Pages: 01234567891011121314151617181920212223


Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2014 sorted by title, page: 0
» "I" Is for Industrious Individuals [Message from the President]
Abstract:
Autors: Hung, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 3 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Åsgard Subsea Gas Compression—Technology Qualification Testing With High-Speed VSD and Very Long Step-Out Cable
Abstract:
The power system, including variable-speed drives (VSDs), transformers, and long subsea power cables, is one of the main building blocks in the development of subsea gas compression. This paper presents results from full-scale technology qualification testing of a power system onshore where the VSD is controlling a 188-Hz 7.8-MW gas compressor motor over a simulated distance of 47 km. The extensive testing shows that it is possible to control the compressor/motor speed from start-up throughout the whole load envelope without the need for motor voltage and current feedback. By the use of estimator-based control, it is also possible to provide motor overcurrent protection. This paper shows how resonances in the long cable system can be handled by the use of optimization of the generated voltage waveform instead of using a VSD sine filter. The successful technology qualification shows applicability for subsea compressors with a rated frequency of up to 200 Hz, at least 8-MW shaft power, and a step-out distance of at least 50 km.
Autors: Monsen, B.;Rongve, K.S.;Laegreid, T.;Gutscher, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 50, issue:2, pages: 1552 - 1561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» — Invited Paper — Backscatter Communication and RFID: Coding, Energy, and MIMO Analysis
Abstract:
Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is intended to supplant legacy (optical) bar code scanning technology found in many logistic and retail applications. RFID is distinguished by inexpensive, low power and compact form factor tags, whose longevity and efficacy are predicated on using passive communication techniques and on-tag power harvesting. Such tags employ backscatter modulation, which does not require any active RF components. As a result, backscatter has become an attractive design choice for short-range communications in power constrained wireless sensor networking scenarios. The purpose of this work is two-fold. First, it aims to expose backscatter communication as an emerging topic to a communication systems-theoretic audience. Since backscatter modulation and on-tag power harvesting efficiency are coupled, it is necessary to re-examine notions of power and spectral efficiency from an energy-constraint perspective; this leads to novel coded modulation schemes for future RFID systems. Further, we investigate RFID MIMO systems where the channel fading encountered has different statistics than the classical Rayleigh fading model. In turn,the trade off between diversity order and spatial multiplexing gains are distinct from wide-area MIMO.
Autors: Boyer, Colby;Roy, Sumit;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Communications
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 770 - 785
Publisher: IEEE
 
» “Drones” and the future of domestic aviation [Point of View]
Abstract:
Autors: Villasenor, J.;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 102, issue:3, pages: 235 - 238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 0.2- InP/GaAsSb DHBT Power Performance With 10 and 25% PAE at 94 GHz
Abstract:
We report a 94-GHz large-signal load-pull characterization of InP/GaAsSb double heterojunction bipolar transistors. The investigated devices have an emitter area of . Biased for highest power added efficiency (PAE), an output power of 6.62 (11 dBm), a power gain of 5.2 dB, and a PAE of 27.7% have been obtained. Biased for highest output power, 10.26 (12.8 dBm) has been achieved without significant degradation of the PAE (25.2%) and the power gain (4.5 dB).
Autors: Zaknoune, M.;Okada, E.;Mairiaux, E.;Roelens, Y.;Ducatteau, D.;Frijlink, P.;Rocchi, M.;Maher, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 35, issue:3, pages: 321 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.2 Tb/s Superchannel Transmission Over 80 100 km ULAF Using Nyquist FDM DP-QPSK
Abstract:
Employing 8-bit 65GSps digital-to-analog converters with pre-equalization and Nyquist pulse-shaping, we generated a terabit superchannel based on both low-baud-rate Nyquist frequency-division-multiplexing (FDM) dual polarization quadrature-phase-shift-keying (DP-QPSK) and high-baud-rate Nyquist DP-QPSK signals. The 1.2-Tb/s superchannel transmission over 80 100 km ultra-large-area fiber with effective area of 125 was demonstrated using erbium doped fiber amplifier only spans. We further discussed the roll-off factor in Nyquist pulse-shaping on the system optimization. It has been found that the Nyquist FDM DP-QPSK signal outperforms the high-baud-rate Nyquist DP-QPSK. Given the same data capacity, the Nyquist FDM DP-QPSK scheme exhibits better tolerance to fiber nonlinearities.
Autors: Li, Z.;Guo, Q.;Cui, Y.;Wang, J.;Zhu, F.;Bai, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 26, issue:6, pages: 564 - 567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.2 V 10-bit 75 MS/s Pipelined ADC With Phase-Dependent Gain-Transition CDS
Abstract:
A phase-dependent gain-transition correlated double-sampling technique is proposed and applied to a 10-bit 75-MS/s pipelined analog-to-digital converter. This reduces the accumulation of predictive error of each multiplying digital-to-analog converter stage due to the finite gain of the operational amplifiers, without the need for additional capacitors and switches at the input. With a 10-MHz sinusoidal input, a prototype fabricated in a 0.13- CMOS process has a 56.90 dB signal-to-noise plus distortion ratio (SNDR) and a 64.57 dB spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) at 75 MS/s. For a 37 MHz input at full sampling rate, the SNDR and SFDR are 55.01 and 60.77 dB, respectively. The IC has an active area of 0.65 and consumes 32 mW with a 1.2 V supply.
Autors: Woo, J.-K.;Lee, H.;Kim, H.-C.;Jeong, D.-K.;Kim, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 22, issue:3, pages: 585 - 592
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage
Abstract:
We demonstrate high-density, multi-level crystallization of a Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. The submicron spots with 8 distinct data storage states are written on a 1.08 μm square grid. The significant change in reflectivity of every specific state of crystallized spot allows easy optical reading and identification. As a demonstration, two gray-scale images are written into the storage medium. Our results open up potential applications in ultra-fast two-dimensional parallel cognitive computing and holography.
Autors: Wang, Q.;Maddock, J.;Rogers, E.T.F.;Roy, T.;Craig, C.;Macdonald, K.F.;Hewak, D.W.;Zheludev, N.I.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 104, issue:12, pages: 121105 - 121105-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 Gbps/ch Full-Duplex Optical Link Using a Single-Fiber Channel for Signal Transmission
Abstract:
A 10 Gbps/ch full-duplex (simultaneous bidirectional) optical link utilizing two optical subassembly (OSA) transceiver (TRx) modules and two wavelengths, 850 and 1060 nm, for sending and receiving optical signals through a single fiber channel in a fiber array is demonstrated. Each of the OSA TRx modules consists of transmitter/receiver chips, optical fibers embedded in a V-grooved silicon substrate, two 45 mirrors formed in fibers, and three silicon optical benches for mounting vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, photodiodes (PDs), and monitoring PDs. Mirror-1 in the fiber is coated with a wavelength-filtering layer to reflect transmitted light and pass through received light. Mirror-2 deflects received light to the PD. Two OSA TRx modules were applied in an end-to-end quad small form-factor pluggable optical link for 40-Gbps operation. This optical link showed good performance with clear eye-diagrams and a BER of at 10 Gbps/ch with input power.
Autors: Nga, N.T.H.;Sangirov, J.;Joo, G.-C.;Yoo, B.-S.;Ukaegbu, I.A.;Lee, T.-W.;Cho, M.-H.;Park, H.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 26, issue:6, pages: 609 - 612
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10-Gb/s Operation of a Colorless Self-Seeded Transmitter Over More Than 70 km of SSMF
Abstract:
Operation of a network-embedded colorless self-tuning transmitter for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks is experimentally demonstrated at 10-Gb/s data rate. Colorless operation is achieved by self-seeding an O-band reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) with the feedback signal reflected at the remote node WDM multiplexer filter. In particular, the transmitter exploits a 2-Faraday rotators configuration to ensure polarization insensitive operation and allowing for the exploitation of high gain O-band RSOAs, which present a very high polarization dependent gain. Two different multiplexers and various lengths of drop fibers constituted the network-embedded transmitters. Transmission up to 72 km of standard single mode fiber has been demonstrated at 10 Gb/s, confirming the absence of chromatic dispersion penalties as expected from the choice of the O-band operation.
Autors: Parolari, P.;Marazzi, L.;Brunero, M.;Martinelli, M.;Brenot, R.;Maho, A.;Barbet, S.;Gavioli, G.;Simon, G.;Saliou, F.;Chanclou, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 26, issue:6, pages: 599 - 602
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20-Gb/s CMOS EA/MZ Modulator Driver With Intrinsic Parasitic Feedback Network
Abstract:
This paper presents an inductive intrinsic parasitic feedback technique to enhance the circuit bandwidth of the electro-absorption/Mach–Zehnder optical modulator driver with high-voltage swing-driving capability. The modulator consists of a series-shunt inductor peaking predriver stage and a multicascode postdriver stage. The postdriver stage integrates the proposed inductive intrinsic parasitic feedback network, the interstage series inductor-peaking scheme, and the auxiliary source degeneration structure. The chip is fabricated in 0.13- mixed-signal 1P8M standard CMOS process with a die size of . The operation data rate of this design is measured up to 20-Gb/s with 3.7 S.E. output amplitude swing, driving 50- resistive load with input signal less than 250 mV. The measured rise/fall time of the output electrical eye diagram is less than 20 ps and the total power consumption is 0.9 W with 1.2/4.0 V dual supplies.
Autors: Kao, M.-S.;Chen, F.-T.;Hsu, Y.-H.;Wu, J.-M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 22, issue:3, pages: 475 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20-Year Tradition of TELSIKS Conferences - TELSIKS 2013 [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Autors: Milovanovic, B.;Marinkovic, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 104 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 20-Year Tradition of TELSIKS Conferences?TELSIKS 2013 [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Autors: Milovanovic, B.;Marinkovic, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 104 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2013 IROS Industry Forum: Where does Entrepreneurship Fit in within Industry & Academia? [Industrial Activities]
Abstract:
Robotics entrepreneurship! The steadily growing interest in robotics research has brought us to a new age where recently developed technologies emerge into new markets. Whereas large companies run their own in-house research and development programs, many innovative ideas are born in academic research labs all over the planet. It is often remarked that, as a community-both within industry and academia-much needs to be done to productize these research outcomes and bridge the gap between these communities. While this intention is noble, the execution of how to make this a reality has been dismal.
Autors: Kroeger, T.;Madhavan, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 14 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 23 bits optical sensor based on nonvolatile organic memory transistor
Abstract:
Polymer electret transistor memory device has stable charge storage and memory properties. Here, we combine a large band gap organic semiconductor dinaphtho[2,3-b:2′,3′-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene with the polystyrene electret to form an optical sensor with memory effect. The blue light combined with programming bias leads to a positive threshold voltage shift for more than 100 V while the drain-source current shows a variation of seven orders of magnitude. The dynamic range of current device is up to 23 bits and the photo responsivity is 420 A W−1. The optically programmed transistor can be directly used for high-resolution optical sensor and multi-level data storage applications.
Autors: Ren, Xiaochen;Chan, Paddy K.L.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 104, issue:11, pages: 113302 - 113302-5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 28 nm 50% Power-Reducing Contacted Mask Read Only Memory Macro With 0.72-ns Read Access Time Using 2T Pair Bitcell and Dynamic Column Source Bias Control Technique
Abstract:
We propose a new 2T mask read only memory (ROM) with dynamic column source bias control technique, which enables achieving both high-speed operation and low power consumption. It is also possible to overcome the inherent problem of crosstalk between the bitlines. The fabricated 128-kb ROM macro using 28-nm high- and metal-gate CMOS bulk technology realizes 0.72 ns read access time at the typical 0.85-V supply voltage, which is comparable to that of recent high-speed embedded static random access memories. The measured dynamic power dissipation is reduced by 50% compared to the conventional 2T ROM. The standby leakage can also be reduced to half that of conventional macros.
Autors: Umemoto, Y.;Nii, K.;Ishikawa, J.;Yabuuchi, M.;Okamoto, K.;Tsukamoto, Y.;Tanaka, S.;Tanaka, K.;Matsumura, T.;Mori, K.;Yanagisawa, K.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 22, issue:3, pages: 575 - 584
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique
Abstract:
We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (Te) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D Te image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing Te image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.
Autors: Nishimura, K.;Sanpei, A.;Tanaka, H.;Ishii, G.;Kodera, R.;Ueba, R.;Himura, H.;Masamune, S.;Ohdachi, S.;Mizuguchi, N.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 85, issue:3, pages: 033502 - 033502-4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Properties of the Switching Transient in a High-Speed Avalanche Transistor Require Optimal Chip Design
Abstract:
We have recently shown that only a small part of a Si bipolar junction transistor (BJT) conducts the current in a short-pulsing mode , and a complicated temporal variation takes place in the size of operating emitter-base perimeter. Namely, the switched-on region in the corner of an emitter finger first shrinks down to just a few micrometers and only then spreads to by the end of the transient. Additionally important is the demonstrated ability of a tiny filament to quench the switching in the entire perimeter (1.6 mm). This creates the impression that an initial triggering inhomogeneity of the smallest size will always win the switching competition. It has been shown experimentally, however, that the sharpest corners ( in size) “lose out” to the corners, a fact that has not been explained so far. It is shown here using quasi-3-D modeling that an optimal curvature for the corner of an emitter finger exists that provides minimal switching delay, resulting in the shortest current pulses of the highest amplitude. This finding is especially important when designing unique subnanosecond avalanche BJTs, the 3-D transient properties of which are of major importance.
Autors: Duan, G.;Vainshtein, S.N.;Kostamovaara, J.T.;Zemlyakov, V.E.;Egorkin, V.I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 716 - 721
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3D Printing, Smart Cities, Robots, and More
Abstract:
This installment of Notes from the Community covers a wide range of topics, including new gadgets that help you track down lost items, 3D printing, the downside of smart cities, and soldiers growing attached to their robots.
Autors: Hong, Jason;Baker, Mary;
Appeared in: IEEE Pervasive Computing
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 6 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4-D Arrays as Enabling Technology for Cognitive Radio Systems
Abstract:
Time-modulation (TM) in four-dimensional (4-D) arrays is implemented by using a set of radio-frequency switches in the beam forming network to modulate, by means of periodic pulse sequences, the static excitations and thus control the antenna radiation features. The on–off reconfiguration of the switches, that can be easily implemented via software, unavoidably generates harmonic radiations that can be suitably exploited for multiple channel communication purposes. As a matter of fact, harmonic beams can be synthesized having different spatial distribution and shapes in order to receive signals arriving on the antenna from different directions. Similarly, the capability to generate a field having different frequency and spatial distribution implies that the signal transmitted by time-modulated 4-D arrays is direction-dependent. Accordingly, such a feature is also exploited to implement a secure communication scheme directly at the physical layer. Thanks to the easy software-based reconfigurability, the multiple harmonic beamforming, and the security capability, 4-D arrays can be considered as an enabling technology for future cognitive radio systems. In this paper, these potentialities of time-modulated 4-D arrays are presented and their effectiveness is supported by a set of representative numerical simulation results.
Autors: Rocca, P.;Zhu, Q.;Bekele, E.T.;Yang, S.;Massa, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1102 - 1116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 4H-SiC MISFETs With 4H-AlN Gate Insulator Isopolytypically Grown on 4H-SiC
Abstract:
4H silicon carbide (4H-SiC) metal–insulator–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with 4H aluminum nitride (4H-AlN) gate insulators have been demonstrated. The 4H-AlN layers are isopolytypically grown on 4H-SiC by molecular-beam epitaxy. Gate controlled transistor operation was realized using the AlN/SiC MISFETs. The MISFETs exhibit a low gate leakage current and normally on characteristics with a threshold voltage of approximately and a field-effect mobility of 0.5 . Capacitance–voltage measurements of AlN/SiC MIS capacitors reveal a large negative flat band shift of , which is consistent with the normally on characteristics.
Autors: Horita, M.;Noborio, M.;Kimoto, T.;Suda, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 35, issue:3, pages: 339 - 341
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 50-Gb/s Direct Conversion QPSK Modulator and Demodulator MMICs for Terahertz Communications at 300 GHz
Abstract:
We demonstrate direct quadrature modulator and demodulator monolithic microwave integrated circuits for future terahertz communications at 300 GHz based on the quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format. For the modulating and demodulating signal, we employed half-Gilbert cell mixers, which provide balanced signaling and moderate performance in conversion efficiency with a simple circuit configuration. In order to maintain the balance performance of the modulator and demodulator, passive baluns and couplers are implemented with thin-film microstrip lines, which exhibit less insertion loss than inverted microstrip lines (IMSLs), while the active mixers are based on IMSLs for short interconnections. The half-Gilbert-cell mixers have a wide enough operation bandwidth for high-throughput communications of more than 10% at 300 GHz. According to the static constellation of the modulator, imbalance is expected to be less than approximately . A nonchip back-to-back experiment was conducted at up to 60 Gb/s, and 50-Gb/s operation was verified with a low bit error rate on the order of or less. The results demonstrate that the QPSK modulation scheme can be applied to double the data rate at terahertz frequencies.
Autors: Song, H.-J.;Kim, J.-Y.;Ajito, K.;Kukutsu, N.;Yaita, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 600 - 609
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5G Network Capacity: Key Elements and Technologies
Abstract:
It has been projected that, in the next decade, a mobile traffic increase on the order of 1,000 times is expected compared to what we experience today. To meet that dramatic traffic growth, next-generation mobile networks are also expected to achieve a 1,000-fold capacity increase compared to the current generation of wireless network deployments. In this article, we discuss how such capacity growth could be achieved in a ten-year time frame. We discuss the techniques that we expect to have the highest opportunity for increasing the system capacity and estimate their gains based on analysis and simulation. We observe that the main driver of capacity growth is expected to come from network architecture advancements, with heterogeneous networks and convergence of information and communication technology being two of the key techniques. We also estimate that the air-interface evolution would focus not only on improving the link and system spectrum efficiency but also on facilitating the required network efficiency improvements. This article provides insights into the communication technology evolution and can be used as a guideline for technology development toward the fifth generation (5G).
Autors: Li, Q.;Niu, H.;Papathanassiou, A.;Wu, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 9, issue:1, pages: 71 - 78
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 64 64-Element and 32 32-Element Slot Array Antennas Using Double-Layer Hollow-Waveguide Corporate-Feed in the 120 GHz Band
Abstract:
This communication proposes high gain antennas having broad bandwidth characteristic for the 120 GHz band. The proposed antennas are fabricated by diffusion bonding of laminated thin copper plates which have the advantages of high precision and low loss characteristic even in a high frequency region such as the 120 GHz band. For stable fabrication using diffusion bonding, we propose a feeding structure which has a double layer. A 32 32-element array antenna shows more than a 38 dBi antenna gain with over 60% antenna efficiency and 15 GHz bandwidth (119.0-134.0 GHz) and a 64 64-element array shows a higher than 43 dBi antenna gain with over 50% antenna efficiency and 14.5 GHz bandwidth (118.5–133.0 GHz), respectively.
Autors: Kim, D.;Hirokawa, J.;Ando, M.;Takeuchi, J.;Hirata, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1507 - 1512
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 64 64-Element and 32 32-Element Slot Array Antennas Using Double-Layer Hollow-Waveguide Corporate-Feed in the 120 GHz Band
Abstract:
This communication proposes high gain antennas having broad bandwidth characteristic for the 120 GHz band. The proposed antennas are fabricated by diffusion bonding of laminated thin copper plates which have the advantages of high precision and low loss characteristic even in a high frequency region such as the 120 GHz band. For stable fabrication using diffusion bonding, we propose a feeding structure which has a double layer. A 32 32-element array antenna shows more than a 38 dBi antenna gain with over 60% antenna efficiency and 15 GHz bandwidth (119.0-134.0 GHz) and a 64 64-element array shows a higher than 43 dBi antenna gain with over 50% antenna efficiency and 14.5 GHz bandwidth (118.5–133.0 GHz), respectively.
Autors: Kim, D.;Hirokawa, J.;Ando, M.;Takeuchi, J.;Hirata, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1507 - 1512
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 77-GHz Multi-Channel Radar Transceiver With Antenna in Package
Abstract:
This paper presents the design of a directional folded dipole antenna integrated in an embedded wafer level ball grid array (eWLB) package, the comparison of different antenna designs and the influence of the silicon die and neighboring antennas within the package to the radiation behavior. The co-integration of the antenna and the silicon-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) in a system in package (SiP) approach is a convenient solution to suppress lossy radio frequency (RF) transitions and to simplify the design and the manufacturing of radio frontends significantly. The proposed SiP is focused on 77-GHz automotive radar applications. The MMIC contains the 77-GHz signal source and a transceiver with amplifier and mixer. The gain of different antennas in different constellations within the package is shown.
Autors: Fischer, A.;Tong, Z.;Hamidipour, A.;Maurer, L.;Stelzer, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1386 - 1394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 940-nm Broad Area Diode Lasers Optimized for High Pulse-Power Fiber Coupled Applications
Abstract:
Diode lasers with 400- stripe widths measured in pulsed-current mode are shown to reach peak (saturation) powers of 60 W for 1-ms pulses (60 mJ) and 189 W for 300-ns pulses . Use of laterally structured contact and etched index guides at the stripe edges enables these devices to sustain stable lateral near- and far-field profiles to the highest bias, with a lateral beam parameter product of . Optical calculations are presented for an example system where arrays of these single emitters are incoherently coupled into a fiber with 1-mm core and numerical aperture of 0.22, extrapolating 5 kW in fiber for 1 ms (5 J) and 18 kW in fiber for 300-ns pulses . Such sources would be well suited for pumping Yb:YAG crystals for applications needing high beam quality, or as direct sources.
Autors: Platz, R.;Eppich, B.;Crump, P.;Pittroff, W.;Knigge, S.;Maassdorf, A.;Erbert, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 26, issue:6, pages: 625 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Multiple-Gate Field-Effect Transistors With Selectively Regrown Channels
Abstract:
We report on n-channel multiple-gate field-effect transistors (MuGFETs or FinFETs) with a novel method of selectively regrown lateral (parallel to substrate) nanowires as channels. The device exhibits a minimum subthreshold slope of 85 mV/decade and drain-induced barrier lowering of 88 mV/V at and . At , is achieved . The extrapolated cutoff frequency of 210 GHz and the maximum oscillation frequency of 250 GHz are the highest of any reported III-V multiple-gate MOSFET.
Autors: Zota, C.B.;Wernersson, L.-E.;Lind, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 35, issue:3, pages: 342 - 344
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid-Interconnected Systems
Abstract:
The use of power converters is very important in maximizing the power transfer from renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, or even a hydrogen-based fuel cell to the utility grid. An filter is often used to interconnect an inverter to the utility grid in order to filter the harmonics produced by the inverter. Although there is an extensive amount of literature available describing filters, there has been a gap in providing a systematic design methodology. Furthermore, there has been a lack of a state-space mathematical modeling approach that considers practical cases of delta- and wye-connected capacitors showing their effects on possible grounding alternatives. This paper describes a design methodology of an filter for grid-interconnected inverters along with a comprehensive study of how to mitigate harmonics. The procedures and techniques described in this paper may be used in small-scale renewable energy conversion systems and may be also retrofitted for medium- and large-scale grid-connected systems.
Autors: Reznik, A.;Simoes, M.G.;Al-Durra, A.;Muyeen, S.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 50, issue:2, pages: 1225 - 1232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Laser Annealing for USJ Formation in Silicon: Comparison of Simulation and Experiment
Abstract:
In this paper, we compare the experimental and simulation results of the effect of laser annealing on boron implanted silicon using a source and commercially available process TCAD tools. The main objective of this analysis is the prediction of the evolution of temperature distribution induced into the wafer during the laser irradiation below the melting threshold as well as its effect on boron diffusion and activation kinetics. A series of factors are considered along with the use of advanced heat transfer and dopant diffusion models provided by the TCAD tool to accurately prototype the effect of the irradiation on temperature and dopant distribution. These include the nonuniformity of the incident laser beam, the strong dependence of heat capacity and thermal conductivity from temperature and, most importantly, the dependency of the absorptivity from temperature and dopant distribution, which requires the solving of dopant and heat transfer equations in a coupled and self-consistent way. Using surface temperature data obtained by pyrometry measurements, it was possible to calibrate and to verify the validity of the results. Experimental boron profiles were then used to compare with simulations in the transient regime where dopant diffusion just starts to occur. Both TCAD and experimental data confirmed previous suggestions that submelt laser annealing is an efficient tool for profile engineering, allowing diffusionless activation of the plasma doped boron profiles.
Autors: Stathopoulos, S.;Florakis, A.;Tzortzis, G.;Laspas, T.;Triantafyllopoulos, A.;Spiegel, Y.;Torregrosa, F.;Tsoukalas, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 696 - 701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» -Additive Cyclic Codes
Abstract:
In this paper, we study -additive cyclic codes. These codes are identified as -submodules of the ring . The algebraic structure of this family of codes is studied and a set of generator polynomials for this family as a -submodule of the ring is determined. We show that the duals of -additive cyclic codes are also cyclic. We also present an infinite family of Maximum Distance separable with respect to the singleton bound codes. Finally, we obtain a number of binary linear codes with optimal parameters from the -additive cyclic codes.
Autors: Abualrub, T.;Siap, I.;Aydin, N.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 1508 - 1514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : A QoS-Based Broadcast Protocol Under Blind Information for Multihop Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Broadcasting is an important operation in wireless networks where control information is usually propagated as broadcasts for the realization of most networking protocols. In traditional ad hoc networks, broadcasts are conducted on a common channel, which is shared by all nodes in the network. However, in cognitive radio (CR) ad hoc networks, unlicensed users may observe heterogeneous spectrum availability, which is unknown to other unlicensed users before the control information was broadcast. Thus, it is extremely challenging that broadcasts can be successfully conducted without knowing the spectrum availability information in advance. In addition, since broadcast collisions (i.e., simultaneous reception of broadcast messages at the same node) often lead to the waste of network resources, they should be efficiently mitigated in multihop scenarios. In this paper, a quality-of-service (QoS)-based broadcast protocol under Blind Information for multihop CR ad hoc networks, i.e., , is proposed with the aim of having a high success rate and short broadcast delay. In our design, we do not assume that unlicensed users are aware of the network topology, the spectrum availability information, and time synchronization information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that investigates the broadcast issue in multihop CR ad hoc networks under blind information. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol outperforms other broadcast schemes in terms of a higher success rate and shorter average broadcast delay.
Autors: Song, Y.;Xie, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1453 - 1466
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Filter Design and Performance Analysis for Grid-Interconnected Systems
Abstract:
The use of power converters is very important in maximizing the power transfer from renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, or even a hydrogen-based fuel cell to the utility grid. An filter is often used to interconnect an inverter to the utility grid in order to filter the harmonics produced by the inverter. Although there is an extensive amount of literature available describing filters, there has been a gap in providing a systematic design methodology. Furthermore, there has been a lack of a state-space mathematical modeling approach that considers practical cases of delta- and wye-connected capacitors showing their effects on possible grounding alternatives. This paper describes a design methodology of an filter for grid-interconnected inverters along with a comprehensive study of how to mitigate harmonics. The procedures and techniques described in this paper may be used in small-scale renewable energy conversion systems and may be also retrofitted for medium- and large-scale grid-connected systems.
Autors: Reznik, A.;Simoes, M.G.;Al-Durra, A.;Muyeen, S.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 50, issue:2, pages: 1225 - 1232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Sparsity Penalized Linear Regression With Cyclic Descent
Abstract:
Recently, there has been a lot of focus on penalized least squares problems for noisy sparse signal estimation. The penalty induces sparsity and a very common choice has been the convex norm. However, to improve sparsity and reduce the biases associated with the norm, one must move to non-convex penalties such as the norm . In this paper we present a novel cyclic descent algorithm for optimizing the resulting penalized least squares problem. Optimality conditions for this problem are derived and competing ones clarified. Coordinate-wise convergence as well as convergence to a local minimizer of the algorithm, which is highly non-trivial, is proved and we illustrate with simulations comparing the signal reconstruction quality with three penalty functions: and with .
Autors: Marjanovic, G.;Solo, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:6, pages: 1464 - 1475
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Laser Annealing for USJ Formation in Silicon: Comparison of Simulation and Experiment
Abstract:
In this paper, we compare the experimental and simulation results of the effect of laser annealing on boron implanted silicon using a CO2 source and commercially available process TCAD tools. The main objective of this analysis is the prediction of the evolution of temperature distribution induced into the wafer during the laser irradiation below the melting threshold as well as its effect on boron diffusion and activation kinetics. A series of factors are considered along with the use of advanced heat transfer and dopant diffusion models provided by the TCAD tool to accurately prototype the effect of the CO2 irradiation on temperature and dopant distribution. These include the nonuniformity of the incident laser beam, the strong dependence of heat capacity and thermal conductivity from temperature and, most importantly, the dependency of the absorptivity from temperature and dopant distribution, which requires the solving of dopant and heat transfer equations in a coupled and self-consistent way. Using surface temperature data obtained by pyrometry measurements, it was possible to calibrate and to verify the validity of the results. Experimental boron profiles were then used to compare with simulations in the transient regime where dopant diffusion just starts to occur. Both TCAD and experimental data confirmed previous suggestions that submelt CO2 laser annealing is an efficient tool for profile engineering, allowing diffusionless activation of the plasma doped boron profiles.
Autors: Stathopoulos, S.;Florakis, A.;Tzortzis, G.;Laspas, T.;Triantafyllopoulos, A.;Spiegel, Y.;Torregrosa, F.;Tsoukalas, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 696 - 701
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ?Beer Batter?? [Microwave Bytes Back]
Abstract:
Autors: Jampton, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 128 - 128
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ?Spring Clean!? [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Autors: Wood, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 6 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ?The Conquest of the Atlantic [Historical]
Abstract:
We are all used to the possibilities made available by the Internet and information and communications technology (ICT), but only those of us who are at least in our 40s can truly appreciate the difference between the present day and the time when rapid long-distance bidirectional communication could only take place via telegraph, telephone, and telex. A similar revolution occurred in the late 1830s with the invention of the telegraph, the first electric technology to gain wide success. However, this pioneering equipment performed badly; with the conductivity of commercial copper around 40% lower than its present value and insulating material unreliable, it was a common practice to lay bare overhead lines hanging on wooden poles with glass or porcelain insulators.
Autors: Guarnieri, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 8, issue:1, pages: 53 - 67
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.07 mm Asynchronous Logic CMOS Pulsed Receiver Based on Radio Events Self-Synchronization
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents an ultra-low-power radio receiver implemented only with CMOS logic gates used as basic building blocks and proves its operation. The self-timed duty-cycled system is self-synchronized with the input radio signal, runs a noise-robust baseband detection and does not require any reference besides power supply. Based on S-OOK modulation, the 350–450 MHz digital radio RX occupies an area of 0.07 mm in a 130 nm RFCMOS technology and achieves a 0.1% sensitivity of 63 dBm at 95 kbps, 380 MHz center frequency and 40 W active power consumption at 1.1 V power supply. At 1.0 V it achieves 62 dBm sensitivity and 33 W active power at error rate. The compact receiver, whose architecture is parametric and technology scalable, suits energy harvested and miniaturized biomedical applications. The paper also presents the potential advantages of asynchronous logic pulse radio and introduces an ad-hoc VHDL model demonstrating RTL-/gate-level accurate error-rate predictions capabilities based on digital simulation only, i.e., without requiring electrical-level co-simulation.
Autors: Crepaldi, M.;Macis, S.;Ros, P.M.;Demarchi, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 750 - 763
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-Bit Column-Driver IC With Parasitic-Insensitive Iterative Charge-Sharing Based Capacitor-String Interpolation for Mobile Active-Matrix LCDs
Abstract:
This paper presents a 10-bit column driver IC for active-matrix LCDs, with a proposed iterative charge-sharing based (ICSB) capacitor-string that interpolates two output voltages from a resistor-string DAC. Iterative mode change between a capacitive voltage division mode and a charge sharing mode in the ICSB capacitor-string interpolation suppresses the effect of mismatches between capacitors and that of parasitic capacitances; thus, a highly linear capacitor sub-DAC is realized. In addition, the area-sharing layout technique, which stacks the interpolation capacitor-string on top of the R-DAC area, reduces the driver channel size and extends the bit resolution of the gamma-corrected nonlinear main R-DAC. Consequently, the proposed ICSB capacitor-string interpolation scheme provides highly uniform channel performance by passively dividing the coarse voltages from the global resistor-string DAC with high area efficiency, and more effective bit resolution for nonlinear gamma correction. The prototype column driver IC was implemented using a 0.11-µm CMOS process. The area occupation of the DAC and buffer amplifier per channel is only 188 × 15 µm 2 , and the static power consumption is 0.9 µA/channel with no additional static power dissipation for the interpolation. The measured maximum DNL and INL are 0.25 LSB and 0.43 LSB, respectively. The measured maximum inter-channel DVO is 5.6 mV. The proposed chip achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of chip size and channel-to-channel uniformity.
Autors: Kim, H.-S.;Yang, J.-H.;Park, S.-H.;Ryu, S.-T.;Cho, G.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 766 - 782
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100–800 MHz 8-Path Polyphase Transmitter With Mixer Duty-Cycle Control Achieving 40 dBc for ALL Harmonics
Abstract:
Radio transceivers capable of dynamic spectrum access require frequency-agile transmitters with a clean output spectrum. High- filters are difficult to implement on chip and have limited tuning range. Transmitters with high linearity and broadband harmonic rejection can be more flexible and require less filtering. However, traditional harmonic rejection mixers suppress only a few harmonics. This paper presents an 8-path polyphase transmitter, which exploits mixer-LO duty-cycle control and a tunable first-order RC low-pass filter to suppress ALL harmonics to below 40 dBc. The optimum duty-cycle theoretically is 43.65% and a resolution of better than 0.1% is required to keep the spread in harmonic rejection within 1 dB. We propose a simple monotonic duty-cycle control circuit and show by design equations and measurements that it achieves the required resolution over three octaves of frequency range. Also, analysis indicates that LO duty-cycle reduction compared with 50% improves power upconverter efficiency. A transmitter realized in 0.16- CMOS works from 100 to 800 MHz at a maximum single-tone output power of 10.8 dBm with an efficiency of 8.7%, outperforming previous designs. The OIP3 is 21 dBm, while the LO leakage and image rejection is better than 45 dBc.
Autors: Subhan, S.;Klumperink, E.A.M.;Ghaffari, A.;Wienk, G.J.M.;Nauta, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 595 - 607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 100Hz Low-Pass 2nd Order Sallen-and-Key Active Filter: A Design Proposal
Abstract:
This paper presents a design methodology for developing a Butterworth type 100Hz low-pass second order Sallen-and-Key active filter. The proposed design method is intended to design filtering systems based on commercial components. Since these components have tolerances, a relative sensitivity analysis is included in order to satisfy design specifications. Experimental results show a maximum relative error 2.0% at the cut-off frequency; the Op-Amp UA741 is used.
Autors: Benedicto Ortega Rosales, Edgardo;Sandoval Ibarra, Federico;
Appeared in: IEEE Latin America Transactions
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 12, issue:2, pages: 73 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12-bit 40 nm DAC Achieving SFDR > 70 dB at 1.6 GS/s and IMD < –61dB at 2.8 GS/s With DEMDRZ Technique
Abstract:
For current-steering digital-to-analog converters (DACs), a technique utilizing dynamic-element-matching and digital return-to-zero, called DEMDRZ, is proposed to simultaneously suppress the mismatch- and transient-induced nonlinearity. In doing so, the usage of small-sized current sources and switches is possible, and the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and intermodulation distortion (IMD) for high signal frequencies can be improved. With the DEMDRZ technique, a 12-bit compact, low-power, high-speed, high-resolution DAC is implemented in TSMC 40 nm CMOS process. The DAC architecture, circuit, and layout designs are presented. The implemented DAC achieves 70 dB SFDR for signals over the 800 MHz Nyquist bandwidth at 1.6 GS/s and < –61 dB IMD for signals over the 1.4 GHz Nyquist bandwidth at 2.8 GS/s. Further, it dissipates 40 mW with a single 1.2 V supply. The active area of the DAC is 0.016 mm 2 , which is less than 6% of other state-of-the-art 12-bit current steering DACs. Furthermore, the implemented DAC performs best with three common figure-of-merits (FoMs).
Autors: Lin, W.-T.;Huang, H.-Y.;Kuo, T.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 708 - 717
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 15-MHz Bandwidth 1-0 MASH ADC With Nonlinear Memory Error Calibration Achieving 85-dBc SFDR
Abstract:
A 1-0 MASH ΣΔ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) demonstrates a digital linearization technique for the first time treating integrator distortion with memory and capacitor mismatch errors. A two-tap sequential polynomial derived from an output-referred error analysis accurately models the non-ideality of a first-order modulator. The model parameters are extracted by correlating various moments of the ADC digital output with a one-bit pseudorandom noise (PN) superimposed on the input, largely reducing the circuit overhead associated with the nonlinear calibration. The prototype ADC employing amplifiers with a gain of roughly 30 dB measures an 85-dBc spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) and a 67-dB signal-to-noise and distortion ratio (SNDR) for a 1.1- ( 1-dBFS), 4.99-MHz sinusoidal input at 240 MHz sampling clock (8× OSR) with a 7.5-msec calibration time. For a 1.1- two-tone input at 14.9 MHz and 15.1 MHz, the third-order intermodulation product (IM3) after calibration is 87.1 dBc, which is over 30 dB better than that without calibration. The core ADC consumes 37 mW from a 1.25-V supply and occupies 0.28 mm 2 in a 65-nm CMOS low-leakage digital process in which the transistor threshold voltages are around 0.5 V.
Autors: Lee, S.-C.;Chiu, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 695 - 707
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.4-GHz CMOS Power Amplifier With an Integrated Antenna Impedance Mismatch Correction System
Abstract:
To prevent the performance degradation of a power amplifier (PA) from an antenna impedance mismatch, we propose a fully integrated PA with an automatic antenna-mismatch correction system. Using only voltage amplitude information, this method reduces the complexity of the system while compensating impedance mismatch at all mismatched impedance angles. The proposed PA is implemented in 0.18- CMOS technology and the measurement results show it maintains its 1-dB gain variation point as well as power-added efficiency under the mismatched condition close to that of a well-matched condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fully integrated CMOS PA that is capable of automatically recovering antenna-mismatch conditions without any help from the off-chip components.
Autors: Yoon, Y.C.;Kim, H.S.;Kim, H.W.;Lee, K.-S.;Lee, C.-H.;Kenney, J.S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 608 - 621
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 25-µW All-MOS Potentiostatic Delta-Sigma ADC for Smart Electrochemical Sensors
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents a low-power all-MOS delta-sigma ADC specifically optimized for the potentiostatic biasing and amperometric read-out of electrochemical sensors. The proposed architecture reuses the dynamic properties of the sensor itself to implement a continuous-time mixed electrochemical delta-sigma modulator with minimalist analog circuits fully integrable in purely digital CMOS technologies. A 25-µW smart electrochemical sensor demonstrator integrated in low-cost 1M CMOS technology with Au post-processing is presented. Experimental results show electrical dynamic range values exceeding 10-bit, while electrochemical figures exhibit linearity levels close to R² = 0.999 combined with RSD < 15% in terms of reproducibility. A comparative test with commercial potentiostat equipment is also included to qualify the performance of the proposed ADC.
Autors: Sutula, S.;Pallares Cuxart, J.;Gonzalo-Ruiz, J.;Munoz-Pascual, F.X.;Teres, L.;Serra-Graells, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 671 - 679
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2D FDTD Algorithm for Whole-Hemisphere Incidence on Periodic Media
Abstract:
We present a modified version of the 2D split-field finite difference time domain (FDTD) method which enables efficient simulation of periodic structures. Our algorithm allows for broadband, whole-hemisphere oblique incidence sources with structures that are inhomogeneous in permittivity, conductivity, and permeability. The structures considered are of finite extent in one dimension, periodic in a second orthogonal dimension, and uniform (or homogeneous) in a third dimension. With prior FDTD methods, this required a full 3D simulation space. In this work, we reduce the modeling space from a 3D grid to a 2D grid, while still allowing incident waves to be oblique with respect to that dimension. We derive this new algorithm beginning with a complete source definition that allows for arbitrary polarization and incidence direction. The key update equations are found, and we also give a method for finding the full vectorial far-field orders from the simulation output. We validate the method by simulating an etalon, a Bragg grating, and a photonic band gap structure.
Autors: Miskiewicz, M.N.;Schmidt, S.;Escuti, M.J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1348 - 1353
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Stackable Maskless Embedded Metal-Gate Thin-Film-Transistor Nanowire for Use in Bioelectronic Probing
Abstract:
Using a self-aligned sidewall microcrystalline-silicon dual channel, comprising a sub-50-nm channel width, a novel 3-D stackable maskless embedded metal-gate thin-film-transistor nanowire device was fabricated on top metal using a tungsten gate-stack and trilayered oxide/nitride/oxide gate dielectric. The results of using a charge-transferring mechanism based on the solution-phased pH of a phosphate buffer solution and vascular endothelial growth factor showed that surfaces exhibit high potential for use in bioelectronics. The device exhibits long-term reliability regarding bioelectronic probing and is as reliable as the commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay when conducting a targeted, 100-day therapy for ovarian cancer. Thus, the proposed device exhibits potential for use in label-free, economical, and highly reliable lab-on-chip 3-D applications.
Autors: Chen, M.-C.;Lin, C.-H.;Lin, C.-Y.;Chen, H.-C.;Lee, T.-H.;Hua, M.-Y.;Qiu, J.-T.;Ho, C.;Yang, F.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 897 - 901
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 6-bit, 1-GS/s, 9.9-mW, Interpolated Subranging ADC in 65-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A 6-bit, 1-GS/s subranging analog-to-digital converter (ADC) implemented in 65-nm CMOS is developed. The same capacitor DACs (CDACs) are used to sample the analog signals, thereby eliminating the errors between the coarse and fine decisions that occur when two different samplers are used to capture the signal. Both decisions use the same comparators, and a digitally assisted calibration circuit compensates for the errors in the different threshold levels used for the two decisions. This calibration eliminates redundant comparators, and thus, reduces the area. Reference voltages generators, which are implemented using resistor ladders in conventional subranging ADCs, are eliminated thanks to the use of the CDACs together with interpolation in the comparators. This solves two problems related to the resistor ladder, namely, the trade-off between the settling time and the static-current consumption and signal dependent on-resistance of switches connected to intermediate potential nodes. A test chip fabricated in 65-nm CMOS technology operates at 1 GS/s with SNDR of 32.8 dB. Its active area is 0.044 , and its power consumption is 9.9 mW at a 1.1-V supply voltage.
Autors: Danjo, T.;Yoshioka, M.;Isogai, M.;Hoshino, M.;Tsukamoto, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 673 - 682
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Band Monolithic Integrated Active Hot and Cold Noise Source
Abstract:
For application in radiometry or noise measurement systems, an integrated active hot–cold load (AHCL) operating in the -band (75–110 GHz) is presented and realized as monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC). It makes use of a novel circuit topology that employs only a single active noise source and monolithic integrated switches to provide a cold and a hot noise reference temperature. The AHCL provides a measured cold temperature of only 230 K and a hot temperature of 860 K around 94 GHz, thus enabling two-point radiometric calibration and absolute power measurements. The noise source of the AHCL has been fabricated as a two-port test structure too. In that configuration, it has been measured as a low-noise amplifier with a noise figure of 2.5 dB at 94 GHz proving its good noise performance. As a standalone active cold load (ACL), an excellent noise power of only 190 K at 93 GHz is achieved. The AHCL and ACL MMICs have been fabricated in 100-nm gate-length metamorphic high electron-mobility transistor technology.
Autors: Diebold, S.;Weissbrodt, E.;Massler, H.;Leuther, A.;Tessmann, A.;Kallfass, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 623 - 630
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Band Monolithic Bidirectional Up-Down Converter for High-Speed Applications
Abstract:
A -band monolithic bidirectional distributed amplifier (BDA) with a quadrature phase-shift keying modulator/demodulator for high-speed applications is presented in this paper. A modified BDA topology is proposed to improve the isolation between the bidirectional ports. With the proposed circuit topology, the inputs and outputs of the two signal paths are switched at the same port, and the modulator/demodulator can be connected directly with the BDA to perform signal conversion. Furthermore, a cascode Darlington amplifier is employed in the gain cell of the BDA to achieve broad bandwidth. The measured small-signal gains of the BDA are 12 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth from 12 to 30 GHz for the forward and reverse paths. The integrated bidirectional up-down converter is further evaluated with the digital modulation and demodulation. For the up conversion, the measured error vector magnitude is within 9.9%. For the down conversion, the measured eye diagram is evaluated up to 2 Gb/s.
Autors: Weng, S.-H.;Chang, H.-Y.;Wu, P.-S.;Wang, Y.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 610 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A -Band Monolithic Integrated Active Hot and Cold Noise Source
Abstract:
For application in radiometry or noise measurement systems, an integrated active hot–cold load (AHCL) operating in the -band (75–110 GHz) is presented and realized as monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC). It makes use of a novel circuit topology that employs only a single active noise source and monolithic integrated switches to provide a cold and a hot noise reference temperature. The AHCL provides a measured cold temperature of only 230 K and a hot temperature of 860 K around 94 GHz, thus enabling two-point radiometric calibration and absolute power measurements. The noise source of the AHCL has been fabricated as a two-port test structure too. In that configuration, it has been measured as a low-noise amplifier with a noise figure of 2.5 dB at 94 GHz proving its good noise performance. As a standalone active cold load (ACL), an excellent noise power of only 190 K at 93 GHz is achieved. The AHCL and ACL MMICs have been fabricated in 100-nm gate-length metamorphic high electron-mobility transistor technology.
Autors: Diebold, S.;Weissbrodt, E.;Massler, H.;Leuther, A.;Tessmann, A.;Kallfass, I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 623 - 630
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Band-Reject Nested-PLL Clock Cleaner Using a Tunable MEMS Oscillator
Abstract:
Pub DtlThis paper presents the Band-Reject Nested-PLL (BRN-PLL) scheme that simultaneously improves filtering of a noisy input signal and relaxes the requirements for the loop bandwidth. As the architecture employs a modified PLL as a divider of another PLL, a stability analysis is presented to demonstrate suitable operation. The BRN-PLL close-to-carrier output noise is dominated by the PFD/CP of the inner PLL and the far-from-carrier output noise is dominated by the LO of the outer PLL. The PFD/CP noise can be reduced by approximately 20 dB when the output is disconnected from the VCO during idle states, and a low noise floor is achieved using a passively biased double-switching pair LC VCO. Additionally, to maintain lower integrated phase noise, the proposed scheme uses a high- MEMS-based VCO to effectively smoothen the transition of the response between the two dominant noise sources. Absolute figures equal to dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and dBc/Hz at 10 MHz are measured from a 104 MHz clock-cleaner.
Autors: Pardo, M.;Ayazi, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 653 - 662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Bare-Metal and Asymmetric Partitioning Approach to Client Virtualization
Abstract:
Advancements in cloud computing enable the easy deployment of numerous services. However, the analysis of cloud service access platforms from a client perspective shows that maintaining and managing clients remain a challenge for end users. In this paper, we present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an asymmetric virtual machine monitor (AVMM), which is an asymmetric partitioning-based bare-metal approach that achieves near-native performance while supporting a new out-of-operating system mechanism for value-added services. To achieve these goals, AVMM divides underlying platforms into two asymmetric partitions: a user partition and a service partition. The user partition runs a commodity user OS, which is assigned to most of the underlying resources, maintaining end-user experience. The service partition runs a specialized OS, which consumes only the needed resources for its tasks and provides enhanced features to the user OS. AVMM considerably reduces virtualization overhead through two approaches: 1) Peripheral devices, such as graphics equipment, are assigned to be monopolized by a single user OS. 2) Efficient resource management mechanisms are leveraged to alleviate complicated resource sharing in existing virtualization technologies. We implement a prototype that supports Windows and Linux systems. Experimental results show that AVMM is a feasible and efficient approach to client virtualization.
Autors: Yuezhi Zhou;Yaoxue Zhang;Hao Liu;Naixue Xiong;Vasilakos, A.V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 7, issue:1, pages: 40 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A better sense of place
Abstract:
On the mobile phone as a `platform', location is everywhere. It may not be king, but pretty much any app that aims to provide a service now includes a location-based element, whether it is to help you find a nearby restaurant or minicab, or simply to push local promotions your way. The space-satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) is the key enabler. Even low-end smartphones now include not just a GPS chip, but can also locate themselves by scanning for local mobile basestations and Wi-Fi access points. Location-based services on mobile devices used to be the preserve of app-happy shoppers and geo-social networking. Now, their usefulness is being explored for more serious - even mission critical situations.
Autors: Betts, B.;
Appeared in: Engineering & Technology
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 9, issue:2, pages: 72 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Boolean Rule-Based Approach for Manufacturability-Aware Cell Routing
Abstract:
An approach for cell routing using gridded design rules is proposed. It is technology-independent and parameterizable for different fabrics and design rules, including support for multiple-patterning lithography. The core contribution is a detailed-routing algorithm based on a Boolean formulation of the problem. The algorithm uses a novel encoding scheme, graph theory to support floating terminals, efficient heuristics to reduce the computational cost, and minimization of the number of unconnected pins in case the cell is unroutable. The versatility of the algorithm is demonstrated by routing single- and double-height cells. The efficiency is ascertained by synthesizing a library with 127 cells in about one hour and a half of CPU time. The layouts derived by the implemented tool have also been compared with the ones from a commercial library; thus, showing the competitiveness of the approach for gridded geometries.
Autors: Cortadella, J.;Petit, J.;Gomez, S.;Moll, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 33, issue:3, pages: 409 - 422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Inductorless Active Power Divider for 10 Gbps High Speed Transmissions
Abstract:
A broadband and compact inductorless active power divider is presented in this letter. By using the Darlington cell, the proposed monolithic active power divider demonstrates broad and flat bandwidth of output 1 dB compression point over the 3 dB bandwidth. The gain-bandwidth performance, input matching, and device ratio of the Darlington cell are presented to achieve broad bandwidth. The proposed active power divider exhibits a potential for the high speed transmissions due to its broad bandwidth, low amplitude/phase errors, low and flat group delay.
Autors: Weng, S.-H.;Chang, H.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 197 - 199
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Broadband Low-Power Millimeter-Wave CMOS Downconversion Mixer With Improved Linearity
Abstract:
This brief presents a broadband, low-local-oscillator (LO)-power, and low-dc-power millimeter-wave (MMW) downconversion mixer with improved linearity using TSMC 90-nm CMOS low-power (LP) process. By employing an active load in the bias network, the linearity of the mixer can be improved effectively. In addition, the conversion gain (CG) of the mixer at high LO power is also improved, whereas the CG at low LO power is not appreciable degraded. The operation principle of the added active load and the impacts on mixer's linearity and CG are analyzed in detail. With a 1.2-V supply voltage and a 0-dBm LO drive power, the proposed mixer with the active load exhibits CG of 0 dB with flatness of 2 dB from 20 to 50 GHz, input of 1 dBm, and of 9.5 dBm with RF at 43 GHz. The measured is 5.6 dB higher than the conventional approach without the active load, and the dc power consumption of the proposed design is 6 mW, including the IF buffers, which is only 1.8 mW higher than the conventional approach.
Autors: Zhu, F.;Hong, W.;Chen, J.-X.;Jiang, X.;Wu, K.;Yan, P.-P.;Han, C.-L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 138 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Charge Transport Model for SiCOH Dielectric Breakdown in Copper Interconnects and Its Applications
Abstract:
A charge transport model has been applied to predict dielectric breakdown in copper interconnects. The model very accurately predicts the lifetimes of dense and porous dielectrics over long periods. The predictions of the model significantly vary from currently available methodologies, which fail to adequately account for copper charge transport. We apply this charge transport model to simulate the TDDB lifetime activation energy ( , eV) in copper interconnects. The model again very accurately predicts the available activation energy data, in actual interconnect test structures, over a wide range of electric fields. The model can be applied to determine the reliable operating voltage for a given operating temperature.
Autors: Achanta, R.;McLaughlin, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 133 - 138
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Charge-Nonlinear-Carrier-Controlled Reduced-Part Single-Stage Integrated Power Electronics Interface for Automotive Applications
Abstract:
The current research trend to increase the power density of power electronics interfaces in automotive applications is the cost-effective integration of power converters. This paper proposes a reduced-part integrated power electronics interface that is capable of charging the battery and adjusting the voltage levels of a battery and a dc link during propulsion and regenerative braking. In the proposed topology, one inductor is shared between a dc/dc converter and a charger, eliminating the need for an additional magnetic component for the charging stage. A charge nonlinear-carrier control (NLC) method, which reduces the feedback circuitry, is adopted, and different nonlinear reference voltage waveforms are generated for each half-cycle of the grid to ensure a unity power factor and stable operation. To verify the concept, a 750-W prototype has been built and tested for each operation mode.
Autors: Dusmez, S.;Khaligh, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1091 - 1103
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS 210-GHz Fundamental Transceiver With OOK Modulation
Abstract:
This paper presents a 210-GHz transceiver with OOK modulation in a 32-nm SOI CMOS process . The transmitter (TX) employs a 2 2 spatial combining array consisting of a double-stacked cross-coupled voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) at 210 GHz with an on-off-keying (OOK) modulator, a power amplifier (PA) driver, a novel balun-based differential power distribution network, four PAs, and an on-chip 2 2 dipole antenna array. The noncoherent receiver (RX) utilizes a direct detection architecture consisting of an on-chip antenna, a low-noise amplifier (LNA), and a power detector. The VCO generates measured 13.5-dBm output power, and the PA shows a measured 15-dB gain and 4.6-dBm . The LNA exhibits a measured in-band gain of 18 dB and minimum in-band noise figure (NF) of 11 dB. The TX achieves an EIRP of 5.13 dBm at 10 dB back-off from saturated power. It achieves an estimated EIRP of 15.2 dBm when the PAs are fully driven. This is the first demonstration of a fundamental frequency CMOS transceiver at the 200-GHz frequency range.
Autors: Wang, Z.;Chiang, P.-Y.;Nazari, P.;Wang, C.-C.;Chen, Z.;Heydari, P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 564 - 580
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CMOS Class-D Line Driver Employing a Phase-Locked Loop Based PWM Generator
Abstract:
A Class-D line driver that utilizes a phase-locked loop (PLL) for PWM generation is presented. The principle of operation and implementation details relating to loop stability, linearity and noise performance are analyzed. An implementation is presented in a 130 nm CMOS process. The amplifier can deliver 1.2 W into a 6.8 Ω load with a 4.8 V power supply. The architecture eliminates the requirements for a high-quality carrier generator and a high-speed voltage comparator that are often required in PWM implementations. It can achieve a THD of –65 dB, for a sinusoidal input with a frequency of 60 kHz, while employing a switching frequency that can be as high as 20 MHz. The peak efficiency is 83% for output power larger than 1 W for a switching frequency of 10 MHz. The die area is 2.25 mm 2 .
Autors: Lu, J.;Song, H.;Gharpurey, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 729 - 739
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Combined Mechanical and Electrical Characterization Procedure for Investigating the Dynamic Behavior of RF-MEMS Switches
Abstract:
This paper shows the potentialities of two characterization procedures on the electrical and mechanical characterizations of ohmic RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches. The first is a “fast electrical” procedure that uses an electrical stimulus and monitors the RF signals at the input and output ports of the switch; the second is a “fast hybrid” procedure, i.e., electrical and mechanical, with an electrical input adopted to actuate the device and a mechanical measurement conducted with an optical profilometer, which monitors the displacement and the velocity of the moving membrane when the input electrical signal is applied. Both systems are validated on cantilever and clamped–clamped resistive RF-MEMS switches. We developed these measurement procedures to speed up the measurement process and, consequently, to limit charge trapping during the characterization process. In future analyses, the procedure will be systematically applied to investigate reliability issues when the switch is subjected to multiple impacts and long-term actuation. The use of such procedures will permit separating electrical and mechanical failure mechanisms.
Autors: Barbato, M.;Giliberto, V.;Cester, A.;Meneghesso, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 13 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Communication-Theoretic Framework for 2-DMR Channel Modeling: Performance Evaluation of Coding and Signal Processing Methods
Abstract:
We develop a communication theoretic framework for modeling 2-D magnetic recording channels. Using the model, we define the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the channel considering several physical parameters, such as the channel bit density, code rate, bit aspect ratio, and noise parameters. We analyze the problem of optimizing the bit aspect ratio for maximizing SNR. The read channel architecture comprises a novel 2-D joint self-iterating equalizer and detection system with noise prediction capability. We evaluate the system performance based on our channel model through simulations. The coded performance with the 2-D equalizer detector indicates of SNR gain over uncoded data.
Autors: Srinivasa, S.G.;Chen, Y.;Dahandeh, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 50, issue:3, pages: 6 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens
Abstract:
The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized “chip-to-world” and “chip-to-platform” interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.
Autors: Cors, J.F.;Lovchik, R.D.;Delamarche, E.;Kaigala, G.V.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 85, issue:3, pages: 034301 - 034301-9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact bellows-driven diamond anvil cell for high-pressure, low-temperature magnetic measurements
Abstract:
We present the design of an efficient bellows-controlled diamond anvil cell that is optimized for use inside the bores of high-field superconducting magnets in helium-3 cryostats, dilution refrigerators, and commercial physical property measurement systems. Design of this non-magnetic pressure cell focuses on in situ pressure tuning and measurement by means of a helium-filled bellows actuator and fiber-coupled ruby fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. We demonstrate the utility of this pressure cell with ac susceptibility measurements of superconducting, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic phase transitions to pressures exceeding 8 GPa. This cell provides an opportunity to probe charge and magnetic order continuously and with high resolution in the three-dimensional Magnetic Field–Pressure–Temperature parameter space.
Autors: Feng, Yejun;Silevitch, D.M.;Rosenbaum, T.F.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 85, issue:3, pages: 033901 - 033901-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Compact Single Stage V-Band CMOS Injection-Locked Power Amplifier With 17.3% Efficiency
Abstract:
This letter presents a fully integrated CMOS V-band injection-locked power amplifier (ILPA) for phase and frequency modulated millimeter-Wave (mm-Wave) transmitter. At mm-Wave frequency, multi-stage PAs are usually employed to achieve enough power gain due to low power gain of CMOS transistor even though it has low power efficiency. This work investigates mm-Wave ILPA for constant envelope modulation transmitter with high gain and high efficiency. The proposed ILPA has been implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology, a 17.3% Power Added Efficiency (PAE) and 9.6 dBm peak output power have been achieved with a single stage design in a compact size at 1.2 V supply voltage.
Autors: Lin, J.;Boon, C.C.;Yi, X.;Lim, W.M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 182 - 184
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Pixel- and Object-Based Glacier Classification With Optical Satellite Images
Abstract:
Precise information about the size and spatial distribution of glaciers is needed for many research applications, for example water resources evaluation, determination of glacier specific changes in area and volume, and for calculation of the past and future contribution of glaciers to sea-level change. However, mapping glacier outlines is challenging even under optimal conditions due to time consuming manual corrections of wrongly classified pixels. In the last decades, advantages in computer technologies have led to the development of object-based-image analysis (OBIA), an image classification technique that can be seen as an alternative to the common pixel-based image analysis (PBIA). In this study we compare the performance of OBIA with PBIA for glacier mapping in three test regions with challenging mapping conditions. In both approaches, a ratio image was created to map clean snow and ice while thermal and slope information was used to assist in the identification of debris-covered ice. The mapping results of OBIA have overall a 3% higher quality than PBIA, in particular in the processing of debris-covered glaciers where OBIA has a 12% higher accuracy. The post-processing possibilities in OBIA (e.g., the application of a processing loop and neighborhood analysis) are especially powerful to improve the final classification. This leads also to a reduction of the workload for the manual corrections, which are still required to achieve a sufficient accuracy.
Autors: Rastner, P.;Bolch, T.;Notarnicola, C.;Paul, F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 7, issue:3, pages: 853 - 862
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Complete 256-Electrode Retinal Prosthesis Chip
Abstract:
This paper presents a complete 256-electrode retinal prosthesis chip, which is small and ready for packaging and implantation. It contains 256 separate programmable drivers dedicated to 256 electrodes for flexible stimulation. A 4-wire interface is employed for power and data transmission between the chip and a driving unit. Power and forward data are recovered from a 600 kHz differential signal, while backward data are sent at 100 kbps rate simultaneously. The stimulator possesses many stimulation features, supporting various stimulation strategies. Many safety features are included such as real-time monitoring of voltage compliance and temperature, electrode self-locking in the event of out-of-compliance, and ESD protection circuit at every electrode. The chip is fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process. The electrode driver pitch is 150 µm, and total chip area is 8 mm 2 . The chip has been extensively tested and all the requirements have been successfully verified. The measured DC current error for single driver stimulation without electrode shorting is 20 nA. The average power consumption per electrode with typical stimulus pulse parameters and full-scale output current is 129 µW, inclusive of all standby power. The chip overall power efficiency is 70% with 23 mW of power delivered to load.
Autors: Tran, N.;Bai, S.;Yang, J.;Chun, H.;Kavehei, O.;Yang, Y.;Muktamath, V.;Ng, D.;Meffin, H.;Halpern, M.;Skafidas, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 49, issue:3, pages: 751 - 765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Centralized Approach for Voltage Constraints Management in Active Distribution Grid
Abstract:
This paper deals with the management of voltage constraints in active distribution systems that host a significant amount of distributed generation (DG) units. To this end we propose a centralized optimization approach which aims at minimizing the amount of MW curtailment of non-firm DG to remove voltage constraints. The salient feature of this approach is that it comprehensively and properly models the full variety of possible control means (i.e., DG active/reactive power including DG shut-down, on load tap changing transformer ratio, shunt capacitor, and remotely controlled switches or breakers), most of which having a discrete behavior. We develop and compare the performances of two optimization models on a snapshot basis for various distribution systems up to 1089 buses. In particular we show that the use of remotely controlled switches so as to transfer DG between feeders in case of voltage constraints may lead to significant reduction of the DG curtailment.
Autors: Capitanescu, F.;Bilibin, I.;Romero Ramos, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 933 - 942
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Constrained Layout Placement Approach to Enhance Pulse Quenching Effect in Large Combinational Circuits
Abstract:
A novel constrained layout placement approach is proposed to enhance the pulse quenching effect in combinational circuits. This constrained algorithm can enlarge the number of quenching cells and shrink the distance between these cells. Simulation results illustrate that the soft error vulnerabilities are effectively reduced by adopting this novel constrained layout placement algorithm with no area penalty.
Autors: Du, Y.;Chen, S.;Liu, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 14, issue:1, pages: 268 - 274
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Control-Oriented Charge Mixing and Two-Zone HCCI Combustion Model
Abstract:
A control-oriented engine model is often used in the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment for developing and validating the corresponding control strategies. For homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion, mixture heterogeneity should be considered in the control-oriented model to provide accurate combustion phase prediction. This paper describes a two-zone HCCI combustion model, where the in-cylinder charge is divided into the well-mixed and unmixed zones as the result of charge mixing. Simplified fluid dynamics is used to predict the residual gas fraction before the combustion phase starts, which defines the mass of the unmixed zone, during real-time simulations. The unmixed-zone size determines not only how well the in-cylinder charge is mixed, which affects the start of HCCI combustion, but also the resulting peak in-cylinder pressure and temperature during the combustion process. The developed model was validated in the HIL simulation environment. The HIL simulation results show that the proposed charge mixing and HCCI combustion model provides better agreement with the corresponding GT-Power simulation results than the previously developed one-zone model.
Autors: Zhang, S.;Zhu, G.;Sun, Z.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 63, issue:3, pages: 1079 - 1090
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Corrugated Printed Dipole Antenna With Equal Beamwidths
Abstract:
A corrugated printed dipole antenna with equal beamwidths in the principal planes is proposed, designed, and evaluated. Orthogonal stubs are added to the dipole arms to equalize its radiation patterns. They also reduce the size of the dipole arms. The antenna is designed to operate at 3 GHz, and has dimension of 36 80 1.58 . The bandwidth of the antenna is from 2.75 to 3.62 GHz, i.e., 27.3%. The - and -plane radiation patterns of the antenna are nearly equal up to 135 from the boresight. To confirm the simulation results, the antenna is fabricated and tested, showing good agreement between simulation and measurement results. Its performance as a feed on a deep reflector, with and is also studied, where f is the focal length of the reflector and is its diameter. It provides an enhanced bandwidth of 29.6%, equal - and -plane radiation patterns of the reflector, and a gain of 21.4 dBi or an efficiency of 69%. The reflector is only 4.5 in - iameter and would suffer significant blockage losses with conventional waveguide feeds. The proposed feed causes negligible blockage, and provides a respectable efficiency. It is a suitable feed for small symmetric reflectors.
Autors: Qudrat-E-Maula, M.;Shafai, L.;Pour, Z.A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 1469 - 1474
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decomposed Solution to Multiple-Energy Carriers Optimal Power Flow
Abstract:
Presence of energy hubs in the future vision of energy networks creates a great opportunity for system planners and operators to move towards more efficient systems. The role of energy hubs as the intermediate in multi-carrier energy (MCE) systems calls for a generic framework to study the new upcoming technical as well as economical effects on the system performance. In response, this paper attempts to develop a general optimization and modeling framework for coupled power flow studies on different energy infrastructures. This, as a large-scale nonlinear problem, is approached through a robust optimization technique, i.e., multi-agent genetic algorithm (MAGA). The proposed procedure decomposes the multi-carrier optimal power flow (MCOPF) problem into its traditional separate OPF problem in such a way that the major advantages of simultaneous analysis of MCE systems would not be sacrificed. The presented scheme is then applied to an 11-hubs test system and introduces its expected applicability and robustness in the MCE systems analysis.
Autors: Moeini-Aghtaie, M.;Abbaspour, A.;Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.;Hajipour, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 707 - 716
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Decoupling Approach to Classical Data Transmission Over Quantum Channels
Abstract:
Most coding theorems in quantum Shannon theory can be proven using the decoupling technique. To send data through a channel, one guarantees that the environment gets no information about it. Uhlmann's theorem then ensures that the receiver must be able to decode. While a wide range of problems can be solved this way, one of the most basic coding problems remains impervious to a direct application of this method, sending classical information through a quantum channel. We will show that this problem can, in fact, be solved using decoupling ideas, specifically by proving a dequantizing theorem, which ensures that the environment is only classically correlated with the sent data. Our techniques naturally yield a generalization of the Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland theorem to the one-shot scenario, where a quantum channel can be applied only once.
Autors: Dupuis, F.;Szehr, O.;Tomamichel, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 1562 - 1572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A differential dielectric spectroscopy setup to measure the electric dipole moment and net charge of colloidal quantum dots
Abstract:
A sensitive dielectric spectroscopy setup is built to measure the response of nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid to an alternating electric field over a frequency range from 10−2 to 107 Hz. The measured complex permittivity spectrum records both the rotational dynamics due to a permanent electric dipole moment and the translational dynamics due to net charges. The setup consists of a half-transparent capacitor connected in a bridge circuit, which is balanced on pure solvent only, using a software-controlled compensating voltage. In this way, the measured signal is dominated by the contributions of the nanoparticles rather than by the solvent. We demonstrate the performance of the setup with measurements on a dispersion of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in the apolar liquid decalin.
Autors: Kortschot, R.J.;Bakelaar, I.A.;Erne, B.H.;Kuipers, B.W.M.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 85, issue:3, pages: 033903 - 033903-6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Differential Lyapunov Framework for Contraction Analysis
Abstract:
Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to the tangent bundle. The Lyapunov function endows the state-space with a Finsler structure. Incremental stability is inferred from infinitesimal contraction of the Finsler metrics through integration along solutions curves.
Autors: Forni, F.;Sepulchre, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 614 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digital Polar CMOS Power Amplifier With a 102-dB Power Dynamic Range Using a Digitally Controlled Bias Generator
Abstract:
A digitally modulated CMOS power amplifier (DPA) for a polar transmitter with a high dynamic range is presented. To improve local oscillator (LO) leakage, which limits the minimum output power of the DPA, the unit amplifier cell of the DPA employs a balanced mixer-type LO canceller at the power stage and a virtual ground is introduced in the layout of the output-power combining networks. A high dynamic range of the output power is simply achieved by adjusting gate-bias voltage of a cascode transistor in each power amplifier (PA) cell using a digitally controlled bias generator. This architecture allows a few-mA drain current at a low Tx power level without degrading the linearity. An array of unit PA cells is segmented to have a 10-bit amplitude resolution, and the bias generator is designed to have 8-bit control of the average output power. The peak output power is 24.4 dBm with an overall efficiency of 43% at 800 MHz. The total output dynamic range is 102.8 dB. A simple static pre-distortion helps the DPA achieve an average efficiency of 35% with a root mean square error vector magnitude of 3.59% while delivering linear output power of 22 dBm for WCDMA. The range of the digital transmit-power control for the WCDMA signal is 49.7 dB. This chip is fabricated in a 65-nm RF CMOS process.
Autors: Choi, H.;Lee, Y.;Hong, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 579 - 589
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Digitally Assisted Amplitude Calibration Technique for Phase-Locked Loop Systems
Abstract:
A digitally assisted amplitude calibration technique suitable for wideband phase-locked loops (PLLs) is presented in this paper. By operating the voltage-controlled oscillator in the current-limited region with a tunable bias scheme, an amplitude control mechanism is incorporated in the PLL system for performance optimization. Due to the use of a sequential search algorithm for amplitude calibration, the risk of locking failure is alleviated while maintaining a reasonable settling time. Using a 65-nm CMOS process, a 5-GHz wideband PLL with the proposed amplitude calibration is fabricated for a demonstration. Within the phase-locked frequency range from 4.6 to 6 GHz, the experimental results indicate output power variations of less than 2 dB as the calibration function is activated. Operating at an output frequency of 5 GHz, the measured output power and phase noise at 1-MHz offset frequency are 3.63 dBm and 105.8 dBc/Hz, respectively.
Autors: Weng, P.-S.;Hung, S.-Y.;Lu, L.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 532 - 542
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct Method With Structural Priors for Imaging Pharmacokinetic Parameters in Dynamic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography
Abstract:
Images of pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) have the potential to provide quantitative physiological information for biological studies and drug development. However, images obtained with conventional indirect methods suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio because of failure in efficiently modeling the measurement noise. Besides, FMT suffers from low spatial resolution due to its ill-posed nature, which further reduces the image quality. In this letter, we present a direct method with structural priors for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters, which uses a nonlinear objective function to efficiently model the measurement noise and utilizes the structural priors to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT. The results of numerical simulations and in vivo mouse experiments demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the image quality.
Autors: Zhang, G.;Liu, F.;Pu, H.;He, W.;Luo, J.;Bai, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 61, issue:3, pages: 986 - 990
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Diversity Analysis for Distributed Interference Alignment Using the Max-SINR Algorithm
Abstract:
Gomadam recently proposed two distributed interference alignment algorithms, namely the zero-forcing and the maximal signal to interference plus noise ratio (max-SINR) algorithms. Both of them only require local channel state information and no symbol extension is needed. Then, Ning showed that when only one stream of information symbols is sent by each user, interference alignment may achieve receive diversity using the max-SINR algorithm. This result was, however, derived only based on an assumption. In this paper, using a different approach, we prove that interference alignment using the max-SINR algorithm indeed achieves receive diversity without the assumption used by Ning The result in this paper not only completes the proof of the result by Ning , but also generalizes it by allowing more than one stream of information symbols to be sent by each user.
Autors: Xu, T.;Xia, X.-G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 60, issue:3, pages: 1857 - 1868
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doherty Power Amplifier With a GaN MMIC for Femtocell Base Stations
Abstract:
A Doherty Power Amplifier (PA) with the proposed GaN MMIC for femtocell base stations is presented. The MMIC was fabricated using a 0.25 TriQuint GaN process. An on-chip quadrature coupler based on a lumped magnetic coupler with capacitors was used to reduce the chip size. The MMIC with an area of 2.5 2.7 includes an input matching circuit, a driver transistor, carrier and peak transistors at power stage, and an inter-stage matching network with the quadrature coupler. The Doherty PA with MMIC shows 56.2% power added efficiency (PAE) with a gain of 19.7 dB when the output power is 41.2 dBm for a 2.14 GHz CW signal. For a down link WCDMA signal, the PAE of 39.6% is achieved at an output power of 35.3 dBm. The Doherty PA with the MMIC presented here has a small effective module area of 7 15 , which can be readily reduced further.
Autors: Lee, J.;Lee, D.-H.;Hong, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 24, issue:3, pages: 194 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Dual-Band Bandpass Filter With Widely Separated Passbands
Abstract:
A novel and compact design of a dual-band filter with widely separated passbands is proposed. Applications of such a device can be found in systems where a single device is responsible for both transmission and reception. The proposed filter is composed of resonators working on two distinct modes. The proposed dual-mode structure offers a good rejection of unwanted resonances, producing a widely separated dual-band response. The idea is demonstrated with the design of a four-pole filter comprising two dual-mode structures and the concept is verified experimentally by the measurement of a fabricated prototype. Finally, a six-pole filter is proposed, showing the possibility of designing higher order filters.
Autors: Naeem, U.;Bila, S.;Thevenot, M.;Monediere, T.;Verdeyme, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2014, volume: 62, issue:3, pages: 450 - 456
Publisher: IEEE
 

Publication archives by date

  2017:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2016:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2015:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2014:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2013:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2012:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2011:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2010:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

  2009:   January     February     March     April     May     June     July     August     September     October     November     December    

 
0-C     D-L     M-R     S-Z