and thus limits the achievable system performance. In this paper, to sustain the high-bandwidth and high-throughput requirements of emerging applications, we propose the design of a wireless NoC (WiNoC) architecture incorporating necessary multicast support. By integrating congestion-aware multicast routing with network coding, the WiNoC is able to efficiently handle heavy multicast injections. For applications running with a broadcast-heavy Hammer cache coherence protocol, the proposed multicast-aware WiNoC achieves an average of 47% reduction in message latency compared with the XY-tree-based multicast-aware mesh NoC. This network level improvement translates into a 26% saving in full-system energy delay product.
Autors: Karthi Duraisamy;Yuankun Xue;Paul Bogdan;Partha Pratim Pande;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 1126 - 1139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multicasting over Emerging 5G Networks: Challenges and Perspectives
Abstract:
The number and variety of mobile multicast applications are growing at an unprecedented and unanticipated pace. Mobile network providers are in front of a dramatic increase in multicast traffic load, and this growth is forecasted to continue in fifth-generation (5G) networks. The major challenges come from the fact that multicast traffic not only targets groups of end-user devices; it also involves machine-type communications (MTC) for the Internet of Things (IoT). The increase in the MTC load, predicted for 5G, calls into question the effectiveness of the current multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS). The aim of this paper is to provide a survey of 5G challenges in the view of effective management of multicast applications, and to identify how to enhance the mobile network architecture to enable multicast applications in future 5G scenarios. By accounting for the presence of both human and machine-related traffic, strengths and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art achievements in multicasting are critically analyzed to provide guidelines for future research on 5G networks and more conscious design choices.
Autors: Giuseppe Araniti;Massimo Condoluci;Pasquale Scopelliti;Antonella Molinaro;Antonio Iera;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 31, issue:2, pages: 80 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multichannel Electrotactile Feedback With Spatial and Mixed Coding for Closed-Loop Control of Grasping Force in Hand Prostheses
Abstract:
Providing somatosensory feedback to the user of a myoelectric prosthesis is an important goal since it can improve the utility as well as facilitate the embodiment of the assistive system. Most often, the grasping force was selected as the feedback variable and communicated through one or more individual single channel stimulation units (e.g., electrodes, vibration motors). In the present study, an integrated, compact, multichannel solution comprising an array electrode and a programmable stimulator was presented. Two coding schemes (15 levels), spatial and mixed (spatial and frequency) modulation, were tested in able-bodied subjects, psychometrically and in force control with routine grasping and force tracking using real and simulated prosthesis. The results demonstrated that mixed and spatial coding, although substantially different in psychometric tests, resulted in a similar performance during both force control tasks. Furthermore, the ideal, visual feedback was not better than the tactile feedback in routine grasping. To explain the observed results, a conceptual model was proposed emphasizing that the performance depends on multiple factors, including feedback uncertainty, nature of the task and the reliability of the feedforward control. The study outcomes, specific conclusions and the general model, are relevant for the design of closed-loop myoelectric prostheses utilizing tactile feedback.
Autors: Strahinja Dosen;Marko Markovic;Matija Strbac;Minja Pub _bookmark Command="[Quick Mark]"Belić;Vladimir Kojić;Goran Bijelić;Thierry Keller;Dario Farina;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 25, issue:3, pages: 183 - 195
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multifunctional Control Strategy for Asymmetrical Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter in Microgrid Applications
Abstract:
A multifunctional control strategy for a single-phase asymmetrical cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACHMI), suitable for microgrid systems with nonlinear loads, is presented. The primary advantage of ACHMI is to produce a staircase output voltage with low harmonic content utilizing unequal dc voltages on the individual H-bridge cells. In a grid-connected mode of operation, the control strategy of the ACHMI is based on the conservative power theory, providing selective disturbing current compensation besides injecting its available energy. In autonomous mode of operation, two different control methods along with a damping resistor in the filter circuit are developed for regulation of the ACHMI instantaneous output voltage in a variety of load conditions. The first method is a single-loop voltage control scheme without the need of any current measurement. The second one is a multiloop voltage control scheme with a load current feedforward compensation strategy and preservation of the grid-connected current control scheme. The steady-state response and stability of both voltage control schemes are analyzed, and based on the application requirement, the control schemes are implemented individually. The effectiveness of each control strategy is experimentally verified using a hardware-in-the-loop setup with the control algorithm implemented in the TMSF28335 DSP microcontroller.
Autors: Ali Mortezaei;Marcelo Godoy Simões;Abdullah S. Bubshait;Tiago Davi Curi Busarello;Fernando P. Marafão;Ahmed Al-Durra;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1538 - 1551
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multihop Caching-Aided Coded Multicasting for the Next Generation of Cellular Networks
Abstract:
The next generation of cellular networks deploying wireless distributed femtocaching infrastructure proposed by Golrezaei et al. is studied. By taking advantage of multihop communications in each cell, the number of required femtocaching helpers is significantly reduced. This reduction is achieved by using underutilized storage and communication capabilities in user terminals, which results in reducing the deployment costs of distributed femtocaches. A multihop index coding technique is proposed to code the cached contents in helpers to achieve order-optimal capacity gains. As an example, we consider a wireless cellular system in which contents have a popularity distribution and demonstrate that our approach can replace many unicast communications with multicast communication. We will prove that simple heuristic linear index code algorithms based on graph coloring can achieve order-optimal capacity under Zipfian content popularity distribution.
Autors: Mohsen Karimzadeh Kiskani;Hamid R. Sadjadpour;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2576 - 2585
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multihop V2I Communications: A Feasibility Study, Modeling, and Performance Analysis
Abstract:
In typical wireless networks, multihop communication is a method used to establish connectivity between distant nodes. Adapting this technique to vehicular networks requires bypassing several challenging constraints imposed by the nature of vehicular environments (e.g., high mobility and speeds and repetitive link disruptions). This paper revolves around establishing a multihop connectivity path between an isolated source vehicle and a faraway gateway roadside unit (RSU) through cooperative vehicles serving as intermediate relays. A stochastic model is formulated for the purpose of deriving an expression for the probability of the existence of a connectivity path between and . Then, the dynamic changes in the network topology are carefully examined to present a tight upper bound for the average end-to-end packet delivery delay. Finally, taking into account the inherent contention-based nature of the employed IEEE 802.11p medium access control (MAC) protocol, together with several other limiting factors such as relay unavailability and hidden terminals, the per-hop and the end-to-end throughput expressions are presented. Extensive simulations are conducted for the purpose of validating the proposed model and examining the system's performance.
Autors: Ribal Atallah;Maurice Khabbaz;Chadi Assi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 2801 - 2810
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multilayer Architecture for Heterogeneous Geospatial Data Analytics: Querying and Understanding EO Archives
Abstract:
The constantly growing process of the Earth Observation (EO) data and their heterogeneity require new systems and tools for effectively querying and understanding the available data archives. In this paper, we present a tool for heterogeneous geospatial data analytics. The system implements different web technologies in a multilayer server–client architecture, allowing the user to visually analyze satellite images, maps, and in-situ information. Specifically, the information managed is composed of EO multispectral and synthetic aperture radar products along with the multitemporal in-situ LUCAS surveys. The integration of these data provides a very useful information during the EO scene interpretation process. The system also offers interactive tools for the detection of optimal datasets for EO multitemporal image change detection, providing at the same time ground-truth points for both human and machine analyses. Furthermore, we show by means of visual analytic representations a way to analyze and understand the content and distribution of the EO databases.
Autors: Kevin Alonso;Daniela Espinoza-Molina;Mihai Datcu;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 791 - 801
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multimedia Technologies for Enriched Music Performance, Production, and Consumption
Abstract:
This special issue gathers state-of-the-art research on multimedia methods and technologies aimed at enriching music performance, production, and consumption.
Autors: Cynthia C.S. Liem;Emilia Gómez;George Tzanetakis;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 20 - 23
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiobjective Bayesian Optimization for Active Load Modulation in a Broadband 20-W GaN Doherty Power Amplifier Design
Abstract:
This paper proposes a multiobjective Bayesian optimization strategy to deal with the complex matching problem of designing a broadband 20-W gallium nitride Doherty power amplifier (DPA). Applying the proposed method, the DPA’s matching networks are optimized to align the desired and the realized impedance trajectories both at saturation and power backoff from 1.5 to 2.4 GHz. By combining a programming environment with the commercial electronic design automation (EDA) software, the optimization process is implemented automatically. Comparison designs reveal that the proposed method outperforms the built-in optimizer of the commercial EDA software for broadband DPA designs. When tested with a single-carrier 20 MHz long-term evolution signal, the measured results show that the DPA achieves an average efficiency of 45.3%–53.6% at 7 dB backoff across the band, with the adjacent channel power ratio levels better than −45.6 dBc after using digital predistortion.
Autors: Peng Chen;Jing Xia;Brian M. Merrick;Thomas J. Brazil;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 860 - 871
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiplayer Reach-Avoid Games via Pairwise Outcomes
Abstract:
A multiplayer reach-avoid game is a differential game between an attacking team with attackers and a defending team with defenders playing on a compact domain with obstacles. The attacking team aims to send of the attackers to some target location, while the defending team aims to prevent that by capturing attackers or indefinitely delaying attackers from reaching the target. Although the analysis of this game plays an important role in many applications, the optimal solution to this game is computationally intractable when or . In this technical note, we present two approaches for the case to determine pairwise outcomes, and a graph theoretic maximum matching approach to merge these pairwise outcomes for an solution that provides guarantees on the performance of the defending team. We will show that the four-dimensional Hamilton–Jacobi–Isaacs approach allows for real-time updates to the maximum matching, and that the two-dimensional “path defense” approach is considerably more scalable with the number of players while maintaining defender performance guarantees.
Autors: Mo Chen;Zhengyuan Zhou;Claire J. Tomlin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1451 - 1457
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Faulty GNSS Measurement Exclusion Based on Consistency Check in Urban Canyons
Abstract:
Sensors play important roles for autonomous driving. Localization is definitely a key one. Undoubtedly, global positioning system (GPS) sensor will provide absolute localization for almost all the future land vehicles. In terms of driverless car, 1.5 m of positioning accuracy is the minimum requirement, since the vehicle has to keep in a driving lane that usually wider than 3 m. However, the skyscrapers in highly-urbanized cities, such as Tokyo and Hong Kong, dramatically deteriorate GPS localization performance, leading more than 50 m of error. GPS signals are reflected at modern glassy buildings, which caused the notorious multipath effect. Fortunately, the number of navigation satellite is rapidly increasing in a global scale, since the rise of multi-global navigation satellite system. It provides an excellent opportunity for positioning algorithm developer of GPS sensor. More satellites in the sky imply more measurements to be received. Novelty, this paper proposes to take advantage of the fact that clean measurements (refers to line-of-sight measurement) are consistent and multipath measurements are inconsistent. Based on this consistency check, the faulty measurements can be detected and excluded to obtain better localization accuracy. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can achieve less than 1-m lateral positioning error in middle urban canyons.
Autors: Li-Ta Hsu;Hiroko Tokura;Nobuaki Kubo;Yanlei Gu;Shunsuke Kamijo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 17, issue:6, pages: 1909 - 1917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Novel Dense Vanishing Point Estimation
Abstract:
The detection of multiple curved lane markings is still a challenge for advanced driver assistance systems today, due to interference such as road markings and shadows cast by roadside structures and vehicles. The vanishing point contains the global information of the road image. Hence, -based lane detection algorithms are quite insensitive to interference. When curved lanes are assumed, shifts with respect to the rows of the image. In this paper, a for each individual row of the image is estimated by first extracting a (vertical position of the ) for each individual row of the image from the v-disparity. Then, based on the estimated 's, a 2-D (horizontal position of the ) accumulator is efficiently formed. Thus, by globally optimizing this 2-D accumulator, globally optimum s for the road image are extracted. Then, estimated s are utilized for multiple curved lane marking detection on nonflat road surfaces. The- resultant system achieves a detection rate of 99% in 1862 frames of six stereo vision test sequences.
Autors: Umar Ozgunalp;Rui Fan;Xiao Ai;Naim Dahnoun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 621 - 632
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Service Configurations Based on Layered Division Multiplexing
Abstract:
In this paper, we present multiple service configurations based on layered division multiplexing (LDM), which is adopted as a baseline technology of the Advanced Television Systems Committee 3.0 standard. Based on a two-layer LDM technology, a variety of multiple-physical layer pipe (PLP) configurations as well as physical layer framing is introduced depending on the choices of service scenario, time interleaving, and cell addressing. A performance analysis is provided when three different broadcasting services—robust audio, indoor/mobile, and high data rate services—are delivered through different PLPs when a number of broadcasting service scenarios is presented.
Autors: Jae-Young Lee;Sung-Ik Park;Sunhyoung Kwon;Bo-Mi Lim;Heung Mook Kim;Jon Montalbán;Pablo Angueira;Liang Zhang;Wei Li;Yi-Yan Wu;Jeongchang Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:1, pages: 267 - 274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple Time Resolution Stochastic Scheduling for Systems With High Renewable Penetration
Abstract:
This paper presents a stochastic unified unit commitment and economic dispatch model for short-term operations scheduling of power systems with high renewable penetration. The model is a unique stochastic real-time tool that performs economic dispatch with up to 36-hour look-ahead capability, providing dispatch instructions for the first time interval and advisory commitment and dispatch schedules for the remaining scheduling horizon. Variable time resolution is used to contain computational requirements, i.e., finer time resolution is used during the first hours and coarser time resolution during the last hours of the scheduling horizon. The mathematical formulation comprises a MILP problem and it is presented as a two-stage scenario-based stochastic, multiple time resolution unit commitment model. The proposed stochastic model is tested against its deterministic counterpart via an annual simulation of Greek power system short-term operations using real 2013 data. Performance indices concerning dispatch costs, energy balances, and unit cycling are calculated and discussed.
Autors: Emmanouil A. Bakirtzis;Pandelis N. Biskas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1030 - 1040
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Integration Approach for Land Cover Classification Based on Minimal Entropy of Posterior Probability
Abstract:
Object-based land cover mapping has drawn increasing attention for its ability to overcome the salt-and-pepper problem associated with pixel-based methods by considering spatial information from neighboring regions. However, the performance of object-based classification is strongly affected by over- or undersegmented objects. The optimal scale is difficult to determine; moreover, it usually varies along with the application purpose or classification targets. Most previous efforts on scale determination based only on image information are not flexible in adapting to different classification systems; consequently, their use is not advisable. In this paper, to better consider classification targets, the information from training samples for classification is also used for determining the optimal scale based on the concept of minimal entropy of posterior probability (MEPP). The proposed MEPP method consists mainly of two stages: 1) training samples from the original pixel level are applied to classify segmented images and obtain posterior probability maps on multiple scales; and 2) the optimal object scale is determined according to the MEPP that corresponds to the minimum classification uncertainty. Experiments on high-spatial-resolution images and Landsat images confirm the superiority of the proposed MEPP method in land cover classification.
Autors: Dedi Yang;Xuehong Chen;Jin Chen;Xin Cao;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 1105 - 1116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiscale Modeling of Glioblastoma Suggests that the Partial Disruption of Vessel/Cancer Stem Cell Crosstalk Can Promote Tumor Regression Without Increasing Invasiveness
Abstract:
Objective: In glioblastoma, the crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and glioma stem cells (GSCs) has been shown to enhance tumor growth. We propose a multiscale mathematical model to study this mechanism, explore tumor growth under various initial and microenvironmental conditions, and investigate the effects of blocking this crosstalk. Methods: We develop a hybrid continuum-discrete model of highly organized vascularized tumors. VEC-GSC crosstalk is modeled via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by tumor cells and by secretion of soluble factors by VECs that promote GSC self-renewal and proliferation. Results: VEC-GSC crosstalk increases both tumor size and GSC fraction by enhancing GSC activity and neovascular development. VEGF promotes vessel formation, and larger VEGF sources typically increase vessel numbers, which enhances tumor growth and stabilizes the tumor shape. Increasing the initial GSC fraction has a similar effect. Partially disrupting the crosstalk by blocking VEC secretion of GSC promoters reduces tumor size but does not increase invasiveness, which is in contrast to antiangiogenic therapies, which reduce tumor size but may significantly increase tumor invasiveness. Significance: Multiscale modeling supports the targeting of VEC-GSC crosstalk as a promising approach for cancer therapy.
Autors: Huaming Yan;Mónica Romero-López;Hermann B. Frieboes;Christopher C. W. Hughes;John S. Lowengrub;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 538 - 548
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistatic Biomedical Microwave Imaging Using Spatial Interpolator for Extended Virtual Antenna Array
Abstract:
The accuracy of multistatic microwave imaging is highly dependent on the number of antennas used for data acquisition. The antenna size, available space for antennas, mutual coupling between antennas and acceptable hardware complexity (switching and processing) limit the usable number of antennas. To address this issue, the concept of virtual array is utilized. In this regard, a spatial interpolator is designed to predict the received signals at the location of the virtual elements using the recorded signals by a limited number of real antennas. Consequently, a frequency-based imaging algorithm is used to process the virtual-array signals and produce clear images that enable accurate detection. The presented method is tested via simulations and experiments using a multistatic-radar-based head imaging system operating using the band 1.1–3.2 GHz. The data recorded by eight antennas around the head is used to form equivalent data from an extended virtual array of 12, 16, and 32 elements. Using quantitative metrics, it is shown that the constructed images from the extended virtual array are more accurate than the images created only from the real antennas. It is also shown that a virtual array that has twice the number of elements of the real array, which meet the minimum limit of degree-of-freedom of the problem, is enough to generate an accurate image with optimized computational resources. In comparison with existing correlation-based methods, the presented approach provides more accurate images.
Autors: Ali Zamani;Amin M. Abbosh;Stuart Crozier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1121 - 1130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multistress Characterization of Fault Mechanisms in Aerospace Electric Actuators
Abstract:
The concept behind the more electric aircraft is the progressive electrification of on-board actuators and services. It is a way to reduce or eliminate the dependence on hydraulic, mechanical, and bleed air/pneumatic systems, and pursue efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. This paper presents a specialized test rig whose main objective is to assess insulation lifespan modeling under various stress conditions, especially investigating the interaction between ageing factors. The test setup is able to reproduce a multitude of environmental and operational conditions at which electric drives and motors, used in aerospace applications, are subjected. It is thus possible to tailor the test cycle in order to mimic the working cycle of an electrical motor during real operation in aircraft application. The developed test-rig is aimed at projecting the technology readiness to higher levels of maturity in the context of electrical motors and drives for aerospace applications. Its other objective is to validate and support the development of a comprehensive insulation degradation model.
Autors: Davide Barater;Fabio Immovilli;Alessandro Soldati;Giampaolo Buticchi;Giovanni Franceschini;Christopher Gerada;Michael Galea;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1106 - 1115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuniversity Research: The Power Systems Engineering Research Center [History]
Abstract:
In This article, We Relate events leading up to the creation of the Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC ) and the problems associated with convincing people that a group of universities can function as a single center. The keys to this achievement are industrial support, university collaboration, and effective management. The article continues with a discussion of how PSERC has evolved over the past 20 years.
Autors: Dennis J. Ray;Peter W. Sauer;Robert J. Thomas;Jay Giri;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 74 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiuse Playspaces: Mediating Expressive Community Places
Abstract:
The authors present their design-led development process in creating an exemplar multiuse playspace in the Adressaparken public park in Trondheim, Norway.
Autors: Wendy Ann Mansilla;Andrew Perkis;
Appeared in: IEEE Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 12 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multivariate Adaptive Sampling of Parameterized Antenna Responses
Abstract:
We present a robust method to adaptively construct parameterized models of the full radiation patterns of antennas and the associated S-parameters. The method sequentially selects points (geometric parameters of the antenna and frequency) such that an accurate model is obtained over a constrained multivariate parameter space. The algorithm consists of a balance between exploration and exploitation of the parameter space, resulting in a near optimal coverage of the design space, with some emphasis being placed in regions of the parameter space where the patterns or S-parameters vary rapidly. In addition, the technique is equipped with a measure of absolute error control. The proposed method is validated through pertinent numerical examples.
Autors: Ngoy Mutonkole;Dirk I. L. de Villiers;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1073 - 1080
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mutual Information and Error Probability Analysis on Generalized Spatial Modulation System
Abstract:
Generalized spatial modulation (GSM) is an extended architecture to the spatial modulation multiple antenna system. The GSM system uses multiple activated transmit antennas to further exploit the system transmission capacity. In this paper, we consider the GSM systems with channel diagonalization (CD-) transmitter pre-coder (TPC), channel inversion TPC, and without TPC. For each TPC scheme, the pairwise activated antenna detection discriminant and closed-form antenna detection pairwise error probability (PEP) of the GSM system are derived. We use the antenna detection PEP to calculate the analytical antenna detection symbol error rate union bound and the mutual information lower bound. We use asymptotic methods to analyze antenna detection diversity and coding gains of GSM system with or without TPC when the signal-to-noise ratio is high. Together with complexity analysis on the pre-coders and antenna detectors, we discover the CD-TPC trades the antenna detection performance for complexity reduction, while the CD-TPC scheme achieves a balance between the performance and complexity. This paper introduces methods to the performance evaluation of the GSM system, and provides a guideline for the GSM system design such as antenna configuration and TPC schemes selection.
Autors: Zhecheng An;Jun Wang;Jintao Wang;Jian Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1044 - 1060
Publisher: IEEE
 
» My Privacy My Decision: Control of Photo Sharing on Online Social Networks
Abstract:
Photo sharing is an attractive feature which popularizes online social networks (OSNs). Unfortunately, it may leak users’ privacy if they are allowed to post, comment, and tag a photo freely. In this paper, we attempt to address this issue and study the scenario when a user shares a photo containing individuals other than himself/herself (termed co-photo for short). To prevent possible privacy leakage of a photo, we design a mechanism to enable each individual in a photo be aware of the posting activity and participate in the decision making on the photo posting. For this purpose, we need an efficient facial recognition (FR) system that can recognize everyone in the photo. However, more demanding privacy setting may limit the number of the photos publicly available to train the FR system. To deal with this dilemma, our mechanism attempts to utilize users’ private photos to design a personalized FR system specifically trained to differentiate possible photo co-owners without leaking their privacy. We also develop a distributed consensus-based method to reduce the computational complexity and protect the private training set. We show that our system is superior to other possible approaches in terms of recognition ratio and efficiency. Our mechanism is implemented as a proof of concept Android application on Facebook’s platform.
Autors: Kaihe Xu;Yuanxiong Guo;Linke Guo;Yuguang Fang;Xiaolin Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 199 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» N-Polar GaN Cap MISHEMT With Record Power Density Exceeding 6.5 W/mm at 94 GHz
Abstract:
A novel N-Polar GaN cap (MIS)high electron mobility transistor demonstrating record 6.7-W/mm power density with an associated power-added efficiency of 14.4% at 94 GHz is presented. This state-of-the-art power performance is enabled by utilizing the inherent polarization fields of N-Polar GaN in combination with a 47.5-nm in situ GaN cap layer to simultaneously mitigate dispersion and improve access region conductivity. These excellent results build upon past work through the use of optimized device dimensions and a transition from a sapphire to a substrate for reduced self-heating.
Autors: Steven Wienecke;Brian Romanczyk;Matthew Guidry;Haoran Li;Elaheh Ahmadi;Karine Hestroffer;Xun Zheng;Stacia Keller;Umesh K. Mishra;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 359 - 362
Publisher: IEEE
 
» N-Queens Problem Resolution Using the Quantum Computing Model
Abstract:
This paper aims to propose solution for a classical and difficult decision problem using quantum computing. At first, it provides experimental samples taking well-known search problems, where it is possible to establish a plausible comparison between classical search algorithms and a similar quantum algorithm. Moreover, a quantum algorithm is construct in order to deliver solution for a sophisticated mathematical problem called N-Queens. The algorithm was implemented in a quantum computing simulator obtaining solutions for problems with up to 128 queens at a reasonable cost.
Autors: Flavio Jesus de Souza;Flavio Luis de Mello;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 534 - 540
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Natural Interaction Techniques for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System
Abstract:
This article provides an overview of existing interaction techniques for controlling unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems. This work focuses on user interfaces with nontraditional input modalities, such as gestures, speech, and gaze direction. Although the authors analyze interaction with UAV systems, most of the findings can be applied to human-robot interaction in general. The authors report on interaction techniques employed to control single as well as multiple UAV systems, define intuitiveness of input vocabularies in the considered context, and introduce a new classification scheme based on the mental models underlying the interaction vocabulary. This article is part of a special issue on drones.
Autors: Ekaterina Peshkova;Martin Hitz;Bonifaz Kaufmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 34 - 42
Publisher: IEEE
 
» NATwatcher: Profiling NATs in the Wild
Abstract:
NATs are commonplace in the Internet nowadays. It is fair to say that most residential and mobile users are connected to the Internet through one or more NATs. As with any other technology, NAT presents upsides and downsides. Probably the most acknowledged downside of the NAT technology is that it introduces additional difficulties for some applications such as peer-to-peer applications, gaming, and others to function properly. This is partially due to the nature of the NAT technology but also due to the diversity of behaviors of the different NAT implementations deployed in the Internet. Understanding the properties of the currently deployed NAT base provides useful input for application and protocol developers regarding what to expect when deploying new applications in the Internet. The goal of this article is to identify common NAT profiles in order to provide an overview of the current behavior of NATs. We develop NATwatcher, a tool to test NAT boxes using a crowdsourcing- based measurement methodology. We perform a large measurement campaign using NATwatcher recruiting over 700 users, from 65 different countries and 280 ISPs. We present the results after testing and profiling NAT products from over 120 vendors.
Autors: Anna Maria Mandalari;Miguel Angel Diaz Bautista;Francisco Valera;Marcelo Bagnulo;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 178 - 185
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Near-Field Modular Antenna Concept With Configurable Reading Area for RFID Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents a near-field antenna with significant reading area that is reconfigurable. This antenna is used to realize near-field radio frequency identification technology in the UHF band (UHF RFID) reader. The antenna is printed on a flexible plastic substrate and then cut to the desired dimensions to be positioned over the area where it is desired to carry out the reading of near-field UHF RFID tags. This new concept of configurable antenna on demand, which is cut to fix the reading zone, shows extremely modular characteristics and can be simply implanted in a real environment. The performances of different configurations of the antenna that tell about different reading surfaces are presented. Significant reading surfaces never obtained before for near-field UHF RFID tags ( cm2) up to cm2 with a minimum range of 15 cm for the 868 MHz band are reported. Reading areas in three dimensions of such antennas are characterized experimentally with commercial tags to confirm the performances in a real environment.
Autors: Mossaab Daiki;Etienne Perret;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1015 - 1025
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Negative Capacitance for Boosting Tunnel FET performance
Abstract:
We have proposed and investigated a super steep subthreshold slope transistor by introducing negative capacitance of a ferroelectric HfO2 gate insulator to a vertical tunnel FET for energy efficient computing. The channel structure and gate insulator are systematically designed to maximize the ratio. The simulation study reveals that the electric field at the tunnel junction can be effectively enhanced by potential amplification due to the negative capacitance. The enhanced electric field increases the band-to-band tunneling rate and ratio, which results in 10× higher energy efficiency than in tunnel FET.
Autors: Masaharu Kobayashi;Kyungmin Jang;Nozomu Ueyama;Toshiro Hiramoto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:2, pages: 253 - 258
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neighborhood Matching for Image Retrieval
Abstract:
In the last few years, large-scale image retrieval has attracted a lot of attention from the multimedia community. Usual approaches addressing this task first generate an initial ranking of the reference images using fast approximations that do not take into consideration the spatial arrangement of local features in the image (e.g., the bag-of-words paradigm). The top positions of the rankings are then re-estimated with verification methods that deal with more complex information, such as the geometric layout of the image. This verification step allows pruning of many false positives at the expense of an increase in the computational complexity, which may prevent its application to large-scale retrieval problems. This paper describes a geometric method known as neighborhood matching (NM), which revisits the keypoint matching process by considering a neighborhood around each keypoint and improves the efficiency of a geometric verification step in the image search system. Multiple strategies are proposed and compared to incorporate NM into a large-scale image retrieval framework. A detailed analysis and comparison of these strategies and baseline methods have been investigated. The experiments show that the proposed method not only improves the computational efficiency, but also increases the retrieval performance and outperforms state-of-the-art methods in standard datasets, such as the Oxford 5 k and 105 k datasets, for which the spatial verification step has a significant impact on the system performance.
Autors: Iván González-Díaz;Murat Birinci;Fernando Díaz-de-María;Edward J. Delp;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 544 - 558
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Flow Query Language—Design, Implementation, Performance, and Applications
Abstract:
Cisco’s NetFlow protocol and Internet engineering task force’s Internet protocol flow information export open standard are widely deployed protocols for collecting network flow statistics. Understanding intricate traffic patterns in these network statistics requires sophisticated flow analysis tools that can efficiently mine network flow records. We present a network flow query language (NFQL), which can be used to write expressive queries to process flow records, aggregate them into groups, apply absolute or relative filters, and invoke Allen interval algebra rules to merge group records. We demonstrate nfql, an implementation of the language that has comparable execution times to SiLK and flow-tools with absolute filters. However, it trades performance when grouping and merging flows in favor of more operational capabilities that help increase the expressiveness of NFQL. We present two applications to demonstrate richer capabilities of the language. We show queries to identify flow signatures of popular applications and behavioural signatures to identify SSH compromise detection attacks.
Autors: Vaibhav Bajpai;Jürgen Schönwälder;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 8 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Motif Discovery: A GPU Approach
Abstract:
The identification of network motifs has important applications in numerous domains, such as pattern detection in biological networks and graph analysis in digital circuits. However, mining network motifs is computationally challenging, as it requires enumerating subgraphs from a real-life graph, and computing the frequency of each subgraph in a large number of random graphs. In particular, existing solutions often require days to derive network motifs from biological networks with only a few thousand vertices. To address this problem, this paper presents a novel study on network motif discovery using Graphical Processing Units (GPUs). The basic idea is to employ GPUs to parallelize a large number of subgraph matching tasks in computing subgraph frequencies from random graphs, so as to reduce the overall computation time of network motif discovery. We explore the design space of GPU-based subgraph matching algorithms, with careful analysis of several crucial factors (such as branch divergences and memory coalescing) that affect the performance of GPU programs. Based on our analysis, we develop a GPU-based solution that (i) considerably differs from existing CPU-based methods in how it enumerates subgraphs, and (ii) exploits the strengths of GPUs in terms of parallelism while mitigating their limitations in terms of the computation power per GPU core. With extensive experiments on a variety of biological networks, we show that our solution is up to two orders of magnitude faster than the best CPU-based approach, and is around times more cost-effective than the latter, when taking into account the monetary costs of the CPU and GPUs used.
Autors: Wenqing Lin;Xiaokui Xiao;Xing Xie;Xiao-Li Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 513 - 528
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Synchronization for Mobile Device-to-Device Systems
Abstract:
This paper studies the synchronization problem for mobile cellular device-to-device (D2D) networks. Depending on the number of devices that are in coverage of the base station, the D2D environment can be divided into three categories where the partial-coverage and out-of-coverage are challenging scenarios and thus are the focus of this paper. First, we discuss five main challenges imposed on the synchronization problem in mobile D2D networks. More specifically, there are different challenges in the two coverage scenarios, since they do not have exactly the same synchronization objectives. Second, we propose a low-complexity Adaptive distRibuted nEtwork Synchronization (ARES) algorithm to address the five challenges. The design principles and the theories behind the ARES scheme are also analyzed in detail. Finally, we provide comprehensive simulations to evaluate different synchronization schemes, where the proposed ARES mechanism shows very promising performance.
Autors: Wanlu Sun;Fredrik Brännström;Erik G. Ström;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 1193 - 1206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Network Testing and Analytics
Abstract:
Autors: Ying-Dar Lin;Erica Johnson;Irena Atov;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 55, issue:3, pages: 154 - 155
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Neuroevolution in Games: State of the Art and Open Challenges
Abstract:
This paper surveys research on applying neuroevolution (NE) to games. In neuroevolution, artificial neural networks are trained through evolutionary algorithms, taking inspiration from the way biological brains evolved. We analyze the application of NE in games along five different axes, which are the role NE is chosen to play in a game, the different types of neural networks used, the way these networks are evolved, how the fitness is determined and what type of input the network receives. The paper also highlights important open research challenges in the field.
Autors: Sebastian Risi;Julian Togelius;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 25 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New EIC Editorial
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Xuemin Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 495 - 496
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Magnetic Materials for Electrical Machines and Power Converters
Abstract:
The papers in this special section address new magnetic materials for power converters and electrical machines. The last decade has been characterized by a continuous demand for high-efficiency electrical machines and power, which have to be designed to obtain high power density with high efficiency and at the same time reduced costs. Among the several design approaches typically used to achieve these targets, the adoption of high-quality magnetic materials is one of the most common ones. For this reason, the magnetic steel manufacturers have improved the performances of their materials by increasing the permeability and the saturation levels while at the same time reducing the specific iron losses. Magnetic materials characterized by new metallurgical technological processes and different compositions have been introduced in the market, enlarging the possible choices available to the electromagnetic device producers. As a consequence, the year after year increasing typology of magnetic materials with new compositions, material processing techniques, and supplied forms makes it challenging to choose the most suitable material for a specific machine design.
Autors: Aldo Boglietti;Andrea Cavagnino;Andreas Krings;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2402 - 2404
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New MDS Self-Dual Codes From Generalized Reed—Solomon Codes
Abstract:
Both Maximum Distance Separable and Euclidean self-dual codes have theoretical and practical importance and the study of MDS self-dual codes has attracted lots of attention in recent years. In particular, determining the existence of -ary MDS self-dual codes for various lengths has been investigated extensively. The problem is completely solved for the case where is even. This paper focuses on the case where is odd. We construct a few classes of new MDS self-dual codes through generalized Reed–Solomon codes. More precisely, we show that for any given even length , we have a -ary MDS code as long as and is sufficiently large (say . Furthermore, we prove that there exists a -ary MDS self-dual code of length if and satisfies one of the three conditions: 1) and is even; 2) is an odd divisor of ; and 3) and for any .
Autors: Lingfei Jin;Chaoping Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1434 - 1438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» New Products [New Products]
Abstract:
Presents a look of new products and services in the microwave industry.
Autors: Ken Mays;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 108 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» News from the Field
Abstract:
Presents information of interest to engineers working in the field of haptics development and applications support.
Autors: Lynette A. Jones;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 3 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Next Generation IGBT and Package Technologies for High Voltage Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, we will present an overview of the latest results covering both Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and packaging technologies intended for demanding high-power applications. We will present the recently developed press pack module rated at 4500 V and 3000 A utilizing an advanced reverse conducting RC-IGBT for hard switching application, which together with the improved module layout yields the most powerful IGBT-based device up to date. For applications that require isolated modules, we will show our new dual IGBT module rated up to 3.3 kV and 450 A. The module layout was optimized to allow highly scalable converter designs with overall low stray inductances. This opens up new possibilities to further reduce losses due to the fact that the devices can be made thinner than today’s limits for achieving lower switching losses with soft performance. We will show the latest results from the enhanced trench IGBT-cell development and give an outlook for the power levels that can be achieved by combining the new cell with the RC-IGBT concept.
Autors: Arnost Kopta;Munaf Rahimo;Chiara Corvasce;Maxi Andenna;Franc Dugal;Fabian Fischer;Samuel Hartmann;Andreas Baschnagel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 753 - 759
Publisher: IEEE
 
» No Need for Speed : More Signal Processing Innovation Is Required Before Adopting Automated Vehicles [In the Spotlight]
Abstract:
We spend a considerable amount of time driving—to work, to home, for recreation, for travel. This love for the automobile is on the precipice of becoming a worldwide phenomenon. While new markets, like China, have opened up in the past decade, the need for the automotive industry to find new customers, combined with an array of emerging technologies that will make driving easier, will allow cars to reach markets that never before had access to driving. Likewise, the promise of new capabilities that automate and enhance the safety of the driving experience will guarantee that existing drivers return to purchase the latest model.
Autors: Wade Trappe;
Appeared in: IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 34, issue:2, pages: 124 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nodes Migration Scheduling of Access Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the nodes migration scheduling problem that aims to migrate nodes from an outdated access network to a new one. In order to avoid services’ interruption, a bridge is installed temporarily between the two networks and, as for the nodes, they are migrated, one at each time period, from the old to the new network. The objective is to find a migration’s sequence that minimizes the cost of the capacity to install on the bridge. We provide a compact formulation of polynomial size in order to solve the problem optimally. We reformulate it in such a way that the new model reduces drastically the branch-and-bound search tree. In addition, we give a lower bound based on a bi-partitioning problem that turns out to be close to the optimal solutions. We conduct experiments on a case study consisting of migrating eNodeBs of a 4G network from an access network to another. The computational experiments show the performance of our approach as the proposed model provided optimal solutions for up to 40 nodes.
Autors: Mehdi Mrad;Ali Balma;Fatma Moalla;Talel Ladhari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 77 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noise Mechanism of TDMR Readers at System Level
Abstract:
In perpendicular magnetic recording system, the jitter noise is the dominant noise from the medium. The jitter noise is proportional to the cross-track correlation and the square of transition parameter [1]. For a given head and medium, pushing linear density has more SNR penalty than increasing track density. That is why all the emerging technologies, such as shingled magnetic recording, microwave assisted magnetic recording, heat assisted magnetic recording, and bit pattern media, emphasize more on the track density increment for the growth of areal density. One challenge from narrower track width is the inter-track interference (ITI). In the two-dimensional magnetic recording (TDMR), multiple readers were proposed to reproduce the signals from multiple tracks [2]. The recent study shows that TDMR readers are effective to cancel the ITI from the adjacent tracks and are able to achieve higher track density [3]. The pitch between the readers along cross-track direction needs to be set properly for the optimal ITI cancellation. But due to the skew angle, one of TDMR readers may have to read near the middle of two tracks. When the recording bits on two adjacent tracks are in the opposite polarity, it may create local flux paths between reader hard bias and medium bits. This could generate multi-domains in the read sensor and produces additional reader noises. This paper studies this noise dependence on both the off-track position and the bit length.
Autors: Zhi-Min Yuan;Chun Lian Ong;Zhejie Liu;Shiming Ang;Budi Santoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:3, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non Sequitur
Abstract:
Various puzzles, humorous definitions, or mathematical recreations - usually having some relevance to electrical engineering - that should engage the interest of readers.
Autors: Wiley Miller;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:2, pages: 120 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Sequential Monte Carlo Simulation for Cyber-Induced Dependent Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluation
Abstract:
Cyber-induced dependent failures are important to be considered in composite system reliability evaluation. Because of the complexity and dimensionality, Monte Carlo simulation is a preferred method for composite system reliability evaluation. The non-sequential Monte Carlo or sampling generally requires less computational and storage resources than sequential techniques and is generally preferred for large systems where components are independent or only a limited dependency exists. However, cyber-induced events involve dependent failures, making it difficult to use sampling methods. The difficulties of using sampling with dependent failures are discussed and a solution is proposed. The basic idea is to generate a representative state space from which states can be sampled. The probabilities of representative state space provide an approximation of the joint distribution and are generated by a sequential simulation in this paper but it may be possible to find alternative means of achieving this objective. The proposed method preserves the dependent features of cyber-induced events and also improves the efficiency. Although motivated by cyber-induced failures, the technique can be used for other types of dependent failures as well. A comparative study between a purely sequential methodology and the proposed method is presented on an extended Roy Billinton Test System.
Autors: Hangtian Lei;Chanan Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1064 - 1072
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Non-Uniform Time Resampling for Diagnosing Broken Rotor Bars in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors
Abstract:
Fault detection in inverter-fed induction motors (IMs) is an actual industrial need. Many line-fed machines are being replaced by inverter-fed drives for improving control during startup and also for saving energy. Broken rotor bars (BRBs) in IMs is one of the most difficult faults to be detected, particularly when the motor is fed by an inverter in a soft startup. The difficulty of detecting BRBs is that the characteristic fault-related frequencies are very close to the fundamental frequency, and the amplitude of the fundamental is significantly higher than the fault-related frequency components. This paper proposes an effective method that allows the detection of the BRB fault in inverter-fed IMs during a soft startup transient based on a non-uniform resampling algorithm. The proposed algorithm transforms the nonstationary fundamental frequency into a stationary component by non-uniform resampling, whereas the fault-related components are considerably separated from the fundamental one, making easier to follow their evolution during the startup transient. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method to detect the fault.
Autors: Tomas Alberto Garcia-Calva;Daniel Morinigo-Sotelo;Rene de Jesus Romero-Troncoso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 2306 - 2315
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonadaptive Group Testing Based on Sparse Pooling Graphs
Abstract:
An information theoretical analysis of nonadaptive group testing schemes based on sparse pooling graphs is presented. A pooling graph is a bipartite graph for which the adjacency matrix is a pooling matrix. The binary status of the objects to be tested are modeled by independent identically distributed. Bernoulli random variables with probability . An -regular pooling graph is a bipartite graph in which the left nodes have degree , the right nodes have degree , and is the number of left nodes. The main contribution of this paper is a direct coding theorem that gives the conditions for the existence of an estimator that can achieve an arbitrarily small probability of error. An estimator is a function that uses observations to infer the state of an object. The direct coding theorem is proved by averaging the upper bound on the probability of the estimation error of the typical set estimator over an -regular pooling graph ensemble. Numerical results indicate sharp threshold behaviors in the asymptotic regime. These results can provide a concrete benchmark for nonadaptive group testing of existing and emerging detection algorithms over a noiseless system.
Autors: Tadashi Wadayama;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1525 - 1534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonasymptotic Pseudo-State Estimation for a Class of Fractional Order Linear Systems
Abstract:
This paper aims at designing a nonasymptotic and robust pseudo-state estimator for a class of fractional order linear systems which can be transformed into the Brunovsky's observable canonical form of pseudo-state space representation with unknown initial conditions. First, this form is expressed by a fractional order linear differential equation involving the initial values of the fractional sequential derivatives of the output, based on which the modulating functions method is applied. Then, the former initial values and the fractional derivatives of the output are exactly given by algebraic integral formulae using a recursive way, which are used to nonasymptotically estimate the pseudo-state of the system in noisy environment. Second, the pseudo-state estimator is studied in discrete noisy case, which contains the numerical error due to a used numerical integration method, and the noise error contribution due to a class of stochastic processes. Then, the noise error contribution is analyzed, where an error bound useful for the selection of design parameter is provided. Finally, numerical examples illustrate the efficiency of the proposed pseudo-state estimator, where some comparisons with the fractional order Luenberger-like observer and a new fractional order -like observer are given.
Autors: Xing Wei;Da-Yan Liu;Driss Boutat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1150 - 1164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncircular Measurement and Mitigation of $I/Q$ Imbalance for OFDM-Based WLAN Transmitters
Abstract:
In future high-speed communication networks, the in-phase/quadrature () imbalance mitigation and oscillator drift compensation is a key issue in the design of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless LAN (WLAN) transmitters. To this end, we propose a two-stage imbalance measurement method, where by virtue of the WLAN standard-compliant training sequences, a coarse imbalance estimation is initially performed jointly with channel equalization. This makes it possible to decouple the effects of frequency-selective channels from the exact amplitude and phase imbalances induced by the local oscillator. Next, the so recovered symbols in DATA field of standardized OFDM systems, such as the IEEE 802.11ac, are recalibrated using a decision-directed scheme; this facilitates least squares-based fine imbalance estimation. For rigor, augmented complex statistics is employed to account for the effects of data noncircularity and widely linear natures of communication channels. Computer simulations and real world experiments based on the IEEE 802.11ac compliant signals demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed technique for OFDM-based WLAN transmitters.
Autors: Zhe Li;Yili Xia;Wenjiang Pei;Kai Wang;Yongming Huang;Danilo P. Mandic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 66, issue:3, pages: 383 - 393
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Noncoherent Detections for Ambient Backscatter System
Abstract:
Ambient backscatter, an emerging communication mechanism where battery-free devices communicate with each other via backscattering ambient radio frequency (RF) signals, has achieved much attention recently because of its desirable application prospects in the Internet of Things. In this paper, we formulate a practical transmission model for an ambient backscatter system, where a tag wishes to send some low-rate messages to a reader with the help of an ambient RF signal source, and then provide fundamental studies of noncoherent symbol detection when all channel state information of the system is unknown. For the first time, a maximum likelihood detector is derived based on the joint probability density function of received signal vectors. In order to ease availability of prior knowledge of the ambient RF signal and reduce computational complexity of the algorithm, we design a joint-energy detector and derive its corresponding detection threshold. The analytical bit error rate (BER) and BER-based outage probability are also obtained in a closed form, which helps with designing system parameters. An estimation method to obtain detection-required parameters and comparison of computational complexity of the detectors are presented as complementary discussions. Simulation results are provided to corroborate theoretical studies.
Autors: Jing Qian;Feifei Gao;Gongpu Wang;Shi Jin;Hongbo Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 16, issue:3, pages: 1412 - 1422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonequillibrium Effective Conductivity of a Seeded Noble Gas Flowing in a Magnetic Field
Abstract:
A method to compute the effective conductivity of argon, seeded with K (flowing in a magnetic field has been worked out with segmented electrodes) as a function of pressure and temperature of the gas and the induced electric field (KVB); the duct is assumed to have segmented electrodes. It is seen that for a given (KVB), the dependence of the effective conductivity on pressure and temperature of the gas is empirically given by a close fitting power law. Such a relation will considerably simplify the analysis of the flow of a seeded gas in a magnetic field. In contrast to earlier analyses, based on the phenomenological theory, this paper is based on the expressions, obtained from the solution of Boltzmann’s transfer equation. The computations correspond to the optimum seeding ratio of 0.02 for maximum conductivity.
Autors: Mahendra Singh Sodha;Sweta Srivastava;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 441 - 445
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Control for Dual Objective Active Suspension Systems
Abstract:
In this paper, an active suspension system employing a new nonlinear control law is proposed to address the problem of achieving the dual objective of providing ride comfort and trying to keep the suspension deflection within the constraint of rattle space. The control is a nonlinear function of the magnitude of the suspension deflection and an estimate of the effect of the road disturbance. The control scheme is analyzed and assessed for the large classes of road profiles through simulation and by experimentation on a laboratory setup. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a passive suspension system.
Autors: Vaijayanti S. Deshpande;Pramod D. Shendge;Shrivijay B. Phadke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 656 - 665
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonlinear Control-Based Modified BFCL for LVRT Capacity Enhancement of DFIG-Based Wind Farm
Abstract:
High penetration of wind power into existing grid can be attributed largely to the doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). However, their sensitive nature to the grid faults has created concern for their mass integration into the existing power system. The grid code has been imposed by the regulatory bodies and the transmission system operators to ensure the low-voltage ride through (LVRT) capability of the wind farms for stable operation. DFIGs with their popular topology of partially rated converters are unable to provide the LVRT capability alone. In this work, a nonlinear control-based modified bridge-type fault current limiter (NC-MBFCL) is proposed to enhance the LVRT capability of DFIG-based wind farms. The efficacy of the NC-MBFCL is evaluated through performance comparison with that of the conventionally controlled bridge-type fault current limiter (BFCL) and the modified BFCL (MBFCL). Extensive simulations executed in MATLAB/Simulink environment for both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults reveal that the proposed NC-MBFCL is very effective in enhancing the LVRT capability of DFIG-based wind farms and outperforms the conventionally controlled BFCL and MBFCL. Also, it was found that the BFCL demonstrates better performance than the MBFCL.
Autors: Gilmanur Rashid;Mohd. Hasan Ali;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 284 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonnegative Edge Quasi-Consensus of Networked Dynamical Systems
Abstract:
Differing from the existing literature on node consensus, this brief studies consensus taking place on the edges of networked dynamical systems. A distributed edge quasi-consensus protocol is developed to lead the states of all edges to converge into a bounded region. For a connected network with nonnegative initial edge states, it is proved that the edge quasi-consensus can be reached while the states of all edges can be kept nonnegative. Moreover, the nonnegative edge quasi-consensus of networked systems with edge state constraints or input saturation is analyzed, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided to verify the effectiveness of the protocols.
Autors: Xiaoling Wang;Housheng Su;Xiaofan Wang;Guanrong Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 304 - 308
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Nonparametric Regression Based on Hierarchical Interaction Models
Abstract:
In this paper, we introduce the so-called hierarchical interaction models, where we assume that the computation of the value of a function is done in several layers, where in each layer a function of at most inputs computed by the previous layer is evaluated. We investigate two different regression estimates based on polynomial splines and on neural networks, and show that if the regression function satisfies a hierarchical interaction model and all occurring functions in the model are smooth, the rate of convergence of these estimates depends on (and not on ). Hence, in this case, the estimates can achieve good rate of convergence even for large , and are in this sense able to circumvent the so-called curse of dimensionality.
Autors: Michael Kohler;Adam Krzyżak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1620 - 1630
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Normally OFF Trench CAVET With Active Mg-Doped GaN as Current Blocking Layer
Abstract:
A normally OFF trench current aperture vertical electron transistor (CAVET) was designed and successfully fabricated with Mg-doped p-GaN current blocking layers. The buried Mg-doped GaN was activated using a postregrowth annealing process. The source-to-drain body diode showed an excellent p-n junction characteristics, blocking over 1 kV, sustaining a maximum blocking electric field of 3.8 MV/cm. Three-terminal breakdown voltages of trench-CAVETs, measured up to 225 V, were limited by dielectric breakdown. This paper highlights the achievement of the well-behaved buried p-n junction that has been a formidable challenge in the success of vertical GaN devices.
Autors: Dong Ji;Matthew A. Laurent;Anchal Agarwal;Wenwen Li;Saptarshi Mandal;Stacia Keller;Srabanti Chowdhury;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 805 - 808
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Normally-Off C–H Diamond MOSFETs With Partial C–O Channel Achieving 2-kV Breakdown Voltage
Abstract:
Diamond has unique physical properties, which show great promise for applications in the next generation power devices. Hydrogen-terminated (C–H) diamond metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) often have normally-on operation in devices, because the C–H channel features a p-type inversion layer; however, normally-off devices are preferable in power MOSFETs from the viewpoint of fail safety. We fabricated hydrogen-terminated (C–H) diamond MOSFETs using a partially oxidized (partial C–O) channel. The fabricated MOSFETs showed a high breakdown voltage of over 2 kV at room temperature and normally-off characteristics with a gate threshold voltage of −2.5–−4 V.
Autors: Yuya Kitabayashi;Takuya Kudo;Hidetoshi Tsuboi;Tetsuya Yamada;Dechen Xu;Masanobu Shibata;Daisuke Matsumura;Yuya Hayashi;Mohd Syamsul;Masafumi Inaba;Atsushi Hiraiwa;Hiroshi Kawarada;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 38, issue:3, pages: 363 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Cost Model for Balancing Wind Power Forecasting Uncertainty
Abstract:
The intermittency of wind generation creates nonlinear uncertainties in wind power forecasting (WPF). Thus, additional operating costs can be incurred for balancing these forecasting deviations. Normally, large wind power penetration requires accurate quantification of the uncertainty-induced costs. This paper defines this type of costs as wind power uncertainty incremental cost (WPUIC) and wind power uncertainty dispatch cost (WPUDC), and it then formulates a general methodology for deriving them based on probabilistic forecasting of wind power. WPUIC quantifies the incremental cost induced from balancing the uncertainties of wind power generation. WPUDC is a balancing cost function with a quadratic form considering diverse external conditions. Besides, the risk probability (RP) of not meeting the scheduled obligation is also modelled. Above models are established based on a newly developed probabilistic forecasting model, varying variance relevance vector machine (VVRVM). Demonstration results show that the VVRVM and RP provide accurate representation of WPF uncertainties and corresponding risk, and thus they can better support and validate the modelling of WPUDC and WPUIC. The proposed cost models have the potential to easily extend traditional dispatches to a new low-carbon system with a high penetration of renewables.
Autors: Jie Yan;Furong Li;Yongqian Liu;Chenghong Gu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 318 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Generic Asymmetric and Symmetric Equivalent Circuits of 90° Coupled Transmission-Line Sections Applicable to Marchand Baluns
Abstract:
Three different equivalent circuits (asymmetric, symmetric, and mixed) of the 90° coupled transmission-line sections are proposed for Marchand baluns, including the accurate modeling of the effect of the connecting segment. The asymmetric one consists of one set of coupled transmission-line sections and two identical uncoupled transmission-line sections. Due to the asymmetry and a four-port circuit configuration, it seems to be difficult to derive the design formulas for the asymmetric equivalent circuit, thus leading to their indirect derivation by adding two identical transmission-line sections with effectively “negative” electrical lengths to the original 90° coupled transmission-line sections. The symmetric one may be obtained by combining the even- and odd-mode equivalent circuits, while the mixed equivalent circuit is combining the asymmetric and the symmetric ones. As a proof-of-concept, a symmetric and an asymmetric equivalent circuits along with a Marchand balun with a connecting section were implemented at 2 GHz, demonstrating a very good agreement between the simulated and the experimental values.
Autors: Hee-Ran Ahn;Manos M. Tentzeris;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 65, issue:3, pages: 746 - 760
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Integrated CM Inductor for Single-Phase Power Converters With Reduced EMI
Abstract:
Ground leakage current and electromagnetic interference noise are important challenges during design of grid-connected power converters. Use of common-mode (CM) choke helps to mitigate these issues. A common practice is to use a separate CM filter and a differential mode LCL filter. In this paper, an integrated CM inductor (ICMI) is proposed in which the LCL filter boost inductor and the CM choke are combined into a single component. This results in a reduction in the number of magnetic components required to build the power converter. Steps involving design of the ICMI are provided. The proposed ICMI is fabricated in the laboratory. Experimental test are carried out on a 5-kW single-phase grid-connected power converter to validate the effectiveness of the proposed ICMI. The results show that the use of proposed ICMI along with an added ground capacitor in the power circuit as a CM filter can reduce the electromagnetic interference noise level up to 30 dB.
Autors: Mohammad H. Hedayati;Vinod John;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 1300 - 1307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Power Smoothing and Generation Scheduling Strategies for a Hybrid Wind and Marine Current Turbine System
Abstract:
Grid integration of wind energy is a major challenge as grid codes require electricity generation units to schedule their generation ahead of the trading period and to limit the power fluctuations. This paper proposes novel strategies for mitigating the effects of wind intermittency by developing hybrid off-shore wind and marine current turbines. Unlike the random nature of wind, marine currents have slow cyclic variations and are highly predictable. The proposed methods involve optimal sizing strategy for the hybrid system and rely on the resource predictions. Prediction Intervals for wind speed forecasts using Bootstrapped Artificial Neural Networks have been developed and validated. Marine current speeds have been mathematically modeled using the Harmonic Analysis Method. Subsequently, novel power fluctuation mitigation and generation scheduling strategies using minimum energy storage have been designed based on the UK electricity market regulations and the predicted wind and current speeds. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods which ensure successful mitigation of power fluctuations, reliable dispatch scheduling of renewable generation, and significant cost saving potential.
Autors: Muhammad Bashar Anwar;Mohamed Shawky El Moursi;Weidong Xiao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 32, issue:2, pages: 1315 - 1326
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Snapback-Free Reverse-Conducting SOI-LIGBT With Dual Embedded Diodes
Abstract:
A novel 500 V reverse-conducting (RC) silicon-on-insulator lateral insulated gate bipolar transistor (SOI-LIGBT) with dual embedded diodes (DEDs) is proposed to eliminate the snapback, and its mechanism is investigated by simulation. The RC is realized by the internal diode, which consists of two p-i-n diodes (D1 and D2). The two diodes are connected in series. In the RC-state, the current flows through D1 first and then through D2. D2 is embedded in the anode region of the proposed DED-LIGBT and is fully isolated by the deep-oxide trench. In the forward conducting state, D2 is reverse biased and the electrons from the N+ cathode can only flow into the P+ anode. The DEDs reroute the electron current path, and thus, the snapback is avoided. Moreover, by adjusting the width of D2 (, the internal diode of the DED structure achieves superior reverse recovery time ( and reverse recovery peak current ( to the conventional SOI p-i-n diode.
Autors: Long Zhang;Jing Zhu;Weifeng Sun;Meng Chen;Minna Zhao;Xuequan Huang;Jiajun Chen;Yuxiang Qian;Longxing Shi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1187 - 1192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Ultrathin FD-SOI BiMOS Device With Reconfigurable Operation
Abstract:
Ultrathin bipolar + MOS (BiMOS) transistors were fabricated with 28-nm Ultra Thin Body and Buried oxide (UTBB) FD-SOI high-k metal gate technology for the first time. We evaluate the device behavior through dc/transmission line pulse measurements and 3-D TCAD simulations. The BiMOS demonstrates excellent MOS and hybrid behavior, with base as potential reference, exhibiting modulated apparent gain ( for the smallest base width) that can be controlled by the front and/or back gates. The mechanism of operation and further device optimizations are discussed. In addition, the device can work in four-gate FET mode with the two lateral junctions controlling the channel formation. For electrostatic discharge applications, triggering voltage and leakage current can be modulated with an external resistor in two-terminal mode without requiring any external biasing.
Autors: Sotirios Athanasiou;Charles-Alexandre Legrand;Sorin Cristoloveanu;Philippe Galy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 916 - 922
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Novel Visual and Statistical Image Features for Microblogs News Verification
Abstract:
Microblog has been a popular media platform for reporting and propagating news. However, fake news spreading on microblogs would severely jeopardize its public credibility. To identify the truthfulness of news on microblogs, images are very crucial content. In this paper, we explore the key role of image content in the task of automatic news verification on microblogs. Existing approaches to news verification depend on features extracted mainly from the text content of news tweets, while image features for news verification are often ignored. According to our study, however, images are very popular and have a great influence on microblogs news propagation. In addition, fake and real news events have different image distribution patterns. Therefore, we propose several visual and statistical features to characterize these patterns visually and statistically for detecting fake news. Experiments on a real-world multimedia dataset collected from Sina Weibo validate the effectiveness of our proposed image features. The news verification performance of our method outperforms baseline methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt that systematically explores image features on news verification task.
Autors: Zhiwei Jin;Juan Cao;Yongdong Zhang;Jianshe Zhou;Qi Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 598 - 608
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Numerical Simulation of the Chemical Combination and Dissociation Reactions of Neutral Particles in a Rarefied Plasma Arc Jet
Abstract:
The expansion of neutral particles in a plasma arc jet is crucial for the distribution of the ions and electrons, especially in an unsteady rarefied plasma arc jet with chemical reactions. A 3-D unsteady investigation of neutral particles in a rarefied flow with chemical combination and dissociation reactions is numerically simulated based on an in-house direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code. The evolution of the neutral particles flow in vacuum cylinders is presented, and the influence of the chemical reactions has been investigated for the neutral particles. The predicted results imply that the dissociation reaction plays a key role in the expansion of the neutral particles process. In order to study the expansion of the neutral particles in an electric field, an electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) and DSMC are combined to simulate the axisymmetric rarefied plasma flows with chemical reactions. Two sets of grids are employed for the DSMC/PIC method by considering the different requirements of both the methods based on the molecule mean free path and the Debye length. The properties of both the flow and electric fields are analyzed in detail. It is found that the electric potential increases if the initial velocity of the ions from the inlet is sufficiently large, and accordingly, the number density of the ions in the flow field increases further.
Autors: Jie Li;Derek Ingham;Lin Ma;Ning Wang;Mohamed Pourkashanian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 461 - 471
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Object-oriented load flow modeling and implementation for distribution power systems
Abstract:
This This paper presents a new open source algorithm based on object-oriented technique to obtain load flow solution in radially operated distribution networks, in which the decision can chose among three load models: constant impedance, constant power and constant current. The object-oriented technique is chosen due to it's simplicity and easy to program. The implementation of the backward / forward algorithm to solve a distribution load flow the was tested on the IEEE 34 bus system and its simplicity, flexibility and quickness was analyzed.
Autors: Adolfo Blengini Neto;Marcius Fabios Henriques de Carvalho;Lia Toledo Moreira Mota;Claudia Cotrim Pezzuto;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 15, issue:3, pages: 439 - 444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Oblong-Shaped-Focused Transducers for Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
In intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, a transducer is inserted into a blood vessel and rotated to obtain image data. For this purpose, the transducer aperture is typically less than 0.5 mm in diameter, which causes natural focusing to occur in the imaging depth ranging from 1 to 5 mm. Due to the small aperture, however, it is not viable to conduct geometric focusing in order to enhance the spatial resolution of IVUS images. Furthermore, this hampers narrowing the slice thickness of a cross-sectional scan plane in the imaging depth, which leads to lowering spatial and contrast resolutions of IVUS images. To solve this problem, we propose an oblong-shaped-focused transducer for IVUS imaging. Unlike the conventional IVUS transducers with either a circular or a square flat aperture, the proposed transducer has an oblong aperture of which long side is positioned along a blood vessel. This unique configuration makes it possible to conduct geometric focusing at a desired depth in the elevation direction. In this study, furthermore, it is demonstrated that a spherically shaped aperture in both lateral and elevation directions also improves lateral resolution, compared to the conventional flat aperture. To ascertain this, the conventional and the proposed IVUS transducers were designed and fabricated to evaluate and to compare their imaging performances through wire phantom and tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. For the proposed 50-MHz IVUS transducer, a PZT piece of 0.5 × 1.0 mm2 was spherically shaped for elevation focus at 3 mm by using the conventional press-focusing technique whereas the conventional one has a flat aperture of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed IVUS transducer is capable of improving spatial and contrast resolutions of IVUS images.
Autors: Junsu Lee;Jihun Jang;Jin Ho Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 671 - 680
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Observability-Index-Based Control Strategy for Induction Machine Sensorless Drive at Low Speed
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the observer-based methods for induction machine sensorless drive. It is well known that the use of speed observer is limited at a very low stator frequency due to speed unobservability. Some existing methods propose to avoid the zero-stator-frequency working points. These methods are nonetheless limited to high-torque operations. The first contribution of this paper is to analyze finely the speed observability, which leads to the definition of an observability index. The correlation between this index and the observer performance is analyzed and illustrated. The second contribution is to propose a control strategy that maximizes the observability index and improves the observer performance. The proposed strategy is tested first in open loop to evaluate the speed observer performance, and then, in closed loop to illustrate its pertinence for induction machine sensorless drive. All these results are validated by an experiment. The performed experimentation shows that the proposed control strategy gives better results than the existing method that avoid the zero-frequency working points. It offers a new path for induction machine sensorless drives.
Autors: Gaëtan Lefebvre;Jean-Yves Gauthier;Alaa Hijazi;Xuefang Lin-Shi;Vincent Le Digarcher;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2017, volume: 64, issue:3, pages: 1929 - 1938
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z