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Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 03-2010 sorted by title, page: 0
» 'The mesh method' in lightning protection standards - Revisited
Abstract:
At present the design of the Lightning protection systems (LPS) for structures as stipulated in standards is based on the electro - geometrical method, which was initially used to protect power lines from lightning. A derivative of the electro-geometrical method is the rolling sphere method. This method together, with the protection angle method and mesh method are used almost in all lightning standards as the measure in installing the lightning protection systems of grounded structures. In the mesh method, the dimension of the cell size in different levels of protection is determined using the rolling sphere method. Since the rolling...
Autors: Liliana, Arevalo , Vernon, Cooray
Appeared in: Journal of Electrostatics
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 'Tis the gift to be simple
Abstract:
IC engineers rarely get to crash test their designs. Instead, they take pride in getting the design right the first time—no room for iterations and redesign. This is done by performing extensive computer simulations of designs. These simulations let engineers accurately predict the behavior of the design while it is still represented by computer data, before it ever becomes a real physical object.
Autors: Nassif, Sani R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Design & Test of Computers
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 84 - 86
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using downstream PolSK coded by polarisation modulator and upstream intensity re-modulation
Abstract:
A wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) passive optical network (PON) with centralised light source using downstream polarisationshift- keying (PolSK) coded by a polarisation modulator (PolM) to facilitate upstream intensity re-modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Error-free operations for both downstream and upstream signals are achieved in a 20 km-reach 10 Gbit/s WDMPON without dispersion compensation. The maximum launched optical power and polarisation misalignment tolerance of the PolSK signal are also investigated.
Autors: Wang, R.;Fu, S.;Shum, P.P.;Lin, C.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 428 - 430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 10 GHz cryocooled sapphire oscillator with extremely low phase noise
Abstract:
The phase noise characterisation of two 10 GHz cryogenic sapphire oscillators exhibiting frequency stability higher than 3 ÿ 10-15 is reported. One of these oscillators developed for the deep space navigation ground stations of the European Space Agency, incorporates a closed cycle cryocooler as cold source. Near the carrier, the measured phase noise is limited by a flicker frequency noise: Sπ( f )= -30log( f )- 98 dBrad2/Hz.
Autors: Grop, S.;Bourgeois, P.-Y.;Boudot, R.;Kersale, Y.;Rubiola, E.;Giordano, V.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 420 - 422
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 gigabit Ethernet and beyond [Commentary]
Abstract:
At the November 2009 IEEE 802 Plenary meeting, the IEEE P802.3ba 40 Gb/s and 100 Gb/s Ethernet project reached the next milestone on its journey to being ratified as a standard, as the draft amendment to the IEEE 802.3 standard was approved to move to the second and final stage of balloting, known as Sponsor Ballot. The success of meeting this milestone keeps the project on schedule for ratification in June 2010. The ratification of the P802.3ba standard will be a major accomplishment for the Task Force, the end result of hard work and diligent efforts, and a major milestone in the long running history of Ethernet as a protocol.
Autors: D'Ambrosia, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 48, issue:3, pages: S6 - S13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100 gigabit Ethernet transport [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
As optical networks demand ever increasing data rates, driven by video sharing, high-definition video on demand, network computing, and other applications, much research effort has been devoted to the development of 100G converged transport and Ethernet for carrier networks and enterprise applications. IEEE Communications Magazine previously published a series on 100GbE development in the supplemental issues of IEEE Application & Practice in November and December 2007. In this followup series we present two columns and six articles covering new developments in 100GbE, including discussions on key enabling technologies, implementation and field experiments, network requirements, and an update on the progress toward the establishment of 100GbE standards.
Autors: Ishida, O.;Wang, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 48, issue:3, pages: S4 - S4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 100GbE PHY and MAC layer implementations
Abstract:
This article discusses the logical implementation of the media access control and the physical layer of 100 Gb/s Ethernet. The target are a MAC/PCS LSI, supporting MAC and physical coding sublayer, and a gearbox LSI, providing 10:4 parallel lane-width exchange inside an optical module. The two LSIs are connected by a 100 gigabit attachment unit interface, which consists of ten 10 Gb/s lines. We realized a MAC/PCS logical circuit with a low-frequency clock on a FPGA, whose size is 250 kilo LUTs with a 5.7 Mbit RAM, and the power consumption of the gearbox LSI estimated to become 2.3 W.
Autors: Toyoda, H.;Ono, G.;Nishimura, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 48, issue:3, pages: S41 - S47
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 12-bit accurate voltage-sensing ADC with curvature-corrected dynamic reference
Abstract:
A sigma¿delta analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) with a dynamic voltage reference is presented that achieves 12-bit absolute accuracy over the extended industrial temperature range (-40 to 105°C). Temperature-dependent gain errors due to the reference¿s curvature are digitally corrected by adjusting the gain of the ADC¿s decimation filter. The required correction factor is obtained by first using the reference to make a temperature measurement, and then translating the result into a correction factor by means of a lookup table and a linear interpolator. Thus, a dynamic voltage reference is realised with a measured temperature drift of less than 1.7 ppm/°C. The ADC was fabricated in 0.7 μm CMOS technology and consumes 85 μA from a 2.5¿5.5 V supply.
Autors: Saputra, N.;Pertijs, M.A.P.;Makinwa, K.A.A.;Huijsing, J.H.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 397 - 398
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 2009 IEEE International Conference on Nano/Molecular Medicine and Engineering [Conference Review]
Abstract:
The IEEE International Conference on Nano/Molecular Medicine and Engineering (IEEE-NANOMED 2009) was held at the Tayih Landis Hotel, Tainan, Taiwan, 18-21 October 2009. One hundred fifty-two people attended the event, and 95 papers were presented. More information about the conference is available at www.ieeenanomed.org.
Autors: Lin, Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Nanotechnology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 4, issue:1, pages: 32 - 32
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 21 dB gain 87 low-noise amplifier using 0.18μm SiGe BiCMOS
Abstract:
The performance of a single-ended two-stage high gain low-noise amplifier (LNA) fabricated in a low-cost 200 GHz fT and fmax 0.18 mm SiGe BiCMOS technology is presented. The LNA shows a maximum power gain of 21 dB at 87 GHz with a 3 dB bandwidth from 81 to 92.6 GHz. The measured noise figure is 9.1 dB at 87 GHz and is in the range 8¿10 dB from 80 to 93 GHz. The reverse isolation is better than 45 dB over a 3 dB bandwidth. The measured input and output return losses are 17.3 and 11.7 dB at 87 GHz, respectively. The measured input-referred 1 dB compression point (input P1dB) of the amplifier is 218.8 dBm at 87 GHz. The chip area including the pads is 635 x 625 mm. The LNA draws a total current of 15.2 mA from a 3.3 V supply.
Autors: Chen, A.Y.-K.;Baeyens, Y.;Chen, Y.-K.;Lin, J.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 332 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Mobile Internet [From the Editor]
Abstract:
The IEEE Vehicular Technology Society and the Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) agreed to continue the cooperation begun last year, working together to serve the common interests of both organizations. Last year's March and September issues of IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine included selected articles from the preceding WWRF meetings. This year, the magazine will continue that model, and in this issue, you will find a special sectionwith its own introduction and articles from the WWRF 23 meeting held in Beijing last November.
Autors: Bakof, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 5, issue:1, pages: 3 - 3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3-D Reconstruction of Gas Clouds by Scanning Imaging IR Spectroscopy and Tomography
Abstract:
In the case of accidents at chemical plants, during transportation of chemicals, or after terrorist attacks, hazardous compounds may be released into the atmosphere. The weather-dependent propagation of these toxic clouds can threaten population and environment. In order to apply appropriate safety measures, it is necessary for emergency response forces to detect and identify the regarding substances. In addition, it is important to determine position, dimensions, and source of the gas cloud. Moreover, it is desirable to perform the necessary measurements from a distance to minimize the threat for emergency response personnel. Imaging remote sensing by IR spectroscopy provides a method for generating (2-D) images of the cloud. Combined with an appropriate visible (video) or IR image of the scene, these images can reveal information like the dimensions and the location of the source of the cloud. Nevertheless, the distance between the system and the cloud and the dimensions of the cloud along the line of sight are not available if a single image is measured. If images of the cloud are recorded from at least two different positions at the same time, information about the position and the 3-D shape of the cloud becomes available. Therefore, a method for 3-D reconstruction of gas clouds based on imaging IR spectroscopy and tomography has been developed. The remote sensing system, the measurement setup, and the algorithm generating the 3-D structures from the images are described. The method is applied to reconstruct the exhaust gas plume of an industrial stack.
Autors: Rusch, P.;Harig, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 10, issue:3, pages: 599 - 603
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 3.5/5.5 GHz dual band-notch ultra-wideband slot antenna with compact size
Abstract:
A compact dual band-notch ultra-wideband polygon slot antenna with two parasitic slits is presented. The antenna is as small as 16 x 25 x 0.8 mm. The proposed antenna yields an impedance bandwidth of 3.1¿10.6 GHz with VSWR < 2, except for the bandwidths of 3.3- 3.9 GHz for WiMAX and 5¿6 GHz for WLAN. The antenna has been successfully simulated, designed and measured, showing good impedance matching, stable gain and near omnidirectional radiation patterns.
Autors: Ye, L.-H.;Chu, Q.-X.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 325 - 327
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 32 x 32 winner-take-all matrix with single winner selection
Abstract:
A 32 x 32 winner-take-all (WTA) matrix with single winner selection is introduced. A high-resolution gain-boosted regulated-cascode WTA circuit is used in a first competition stage. Because of the large number of competing cells the possibility of a multiple winners situation arises. A single winner is obtained by means of a digital inhibitory circuit following each WTA analogue amplifier. Simulations show that this mixed analogue¿digital circuit achieves its objective with a current resolution of approximately 10 nA (0.8% of the maximum input current in the simulated case). A time response of 1 μs can be achieved.
Autors: Zuccarello, P.;Pardo, F.;De La Plaza, A.;Boluda, J.A.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:5, pages: 333 - 335
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 480 GHz oscillator with an InP Gunn device
Abstract:
An InP Gunn device with a graded doping profile was evaluated for third-harmonic power extraction around 480 GHz. The oscillator used the configuration of a WR-6 waveguide cavity for the InP Gunn device, two back-to-back waveguide transitions, WR-3 → 1.5 and WR-1.7 → 3, to block fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies, and WR-6 waveguide spacers to optimise the location of the reactive termination at the fundamental frequency. With 350 μm-thick spacers, the oscillator yielded an RF output power of more than 85 μW at 479.01 GHz.
Autors: Eisele, H.;
Appeared in: Electronics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 46, issue:6, pages: 422 - 423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5–10 Gb/s 70 mW Burst Mode AC Coupled Receiver in 90-nm CMOS
Abstract:
A low power burst mode receiver architecture is presented which can be used for AC coupled links where low frequency signal components are attenuated by the channel. The nonlinear path comprises a hysteresis latch that recovers the missing low frequency content and a linear path that boosts the high frequency component by taking advantage of the high pass channel response. By optimally combining them, the front-end recovers NRZ signals up to 13 Gb/s burning only 26 mW in 90 nm CMOS. A low power- and area-efficient clock recovery scheme uses the linear path to injection lock an oscillator. A simple theory and simulation technique for ILO-based receivers is discussed. The clock recovery technique is verified with experimental results at 5–10 Gb/s in 90 nm CMOS consuming 70 mW and acquiring lock within 1.5 ns.
Autors: Hossain, M.;Chan Carusone, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 524 - 537
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 5-Link model based gait trajectory adaption control strategies of the gait rehabilitation exoskeleton for post-stroke patients
Abstract:
Many 4-DOF exoskeleton type robot devices have been widely developed for the gait rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. However, most systems run with purely position control not allowing voluntary active movements of the subject. The lack of intelligent control strategies for variable gait patterns has been a clinical concern of such kind exoskeleton man-machine systems. In this work, we establish a 5-link model for the usual 4-DOF gait rehabilitation exoskeleton type man-machine system and propose a gait trajectory adaption control strategy. A 4-DOF gait rehabilitation exoskeleton prototype is developed as a platform for the evaluation of design concepts and control strategies...
Autors: Jia-fan, Zhang , Yi-ming, Dong , Can-jun, Yang , Yu, Geng , Ying, Chen , ...
Appeared in: Mechatronics
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» 60 GHz Double-Balanced Gate-Pumped Down-Conversion Mixers With a Combined Hybrid on 130 nm CMOS Processes
Abstract:
Two 60-GHz compact double-balanced gate-pumped mixers using standard bulk 0.13 CMOS process are presented. The homodyne and heterodyne mixers utilize small-size combined hybrids and demonstrated a small chip size of 0.8 0.85 and , including pads. With 5 dBm LO power, the best measured conversion gains are 1 and 0 dB in the 3 dB bandwidths of 15 GHz from 54 to 69 GHz and 14 GHz from 53 to 67 GHz RF. The LO-to-RF isolations are greater than 45 dB at a low bias of 1.2 V and 12 mA. This is the first demonstration of the double-balanced gate mixer in millimeter wave frequency.
Autors: Lien, C.-H.;Huang, P.-C.;Kao, K.-Y.;Lin, K.-Y.;Wang, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 160 - 162
Publisher: IEEE
 
» 60 GHz high resistivity silicon on insulator interdigitated dipole antenna
Abstract:
The performance of a 60 GHz interdigitated dipole antenna integrated on SOI is described. The SOI substrate effect has been compensated by the introduction of an interdigitated structure. Good dipole matching impedance at 60 GHz over a bandwidth of 8% is obtained. Backside substrate metallization has been used to improve the radiation properties. A novel test method is used to measure the gain patterns of the dipole. The resulting measured radiation efficiency is 80% with a gain around 3 dBi at 60 GHz. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1197-1201, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25132
Autors: M. H. Barakat, C. Delaveaud, F. Ndagijimana
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» 60-GHz Wideband Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Slot Array Using Closely Spaced Elements for Planar Multisector Antenna
Abstract:
A new wideband waveguide slot array is proposed for covering a wide elevation-angle range with a planar sector antenna of a multigigabit wireless LAN in the 60-GHz band. The requirement of millimeter-wave sector antennas is to realize both wide bandwidth of 11.2% and wide elevation-angle coverage with a required gain of over 10 dBi. To satisfy both the required gain and bandwidth, the important structural features of the proposed antenna are that multiple slot elements are successively arranged at an interval of the length less than one quarter guide wavelengths and that the slot length increases from the shorted waveguide end to the feed end. The operational principle of the slot array is based on multisection quarter-wavelength reflection cancellation, so the slot array can achieve the required bandwidth. Furthermore, this antenna produces a unidirectional radiation pattern by using the radiators and the reflectors, resulting in the required gain over a wide elevation-angle range. In the design, the structural parameters of the slot array are selected to meet the requirements for 60-GHz-band sector antenna. The developed substrate-integrated-waveguide (SIW) slot array achieves both the 10 dB return-loss bandwidth of 15% and the specified gain in 88–96% of the one-sector coverage range of 59–66 GHz. The effectiveness of the proposed slot array for a sector antenna is verified by the good agreement between the simulated and measured results.
Autors: Ohira, M.;Miura, A.;Ueba, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 993 - 998
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DeFer: Deferred Decision Making Enabled Fixed-Outline Floorplanning Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, we present DeFer—a fast, high-quality, scalable, and nonstochastic fixed-outline floorplanning algorithm. DeFer generates a nonslicing floorplan by compacting a slicing floorplan. To find a good slicing floorplan, instead of searching through numerous slicing trees by simulated annealing as in traditional approaches, DeFer considers only one single slicing tree. However, we generalize the notion of slicing tree based on the principle of deferred decision making (DDM). When two subfloorplans are combined at each node of the generalized slicing tree, DeFer does not specify their orientations, the left-right/top-bottom order between them, and the slice line direction. DeFer even does not specify the slicing tree structure for small subfloorplan. In other words, we are deferring the decisions on these factors, which are specified arbitrarily at an early step in traditional approaches. Because of DDM, one slicing tree actually corresponds to a large number of slicing floorplan solutions, all of which are efficiently maintained in one single shape curve. With the final shape curve, it is straightforward to choose a good floorplan fitting into the fixed outline. Several techniques are also proposed to further optimize the wirelength. For both fixed-outline and classical floorplanning problems, experimental results show that DeFer achieves the best success rate, the best wirelength, the best runtime, and the best area on average compared - with all other state-of-the-art floorplanners.
Autors: Yan, J. Z.;Chu, C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 367 - 381
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Exception Discovery: A Novel Method for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins
Abstract:
The identification of differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) observed under specific conditions is one of the key issues in proteomics research. There are currently several ways to detect the changes of a specific protein's expression level in two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel images such as statistical analysis and graphical visualization. However, it is quite difficult to handle the information of an individual protein manually by these methods due to the large distortions of patterns in 2-DE images. This paper proposes a method of analyzing DEPs for a specific disease. In order to automatically extract meaningful DEPs in a set of 2-DE gel images, we have designed an exception function that is suitable to measure the anomalous change of the expression level of an individual protein. We present the comparison results of the proposed method versus a Wilcoxon paired t -test that is one of the widely used statistical analysis methods. Several experiments are performed to address not only the effectiveness of the exception function but also the fact that these two methods can compensate each other practically.
Autors: Shim, J. E.;Kim, D. B.;Lee, W. S.;Cho, S. Y.;Yu, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 473 - 480
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Observation of Compliance-Current Overshoot and Its Effect on Resistive Switching
Abstract:
The compliance-current dependence of the resistive-switching behaviors is investigated in memory devices with 1R architecture and 1T1R architecture, respectively. The correlation of reset current and on-state resistance can be verified by adjusting the compliance current . Meanwhile, and become independent on in the 1R architecture when is below 1 mA. A serious compliance-current overshoot phenomenon is in situ observed in 1R-architecture device, and it remarkably affects the resistive-switching characteristics because the compliance current dominates the memory behaviors. Therefore, resistive-switching investigation based on 1T1R architecture is much more reliable.
Autors: Wan, H. J.;Zhou, P.;Ye, L.;Lin, Y. Y.;Tang, T. A.;Wu, H. M.;Chi, M. H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 31, issue:3, pages: 246 - 248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Situ Poly Heater—A Reliable Tool for Performing Fast and Defined Temperature Switches on Chip
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the calibration procedure and performance of the poly-heater measurement technique for device characterization and reliability issues. We put a particular emphasis on the accessible temperature range, the heating and cooling dynamics, as well as on the impact of temperature gradient between the heater, device, and thermo chuck. In this context, the poly-heater technique provides a reliable solution for fast and arbitrary temperature switches and offers the possibility to reach device temperatures that are far beyond the operating range of conventional thermo-chuck systems.
Autors: Aichinger, T.;Nelhiebel, M.;Einspieler, S.;Grasser, T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 3 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In vitro Verification of a 3-D Regenerative Neural Interface Design: Examination of Neurite Growth and Electrical Properties Within a Bifurcating Microchannel Structure
Abstract:
Toward the development of neuroprosthesis, we propose a 3-D regenerative neural interface design for connecting with the peripheral nervous system. This approach relies on bifurcating microstructures to achieve defasciculated ingrowth patterns and, consequently, high selectivity. In vitro studies were performed to validate this design by showing that fasciculation during nerve regeneration can be influenced by providing a scaffold to guide growth appropriately. With this approach, neurites can be separated from one another and guided toward specific electrode sites to create a highly selective interface. The neurite separation characteristics were examined for smaller microchannel structures (2.5 and 5 wide) and larger microchannels (10 and 20 wide), with smaller microchannels shown to be statistically more effective at initiating separation. Electrodes incorporated at different locations within the microchannels allowed for the recording and tracking of action potential propagation. Microchannel size was also found to play an important role in this regard, with smaller microchannels amplifying the recordable extracellular signal; a twofold increase in the signal to noise ratio was found for 5 wide microchannels.
Autors: Wieringa, P. A.;Wiertz, R. W. F.;de Weerd, E. L.;Rutten, W. L. C.;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 98, issue:3, pages: 389 - 397
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Supervised Analysis of Stent Reendothelialization From Optical Coherence Tomography
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to interactively assess reendothelialization of stents at an accuracy of down to a few micrometer by analyzing endovascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) sequences. Vessel wall and stent struts are automatically detected by using morphological, gradient, and symmetry operators coupled with active contour models; alerts are issued to ask for user supervision over some extreme irregular geometries caused by thrombotic lesions or dissections. A complete distance map is then computed from sparse distances measured between wall and struts. Missing values are interpolated by thin-plate spline (TPS) functions. Accuracy and robustness are increased by taking into account the inhomogeneity of data points and integrating in the same framework orthogonalized forward selection of support points, optimal selection of regularization parameters by generalized cross-validation, and rejection of detection outliers. Validation is performed on simulated data, phantom acquisitions and 11 typical in vivo OCT sequences. The comparison against manual expert measurements demonstrates a bias of the order of OCT resolution (less than 10 m) and a standard deviation of the order of the strut width (less than 150 m ).
Autors: Kauffmann, C.;Motreff, P.;Sarry, L.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 807 - 818
Publisher: IEEE
 
» In Vivo Validation of a Hybrid Tracking System for Navigation of an Ultrathin Bronchoscope Within Peripheral Airways
Abstract:
Transbronchial biopsy of peripheral lung nodules is hindered by the inability to access lesions endoluminally due to the large diameter of conventional bronchoscopes. An ultrathin scanning fiber bronchoscope has recently been developed to advance image-guided biopsy several branching generations deeper into the peripheral airways. However, navigating a potentially complex 3-D path to the region of interest presents a challenge to the bronchoscopist. An accompanying guidance system has also been developed to track the bronchoscope through the airways, and display its position and intended path on a virtual display. Intraoperative localization of the bronchoscope was achieved by combining electromagnetic tracking (EMT) and image-based tracking (IBT). An error-state Kalman filter was used to model the disagreement between the two tracking sources. The positional tracking error was reduced from 14.22 and 14.92 mm by independent EMT and IBT, respectively, to 6.74 mm using the hybrid approach. Hybrid tracking of the scope orientation and respiratory motion compensation further improved tracking accuracy and stability, resulting in an average tracking error of 3.33 mm and 10.01 .
Autors: Soper*, T. D.;Haynor, D. R.;Glenny, R. W.;Seibel, E. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 736 - 745
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Zeff profile diagnostics using visible bremsstrahlung continuum for nonaxisymmetric plasmas with finite β in large helical device
Abstract:
An astigmatism-corrected Czerny–Turner-type visible spectrometer coupled with a charge-coupled device has been installed in large helical device (LHD) to measure visible bremsstrahlung continuum. A full vertical profile has been observed from the elliptical plasmas at horizontally elongated plasma cross section through a 44 fiber parallel array with vertical observation length of ∼1 m. Line emissions can be easily eliminated by use of the visible spectrometer instead of an interference filter. A nonmonotonic bremsstrahlung emission profile, which is originated in the thick ergodic layer surrounding the main plasma, has been observed for normal discharges in all the magnetic configurations of LHD. After analyzing the detailed structure, the lower half of the vertical bremsstrahlung emission profile is found to be free of the strong edge bremsstrahlung emission in inwardly shifted magnetic configurations (Rax≤3.60 m). The nonmonotonic bremsstrahlung emission disappeared in extremely high-density discharges (ne≥1014 cm-3) because of the reduction of the plasma outside boundary. When the local emissivity is calculated using Abel inversion, the solution is very sensitive to the distortion of the magnetic surface structure. The influence of the magnetic surface distortion based on the finite β effect is examined as error estimation in addition to unclear edge plasma boundary due to the presence of the ergodic layer. The result indicates that the determination of the normalized minor radius for each observation chord gives a larger influence on the Abel inversion rather than the determination of the chord length. When the observed chord-integrated bremsstrahlung intensity profile is flat, the resultant uncertainty seen - in the bremsstrahlung emissivity profile becomes large, in particular, at the plasma center. The Zeff profile calculated with consideration of density and temperature profiles is verified in neutral-beam-heated discharges with H2 and C pellet injections, where the Zeff values should be close to 1 and 6, respectively. Analysis on the flat and hollow electron density profiles results in a fairly flat Zeff profile.
Autors: Zhou, H. Y.;Morita, S.;Goto, M.;Dong, C. F.;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 107, issue:5, pages: 053306 - 053306-11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : Role-Differentiated Cooperative Deceptive Data Detection and Filtering in VANETs
Abstract:
The data quality of collected sensing data, which determines the practical value of sensing systems, has been studied in several previous efforts; however, we argue that vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which are a particular application of highly dynamic sensing systems, requires specific treatment to guarantee data quality. In this paper, we design a mechanism, i.e., , which is a role-differentiated cooperative deceptive data-detection and filtering mechanism, to detect the false data in VANETs. is evaluated using an extended traffic simulator. Three scenarios, i.e., freeway, road construction on a highway, and a traffic light on a local street, are deployed in general. Evaluation results show that the proposed mechanism can achieve more than 90.00% recall and precision rate in most cases.
Autors: Sha, K.;Wang, S.;Shi, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 1183 - 1190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» : Role-Differentiated Cooperative Deceptive Data Detection and Filtering in VANETs
Abstract:
The data quality of collected sensing data, which determines the practical value of sensing systems, has been studied in several previous efforts; however, we argue that vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), which are a particular application of highly dynamic sensing systems, requires specific treatment to guarantee data quality. In this paper, we design a mechanism, i.e., , which is a role-differentiated cooperative deceptive data-detection and filtering mechanism, to detect the false data in VANETs. is evaluated using an extended traffic simulator. Three scenarios, i.e., freeway, road construction on a highway, and a traffic light on a local street, are deployed in general. Evaluation results show that the proposed mechanism can achieve more than 90.00% recall and precision rate in most cases.
Autors: Sha, K.;Wang, S.;Shi, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 1183 - 1190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.02-mm 9-Bit 50-MS/s Cyclic ADC in 90-nm Digital CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A 9-bit cyclic ADC employs a track-and-evaluation technique for enhancing the speed of residue evaluation. The proposed multiply-by-two circuit has a shorter evaluation time than the conventional design due to the application of a partial positive feedback topology. The residue evaluation and sampling phases are merged to reduce the conversion latency. Hence, only four clock cycles are required to perform the 9-bit conversion. The proposed 0.02- ADC has been fabricated in 90-nm digital CMOS technology. It operates at 50 MS/s and achieves an SNDR of 50.5 dB with a power consumption of 6.9 mW from a 1.0-V supply.
Autors: Huang, Y.-C.;Lee, T.-C.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 610 - 619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.02-mm 9-Bit 50-MS/s Cyclic ADC in 90-nm Digital CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A 9-bit cyclic ADC employs a track-and-evaluation technique for enhancing the speed of residue evaluation. The proposed multiply-by-two circuit has a shorter evaluation time than the conventional design due to the application of a partial positive feedback topology. The residue evaluation and sampling phases are merged to reduce the conversion latency. Hence, only four clock cycles are required to perform the 9-bit conversion. The proposed 0.02-mm2 ADC has been fabricated in 90-nm digital CMOS technology. It operates at 50 MS/s and achieves an SNDR of 50.5 dB with a power consumption of 6.9 mW from a 1.0-V supply.
Autors: Yen-Chuan Huang;Tai-Cheng Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 610 - 619
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.3 V Cross-Coupled VCO Using Dynamic Threshold MOSFET
Abstract:
An ultra-low voltage differential voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is designed and implemented in a 0.13 m CMOS 1P8M process. The designed circuit topology is an nMOS-core cross-coupled LC-tank VCO, and a self-generated 2nd harmonic ac signal is coupled to the bodies of MOSFETs to enhance the VCO performance. At the supply voltage of 0.3 V, the output phase noise of the VCO is dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency from the carrier frequency of 3.579 GHz, and the figure of merit is dBc/Hz. Total power consumption is 0.225 mW. Tuning range is about 240(770) MHz, from 3.39 to 3.63(4.16) GHz, while the control voltage was tuned from 0 V to 0.3(1.0) V.
Autors: Jang, S.-L.;Huang, C.-J.;Hsue, C.-W.;Chang, C.-W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 166 - 168
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 0.35?m CMOS divide-by-2 quadrature injection-locked frequency divider based on voltage-current feedback topology
Abstract:
This paper presents a new divide-by-2 quadrature injection-locked frequency divider (QILFD). The QILFD consists of a new transformer-coupled quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) with the voltage-current feedback technique and two NMOS switches, which are in parallel with the QVCO resonators for signal injection. The proposed CMOS QILFD has been implemented with the TSMC 0.35?m CMOS technology and the core power consumption is 16.52mW at the supply voltage of 2.2V. The free-running frequency of the QILFD is tunable from 2.85GHz to 3.07GHz. At the input power of 0dBm, the divide-by-2 operation range is from 5.48GHz to 6.48GHz. The phase deviation of...
Autors: Sheng-Lyang, Jang , Cheng-Chen, Liu , Ren-Kai, Yang , Chih-Chieh, Shih , Chia-Wei, Chang , ...
Appeared in: Microelectronics Reliability
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A 0.6-V Zero-IF/Low-IF Receiver With Integrated Fractional-N Synthesizer for 2.4-GHz ISM-Band Applications
Abstract:
Supply voltage reduction with process scaling has made the design of analog, RF and mixed mode circuits increasingly difficult. In this paper, we present the design of an ultra-low voltage, low power and highly integrated dual-mode receiver for 2.4-GHz ISM-band applications. The receiver operates reliably from 0.55–0.65 V and is compatible with commercial standards such as Bluetooth and ZigBee. We discuss the design challenges at low voltage supplies such as limited f for transistors and higher nonlinearities due to limited available signal swing, and present the architectural and circuit level design techniques used to overcome these challenges. The highly integrated receiver prototype chip contains RF front-end circuits, analog baseband circuits and the RF frequency synthesizer and was fabricated in a standard digital 90-nm CMOS process; it achieves a gain of 67 dB, noise figure of 16 dB, of 10.5 dBm, synthesizer phase noise of 127 dBc/Hz at 3-MHz offset, consumes 32.5 mW from 0.6 V and occupies an active area of 1.7 .
Autors: Balankutty, A.;Yu, S.-Y.;Feng, Y.;Kinget, P. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 538 - 553
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 1.62/2.7-Gb/s Adaptive Transmitter With Two-Tap Preemphasis Using a Propagation-Time Detector
Abstract:
A 1.62/2.7-Gb/s adaptive transmitter with two-tap preemphasis is presented. The tap coefficients are adjusted by detecting the propagation time through the channel with different lengths. This adaptive transmitter is fabricated in 0.13- CMOS technology, and the core area occupies . The maximum power consumption from a 1.2-V supply is 32.4 mW at 2.7 Gb/s. For a 40-in FR4 PCB trace with a 12.3-dB loss, the measured RMS and peak-to-peak jitters of the recovered data are 30 and 231 ps, respectively, for a 1.62-Gb/s pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) of . For a 20-in FR4 PCB trace with a 10.6-dB loss, the RMS and peak-to-peak jitters are 21 and 144 ps, respectively, for a 2.7-Gb/s PRBS of . For both cases, the measured bit error rates are less than .
Autors: Kao, S-Y.;Liu, S-I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 178 - 182
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 10-bit 60-MS/s Low-Power Pipelined ADC With Split-Capacitor CDS Technique
Abstract:
In this brief, a split-capacitor correlated double sampling (SC-CDS) technique is proposed to improve the performance of CDS. Using the proposed technique, low-gain operational amplifiers (op-amps) can be employed to implement a low-power pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A power-efficient class-AB pseudodifferential op-amp and its corresponding integrator-based common-mode stabilization (IB-CMS) method are developed to further reduce the power consumption of the ADC. The proposed pipelined ADC fabricated in a pure digital 0.18- 1P5M CMOS process consumes 18 mW at 60 MS/s from a 1.8-V power supply. The active die area is 0.84 .
Autors: Lin, J.-F.;Chang, S.-J.;Liu, C.-C.;Huang, C.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 163 - 167
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 116 fps/74 mW Heterogeneous 3D-Media Processor for 3-D Display Applications
Abstract:
In this paper, a heterogeneous 3D-media processor is presented, which supports all 3-D display applications by combining a 3-D display IP with a 3-D graphics IP and a stereo video decoder. For mobile environments, adaptive power management scheme is proposed, which saves power consumption up to 186 mW by turning off idle functional blocks based on a target application, a target performance, and the run-time ratio between different IPs. As a result, the minimum power consumption of the processor is only 15 mW, while the overall power consumption is 201 mW. As well as the reduction of power consumption, this work shows impressive performance improvement. The proposed fast modulo operators and adopted division-free algorithm reduces the critical latencies of 3-D display image processing. The proposed fast datapath with parallel architecture increase synthesis rate up to 116 fps which is 17 times faster than a previous work. In addition, reordered operation sequence fixes memory bandwidth regardless of the number of images to be produced. In the 3-D graphics IP and the decoding IP, redundant datapath are merged using an IEEE 754 compliant floating-point vector unit to save both chip area and power consumption, which even reduces the critical latency by 30%.
Autors: Kim, S.-H.;Kim, H.-Y.;Kim, Y.-J.;Chung, K.;Kim, D.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 652 - 667
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 12 bit 50 MS/s CMOS Nyquist A/D Converter With a Fully Differential Class-AB Switched Op-Amp
Abstract:
A 12 bit 50 MS/s 1.8 V pipelined CMOS analog-to-digital converter (ADC) based on a fully differential class-AB switched operational amplifier achieves low power consumption with a differential input voltage of 2.4 Vp-p. A global-loop dynamic common-mode feedback circuit enables fully differential class-AB operation with dynamic current switching for power reduction. The prototype ADC shows a peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio of 64.0 dB and a peak spurious-free dynamic range of 76.6 dB for a 31 MHz input signal at 50 MS/s while the measured differential and integral nonlinearities are within 0.26 LSB and 0.72 LSB, respectively. The prototype ADC in a 0.18 1P6M CMOS process consumes 18.4 mW at 50 MS/s and 1.8 V occupying an active die area of 0.26 .
Autors: Kim, Y.-J.;Choi, H.-C.;Ahn, G.-C.;Lee, S.-H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 620 - 628
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 122-mW Low-Power Multiresolution Spectrum-Sensing IC With Self-Deactivated Partial Swing Techniques
Abstract:
A low-power multiresolution spectrum-sensing (LP-MRSS) IC utilizing self-deactivated partial swing techniques is fabricated in 0.18- complementary metal–oxide–CMOS technology. The LP-MRSS is composed of a low-power digital window generator, analog correlators, low-power pipeline analog-to-digital converters, and a fast-sweeping frequency synthesizer. The LP-MRSS dissipates 122 mW at a 1.8-V supply voltage achieving an approximately 33% power reduction over the previous MRSS IC.
Autors: Song, T.;Park, J.;Lee, S. M.;Choi, J.;Kim, K.;Lee, C.-H.;Lim, K.;Laskar, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 188 - 192
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 2.16 mW Low Power Digitally-Controlled Variable Gain Amplifier
Abstract:
A low power digitally-controlled CMOS variable gain amplifier (VGA) was fabricated in a TSMC CMOS technology. By extending the transconductor operation range from saturation mode for high gain to triode mode for low gain, the proposed VGA can obtain a wide gain range with low power dissipation. The power consumption of the proposed VGA is as small as 2.16 mW while keeping a wide gain range of 53 dB. The proposed VGA has a controlled gain from to 31 dB with 1 dB steps. When the proposed VGA was set to a maximum gain, the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and the 3 dB bandwidth are and at least 65 MHz, respectively.
Autors: Kang, S. Y.;Jang, J.;Oh, I.-Y.;Park, C. S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 172 - 174
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 3-D Microdosimetric Study on Blood Cells: A Permittivity Model of Cell Membrane and Stochastic Electromagnetic Analysis
Abstract:
This paper describes a microdosimetric study on erythrocytes in two parts: an assessment of the membrane dielectric model from permittivity measurements of erythrocyte solutions and its uncertainty, and a quasi-static electromagnetic (EM) analysis solving the Laplace equation, both analytically and numerically. To evaluate the role of the estimated uncertainty, a stochastic EM solution has been conducted; our results highlight the fundamental role of the dielectric modeling on the reliability of electric field values in the cell membrane. Numerical data, from 3-D cell models, confirm the dependence of the electric field distribution on the extra-cellular field polarization.
Autors: Merla, C.;Liberti, M.;Apollonio, F.;Nervi, C.;d'Inzeo, G.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 691 - 698
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-bit 3.2-GS/s Flash ADC With a Digital Offset Calibration Scheme
Abstract:
In high-speed Flash analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), preamplifiers are often placed in front of a comparator to reduce metastability errors and enhance comparison speed. The accuracy of a Flash ADC is mainly limited by the random offsets of preamplifiers and comparators. This paper presents a 5-b Flash ADC with a digital random offset calibration scheme. For calibration, programmable resistive devices are used as the loading devices of the second-stage preamplifiers. By adjusting the calibration resistors, the input-referred offset voltage of each comparator is reduced to be less than 1/2 LSB. Fabricated in a 0.13- CMOS process, experimental results show that the ADC consumes 120 mW from a 1.2-V supply and occupies a 0.18- active area. After calibration, the peak differential non-linearity (DNL) and integral non-linearity (INL) are 0.24 and 0.39 LSB, respectively. At 3.2-GS/s operation, the effective number of bits is 4.54 b, and the effective resolution bandwidth is 600 MHz. This ADC achieves figures of merit of 3.07 and 4.30 pJ/conversion-step at 2 and 3.2 GS/s, respectively.
Autors: Lin, Y.-Z.;Lin, C.-W.;Chang, S.-J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 509 - 513
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 5-bit CMOS phase shifter with low phase and amplitude error using a new 180 phase shifter featuring process-variation immunity
Abstract:
In this letter, a high-performance 5-bit CMOS phase shifter using a newly proposed 180 bit is presented for a Ku-band mobile satellite phased array receiver. The 180 phase shifter exhibits good tolerance to substrate parasitic capacitances when compared with a conventional high-pass/low-pass type one. The designed 5-bit CMOS phase shifter demonstrates a typical 11.7 dB 0.5 dB insertion loss and a 2.1 rms phase shift error at 12.2 GHz. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1325-1328, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25214
Autors: Dong-Woo Kang, Songcheol Hong
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A 58–65 GHz Neutralized CMOS Power Amplifier With PAE Above 10% at 1-V Supply
Abstract:
A 60-GHz band, three-stage pseudo-differential power amplifier (PA) is implemented with input and output baluns on-chip. Each stage consists of a neutralized common-source amplifier pair. Neutralization mitigates the intrinsic gate-drain feedback of each transistor for increased power gain and reverse isolation. Shielded transformers couple the gain stages and allow low supply voltage operation. Fabricated in a 65-nm bulk CMOS process, the measured small-signal gain of the 0.13 0.41 mm PA is 16 dB at 60 GHz with 3-dB bandwidth more than 8.5 GHz, while consuming 50 mW from a 1-V supply. Reverse isolation is better than 42 dB from 55 to 65 GHz. Maximum saturated output power is 11.5 dBm with a peak PAE of 15.2% measured at 62 GHz; from 58 to 65 GHz, the measured PAE is above 10%.
Autors: Chan, W. L.;Long, J. R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 554 - 564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 7.1 mW, 10 GHz All Digital Frequency Synthesizer With Dynamically Reconfigured Digital Loop Filter in 90 nm CMOS Technology
Abstract:
A 10 GHz all digital frequency synthesizer (ADPLL) with dynamic digital loop filter is presented. Governed by a proposed locking process monitor (LPM), the digital loop filter is automatically reconfigured during the frequency acquisition and phase tracking process. The loop bandwidth is also self-adjusted during the locking process so as to achieve fast lock and low noise simultaneously. A skew-compensated phase accumulator is proposed for high speed operation, which preserves the advantages of low power dissipation while eliminating the accumulated timing skew issue. With less than 7 s locking time, the measured rms jitter from a 9.92 GHz carrier is about 0.9 ps. The ADPLL core consumes 7.1 mW from a 1 V supply, and the digital I/O cells drains 2.7 mW from a 3.3 V supply for chip measurement. Implemented in a 90 nm CMOS technology, the core area is only 0.352 mm .
Autors: Yang, S.-Y.;Chen, W.-Z.;Lu, T.-Y.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 578 - 586
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A 90 nm CMOS dual-band divide-by-2 and -4 injection-locked frequency divider
Abstract:
A fourth-order resonator has been implemented to design a 65 GHz injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) implemented in a 90 nm CMOS process.The ILFD is realized with a cross-coupled nMOS LC-tank oscillator with an inductor switch for frequency band selection. The LC tank can be a second-or fourth-order resonator depending upon the on/off state of a switch across a series-tuned inductor. Measurement results show that at the supply voltage of 0.5 V, the free-running frequency is from 8.68 (16.147) to 9.928 (17.89) GHz for the low- (high-) frequency band. The divide-by-2 operational locking range is from 14.9 (30.64) to 22.2 (37.74) GHz for the low-(high)-frequency band. The divide-by-4 operational locking range is from 34.4 (64.6) to 40.35 (67) GHz for the low-(high)-frequency band. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1421-1425, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25217
Autors: Sheng-Lyang Jang, Yuan-Kai Wu, Chia-Wei Chang, Jhin-Fang Huang, Cheng-Chen Liu
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Body Sensor Network With Electromyogram and Inertial Sensors: Multimodal Interpretation of Muscular Activities
Abstract:
The evaluation of the postural control system (PCS) has applications in rehabilitation, sports medicine, gait analysis, fall detection, and diagnosis of many diseases associated with a reduction in balance ability. Standing involves significant muscle use to maintain balance, making standing balance a good indicator of the health of the PCS. Inertial sensor systems have been used to quantify standing balance by assessing displacement of the center of mass, resulting in several standardized measures. Electromyogram (EMG) sensors directly measure the muscle control signals. Despite strong evidence of the potential of muscle activity for balance evaluation, less study has been done on extracting unique features from EMG data that express balance abnormalities. In this paper, we present machine learning and statistical techniques to extract parameters from EMG sensors placed on the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles, which show a strong correlation to the standard parameters extracted from accelerometer data. This novel interpretation of the neuromuscular system provides a unique method of assessing human balance based on EMG signals. In order to verify the effectiveness of the introduced features in measuring postural sway, we conduct several classification tests that operate on the EMG features and predict significance of different balance measures.
Autors: Ghasemzadeh, H.;Jafari, R.;Prabhakaran, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 198 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Brief Introduction to Time-to-Digital and Digital-to-Time Converters
Abstract:
This paper presents a short review of time-to-digital and digital-to-time converters (TDCs and DTCs, respectively) adopting a time-mode signal-processing perspective. The primary definitions, operating principles, and basic building blocks are presented. The discussion applies to most, if not all, DTCs and TDCs. A series of voltage-controlled delay units are used as the primary building block of these converter circuits. When configured in a servo-loop manner, a very short time resolution is achievable with excellent manufacturing robustness. Such designs can be synthesized in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) or constructed in custom silicon. TDCs and DTCs are not new, as they have extensively been used for making very accurate and repeatable time measurements in both the physics-related and semiconductor industry. Today, TDCs and DTCs are finding new applications in phase-locked loops and frequency synthesizers.
Autors: Roberts, G. W.;Ali-Bakhshian, M.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 153 - 157
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A capacitive probe for measuring the clearance between the piston and the cylinder of a gas piston gauge
Abstract:
We used a capacitive technique to determine the radial clearance between the piston and cylinder of a gas piston gauge. This method determines the effective area of a piston gauge pressure standard, independent of calibration against another piston gauge or manometer, as long as the diameter of the piston is dimensionally measured. It also allows an independent determination of piston gauge distortion due to pressure. We have used this technique to measure the clearance and the distortion of six gas piston gauges of the Ruska 2465 type operating in gauge mode. Measurements were made on two gauges each in the low, middle, and high ranges. We describe the capacitance technique and the results of the measurements on the six piston gauges.
Autors: Bowers, Walter J.;Olson, Douglas A.;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 81, issue:3, pages: 035102 - 035102-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A career in system-level design research [review of "Embedded System Design: Modeling, Synthesis, and Verification (Gajski, D.D. et al; 2009)]
Abstract:
This is a review of Embedded System Design: Modeling, Synthesis and Verification (by Daniel D. Gajski, Samar Abdi, Andreas Gerstlauer, and Gunar Schirner). The book introduces readers to embedded-systems design methodologies and tools, both those in use and those yet to come. It summaries the pioneering work of Daniel Gajski and colleagues in system-level design and shows both progress made and yet to be made in the field.
Autors: Martin, Grant;
Appeared in: IEEE Design & Test of Computers
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 27, issue:2, pages: 82 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A CDMA/TDD approach for wireless mesh networks?
Abstract:
Wide band mesh or star oriented networks have recently become a subject of greater interest. Providing wideband multimedia access for a variety of applications has led to the inception of mesh networks. Classic access techniques such as FDMA and TDMA have been the norm for such networks. CDMA maximum transmitter power is much less than TDMA and FDMA counter parts, which is an important asset for mobile operation. In this paper we introduce a code division multiple access/time division duplex technique CDMA/TDD for such networks. The CDMA approach is an almost play and plug technology for wireless access, making it...
Autors: Imam, Al-wazedi , Ahmed K., Elhakeem
Appeared in: Computers & Electrical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A CdSe Nanowire/Quantum Dot Hybrid Architecture for Improving Solar Cell Performance
Abstract:
Incorporating colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) into CdSe nanowire (NW)-based photoelectrochemical solar cells increases their incident-photon-to-carrier conversion efficiencies (IPCE) from 13% to 25% at 500 nm. While the effect could, in principle, stem from direct absorption and subsequent carrier generation by QDs, the overall IPCE increase occurs across the entire visible spectrum, even at wavelengths where the dots do not absorb light. This beneficial effect originates from an interplay between NWs and QDs where the latter fill voids between interconnected NWs, providing electrically accessible conduits, in turn, enabling better carrier transport to electrodes. The presence of QDs furthermore reduces the residual polarization anisotropy of random NW networks. Introducing QDs therefore addresses an important limiting constraint of NW photoelectrochemical solar cells. The effect appears to be general and may aid the future design and implementation of other NW-based photovoltaics.
Autors: Yanghai Yu, Prashant V. Kamat, Masaru Kuno
Appeared in: Advanced Functional Materials
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Chat with Matt Mason [Turning Point]
Abstract:
The following is the first of a series of interviews by IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine (RAM) Editor-in-Chief Peter I. Corke (PIC). Comments and suggestions for future interviews are welcome.
Autors: Corke, P.I.;
Appeared in: IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 17, issue:1, pages: 136 - 132
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A chip-level electrothermal-coupled design model for high-power light-emitting diodes
Abstract:
An advanced three-dimensional electrothermal-coupled simulation model basing on finite-element method numerical simulation is developed to study the electrical and thermal properties of chip-level high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The current spreading, heat generation, and transfer in the device are comprehensively considered in this model. The current-spreading effect of the transparent current-spreading layer and the thermal performance of LEDs with interdigitated-electrodes are investigated. The simulation results prove that the temperature distribution in the active layer is strongly affected by the electrode pattern. The obvious heat accumulation in LEDs with conventional interdigitated-electrode patterns can be seen both in the simulated results and the infrared measured results. The heat transfer efficiency can be improved by using a symmetry electrode pattern design. The thermal management of the bump configurations in flip-chip LEDs is also studied. A more reasonable and thermal effective bump configuration is presented, and the simulated results show that a lower average temperature and more uniform heat distribution in the chips can be obtained.
Autors: Huang, Shanjin;Wu, Hao;Fan, Bingfeng;Zhang, Baijun;Wang, Gang;
Appeared in: Journal of Applied Physics
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 107, issue:5, pages: 054509 - 054509-8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A closed core micro fluxgate sensor with cascaded planar FeNi ring cores
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a new microfabricated fluxgate sensor structure using cascaded planar rings as the ferromagnetic core. The planar ring structures provide a closed magnetic excitation loop enabling uniform core saturation with relatively small excitation magnetic field. The magnetic excitation is provided with a rod passing through the ring cores. Planar coils placed under the edges of the core are used as sensing elements. By using this structure, fluxgate sensors having a closed core configuration are realized with a developed microfabrication process in a very small area (<0.1mm2) with reduced number of via connections. The ferromagnetic rings are...
Autors: O., Zorlu , P., Kejik , W., Teppan
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Coaxial Stub Microfluidic Impedance Transformer (COSMIX)
Abstract:
This letter proposes a coaxial stub microfluidic impedance transformer and discusses its design, theory, and operation. Electrostatically-stabilized colloidal dispersions using non-aqueous fluids facilitate its electromagnetic agility by altering their effective medium properties. Theoretical, simulated, and measured results at 400 MHz, 800 MHz, and 1.6 GHz using 0%, 25%, and 50% volume fractions of colloidal Barium Strontium Titanate dispersed in a low-loss severely hydrotreated mineral oil are included to demonstrate the operation of the device. Simulated results for non-spherical nanoparticles are included to show the potential of different material systems.
Autors: Huff, G. H.;Goldberger, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 20, issue:3, pages: 154 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact and low-loss LTCC diplexer with high-band selectivity and high isolation for dual-band applications
Abstract:
This article presents a compact and low-loss diplexer for dual-band applications using a LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) multilayer technology. This diplexer is composed of the high-pass filter (HPF) and low-pass filter (LPF) in order to separate GSM (global system for mobile) and CDMA (code division multiple access) band. For enhancing band selectivity of the diplexer, a shunt capacitor and inductor are designed in the HPF and LPF, respectively. In addition, a transmission zero is designed at the stopband of the LPF using a shunt inductor for improving isolation characteristics. The diplexer is realized in a 6-layer LTCC substrate with a relative dielectric constant of 7. The size of the fabricated diplexer including CPW pads is 3.45 4.0 0.7 mm3. A measured insertion loss (IL) and return loss (RL) of the GSM band are less than -0.54 dB and -10.50 dB, respectively. In the case of CDMA band, the IL of -1.13 dB and RL of below -6.16 dB are archived. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1134-1137, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25137
Autors: Tae Wan Kim, Young Chul Lee
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Compact Dual-Port Diversity Antenna for Long-Term Evolution Handheld Devices
Abstract:
A compact integrated dual-port diversity antenna is presented, which is suitable for long-term evolution (LTE) and wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) applications in handheld devices. The antenna design merges two planar inverted F-shaped antennas (PIFAs) into a single-antenna structure that not only occupies less volume in a handheld device but also eliminates the need to separate two individual antenna elements, which provides further space-saving efficiency. This can be accomplished even while maintaining desirable isolation and diversity characteristics. The proposed design can thus be utilized in compact wireless handheld communication devices that require signal diversity. An example design is described for 2.6-GHz LTE/Wi-Fi bands (2.5–2.7 GHz), which has been implemented in real-world cellular phone environments and include interactions between the antenna, other components of the device, and a model of a human head (the specific anthropomorphic mannequin phantom). The simulated and experimental results, including S-parameters, radiation patterns, signal correlations, and mean effective gain values, have validated the proposed antenna design as useful for compact mobile devices.
Autors: Rao, Q.;Wang, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 1319 - 1329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact DVB-H Marchand balun using vertically coupling CPW structure
Abstract:
A compact DVB-H (digital video broadcasting - Handheld) Marchand balun using coplanar waveguide (CPW) coupling structure is presented.The proposed structure combines a double sided meandered CPW Marchand structure with lumped elements. Having the vertical coupling of meandered CPW Marchand structure, wide bandwidth for DVB-H band (470-710 MHz) is achieved. Also, lumped elements are used to reduce the physical length of the coupling meandered lines. The proposed DVB-H balun is fabricated on FR-4 board and both simulated and measured results are presented to illustrate its performance. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1174-1177, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25150
Autors: Han Lim Lee, Dong-Zo Kim, Won-Gyu Lim, Moon-Que Lee, Jong-Won Yu
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A compact high-voltage pulse generator based on pulse transformer with closed magnetic core
Abstract:
A compact high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator, based on a pulse transformer with a closed magnetic core, is presented in this paper. The pulse generator consists of a miniaturized pulse transformer, a curled parallel strip pulse forming line (PFL), a spark gap, and a matched load. The innovative design is characterized by the compact structure of the transformer and the curled strip PFL. A new structure of transformer windings was designed to keep good insulation and decrease distributed capacitance between turns of windings. A three-copper-strip structure was adopted to avoid asymmetric coupling of the curled strip PFL. When the 31 μF primary capacitor is charged to 2 kV, the pulse transformer can charge the PFL to 165 kV, and the 3.5 Ω matched load can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a duration of 9 ns, amplitude of 84 kV, and rise time of 5.1 ns. When the load is changed to 50 Ω, the output peak voltage of the generator can be 165 kV, the full width at half maximum is 68 ns, and the rise time is 6.5 ns.
Autors: Zhang, Yu;Liu, Jinliang;Cheng, Xinbing;Bai, Guoqiang;Zhang, Hongbo;Feng, Jiahuai;Liang, Bo;
Appeared in: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 81, issue:3, pages: 033302 - 033302-7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact ultra-wideband slot antenna with dual band-notched characteristics
Abstract:
We present compact ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antennas with dual band-notched designs. Our proposed antenna consists of a rectangular slot on the ground plane, fed by a microstrip line with a rectangular-ring shaped tuning stub. The proposed antenna can be deployed in UWB systems to avoid interference with WLAN communications. By using a parasitic strip (L-shaped, and J-shaped) insert in the slot antenna, we can achieve band-rejection properties in the WiMAX (3.5GHz) and WLAN (5-6GHz) regions of the spectrum. The characteristics of our slot antenna can be modified to tune the band-notch frequency and the bandwidth of the band-notch. A UWB...
Autors: W., Kueathaweekun , C., Benjangkaprasert , N., Anantrasirichai , T., Wakabayashi
Appeared in: AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A compact UWB antenna with dual band-notched characteristics
Abstract:
In this letter, the design, the analysis, and the measurement results of a new compact planar ultra-wideband CPW-fed antenna with dual-notched characteristics are presented. The radiating element is a planar square monopole with a circular base. A dual-notched bands characteristic is obtained by etching a half-circle slot in the square monopole and two L-shaped slots in the ground plane. The measurement results show stable radiation patterns with broadband matched impedance from 3 GHz to 11 GHz for VSWR < 2, except two dual-notched bands at 3.3-4 GHz and 5.2-5.8 GHz for filtering the WiMAX and WLAN signals. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1183-1186, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25105
Autors: Arezou Edalati, Tayeb A. Denidni
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Compact Wideband CMOS Low Noise Amplifier With Gain Flatness Enhancement
Abstract:
This paper presents a compact 0.18- m CMOS wideband gain-flattened low noise amplifier (LNA). The low noise characteristic of the LNA is achieved by the noise canceling technique and the gain flatness is enhanced by the gate-inductive gain-peaking technique. In addition to extending flat-gain bandwidth, the proposed gain-peaking technique results in better wideband noise canceling and quick gain roll-off outside the desired signal band to reject interference. Without using any passive inductor, the core size of the fully-integrated CMOS LNA circuit is only 145 m 247 m. The measured gain and noise figure of the CMOS LNA are 16.4 dB and 2.1 dB, respectively. The gain variation of the LNA is 0.4 dB from 50 to 900 MHz. Operated at 1.8 V, the chip consumes 14.4 mW of power.
Autors: Yu, Y.-H.;Yang, Y.-S.;Chen, Y.-J. E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 502 - 509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A compact, transportable, microchip-based system for high repetition rate production of Bose–Einstein condensates
Abstract:
We present a compact, transportable system that produces Bose–Einstein condensates near the surface of an integrated atom microchip. The system occupies a volume of 0.4 m3, operates at a repetition rate as high as 0.3 Hz, and consumes an average power of 525 W. Evaporative cooling in a chip trap with trap frequencies of several kilohertz leads to nearly pure condensates containing 1.9×104 87Rb atoms. Partial condensates are observed at a temperature of 1.58(8) μK, close to the theoretical transition temperature of 1.1 μK.
Autors: Farkas, Daniel M.;Hudek, Kai M.;Salim, Evan A.;Segal, Stephen R.;Squires, Matthew B.;Anderson, Dana Z.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 96, issue:9, pages: 093102 - 093102-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Company of Legend: The Legacy of Fairchild Semiconductor
Abstract:
Founded in 1957 by eight dissidents from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild Semiconductor developed some of the most important innovations in 20th century technology and sowed the seeds of the microelectronic-driven computer industry of today. This article surveys some of the key personalities who worked at the company and describes their technological and management contributions.
Autors: Laws, David A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Annals of the History of Computing
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 60 - 74
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparative Evaluation of Techniques for Single-Frame Discrimination of Nonstationary Sinusoids
Abstract:
Many spectral analysis and modification techniques require the separation of sinusoidal from nonsinusoidal signal components of a Fourier spectrum. Techniques exist for the estimation of the parameters of nonstationary sinusoids, and for discriminating these from other components, within a single Fourier frame. We present a comparative study of five methods for sinusoidal discrimination, considering their effectiveness and their computational cost.
Autors: Wells, J.J.;Murphy, D.T.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 18, issue:3, pages: 498 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A comparative study of two techniques for improving power-handling capability of CMOS T/R switches
Abstract:
This article proposes an asymmetric topology for transmit/receive (T/R) switches and more importantly presents a comparative study of both LC-tuned and resistive body-floating techniques for improving the power-handling capability of the T/R switches in the same 0.18-[mu]m triple-well CMOS. It is shown from simulations and measurements that the switches adopting either technique achieve comparable performances. For instance, the switch employing the LC-tuned body-floating technique exhibits insertion loss of 1.5 dB, isolation of 23.5 dB, and power-handling capability of 22.5 dBm at 5.2 GHz, whereas the switch using the resistive body-floating technique exhibits insertion loss of 1.3 dB, isolation of 24 dB, and power-handling capability of 22.2 dBm, respectively. Therefore, one can conclude that the asymmetric topology with the resistive body-floating technique is more suitable for designing T/R switches for wireless local area network applications as it consumes smaller silicon area. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J RF and Microwave CAE, 2010.
Autors: Jin He, Yue Ping Zhang, Kiat Seng Yeo, Wei Meng Lim
Appeared in: International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Comparison of a Wide-Slot and a Stacked Patch Antenna for the Purpose of Breast Cancer Detection
Abstract:
A wide-slot UWB antenna is presented for intended use in the detection scheme being developed at the University of Bristol, based on the principle of synthetically focused UWB radar using a fully populated static array. The antenna's measured and simulated, input and radiation characteristics are presented and compared to an existing, stacked patch antenna that has been designed for the same purpose. The results of this study show that the wide-slot antenna has excellent performance across the required frequency range. Compared to the stacked-patch antenna used in our previous array, the wide-slot antenna can be 3 times smaller (in terms of front surface). The compact nature of the slot antenna means that the detection array can be densely populated. Additionally, this new antenna offers better radiation coverage of the breast. For angles up to 60 away from bore-sight radiated pulses are almost identical (fidelity 95%), whereas for the patch antenna fidelity falls to 58% at the angular extremes. This uniform radiation into the breast should result in focused images with low levels of clutter.
Autors: Gibbins, D.;Klemm, M.;Craddock, I. J.;Leendertz, J. A.;Preece, A.;Benjamin, R.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 665 - 674
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comparison of Optimization Algorithms for Biological Neural Network Identification
Abstract:
Recently, the identification of biological neural networks has been reformulated as an optimization problem based on a framework of adaptive synchronization. In this paper, four different optimization algorithms, including genetic algorithm, jumping gene genetic algorithm (JGGA), tabu search, and simulated annealing, have been applied for this optimization problem. Based on the simulation results, their performances are compared, and it is concluded that JGGA can outperform the other three methods in term of minimizing the synchronization and parameter estimation errors.
Autors: Yin, J. J.;Tang, W. K. S.;Man, K. F.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 1127 - 1131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Complex Generalized Gaussian Distribution— Characterization, Generation, and Estimation
Abstract:
The generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) provides a flexible and suitable tool for data modeling and simulation, however the characterization of the complex-valued GGD, in particular generation of samples from a complex GGD have not been well defined in the literature. In this correspondence, we provide a thorough presentation of the complex-valued GGD by: (i) constructing the probability density function (pdf); (ii) defining a procedure for generating random numbers from the complex-valued GGD; and (iii) implementing a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) procedure for the shape and covariance parameters in the complex domain. We quantify the performance of the MLE with simulations and actual radar data.
Autors: Novey, M.;Adal, T.;Roy, A.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 1427 - 1433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Composite PN-Correlation Based Synchronizer for TDS-OFDM Receiver
Abstract:
In this paper, we presents a novel synchronizer dealing with carrier frequency offset (CFO), sampling frequency offset (SFO), as well as frame timing offset (FTO) in TDS-OFDM receiver. The proposed schemes are based on tracking the output waveform of a composite PN-correlator (CPC), which provides sufficient correlative gains to detect its peaks even in the presence of large CFOs. From the correlation peaks, we can extract useful information for estimating the synchronization offsets. CFO is recovered by a multi-stage CPC scheme, of which the parameters are adjustable for meeting the system's demands on the tracking range and accuracy. According to the inter-frame variations of correlation waveform, we estimate SFO for a large scale and correct SFO through an interpolator. Meanwhile, frame timing is investigated in this paper, and the analysis indicates a very fast and robust timing scheme is possible for TDS-OFDM receiver. The developed synchronizer is quite robust against a large CFO even in very adverse fading channels, and it is shown by computer simulation that the residual synchronization error has little effect on the performance of TDS-OFDM receiver.
Autors: Liu, G.;Zhidkov, S. V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 77 - 85
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Comprehensive Mixed-Mode Time-Domain Load- and Source-Pull Measurement System
Abstract:
We present a novel test set devised for nonlinear balanced device characterization using load-pull techniques. The system is capable of measuring the voltage and current waveforms at the calibration reference planes while independently tuning the device under test (DUT) source and load differential- and common-mode terminations. The test set is designed to address present and future large-signal multiport measurement needs, easing the characterization task while developing new multiport active devices.
Autors: Teppati, V.;Ferrero, A.;Garelli, M.;Bonino, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 616 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Computationally Efficient Generalized Poisson Solution for Independent Double-Gate Transistors
Abstract:
Previous techniques used for solving the 1-D Poisson equation (PE) rigorously for long-channel asymmetric and independent double-gate (IDG) transistors result in potential models that involve multiple intercoupled implicit equations. As these equations need to be solved self-consistently, such potential models are clearly inefficient for compact modeling. This paper reports a different rigorous technique for solving the same PE by which one can obtain the potential profile of a generalized IDG transistor that involves a single implicit equation. The proposed Poisson solution is shown to be computationally more efficient for circuit simulation than the previous solutions.
Autors: Sahoo, A.;Thakur, P. K.;Mahapatra, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 632 - 636
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A context management architecture for large-scale smart environments
Abstract:
Context-aware architecture collects various context data from heterogeneous sensors and provides an intelligent service by exploiting the collected data. In this article we explain the generalized context-aware software architecture for heterogeneous smart environments. The proposed architecture integrates large-scale contexts from multiple heterogeneous sensors, and makes a semantic decision by fusing and reasoning about the collected contexts. Moreover, we discuss a designed architecture that manages communities between large numbers of heterogeneous information entities and enhances intelligence abilities.
Autors: Oh, Y.;Han, J.;Woo, W.;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Magazine
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 48, issue:3, pages: 118 - 126
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Cooperative Cellular and Broadcast Conditional Access System for Pay-TV Systems
Abstract:
The lack of interoperability between Pay-TV service providers and a horizontally integrated business transaction model have compromised the competition in the Pay-TV market. In addition, the lack of interactivity with customers has resulted in high churn rate and improper security measures have contributed into considerable business loss. These issues are the main cause of high operational costs and subscription fees in the Pay-TV systems. As a result, this paper presents the Mobile Conditional Access System (MICAS) as an end-to-end access control solution for Pay-TV systems. It incorporates the mobile and broadcasting systems and provides a platform whereby service providers can effectively interact with their customers, personalize their services and adopt appropriate security measurements. This would result in the decrease of operating expenses and increase of customers' satisfaction in the system. The paper provides an overview of state-of-the-art conditional access solutions followed by detailed description of design, reference model implementation and analysis of possible MICAS security architectures.
Autors: Shirazi, H.;Cosmas, J.;Cutts, D.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 56, issue:1, pages: 44 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A cooperative distance learning method based on narrow-band Internet and its evaluation
Abstract:
This paper describes the experimental evaluation of a cooperative distance learning method, which can be utilized on narrow-band Internet. In this method, students in a group learning environment perform a series of study tasks several times, then create an online report, communicating through a chat facility about a given topic. They try to gain a benefit from their study through a more cooperative attitude. The teacher gives a short lecture at the first stage, and then gives supplementary explanations after ascertaining the degree of understanding by the students at the middle stage of the study. Teaching materials are distributed to the students' PCs beforehand and the lecture can be carried out in a narrow-band environment by transmitting commands. The teacher analyzes the students' communication logs and gives advice for the next study session. This paper describes the result of an evaluation of the proposed method involving a simulated installation of the environment within the campus, which simulated a trial of cooperative distance learning in the periphery of an overseas desert environment. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Electron Comm Jpn, 93(4): 36-49, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (). DOI 10.1002/ecj.10139
Autors: Dilmurat Tilwaldi, Toshiya Takahashi, Akinobu Takata, Hisao Koizumi
Appeared in: Electronics and Communications in Japan
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A Coupled Level Set Framework for Bladder Wall Segmentation With Application to MR Cystography
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a coupled level set (LS) framework for segmentation of bladder wall using -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images with clinical applications to virtual cystoscopy (i.e., MR cystography). The framework uses two collaborative LS functions and a regional adaptive clustering algorithm to delineate the bladder wall for the wall thickness measurement on a voxel-by-voxel basis. It is significantly different from most of the pre-existing bladder segmentation work in four aspects. First of all, while most previous work only segments the inner border of the wall or at most manually segments the outer border, our framework extracts both the inner and outer borders automatically except that the initial seed point is given by manual selection. Secondly, it is adaptive to -weighted images with decreased intensities in urine, as opposed to enhanced intensities in -weighted scenario and computed tomography. Thirdly, by considering the image global intensity distribution and local intensity contrast, the defined image energy function in the framework is more immune to inhomogeneity effect, motion artifacts and image noise. Finally, the bladder wall thickness is measured by the length of integral path between the two borders which mimic the electric field line between two iso-potential surfaces. The framework was tested on six datasets with comparison to the well-known Chan-Vese (C-V) LS model. Five experts blindly scored the segmented inner and outer borders of the presented framework and the C-V model. The scores demonstrated statistically the improvement in detecting the inner and outer borders.
Autors: Duan, C.;Liang, Z.;Bao, S.;Zhu, H.;Wang, S.;Zhang, G.;Chen, J. J.;Lu, H.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 29, issue:3, pages: 903 - 915
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Coupling RF MEMS Power Sensor Based on GaAs MMIC Technology
Abstract:
A wideband 8-12GHz inline RF MEMS power sensor that is based on sensing a certain percentage of the incident microwave power coupled by a MEMS membrane is presented, and the sensor is accomplished with GaAs MMIC technology. In order to improve microwave characteristics and the frequency response of the output at X-band, an impedance matching structure and a capacitance compensating structure are proposed in the paper. The design of the power sensor with the improved structures has resulted in the measured reflection loss of the sensor less than -17dB, the insertion loss less than 0.8dB, and the flatness of the...
Autors: Zhiqiang, Zhang , Xiaoping, Liao , Lei, Han
Appeared in: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A coupling-fed multiband antenna for WLAN/WiMAX applications
Abstract:
A coupling-fed printed monopole antenna applied to wireless local area network/worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WLAN/WiMAX) applications is proposed. By using a pair of branch-shaped strips, which are symmetrical with a gradual changing strip, the proposed antenna exhibits multiband performance to meet the requirements of WLAN in the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz bands and WiMAX in the 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz bands. The proposed antenna has good omnidirectional radiation characteristic owing to its symmetric structure and achieves gains to be 2.44, 3.74, 3.3, and 2.02 dBi at 2.4, 3.5, 5.2, and 5.8 GHz, respectively. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1283-1286, 2010; DOI 10.1002/mop.25197
Autors: Shaoli Zuo, Yingzeng Yin, Zhiya Zhang
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A CPW-fed wideband spiral slot antenna with circular polarization
Abstract:
A new design of broadband slot antenna with circular polarization is presented. The broadband characteristics are achieved using a coplanar-waveguide (CPW)-fed two-arm spiral slot configuration. The spiral slot antenna and the feeding structure are fabricated on the same plane of the substrate so that the circuit process and the position alignment could be simplified. The improvement of circular polarization for the antenna is obtained mainly by an arc slot surrounding the spiral slots. The turn number of the spiral slots and the geometrical dimensions of the arc slot are varied in order to derive the better performance of the circular polarization. The measured impedance bandwidth of a S11 < -10 dB ranges from 1.25 to 8 GHz and covers most of the commercial wireless communication systems, such as GPS, DCS, PCS, IMT-2000, WLAN, and HiperLAN. The measured 3-dB axial-ratio bandwidth (ARBW) is 10.6% with respect to 1.605 GHz. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 1204-1208, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience. wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.25142
Autors: Chien-Jen Wang
Appeared in: Microwave and Optical Technology Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Wiley InterScience
 
» A criterion to avoid starvation zones for convection-diffusion-reaction problem inside a porous biological pellet under oscillatory flow
Abstract:
The behavior of nutrient transport inside a porous spherical pellet in an oscillatory Stokes flow is investigated analytically. Unsteady Stokes equations are used for the flow outside the porous pellet and Darcy's law is used inside the pellet. A solenoidal decomposition method is employed for the derivation of the flow field outside the pellet. The corresponding convection-diffusion-reaction problem is formulated and solved analytically for a zeroth-order nutrient consumption rate. From the obtained solution a general condition between the Peclet number and Thiele modulus is derived to obviate the nutrient reduction everywhere in the pellet. For the correct modeling of the...
Autors: Jai, Prakash , G.P., Raja Sekhar , Sirshendu, De , Michael, Bhm
Appeared in: International Journal of Engineering Science
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Current Reuse Quadrature GPS Receiver in 0.13 m CMOS
Abstract:
A fully-integrated quadrature low-IF L1-band GPS receiver consumes only 6.4 mW in 0.13 m CMOS. The RF front-end features a gate-modulated quadrature VCO for low phase noise and accurate quadrature phase signal generation. It merges the LNA, quadrature mixer, and quadrature VCO in a single current-reuse stacked topology that provides a conversion gain 42.5 dB with a power consumption of 1 mW. A continuous-time (CT) quadrature bandpass sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) provides inherent anti-alias filtering, which simplifies the overall system. The second-order CT ADC achieves 65 dB dynamic range and dissipates only 4.2 mW using resistor DAC feedback. The receiver exhibits an NF of 6.5 dB and an IIP3 of 30 dBm; the PLL phase noise is 110 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz frequency offset with quadrature error less than 1 .
Autors: Cheng, K.-W.;Natarajan, K.;Allstot, D. J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 45, issue:3, pages: 510 - 523
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Data-Pattern-Tolerant Adaptive Equalizer Using the Spectrum Balancing Method
Abstract:
This brief presents a data-pattern-tolerant adaptive equalizer using the spectrum balancing method. In addition to a high-frequency boost control loop, this equalizer has a corner frequency control loop to guarantee its accurate adaptation for various data patterns and data rates. Measured results show that the jitter of the eye is reduced by a maximum of 37% when compared to the previous spectrum balancing equalizer. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18- CMOS process, and the equalizer core occupies 0.35 and consumes 85 mW.
Autors: Joo, H.-Y.;Kim, L.-S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 228 - 232
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A deep-level transient spectroscopy study of silicon interface states using different silicon nitride surface passivation schemes
Abstract:
Low frequency direct plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited SiSiNx interface properties with and without NH3 plasma pretreatment, with and without rapid thermal annealing (RTA) have been investigated with deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) on both n- and p-type monocrystalline silicon samples. It is shown that four different defect states are identified at the SiSiNx interface. Energy-dependent electron and hole capture cross sections were also measured by small-pulse DLTS. Samples with plasma NH3 pretreatment and RTA show the lowest DLTS signals, which suggest the lowest overall interface states density. Moreover, SiNx with RTA passivates interface states more efficiently in n-type Si compared with p-type Si; also the deep-level parameters change in n-type Si but not in p-type Si. The combination of plasma NH3 pretreatment and RTA is suggested for application in the solar cell fabrication.
Autors: Gong, Chun;Simoen, Eddy;Posthuma, Niels;Van Kerschaver, Emmanuel;Poortmans, Jef;Mertens, Robert;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 96, issue:10, pages: 103507 - 103507-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Design-Oriented Combined Approach for Bifurcation Prediction in Switched-Mode Power Converters
Abstract:
In this brief, two different approaches are combined for studying the stability of a buck switching power dc–dc converter and for predicting its bifurcations. Instability indexes derived from both approaches are combined to get a complete design-oriented perspective of bifurcation analysis in terms of practical circuit parameter and to show the effect of each parameter on the system behavior. The first approach is based on the conventional Routh–Hurwitz criterion applied to the averaged converter dynamics, and it is suitable for detecting low-frequency oscillations but is unsuitable for predicting fast-scale period-doubling instabilities. Complementarily, the second approach considers the ripple component before the pulsewidth modulator to quantitatively predict the occurrence of subharmonic oscillations. The usefulness of the combined approach is shown by analytically deriving inequalities that compress the complete design space into simple instability indexes, which, used complementarily, allow a division of the design space into the different instability regions (both period-doubling or fast-scale instability, and Hopf or slow-scale instability). Comparison of the design-oriented complete map obtained combining both methods and their related stability indexes with the results obtained both from time-domain numerical simulations of the exact switched state equations, as well as the stability border obtained from discrete recurrent maps, corroborates the approach.
Autors: El Aroudi, A.;Rodríguez, E.;Leyva, R.;Alarcón, E.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 218 - 222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A digitally compensated 1.5 GHz CMOS/FBAR frequency reference
Abstract:
A temperature-compensated 1.5 GHz film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR)-based frequency reference implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process is presented. The ultra-small form factor (0.79 mm ÿ 1.72 mm) and low power dissipation (515 μA with 2 V supply) of a compensated FBAR oscillator present a promising alternative for the replacement of quartz crystal frequency references. The measured post-compensation frequency drift over a 0¿100°C temperature range is <±10 ppm. The measured oscillator phase noise is ¿133 dBc/ Hz at 100 kHz offset from the 1.5 GHz carrier.
Autors: Rai, S.;Su, Y.;Pang, W.;Ruby, R.;Otis, B.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 552 - 561
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Direct Measurement Method of Frequency Responses of the Smart Power IC
Abstract:
Smart power ICs are widely used in universal input power supplies. This paper presents a detailed analysis and scheme design for real-time small-signal modeling method for smart power IC. First, in this method, the switching duty cycle is converted into a voltage output signal based on the operational characteristics of the power IC. The power IC's frequency response is then obtained by measuring the duty cycle output signal and the power IC's control input signal. The modeling system is referred to as sampling the duty cycle of the power IC with a zero-order hold output. Using least-square identification, the smart power IC's dynamic model and transfer function are synthesized from the measurement data. The results of the modeling experiment are discussed, and practical guidelines and error amplifier (EA) design examples are presented for both continuous and discontinuous conduction modes (CCM and DCM). The effectiveness and practicality are verified through experiments.
Autors: Hai Xu;Hee-Jun Kim;Hoon Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 682 - 686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A direct transfer of layer-area graphene
Abstract:
A facile method is reported for the direct (polymer-free) transfer of layer-area graphene from metal growth substrates to selected target substrates. The direct route, by avoiding several wet chemical steps and accompanying mechanical stresses and contamination common to all presently reported layer-area graphene transfer methods, enables fabrication of layer-area graphene devices with unprecedented quality. To demonstrate, we directly transfer layer-area graphene from Cu growth substrates to holey amorphous carbon transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids, resulting in robust, clean, full-coverage graphene grids ideal for high resolution TEM.
Autors: Regan, William;Alem, Nasim;Aleman, Benjamin;Geng, Baisong;Girit, Caglar;Maserati, Lorenzo;Wang, Feng;Crommie, Michael;Zettl, A.;
Appeared in: Applied Physics Letters
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 96, issue:11, pages: 113102 - 113102-3
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Discrete Matlab–Simulink Flickermeter Model for Power Quality Studies
Abstract:
A discrete model of the IEC 61000-4-15 flickermeter is developed for use with the Matlab-Simulink simulation software package. The discrete model is a faithful reproduction of a flickermeter defined by the IEC Standard; it duplicates the functional blocks described by the standard and operates in the same way as the standardized instrument to assure complete fidelity of results. The model is intended to be used within larger simulations that contain discrete model blocks, either alone or in combination with the Simulink SimPowerSystems blockset, to provide direct quantification of flicker. The model is fully developed, and all model parameters are provided for use with 60-Hz systems. A discrete calibrator is described that duplicates the test waveforms described by the IEC Standard.
Autors: White, L.W.;Bhattacharya, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 527 - 533
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Doubly Weighted Approach for Appearance-Based Subspace Learning Methods
Abstract:
We propose in this paper a doubly weighted subspace learning approach for face representation and recognition. Motivated by the fact that some face samples and parts are more effectual in characterizing and recognizing faces, we construct two weighting matrices based on pairwise similarity of face samples within a same class and discriminant score of each pixel within a face sample to duly emphasize both the between-sample and within-sample features. We then incorporate these two weighting matrices into three popular subspace learning methods, namely principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and nonnegative matrix factorization, to obtain the discriminative features of faces for recognition. Moreover, the proposed doubly weighted technique can be readily extended to other newly proposed subspace learning algorithms to improve their performance. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively enhance the discriminant power of the extracted face features and outperform existing, nonweighted subspace learning algorithms. The performance gain is even more apparent for cases with imbalanced training samples.
Autors: Lu, J.;Tan, Y.-P.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 5, issue:1, pages: 71 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A family of CFD boundary conditions to simulate separation control
Abstract:
Flow control with the aim to avoid or at least delay flow separation and thus enhance performance of rotorcraft has been a topic in various recent investigations. Increase of maximum lift combined with drag reduction in steady applications as well as improvements of lift-, drag- and pitching moment cycles in dynamic stall problems on rotor blades are of major concern.In the present study a time accurate 2D RANS solver has been modified to enable a variety of boundary conditions for the simulation of flow control problems. With rather simple code modifications it is shown that complex control devices like synthetic...
Autors: Wolfgang, Geissler
Appeared in: Aerospace Science and Technology
Publication date: Mar 2010
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
 
» A Fast Nonparametric Noncausal MRF-Based Texture Synthesis Scheme Using a Novel FKDE Algorithm
Abstract:
In this paper, a new algorithm is proposed for fast kernel density estimation (FKDE), based on principal direction divisive partitioning (PDDP) of the data space. A new framework is also developed to apply FKDE algorithms (both proposed and existing), within nonparametric noncausal Markov random field (NNMRF) based texture synthesis algorithm. The goal of the proposed FKDE algorithm is to use the finite support property of kernels for fast estimation of density. It has been shown that hyperplane boundaries for partitioning the data space and principal component vectors of the data space are two requirements for efficient FKDE. The proposed algorithm is compared with the earlier algorithms, with a number of high-dimensional data sets. The error and time complexity analysis, proves the efficiency of the proposed FKDE algorithm compared to the earlier algorithms. Due to the local simulated annealing, direct incorporation of the FKDE algorithms within the NNMRF-based texture synthesis algorithm, is not possible. This work proposes a new methodology to incorporate the effect of local simulated annealing within the FKDE framework. Afterward, the developed texture synthesis algorithms have been tested with a number of different natural textures, taken from a standard database. The comparison in terms of visual similarity and time complexity, between the proposed FKDE based texture synthesis algorithm with the earlier algorithms, show the efficiency.
Autors: Sinha, A.;Gupta, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 19, issue:3, pages: 561 - 572
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Feasible Solution to the Beam-Angle-Optimization Problem in Radiotherapy Planning With a DNA-Based Genetic Algorithm
Abstract:
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is now becoming a powerful clinical technique to improve the therapeutic radio for cancer treatment. It has been demonstrated that selection of suitable beam angles is quite valuable for most of the treatment plans, especially for the complicated tumor cases and when limited number of beams is used. However, beam-angle optimization (BAO) remains a challenging inverse problem mainly due to the huge computation time. This paper introduced a DNA genetic algorithm (DNA-GA) to solve the BAO problem aiming to improve the optimization efficiency. A feasible mapping was constructed between the universal DNA-GA algorithm and the specified engineering problem of BAO. Specifically, a triplet code was used to represent a beam angle, and the angles of several beams in a plan composed a DNA individual. A bit-mutation strategy was designed to set different segments in DNA individuals with different mutation probabilities; and also, the dynamic probability of structure mutation operations was designed to further improve the evolutionary process. The results on simulated and clinical cases showed that DNA-GA is feasible and effective for the BAO problem in IMRT planning, and to some extent, is faster to obtain the optimized results than GA.
Autors: Li*, Y.;Lei, J.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 57, issue:3, pages: 499 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Ferroelectric-Capacitor-Based Approach to Quasistatic Electric Field Sensing
Abstract:
A new sensor for quasistatic electric field (E-field) measurements based on a ferroelectric capacitor (which acts as a nonlinear active dynamic element) is discussed in this paper. The device was theoretically modeled and experimentally characterized, and the data that were gathered were used to refine the model parameters. The E-field sensing strategy is based on the exploitation of a mechanism to convert the external target E-field into a perturbation on the polarization state of a ferroelectric material: a detailed analytical description of this process is given together with its experimental validation. Optimal results have been obtained with a driving (i.e., reference) signal of 10 V at 100 Hz, which was used to polarize the device. The noise floor of the device has been evaluated through an analysis of the power spectral density, which yields a value of 0.4 (V/m)/Hz1/2. The hysteretic capacitor in this paper is the cornerstone of an innovative system for detecting weak E-fields (assumed to be dc throughout this paper, although it can also be applied to detect time-periodic E-fields) through the exploitation of the nonlinear behavior of a coupled oscillator system wherein the active (nonlinear) elements are the ferroelectric capacitors. Our results cover the basic building blocks that were necessary for the optimal realization of this coupled circuit.
Autors: Ando, B.;Baglio, S.;Bulsara, A.R.;Marletta, V.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 641 - 652
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Ferrofluidic Inclinometer in the Resonant Configuration
Abstract:
In this paper, an innovative inclinometer exploiting ferrofluids is presented. The device consists of a glass pipe filled with deionized water and a drop of ferrofluid, a coil generating a retaining force on the ferrofluidic drop, a couple of sensing coils detecting the ferrofluidic mass position, and two exciter coils moving the ferrofluidic drop back and forth inside the water at the resonance frequency of the whole system. The device exhibits an intrinsic robustness against inertial shocks. The resonant operation mode represents the main novelty with respect to previous realizations of the ferrofluidic inclinometer presented by the authors. This strategy allows for improving the performances of the inclinometer also in terms of mechanical sensitivity. This paper will focus on the design and experimental characterization of the resonant inclinometer, showing improvements achieved by the resonant configuration with respect to the previous “static implementation” without the exciter coils.
Autors: Ando, B.;Ascia, A.;Baglio, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 59, issue:3, pages: 558 - 564
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Finite Edge GTD Analysis of the H-Plane Horn Radiation Pattern
Abstract:
The earlier geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) approach to the H-plane horn radiation problem is reconsidered with spherical source excitation. Corner diffraction terms are included to provide a GTD model for the finiteness of the horn edges. A new heuristic corner slope diffraction (CSD) coefficient for a finite edge in a conducting plane is presented. The H-plane horn pattern, obtained with the addition of the corner diffraction and the new CSD terms to the earlier infinite edge GTD approach, is found to be in better agreement with measured results compared to earlier GTD formulations.
Autors: Ali, M.;Sanyal, S.;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Mar 2010, volume: 58, issue:3, pages: 969 - 973
Publisher: IEEE
 

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