Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 9

» Gaussian Distributions on Riemannian Symmetric Spaces: Statistical Learning With Structured Covariance Matrices
Abstract:
The Riemannian geometry of covariance matrices has been essential to several successful applications, in computer vision, biomedical signal and image processing, and radar data processing. For these applications, an important ongoing challenge is to develop Riemannian-geometric tools which are adapted to structured covariance matrices. This paper proposes to meet this challenge by introducing a new class of probability distributions, Gaussian distributions of structured covariance matrices. These are Riemannian analogs of Gaussian distributions, which only sample from covariance matrices having a preassigned structure, such as complex, Toeplitz, or block-Toeplitz. The usefulness of these distributions stems from three features: 1) they are completely tractable, analytically, or numerically, when dealing with large covariance matrices; 2) they provide a statistical foundation to the concept of structured Riemannian barycentre (i.e., Fréchet or geometric mean); and 3) they lead to efficient statistical learning algorithms, which realise, among others, density estimation and classification of structured covariance matrices. This paper starts from the observation that several spaces of structured covariance matrices, considered from a geometric point of view, are Riemannian symmetric spaces. Accordingly, it develops an original theory of Gaussian distributions on Riemannian symmetric spaces, of their statistical inference, and of their relationship to the concept of Riemannian barycentre. Then, it uses this original theory to give a detailed description of Gaussian distributions of three kinds of structured covariance matrices, complex, Toeplitz, and block-Toeplitz. Finally, it describes algorithms for density estimation and classification of structured covariance matrices, based on Gaussian distribution mixture models.
Autors: Salem Said;Hatem Hajri;Lionel Bombrun;Baba C. Vemuri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 752 - 772
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gaussian Process Regression for Virtual Metrology-Enabled Run-to-Run Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
Incorporating virtual metrology (VM) into run-to-run (R2R) control enables the benefits of R2R control to be maintained while avoiding the negative cost and cycle time impacts of actual metrology. Due to the potential for prediction errors from VM models, the prediction as well as the corresponding confidence information on the predictions should be properly considered in VM-enabled R2R control schemes in order to guarantee control performance. This paper proposes the use of Gaussian process regression (GPR) models in VM-enabled R2R control due to their ability to provide this information in an integrated fashion. The mean value of the GPR prediction is treated as the VM value and the variance of the GPR prediction is used as a measure of confidence to adjust the coefficient of an exponentially weighted-moving-average R2R controller. The effectiveness of the proposed GPR VM-enabled R2R control approach is demonstrated using a chemical mechanical polishing process case study. Results show that better control performance is achieved with the proposed methodology than with implementations that do not take prediction reliability into account.
Autors: Jian Wan;Seán McLoone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 12 - 21
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General Formulation of the Magnetostatic Field and Temperature Distribution in Electrical Machines Using Spectral Element Analysis
Abstract:
In this paper, a general approach to the description of the magnetic field and temperature distribution in electrical machines using the spectral element analysis is presented. In the spectral element method, higher order Legendre–Gauss–Lobatto polynomials are applied to describe the different fields. The magnetic flux distribution is derived using the magnetic vector potential, and nonlinear magnetic material is modeled based on its curve. The thermal model is based on the heat equation. The magnetic and thermal domains are coupled by the ohmic and iron losses, and the latter is computed using the loss separation model of Bertotti. The results are compared with the finite element method, and a good agreement is obtained for both the spatial magnetic flux density and the temperature distributions.
Autors: M. Curti;T. A. Van Beek;J. W. Jansen;B. L. J. Gysen;E. A. Lomonova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» General Lagrange-Type Jacobian Inverse for Nonholonomic Robotic Systems
Abstract:
This paper discusses the nonholonomic robotic systems whose motion constraints assume the Pfaffian form, and the equations of motion are represented by driftless control systems with outputs. By reference to the end point map of such a control system, we define the system's Jacobian and study Jacobian motion-planning algorithms. A new Lagrange-type Jacobian inverse, referred to as the General Lagrangian Jacobian Inverse (GLJI), is designed as the solution of an optimal control problem with a Lagrange-type objective function. Singularities of GLJI are examined. A special choice of the objective function illustrates features of GLJI. A new motion-planning algorithm based on GLJI is proposed. Theoretical arguments are illustrated with a motion-planning problem of a space robot.
Autors: Krzysztof Tchoń;Joanna Ratajczak;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 256 - 263
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized HARQ Protocols with Delayed Channel State Information and Average Latency Constraints
Abstract:
In many wireless systems, the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio that is applicable to a certain transmission, referred to as channel state information (CSI), can only be learned after the transmission has taken place and is thereby delayed (outdated). In such systems, hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) protocols are often used to achieve high throughput with low latency. This paper put forth the family of expandable message space (EMS) protocols, that generalize the HARQ protocol and allow for rate adaptation based on delayed CSI at the transmitter (CSIT). Assuming a block-fading channel, the proposed EMS protocols are analyzed using dynamic programming. When full delayed CSIT is available and there is a constraint on the average decoding time, it is shown that the optimal zero outage EMS protocol has a particularly simple operational interpretation and that the throughput is identical to that of the backtrack retransmission request (BRQ) protocol. We also devise EMS protocols for the case in which CSIT is only available through a finite number of feedback messages. The numerical results demonstrate that BRQ approaches the ergodic capacity quickly compared with HARQ, while EMS protocols with only three and four feedback messages achieve throughputs, that are only slightly worse than that of BRQ.
Autors: Kasper Fløe Trillingsgaard;Petar Popovski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1262 - 1280
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generalized Memory Polynomial Model Dimension Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract:
This letter presents a new method which uses particle swarm optimization and the Akaike information criterion for determining the dimensions of nonlinear amplifier behavioral models, applied to the generalized memory polynomial model. Determining the size of this model has always been a challenge as it depends on eight parameters, and the proposed method provides a fast and efficient solution which can discover the smallest possible model at a very short amount of time.
Autors: A. Abdelhafiz;L. Behjat;F. M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 96 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generating Music from Literature Using Topic Extraction and Sentiment Analysis
Abstract:
This article presents Tambr, a new software for translating literature into sound using multiple synthesized voices selected for the way in which their timbre relates to the meaning and sentiment of the topics conveyed in the story. It achieves this by leveraging a large lexical semantic database to implement a machine-learning-based synthesizer search engine used to select the synthesizers whose meaning best reflects the ideas of the novel. Tambr uses sentiment analysis to generate the pitches, durations, and intervals of the output melodies in a way corresponding to the sentiment of the novel-implementing algorithmic composition of literature-based music at a level of musicality not previously explored.
Autors: Jessie Salas;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 15 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Perfect Cylindrical Vector Beams With Complete Control Over the Ring Width and Ring Diameter
Abstract:
We propose the generation of high-purity perfect cylindrical vector beams (PCVB) using the Fourier transformation of Bessel–Gauss vector beams. The demonstration of PCVBs is implemented via an interferometric method employing a spatial light modulator that allows a fully independent control of the ring diameter ( ) and ring width () of the PCVB. The proposed scheme enables to generate different types of cylindrical vector beams with precise user-defined transverse dimensions. The dynamic control of the ring width, ring diameter, and the specific type of PCVBs desired is theoretically as well as experimentally demonstrated. The proposed experimental setup can not only be employed in the generation of arbitrary PCVB, but also in perfect vortex beams. The ability to generate fully tailorable cylindrical vector beams and vortex beams has implications for the efficient launch of exotic optical modes in specialty fibers, in the field of optical tweezers as well as for superresolution microscopy.
Autors: Prabin Pradhan;Manish Sharma;Bora Ung;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of Polarization-Locked Vector Solitons in Mode-Locked Thulium Fiber Laser
Abstract:
In this paper, we report polarization-locked vector soliton (PLVS) generation in a linear thulium-doped fiber laser. The fiber laser was composed of all-anomalous-dispersion fibers, passively mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Approximately 1.2-ps single vector soliton pulses centered at 2023.7 nm were generated. Extra “peak-dip” spectral sidebands were clearly visible in the polarization-resolved optical spectra, indicating coherent energy exchange between the two polarization components of the vector solitons. In addition, multiple-PLVS operation modes were experimentally investigated, and our experimental results were confirmed by numerical simulations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first observation of polarization-locked single vector soliton generation operating in the 2-μm spectral range.
Autors: X. L. Fan;Y. Wang;W. Zhou;X. J. Ren;Z. F. Hu;Q. Y. Liu;R. J. Zhang;D. Y. Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation of RF Intensity-Modulated Laser Pulses by Dual-Frequency Injection Seeding
Abstract:
In order to obtain high peak power RF intensity-modulated pulses for long-distance applications, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is injection seeded by a dual-frequency laser signal. The beat note frequency of the dual-frequency laser signal is adjusted to the frequency spacing of two adjacent longitudinal modes of the Q-switched laser. When the dual-frequency signal is injected into the Q-switched slave resonator, simultaneously two cavity axial modes are tuned to allow the injected wave frequencies within the axial modes selection range, the two selected slave cavity modes will oscillate due to phase-pulling effect. The Interference of the two modes results in intensity modulated pulses. The modulation frequency equals to a free spectral range of the Q-switched cavity, which is 225 MHz in our experiment. Maximum intensity-modulated pulse energy of 7 mJ and pulsewidth of 16 ns are measured. The dependence of locking bandwidth to the injected power is also studied experimentally, it is confirmed that the locking bandwidth increases with respect to the injected power of the seed signal. The high peak power RF intensity-modulated pulsed light source is a promising candidate for long-distance lidar-radar applications.
Autors: Lijun Cheng;Suhui Yang;Changming Zhao;Haiyang Zhang;Bingjie Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Generation Scheduling Optimization of Wind-Energy Storage System Based on Wind Power Output Fluctuation Features
Abstract:
As the output from wind power generation is intermittent in nature, making the wind power output “dependable” is critical for seamless integration of wind generation. One of the most favorable solutions is incorporating energy storage system (ESS) with wind farms to establish a wind-energy storage hybrid system. Since it requires capital investment for ESS installation, it is important to estimate appropriate storage capacity and charging/discharging rate of ESS for desired applications. In this paper, the fluctuation feature of wind power output is analyzed both in time domain and frequency domain. The degree of fluctuation is extracted and illustrated as quantization index (QI). Based on QI clustering, the wind scenario with largest power fluctuation is selected as “worst performance,” according to which, scheduling time horizon, along with the capacity and charging/discharging power of ESS, can be determined. After the case study, the proposed model is proved to improve the generation scheduling process.
Autors: Jie Shi;Wei-Jen Lee;Xiaofei Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 10 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Get Involved [Standards News]
Abstract:
As IAS Standards Department chair, my earnest appeal to all of you reading this article is to get involved in IAS standards. If you are an employer, convince your employees to join the standards-making group that aligns with your company's objectives.
Autors: Daleep Mohla;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 114 - 115
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GeTrust: A Guarantee-Based Trust Model in Chord-Based P2P Networks
Abstract:
More and more users are attracted by P2P networks characterized by decentralization, autonomy and anonymity. However, users’ unconstrained behavior makes it necessary to use a trust model when establishing trust relationships between peers. Most existing trust models are based on recommendations, which, however, suffer from the shortcomings of slow convergence and high complexity of trust computations, as well as huge overhead of network traffic. Inspired by the establishment of trust relationships in human society, a guarantee-based trust model, GeTrust, is proposed for Chord-based P2P networks. A service peer needs to choose its guarantee peer(s) for the service it is going to provide, and they are both required to pledge reputation mortgages for the service. The request peer makes evaluations on all the candidates of service peer by referring their service reputations and their guarantee peers’ reputations, and selects the one with highest evaluation to be its service provider. In order to enhance GeTrust's availability and prevent malicious behavior, we also present incentive mechanism and anonymous reputation management strategy. Simulation results show that GeTrust is effective and efficient in terms of improving successful transaction rate, resisting complex attacks, reducing network overhead and lowering computational complexity.
Autors: Xianfu Meng;Dongxu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 54 - 68
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Getting into Microwaves and the MTT-S [Presidents' Column]
Abstract:
In this final “President's Column” as I end of my term as president of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S), I have cause to reflect on how I became a microwave engineer and on the role the MTT-S has played in my career and the careers of my colleagues. Perhaps the most important functions of the Society are the MTT-S Distinguished Microwave Lecturer (DML) program, our conferences, and our publications. All of these contributed to my career, and I hope they are doing the same in yours.
Autors: Dylan Williams;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 8 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Gibbsian On-Line Distributed Content Caching Strategy for Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we develop Gibbs sampling-based techniques for learning the optimal placement of contents in a cellular network. We consider the situation where a finite collection of base stations are scattered on the plane, each covering a cell (possibly overlapping with other cells). Mobile users request downloads from a finite set of contents according to some popularity distribution which may be known or unknown to the base stations. Each base station has a fixed memory space that can store only a strict subset of the contents at a time; hence, if a user requests content that is not stored at any of its serving base stations, the content has to be downloaded from the backhaul. Hence, we consider the problem of optimal content placement which minimizes the rate of download from the backhaul, or equivalently maximize the cache hit rate. It is known that, when multiple cells can overlap with one another (e.g., under dense deployment of base stations in small cell networks), it is not optimal to place the most popular contents in each base station. However, the optimal content placement problem is NP-complete. Using the ideas of Gibbs sampling, we propose simple sequential content update rules that decide whether to store content at a base station (if required from the base station) and which content has to be removed from the corresponding cache, based on the knowledge of contents stored in its neighboring base stations. The update rule is shown to be asymptotically converging to the optimal content placement for all nodes under the knowledge of content popularity. Next, we extend the algorithm to address the situation where content popularities and cell topology are initially unknown, but are estimated as new requests arrive to the base stations; we show that our algorithm working with the running estimates of content popularities and cell topology also converges asymptotically to the optimal content placement. Finally, we- demonstrate the improvement in cache hit rate compared with the most popular content placement and independent content placement strategies via numerical exploration.
Autors: Arpan Chattopadhyay;Bartłomiej Błaszczyszyn;H. Paul Keeler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 969 - 981
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Data Registration Technology Based on Dynamic Coded Points
Abstract:
Field measurement of large aviation components is important in many fields of study. In this paper, a global data registration method based on the dynamic coded points is proposed. The system used in this method contains the local and global control binocular measurement systems. The local binocular measurement system measures the data of each subdomain as the local measurement data by scanning. The dynamic coded points, which are encoded based on time parameter as their encoded values, are projected to the measured object’s surface using a projector. Two sets of systems acquire the dynamic coded points to calculate their encoded values and match them automatically. These systems calculate the transformation relations between the local coordinate system and the global control coordinate system, so the local measurement data coordinates are integrated into the global control coordinate system through the transformation relations, achieving the global data registration. Experimental results in the laboratory show that the process of matching of dynamic coded points is accurate and has high robustness, and the global registration method based on the coded points proposed by this paper can eliminate the accumulated error, reaching the precision of 0.0150%. Field experimental results show that the registration method proposed in this paper satisfies the measurement requirements of large-scale aviation components.
Autors: Wei Liu;Zhiguang Lan;Yang Zhang;Zhiyuan Zhang;Haiyang Zhao;Fan Ye;Xiaodong Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 394 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Global Routing With Timing Constraints
Abstract:
We show how to incorporate global static timing constraints into global routing. Our approach is based on the min–max resource sharing model that proved successful for global routing in theory and practice. Static timing constraints are modeled by a linear number of additional resources and customers. The algorithm dynamically adjusts delay budgets and can, thus, tradeoff wiring congestion for delay. As a subroutine, the algorithm routes a single net. If this subroutine is near-optimal, we will find near-optimal solutions for the overall problem very efficiently. The approach works for many delay models; here we discuss a linear delay model (before buffering) and the Elmore delay model (after buffering). We demonstrate the benefit of our timing-constrained global routing algorithm by experimental results on industrial chips.
Autors: Stephan Held;Dirk Müller;Daniel Rotter;Rudolf Scheifele;Vera Traub;Jens Vygen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 406 - 419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GNSS Interference Detection Using Statistical Analysis in the Time-Frequency Domain
Abstract:
This paper presents a precorrelation interference detection method based on statistical analysis in the time-frequency (TF) domain for global navigation satellite system signals. In particular, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is considered as the TF tool due to its linear property and low computational complexity. A goodness-of-fit (GoF) test is applied to each frequency slice in the spectrogram of the received signal, which approximately follows a chi-square distribution in the absence of interference. The expected probability density function (PDF) of the observed TF-domain samples can be computed based on an interference-free signal or the noise power estimate. Two versions of the proposed technique are presented: one based on the canonical STFT with the maximum overlap size, and the other based on the block-wise STFT using nonoverlapped samples. The canonical STFT-based method shows better detection capability at the expense of degraded false alarm performance caused by the PDF distortion in the canonical STFT samples. The block-wise STFT-based method alleviates the false alarm issue but slightly weakens the detection capability. Simulations show that the proposed canonical and block-wise STFT-based methods improve the detection performance for both narrow- and wideband interference in low jammer-to-noise ratio environments when compared with the existing GoF test applied to the time-domain samples.
Autors: Pai Wang;Ediz Cetin;Andrew G. Dempster;Yongqing Wang;Siliang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 416 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Goal-Driven Service Composition in Mobile and Pervasive Computing
Abstract:
Mobile, pervasive computing environments respond to users’ requirements by providing access to and composition of various services over networked devices. In such an environment, service composition needs to satisfy a request’s goal, and be mobile-aware even throughout service discovery and service execution. A composite service also needs to be adaptable to cope with the environment’s dynamic network topology. Existing composition solutions employ goal-oriented planning to provide flexible composition, and assign service providers at runtime, to avoid composition failure. However, these solutions have limited support for complex service flows and composite service adaptation. This paper proposes a self-organizing, goal-driven service model for task resolution and execution in mobile pervasive environments. In particular, it proposes a decentralized heuristic planning algorithm based on backward-chaining to support flexible service discovery. Further, we introduce an adaptation architecture that allows execution paths to dynamically adapt, which reduces failures, and lessens re-execution effort for failure recovery. Simulation results show the suitability of the proposed mechanism in pervasive computing environments where providers are mobile, and it is uncertain what services are available. Our evaluation additionally reveals the model’s limits with regard to network dynamism and resource constraints.
Autors: Nanxi Chen;Nicolás Cardozo;Siobhán Clarke;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 49 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Good Preparation [Electrical Safety]
Abstract:
The author argues that it is easy to find connections between good preparation and safety, and electrical safety in particular. Many incidents, injuries, and fatalities occur when the scope changes on an electrical job. The workers may go into areas or equipment by mistake that are not properly de-energized. A well-prepared plan of action will clearly identify the scope of the job and help warn the workers to stop a job when the scope is changing. Good preparation will help identify the proper tools and test equipment needed and any special training that is required for the workers; without the right tools, test equipment, and training, there is a higher chance of an accident. A team that puts together a well-prepared plan of action can often reduce the number of electrical switching operations; this can dramatically lower the chance of a fault in the equipment during the job. As Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616) said, "To be prepared is half the victory." For an electrical task, it should be considered a victory to have the job completed safely. Is your team prepared for every contingency?
Autors: Daniel Doan;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 6 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grading electric field in high voltage insulation using composite materials
Abstract:
Localized overstress due to electric field concentration is a threat to the long-term performance of the insulation in almost all high voltage apparatus. Resistive field grading using field grading materials (FGMs) may be a solution to this problem. Insulation matrixes such as ethylene propylene diene monomer, epoxy, or silicone rubbers, blended with fillers such as ZnO microvaristors, are reported to possess field dependent conductivity with greater and more stable nonlinearity than traditional FGMs [1]. Their application in high voltage apparatus such as bushings [1], cable accessories [2]-[4], insulators [5], [6], and stator coils [7] has been studied recently. It is well known [8] that the most important parameters for FGMs are the nonlinear coefficient α and switching field Eb; the challenge is to tailor these two parameters to a specific application. FGMs can function effectively in most cases when α >10 [9], but the adjustment of Eb is more complex.
Autors: Xiao Yang;Xiaolei Zhao;Jun Hu;Jinliang He;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 15 - 25
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Granular Differentiability of Fuzzy-Number-Valued Functions
Abstract:
In this paper, using the concept of horizontal membership functions, a new definition of fuzzy derivative called granular derivative is proposed based on granular difference. Moreover, a new definition of fuzzy integral called granular integral is defined, and its relation with the granular derivative is given. A new definition of a metric—granular metric—on the space of type-1 fuzzy numbers, and a concept of continuous fuzzy functions are also presented. Restrictions associated to previous approaches—Hukuhara differentiability, strongly generalized Hukuhara differentiability, generalized Hukuhara differentiability, generalized differentiability, Zadeh's extension principle, and fuzzy differential inclusions—dealing with fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) are expressed. It is shown that the proposed approach does not have the drawbacks of the previous approaches. It is also demonstrated how this approach enables researchers to solve FDEs more conveniently than ever before. Moreover, we showed that this approach does not necessitate that the diameter of the fuzzy function be monotonic. It is also proved that the result of each of the four basic operations on fuzzy numbers introduced based on the proposed approach leads to a fuzzy number. Moreover, the condition for the existence of the granular derivative of a fuzzy function is provided by a theorem. Additionally, by two examples, it is shown that the existence of the granular derivative of a fuzzy function does not imply the existence of the generalized Hukuhara differentiability of the fuzzy function, and vice versa. The terms doubling property and unnatural behavior in modeling phenomenon are also introduced. Furthermore, using some examples, the paper proceeds to elaborate on the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Moreover, as an application of the proposed approach, the response of Boeing 747 to i- pulsive elevator input is obtained in the presence of uncertain initial conditions and parameters.
Autors: Mehran Mazandarani;Naser Pariz;Ali Vahidian Kamyad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 310 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graph-Based Modeling of Mobile Molecular Communication Systems
Abstract:
This letter develops a graph-based model of mobile molecular communication systems to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of bio-nanomachine concentration in a complex environment, such as the human circulatory system. We first consider the steady-state problem under the assumption that background flows are absent, and show that, at steady-state, bio-nanomachines on a graph distribute according to the target distribution. We then examine through numerical experiments the evolution of bio-nanomachine concentration on a graph in the presence of background flows. The graph-based model developed in this letter is useful to examine optimal conditions, under which drug-carrying bio-nanomachines distribute at target locations in a circulatory system.
Autors: Satoru Iwasaki;Tadashi Nakano;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 376 - 379
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene Terahertz Amplitude Modulation Enhanced by Square Ring Resonant Structure
Abstract:
A terahertz amplitude modulator based on graphene on a metallic square ring resonant structure is proposed. By separating the graphene and the metallic structure with a thin organic dielectric layer, both the resonant frequency and the amplitude of the transmission resonant peak are modulated when graphene is electrically tuned by a bias voltage. A maximal amplitude modulation depth of 72% at the frequency of 0.6 THz is achieved for the fabricated Terahertz modulator. An analysis model based on the transmission line theory is built to explore the modulation mechanism. Results of the transmission spectrum and the amplitude modulation indicate a good agreement between the transmission line theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements.
Autors: Liangping Xia;Xin Zhang;Dongshan Wei;Hong-Liang Cui;Chunlei Du;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Graphene–Silicon-Based High-Sensitivity and Broadband Phototransistor
Abstract:
Graphene–silicon vertical junction is utilized here for fabrication of high-responsivity and broadband phototransistor. Graphene–silicon as a Schottky junction plays the role of collector–base junction in a bipolar junction phototransistor. We propose graphene–silicon-based phototransistor as a promising candidate for fabrication of high-gain photodetector with responsivity as high as 11 A/W. Gain and ON/OFF ratio of our fabricated device reach up to 18 and 100, respectively. Our results show that the graphene–silicon-based phototransistor is sensitive to a broad range of incident light from visible to IR spectrum. Our results open up a way to fabricate highly sensitive photodetectors suitable for silicon integrated electronics.
Autors: Aliakbar Hekmatikia;Yaser Abdi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 216 - 219
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Greetings from the New Editor-in-Chief [From the Editor's Desk]
Abstract:
Presents the introductory editorial for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Robert Caverly;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 6 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Grid Design for Efficient and Accurate Point Mass Filter-Based Terrain Referenced Navigation
Abstract:
This paper proposes an optimal grid design method for point mass filter-based terrain referenced navigation (PTRN) by considering the process and measurement uncertainties or noise to efficiently obtain accurate results. The estimation performance of the point mass filter (PMF) is generally known to improve when very large support and a high-resolution grid are implemented. However, when this condition is applied to the PTRN, the algorithm cannot be executed in real-time due to the high computational load. In addition, even though the grid condition is improved, the filter accuracy is limited by the given process and measurement noises. Therefore, it is possible to perform efficient and accurate PTRN by finding the minimum number of grid points that can achieve the maximum performance. In this paper, a grid design method is carried out by considering each noise, and the selection logic between the two design results are proposed. By applying the proposed grid design method, it is possible to obtain almost the same accuracy as the results that are obtained when a very high resolution is applied, with a much lower computational load, and it is expected for the highly accurate PTRN to be available in real-time.
Autors: Hyun Cheol Jeon;Woo Jung Park;Chan Gook Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1731 - 1738
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GrIMS: Green Information-Centric Multimedia Streaming Framework in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks
Abstract:
Information-centric networking (ICN), as a novel network paradigm, is expected to natively support mobility, multicast, and multihoming in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this paper, the adoption of ICN principles for multimedia streaming in multihomed VANETs is investigated, with a major emphasis on the tradeoff between the quality of experience and energy efficiency (EnE). To formalize this problem, a cost optimization model is first proposed, based on queueing theory arguments. Then, a novel green information-centric multimedia streaming (GrIMS) framework is designed to drive the system toward optimal working points in practical settings. GrIMS consists of three enhanced mechanisms for on-demand cloud-based processing, adaptive multipath transmission, and cooperative in-network caching. Finally, a massive simulation campaign has been carried out, demonstrating that, thanks to its core components, the GrIMS enables flexible multimedia service provisioning and achieves an improved performance in terms of start-up delay, playbacks continuity, and EnE with respect to state-of-the-art solutions.
Autors: Changqiao Xu;Wei Quan;Hongke Zhang;Luigi Alfredo Grieco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 483 - 498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ground Moving Target Refocusing in SAR Imagery Using Scaled GHAF
Abstract:
In this paper, a new method is proposed to refocus a ground moving target in synthetic aperture radar imagery. In this method, range migration is compensated in the 2-D frequency domain, which can easily be implemented by using the complex multiplications, the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and the inverse FFT operations. Then, the received target signal in a range gate is characterized as a quadratic frequency-modulated (QFM) signal. Finally, a novel parameter estimation method, i.e., scaled generalized high-order ambiguity function (HAF), is proposed to transform the target signal into a signal on 2-D time–frequency plane and realize the 2-D coherent integration, where the peak position accurately determines the second- and third-order parameters of a QFM signal. Compared with our previously proposed generalized Hough-HAF method, the proposed method can obtain a better target focusing performance, since it can eliminate the incoherent operations in both range and azimuth directions. In addition, the proposed method is computationally efficient, since it is free of searching in the whole target focusing procedure. Both simulated and real data processing results are provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Penghui Huang;Xiang-Gen Xia;Guisheng Liao;Zhiwei Yang;Jianjiang Zhou;Xingzhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1030 - 1045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» GSEH: A Novel Approach to Select Prostate Cancer-Associated Genes Using Gene Expression Heterogeneity
Abstract:
When a gene shows varying levels of expression among normal people but similar levels in disease patients or shows similar levels of expression among normal people but different levels in disease patients, we can assume that the gene is associated with the disease. By utilizing this gene expression heterogeneity, we can obtain additional information that abets discovery of disease-associated genes. In this study, we used collaborative filtering to calculate the degree of gene expression heterogeneity between classes and then scored the genes on the basis of the degree of gene expression heterogeneity to find “differentially predicted” genes. Through the proposed method, we discovered more prostate cancer-associated genes than 10 comparable methods. The genes prioritized by the proposed method are potentially significant to biological processes of a disease and can provide insight into them.
Autors: Hyunjin Kim;Sang-Min Choi;Sanghyun Park;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 129 - 146
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial
Abstract:
The IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic Modeling and Optimization for RF, Microwave, and Terahertz Applications (NEMO) is an annual international conference founded by the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) in 2014. The idea of NEMO conference originated from the need to give special attention to the topics related to computational electromagnetics, advanced numerical techniques, and optimization algorithms and strategies. NEMO conferences are expected to be ideal venues to share new ideas on numerical techniques for electromagnetic/multiphysics modeling, propose efficient design algorithms and tools, and anticipate the modeling needs of future technologies and applications.
Autors: Francisco Mesa;Raúl Rodríguez-Berral;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 621 - 622
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Issue on Micropropulsion and Cubesats
Abstract:
This Special Issue is a broad forum presenting a series of topical reviews and original papers, addressing the hottest trends and recent progress in plasma propulsion physics, design, material solutions, and other aspects, as well as several review papers outlining progress in the selected regions and countries. Most were presented at the International Workshop on Micropropulsion and CubeSats (MPCS-2017), which took place at the CNR-Nanotec–P.Las.M.I. Lab, Bari, Italy. The third Conference will be held at the Micropropulsion and Nanotechnology Laboratory, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA, followed by the fourth MPCS-IV in Beijing.
Autors: Igor Levchenko;Michael Keidar;Shuyan Xu;Francesco Taccogna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 210 - 213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Engineering Industrial Big Data Analytics Platforms for Internet of Things
Abstract:
Over the last few years, a large number of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions have come to the IoT marketplace. Typically, each of these IoT solutions are designed to perform a single or minimal number of tasks (primary usage). We believe a significant amount of knowledge and insights are hidden in these data silos that can be used to improve our lives; such data include our behaviors, habits, preferences, life patterns, and resource consumption. To discover such knowledge, we need to acquire and analyze this data together in a large scale. To discover useful information and deriving conclusions toward supporting efficient and effective decision making, industrial IoT platform needs to support variety of different data analytics processes such as inspecting, cleaning, transforming, and modeling data, especially in big data context. IoT middleware platforms have been developed in both academic and industrial settings in order to facilitate IoT data management tasks including data analytics. However, engineering these general-purpose industrial-grade big data analytics platforms need to address many challenges. We have accepted six manuscripts out of 24 submissions for this special section (25% acceptance rate) after the strict peerreview processes. Each manuscript has been blindly reviewed by at least three external reviewers before the decisions were made. The papers are briefly summarized.
Autors: C. Perera;A. V. Vasilakos;G. Calikli;Q. Z. Sheng;K.-C. Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 744 - 747
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Guest Editorial Special Section on Frontiers of DC Technology
Abstract:
Autors: D. Jovcic;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 259 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Half-Duplex or Full-Duplex Communications: Degrees of Freedom Analysis Under Self-Interference
Abstract:
In-band full-duplex (FD) communication provides a promising alternative to half-duplex (HD) for wireless systems, due to increased spectral efficiency and capacity. In this paper, HD and FD radio implementations of two way, two hop, and two way two hop communication are compared in terms of degrees of freedom (DoF) under a realistic residual self-interference (SI) model. DoF analysis is carried out for each communication scenario for HD, antenna conserved (AC), and RF chain conserved (RC) FD radio implementations. The DoF analysis indicates that for the two way channel, the achievable AC FD with imperfect SI cancellation performs strictly below HD, and RC FD DoF tradeoff is superior when the SI can be sufficiently cancelled. For the two hop channel, FD is better when the relay has a large number of antennas and enough SI cancellation. For the two way two hop channel, when both nodes require similar throughput, the achievable DoF pairs for FD do not outperform HD. FD still can achieve better DoF pairs than HD, provided the relay has sufficient number of antennas and SI suppression.
Autors: Nirmal V. Shende;Özgür Gürbüz;Elza Erkip;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1081 - 1093
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hall Thrusters With Permanent Magnets: Current Solutions and Perspectives
Abstract:
We present a focused review of selected design solutions for the permanent magnet-based magnetic circuitry of Hall-type thrusters, with the emphasis on their relevance to miniaturized devices potentially suitable for application in CubeSats and other types of small satellites. Coaxial, cylindrical, and cusped designs of Hall-type thrusters are considered. The issues related to the influence of magnetic configurations on channel wear are also addressed. This paper also outlines a state of the art in the high-temperature permanent magnets and offers some perspective views onto the further development of miniaturized Hall-type thrusters. Several nontrivial design solutions are considered, and schematics of the potentially promising ones for the reduction of wear and damage were examined. Overall, this paper demonstrates the usability and several significant advantages of Hall thrusters with permanent magnetic system.
Autors: Ludovico Lorello;Igor Levchenko;Kateryna Bazaka;Michael Keidar;Luxiang Xu;S. Huang;J. W. M. Lim;Shuyan Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 239 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hand Gesture Recognition With Multiscale Weighted Histogram of Contour Direction Normalization for Wearable Applications
Abstract:
This paper proposes a static hand gesture recognition method with low computation and memory consumption for wearable applications. The hand contour is chosen as the hand gesture feature and support vector machine is used to classify the feature. A multiscale weighted histogram of contour direction-based direction normalization is proposed to ensure good recognition performance. In order to improve efficiency, the proposed histogram only counts the direction of the contour point to focus on the most significant hand feature in the first-person view of wearable devices. Based on the hand’s anatomy, the proposed histogram is weighted by considering each contour point’s position and direction jointly using the direction-angle map, to ensure robustness. Experimental results show that the proposed method can give a recognition accuracy of 97.1% with a frame rate of 30 fps on a PC.
Autors: Yiyi Ren;Xiang Xie;Guolin Li;Zhihua Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 364 - 377
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hans Peter Luhn and the birth of the hashing algorithm
Abstract:
NOVEMBER 1958, AT A SIX-DAY INTERNATIONAL CONFERence devoted to scientific information, the inventor Hans Peter Luhn demonstrated a series of his electromechanical machines. They looked rather ordinary. Much like other computing devices of the day, they were boxy and utilitarian, designed to scoop and sort tall stacks of punch cards into slots and bins.
Autors: Hallam Stevens;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 44 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hardware Implementation of the Preprocessing QR-Decomposition for the Soft-Output MIMO Detection With Multiple Tree Traversals
Abstract:
Compared with the single tree detector, the layered orthogonal lattice detector (LORD), developed by Siti et al., is a well-known soft-output multiple input multiple output detector to exploit parallel tree traversals to deliver data with times of detection throughput rate. The preprocessing QR-decomposition (QRD) of the -by- channel matrix for the single tree detector is of complexity proportional to . However, the preprocessing QRD for the LORD needs to compute the permuted channel matrices that are constructed from the original -by- channel matrix through the root conditioning criterion. The original LORD algorithm for this root conditioning QRD (RC-QRD) relies on the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization and is of complexity proportional to for large . In this brief, we apply the Givens rotation and take advantage of the relationships among the permuted matrices to develop an RC-QRD algorithm with complexity proportional to . Furthermore, when , our proposed RC-QRD hardware architecture requires gate count 2.1 times that required by the conventional triangular systolic array to compute a matrix QRD. Accordingly, with only about two times of complexity for the preprocessing RC-QRD, the LORD is able to perform tree traversals to deliver data with times of throughput rate.
Autors: Tsung-Hsien Liu;Yi-Kuang Ko;Yen-Ju Chiu;Wen-Yen Lin;Yuan-Sun Chu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 186 - 190
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harmonically-Driven Snapping of a Micromachined Bistable Mechanism With Ultra-Small Actuation Stroke
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the snapping action of a micromachined bistable mechanism harmonically driven with an ultra-small actuation stroke, which is realized through the mode amplification in a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) vibration system using an on-chip electrostatic actuator. The micromachined bistable mechanism is based on a curved beam configuration. The dynamic response of the device is theoretically predicted with the harmonic balance method. Further, to demonstrate this proposed study, a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) prototype device is designed, fabricated, and tested. In experiments, the forward and backward state switching actions of the prototype device are realized with actuation stroke smaller than , while the traveling distance between the two states is about . To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the state switching of a cured beam bistable mechanism using harmonic driving in a 2-DOF vibration system. This paper has potential in applications including MEMS switches and MEMS filters. [2017-0221]
Autors: Han Du;Fook Siong Chau;Guangya Zhou;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 34 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Harnessing Laguerre-Gaussian Beams to Construct Quasi-Nondiffracting Optical Ring Lattices
Abstract:
We construct a family of optical ring lattices that manifest the quasi-nondiffracting property via superposition of high-radial-order Laguerre-Gaussian beams. A theoretical derivation of the optical ring lattice along with the validity condition is presented, and its evolution behaviors are investigated in comparison with the diffraction-free Bessel beams. Moreover, multiple ultralong bright channels or optical tubes with various transverse profiles can be formed with the ring optical lattices. As a proof of concept, flexible generation of the lattice beams was demonstrated by complex wavefront engineering using a binary digital micromirror device. We anticipate that the quasi-nondiffracting ring lattices and the ultralong optical channels might motivate novel applications in optical trapping and high-resolution microscopy.
Autors: Qian Zhao;Lei Gong;Xin-Yao Hu;Pan-Pan Yu;Zi-Qiang Wang;Yin-Mei Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hello, World!—Code Responsibly
Abstract:
Many security exploits target vulnerabilities that are a result of poorly designed and implemented software. Despite its critical importance, secure coding is primarily taught in upper-level elective computer science (CS) classes. As a result, most students graduate with little or no exposure to secure coding techniques. We believe that it is important to teach responsible coding early, starting in the first programming course, and often, by repeating and reinforcing security concepts in advanced courses. At Towson University, we have developed modules that teach students to code securely and responsibly from the first class: the Security Injections @Towson project.
Autors: Siddharth Kaza;Blair Taylor;Kyle Sherbert;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 98 - 100
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HEMEsPred: Structure-Based Ligand-Specific Heme Binding Residues Prediction by Using Fast-Adaptive Ensemble Learning Scheme
Abstract:
Heme is an essential biomolecule that widely exists in numerous extant organisms. Accurately identifying heme binding residues (HEMEs) is of great importance in disease progression and drug development. In this study, a novel predictor named HEMEsPred was proposed for predicting HEMEs. First, several sequence- and structure-based features, including amino acid composition, motifs, surface preferences, and secondary structure, were collected to construct feature matrices. Second, a novel fast-adaptive ensemble learning scheme was designed to overcome the serious class-imbalance problem as well as to enhance the prediction performance. Third, we further developed ligand-specific models considering that different heme ligands varied significantly in their roles, sizes, and distributions. Statistical test proved the effectiveness of ligand-specific models. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrated good robustness of our proposed method. Furthermore, our method also showed good generalization capability and outperformed many state-of-art predictors on two independent testing datasets. HEMEsPred web server was available at http://www.inforstation.com/HEMEsPred/ for free academic use.
Autors: Jian Zhang;Haiting Chai;Bo Gao;Guifu Yang;Zhiqiang Ma;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 147 - 156
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hepta-Band Coupled-Fed Loop Antenna For LTE/WWAN Unbroken Metal-Rimmed Smartphone Applications
Abstract:
A hepta-band coupled-fed loop antenna for LTE/WWAN unbroken metal-rimmed smartphone applications is proposed. The unbroken metal rim is designed as a part of the loop antenna radiation structure, which is also composed of a system ground, a coupled-fed U-shaped microstrip line, and an L-shaped microstrip line. The feeding and L-shaped microstrip lines are located on an ungrounded area of 72 × 8 mm2 along the top short edge of the system ground plane on an FR4 substrate. The operating band of the antenna is widened by the matching circuit elements on the feeding line. Combining multiple resonant modes generated by the coupling loop, the proposed antenna can operate on two wide operating bands of 824–960 and 1710–2690 MHz. The detailed working principles of the proposed antenna are described. Good antenna radiation characteristics are obtained. Both experimental and simulation results are presented and discussed.
Autors: Zi-Qiang Xu;Qiang-Qiang Zhou;Yong-Ling Ban;Simon S. Ang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 311 - 314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Heuristic Algorithm for a WIP Projection Problem at Finite Capacity in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a heuristic approach for fixing work-in-progress (WIP) projection issues in the semiconductor industry especially for high mix low volume facilities. The considered problem consists of estimating the start and end dates for each remaining process step of the production lots in the WIP and anticipating the fab loading taking into account the constraints of the maximum throughput of machines considered as capacity constraints and customer delivery commitments. The objective being to guarantee on-time delivery, we focus on minimizing the total weighted tardiness. We have formulated the problem into a mixed-integer programming and we have empirically shown its computational intractability. Due to the computational intractability using actual production data, a heuristic algorithm is proposed. It is an iterative finite capacity planning system that considers as inputs lots due dates and equipment capabilities and capacities. The performance of the heuristic is assessed using industrial instances. It turns out that it achieves targeted objectives with satisfactory results in terms of quality of the solution and computation time.
Autors: Emna Mhiri;Fabien Mangione;Mireille Jacomino;Philippe Vialletelle;Guillaume Lepelletier;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 62 - 75
Publisher: IEEE
 
» HfO2/Ti Interface Mediated Conductive Filament Formation in RRAM: An Ab Initio Study
Abstract:
We address the role of the Ti/HfO2 interface on the conductive filament (CF) formation within the context of oxide-based resistive random access memories (OxRRAMs). We investigate oxygen defects formation and diffusion at the interface through ab initio calculations. The calculated diffusion energy barriers compare well with the available experimental data. Through the interface region charge analysis and the associated energies with O defect formation and migration into Ti, our results support a probable CF growth from the interface region toward the electron injecting electrode, which acts as a cathode. Hence, for a Ti/HfO2-based OxRRAM supported by the calculation results, we present a pertinent CF growth model by considering its earliest stages, which is relevant for device modeling.
Autors: Boubacar Traore;Philippe Blaise;Benoît Sklénard;Elisa Vianello;Blanka Magyari-Köpe;Yoshio Nishi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 507 - 513
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Control Design for a Shipboard Power System With DC Distribution and Energy Storage Aboard Future More-Electric Ships
Abstract:
DC distribution is now becoming the major trend of future mobile power systems, such as more-electric aircrafts and ships. As dc distribution has different nature to the conventional ac system, a new design of well-structured control and management methods will be mandatory. In this paper, a shipboard power system with dc distribution and energy storage system (ESS) is picked as the study case. To meet the requirement of control and management of such a large-scale mobile power system, a hierarchical control design is proposed in this paper. In order to fully exploit the benefit of the ESS, as well as to overcome the limitation in controllability, a novel inverse-droop control method is proposed, in which the power sharing is according to the source characteristic, instead of their power rating. A frequency-division method is also proposed as an extension to the inverse-droop method for enabling a hybrid ESS and its autonomous operation. On the basis of the proposed methods, the control methods for management and voltage restoration levels are also proposed to establish a comprehensive control solution. Real-time simulations are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed control design under different operating conditions. When compared to more conventional droop-based approaches, the new proposal shows enhancement in efficiency.
Autors: Zheming Jin;Lexuan Meng;Josep M. Guerrero;Renke Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 703 - 714
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Decentralized Optimization Architecture for Economic Dispatch: A New Approach for Large-Scale Power System
Abstract:
In this paper, a new hierarchical decentralized optimization architecture is proposed to solve the economic dispatch problem for a large-scale power system. Conventionally, such a problem is solved in a centralized way, which is usually inflexible and costly in computation. In contrast to centralized algorithms, in this paper we decompose the centralized problem into local problems. Each local generator only solves its own problem iteratively, based on its own cost function and generation constraint. An extra coordinator agent is employed to coordinate all the local generator agents. Besides, it also takes responsibility to handle the global demand supply constraint based on a newly proposed concept named virtual agent. In this way, different from existing distributed algorithms, the global demand supply constraint and local generation constraints are handled separately, which would greatly reduce the computational complexity. In addition, as only local individual estimate is exchanged between the local agent and the coordinator agent, the communication burden is reduced and the information privacy is also protected. It is theoretically shown that under proposed hierarchical decentralized optimization architecture, each local generator agent can obtain the optimal solution in a decentralized fashion. Several case studies implemented on the IEEE 30-bus and the IEEE 118-bus are discussed and tested to validate the proposed method.
Autors: Fanghong Guo;Changyun Wen;Jianfeng Mao;Jiawei Chen;Yong-Duan Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 523 - 534
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Force and Positioning Task Specification for Indirect Force Controlled Robots
Abstract:
Indirect force control (IFC) architectures are a common approach for dealing with unknown environments. What all IFC schemes have in common is that the relation between the set point and the actual configuration of the robot is determined by a mechanical relationship (e.g., a mass–spring–damper system). In this paper, we propose a set-point generation method for IFC schemes, enabling intuitive specification of mixed force and positioning tasks on joint and Cartesian levels. In addition, the formulation of equality and inequality tasks is supported and a passivity-based stability proof is formulated using the concept of virtual energy storage. The resulting task programming interface is demonstrated on a 7-degree-of-freedom robot, running a joint space impedance controller. One sample task demonstrates the application of the developed approach and highlights the basic features.
Autors: Ewald Lutscher;Emmanuel C. Dean-León;Gordon Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 280 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical System Modeling
Abstract:
In this study, we present a methodology of building a hierarchical framework of system modeling by engaging concepts and design methodology of granular computing. We demonstrate that it arises as a result of designing and using locally constructed models to develop a model of a global nature. Two main categories of development of hierarchical models are proposed and discussed. In the first one, given a collection of local models, designed is a granular output space and the ensuing hierarchical model produces information granules of the corresponding type depending upon the depth of the hierarchy of the overall hierarchical structure. The crux of the second category of modeling is about selecting one of the original models and elevating its level of information granularity so that it becomes representative of the entire family of local models. The formation of the most “promising” granular model identified in this way involves mechanisms of allocation of information granularity. The focus of the study is on information granules represented as intervals and fuzzy sets (which in case of type-2 information granules lead to so-called granular intervals and interval-valued fuzzy sets) while the detailed models come as rule-based architectures and neural networks. A series of experiments is presented along with a comparative analysis.
Autors: Rami Al-Hmouz;Witold Pedrycz;Abdullah Saeed Balamash;Ali Morfeq;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 258 - 269
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical Trajectory Planning of an Autonomous Car Based on the Integration of a Sampling and an Optimization Method
Abstract:
This paper presents a hierarchical trajectory planning based on the integration of a sampling and an optimization method for urban autonomous driving. To manage a complex driving environment, the upper behavioral trajectory planner searches the macro-scale trajectory to determine the behavior of an autonomous car by using environment models, such as traffic control device and objects. This planner infers reasonable behavior and provides it to the motion trajectory planner. For planning the behavioral trajectory, the sampling-based approach is used due to its advantage of a free-form cost function for discrete models of the driving environments and simplification of the searching area. The lower motion trajectory planner determines the micro-scale trajectory based on the results of the upper trajectory planning with the environment model. The lower planner strongly considers vehicle dynamics within the planned behavior of the behavioral trajectory. Therefore, the planning space of the lower planner can be limited, allowing for improvement of the efficiency of the numerical optimization of the lower planner to find the best trajectory. For the motion trajectory planning, the numerical optimization is applied due to its advantages of a mathematical model for the continuous elements of the driving environments and low computation to converge minima in the convex function. The proposed algorithms of the sampling-based behavioral and optimization-based motion trajectory were evaluated through experiments in various scenarios of an urban area.
Autors: Wonteak Lim;Seongjin Lee;Myoungho Sunwoo;Kichun Jo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 613 - 626
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hierarchical, Portfolio Theory-Based Virtual Machine Consolidation in a Compute Cloud
Abstract:
Improving the energy efficiency of cloud computing systems has become an important issue because the electric energy bill for 24/7 operation of these systems can be quite large. The focus of this paper is on the virtual machine consolidation in a cloud computing system as a way of lowering daily energy consumption of the system. In contrast to the existing works that assume resource demands of virtual machines are given as scalar variables, this paper treats these demands as random variables with known means and standard deviations because the demands are not deterministic in many situations. These random variables may be correlated with one another, and there are several types of resources which can be performance bottlenecks. Therefore, both correlations and resource type heterogeneity must be considered. The virtual machine consolidation problem is thus formulated as a multi-capacity stochastic bin packing problem. This problem is NP-hard, so we present a heuristic method to efficiently solve the problem. Simulation results show that, in spite of its simplicity and scalability, the proposed method produces high quality solutions.
Autors: Inkwon Hwang;Massoud Pedram;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 63 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Al-Content AlGaN Transistor With 0.5 A/mm Current Density and Lateral Breakdown Field Exceeding 3.6 MV/cm
Abstract:
We report on ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) Al0.7Ga0.3N channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Employing reverse Al composition graded ohmic contact layers and 20 nm Al2O3 gate-dielectric, 250 nm thick Al0.7Ga0.3N:Si channel MOSFETs resulted in the maximum current density of 0.5 A/mm, which is the highest value reported for AlGaN channels with Al composition >0.25. Transistors with a gate-drain spacing ( of demonstrated a breakdown voltage ( of ~620 V, translating in an average lateral breakdown field of ~3.6 MV/cm. This work establishes UWBG AlGaN as a promising candidate for advanced RF applications.
Autors: Sanyam Bajaj;Andrew Allerman;Andrew Armstrong;Towhidur Razzak;Vishank Talesara;Wenyuan Sun;Shahadat H. Sohel;Yuewei Zhang;Wu Lu;Aaron R. Arehart;Fatih Akyol;Siddharth Rajan;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 256 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Dynamics Control for MMC Based on Exact Discrete-Time Model With Experimental Validation
Abstract:
Due to the complexity of the system, the control of the modular multilevel converter (MMC) constitutes an intense research activity. The stored energy inside the MMC presents a new degree of freedom, which can be exploited to provide ancillary services (oscillation damping for example). In order to do so, the response time of the energy loop has to be as fast as possible. However, when a cascaded approach is used to control the structure, this purpose cannot be achieved without fast inner loops. This paper presents a novel inner loops controller in order to obtain a high response dynamic. These controllers have been developed based on exact discrete-time models obtained from an analytic calculation of exponential of matrices. A pole placement method using feedback control has been chosen to derive their control laws. For stability matters, a pole location analysis is used to set appropriately the controller parameters, which are the sampling period and the controller gains. After validation with offline simulations and in order to show the advantages of the proposed controllers compared to the existing solutions, experimental tests have been performed using a real small-scale MMC.
Autors: Ahmed Zama;Abdelkrim Benchaib;Seddik Bacha;David Frey;Sébastien Silvant;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 477 - 488
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on Excited-States Injection
Abstract:
In this letter, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on excited-states injection are presented. The operating voltage is significantly reduced compared with the conventional ground-state injection design. Devices emitting at were fabricated through standard buried-heterostructure processing. Stable single-mode emission was observed by implementing a buried first-order distributed feedback (DFB) grating. The maximum output power of the DFB QCL with 2-mm cavity length was more than 300 mW at 10 °C with a high wall-plug efficiency of 5.6% in continuous-wave mode.
Autors: Chuan-Wei Liu;Jin-Chuan Zhang;Feng-Min Cheng;Yue Zhao;Ning Zhuo;Shen-Qiang Zhai;Li-Jun Wang;Jun-Qi Liu;Shu-Man Liu;Feng-Qi Liu;Zhan-Guo Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 299 - 302
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Frequency SSVEP-BCI With Hardware Stimuli Control and Phase-Synchronized Comb Filter
Abstract:
We present an efficient implementation of brain–computer interface (BCI) based on high-frequency steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP). Individual shape of the SSVEP response is extracted by means of a feedforward comb filter, which adds delayed versions of the signal to itself. Rendering of the stimuli is controlled by specialized hardware (BCI Appliance). Out of 15 participants of the study, nine were able to produce stable response in at least eight out of ten frequencies from the 30–39 Hz range. They achieved on average 96±4% accuracy and 47±5 bit/min information transfer rate (ITR) for an optimized simple seven-letter speller, while generic full-alphabet speller allowed in this group for 89±9% accuracy and 36±9 bit/min ITR. These values exceed the performances of high-frequency SSVEP-BCI systems reported to date. Classical approach to SSVEP parameterization by relative spectral power in the frequencies of stimulation, implemented on the same data, resulted in significantly lower performance. This suggests that specific shape of the response is an important feature in classification. Finally, we discuss the differences in SSVEP responses of the participants who were able or unable to use the interface, as well as the statistically significant influence of the layout of the speller on the speed of BCI operation.
Autors: Anna Chabuda;Piotr Durka;Jarosław Żygierewicz;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 344 - 352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High Performance Parallel Single-Phase Converter Reconfiguration for Enhanced Availability
Abstract:
Paralleling power converters is a common practice in industries to enhance total power rating, reliability, and availability of the system. In case of fault occurring in systems with parallel converters, the faulty power converter can be isolated and the system can still be operated at reduced power level. In this paper, a grid-connected power converter consisting of two parallel H-bridge converters with low ground leakage current is considered. Two contingency configurations, that are also of low ground leakage current, are proposed to enhance the availability of the system. This is done by reconfiguring the power circuit to a single H-bridge in the case of failure in one of the bridges. The power converter is experimentally tested with the proposed configurations for experimental validation. The results show that the second configuration has better performance in terms of power loss and current total harmonic distortion when operating at lower power level.
Autors: Mohammad Hassan Hedayati;Vinod John;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 388 - 394
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency mosfet-Based MMC Design for LVDC Distribution Systems
Abstract:
Low-voltage dc (LVdc) distribution networks have the potential to release larger capacity without having to upgrade the existing cables. One of the main challenges of LVdc networks is the extra customer-end dc–ac conversion stage. This paper proposes and evaluates a five-level Si mosfet-based modular multilevel converter (MMC) as a promising alternative to the conventional two-level insulated gate bipolar transistor-based converter. This is due to the comparatively higher efficiency, power quality and reliability, and reduced electromagnetic (EM) emissions. A comprehensive analysis of a Si mosfet five-level MMC converter design is performed to investigate the suitability of the topology for LVdc applications. Detailed theoretical analysis of the five-level MMC is presented, with simulated and experimental results to demonstrate circuit performance. To suppress the ac circulating current, especially the dominant second harmonics, this paper presents a double line-frequency proportional integral (PI) with orthogonal imaginary axis control method. Comparison of simulation and experimental results with those for double line-frequency proportional resonant control shows that the proposed PI controller has a better performance. In addition, it is simpler to implement and more immune to sampling/discretization errors.
Autors: Yanni Zhong;Nina Roscoe;Derrick Holliday;Tee Chong Lim;Stephen J. Finney;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 321 - 334
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Efficiency Input and Output Harmonically Engineered Power Amplifiers
Abstract:
This paper presents an in-depth, systematic study of the impact of input and output harmonics in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers (PAs). The study evaluates the performance of harmonically tuned amplifiers, tackling concurrently both input and output harmonics. The proposed theory starts with deriving an altered input voltage waveform under the impact of input nonlinearity. Intrinsic drain voltage and drain current components are formulated as a function of the conduction angle considering both source and load terminations. Output power and drain efficiency are then computed as a function of input nonlinearity, , and output loading conditions. The derived formulations allow to investigate the design sensitivity to input nonlinearity and its impact on fundamental design space. The impact of source harmonics is evaluated using harmonic source pull under different output loading conditions. Thereafter, PA design and implementation has been carried out using NXP 1.95 mm die to confirm the distinctive behavior of class GF and GF−1 amplifiers with respect to the input harmonic terminations. For practical validation, four different design cases with different second harmonic source impedances are investigated. At 2.6 GHz, drain efficiencies ranging between 76% and 83% were exhibited depending on the source and load harmonic tuning for each design case. Measurement results confirm the theoretical findings reported in this paper.
Autors: Tushar Sharma;E. R. Srinidhi;Ramzi Darraji;Damon G. Holmes;Joseph Staudinger;Jeffrey K. Jones;Fadhel M. Ghannouchi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1002 - 1014
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Level Programming Abstractions for Distributed Graph Processing
Abstract:
Efficient processing of large-scale graphs in distributed environments has been an increasingly popular topic of research in recent years. Inter-connected data that can be modeled as graphs appear in application domains such as machine learning, recommendation, web search, and social network analysis. Writing distributed graph applications is inherently hard and requires programming models that can cover a diverse set of problems, including iterative refinement algorithms, graph transformations, graph aggregations, pattern matching, ego-network analysis, and graph traversals. Several high-level programming abstractions have been proposed and adopted by distributed graph processing systems and big data platforms. Even though significant work has been done to experimentally compare distributed graph processing frameworks, no qualitative study and comparison of graph programming abstractions has been conducted yet. In this survey, we review and analyze the most prevalent high-level programming models for distributed graph processing, in terms of their semantics and applicability. We review 34 distributed graph processing systems with respect to the graph processing models they implement and we survey applications that appear in recent distributed graph systems papers. Finally, we discuss trends and open research questions in the area of distributed graph processing.
Autors: Vasiliki Kalavri;Vladimir Vlassov;Seif Haridi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 305 - 324
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Order-Tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings With Superposed Refractive Index Modulation
Abstract:
A high-order-tilted fiber Bragg gratings (HO-TFBG) with superposed refractive index (RI) modulation written by a femtosecond laser and a phase mask has been demonstrated. The superposed grating structure is realized by the combined action of the pure ±1 order pulses interference and the heat accumulation effect of ±1 order and zero-order pulses. For the phase mask with the pitch of 3.33 μm, there are 11 groups of high-order Bragg resonance and cladding mode resonances sets in the wavelength range of 600–1700 nm, the information carried by which is doubled compared to the HO-TFBG written by pure two beams interference. It demonstrates that the sensitivities of the cladding mode resonances sets to surrounding RI, axial strain and temperature decrease with the increase of the grating order.
Autors: Xuan-Yu Zhang;Chao Chen;Yong-Sen Yu;Wei-Hua Wei;Qi Guo;Yong-Yi Chen;Xing Zhang;Li Qin;Yong-Qiang Ning;Hong-Bo Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance MMIC Inductors for GaN-on-Low-Resistivity Silicon for Microwave Applications
Abstract:
Novel MMIC spiral inductors on GaN-on-low-resistivity silicon (LR-Si) substrates () are demonstrated with enhanced self-resonance frequency () and -factor. The developed technology improves inductor performance by suppressing substrate coupling effects using air-bridge technology above benzocyclobutene dielectric as an interface layer on the lossy substrate. A 0.83-nH spiral inductor with peak -factor enhancement of 57% ( at 24 GHz) and maximum of 59 GHz was achieved because of the extra 5- elevation in air. An accurate broad-band model for the fabricated inductors has been developed and verified for further performance analysis up to 40 GHz. The proposed inductors utilize cost-effective, reliable, and MMIC-compatible technology for the realization of high-performance RF GaN-on-LR Si MMIC circuits for millimeter-wave applications.
Autors: A. Eblabla;X. Li;D. J. Wallis;I. Guiney;K. Elgaid;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 99 - 101
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Performance Ultrasound Needle Transducer Based on Modified PMN-PT Ceramic With Ultrahigh Clamped Dielectric Permittivity
Abstract:
A modified Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) polycrystalline ceramic with ultrahigh relative clamped dielectric permittivity () and high piezoelectric properties ( pC/N, ) was used to fabricate high-frequency miniature ultrasound transducers. A 39-MHz high-frequency ultrasound needle transducer with a miniature aperture of 0.4 mm mm was designed and successfully characterized. The fabricated needle transducer had an electromechanical coupling factor of 0.55, large bandwidth of 80% at −6 dB, and low insertion loss of −13 dB. A wire phantom and porcine eyeball imaging study showed good imaging capability of this needle transducer. The transducer performance was found to be superior to that of other needle transducers with miniature apertures, making this modified PMN-PT ceramic-based needle transducer quite promising for minimally invasive procedures in medical applications.
Autors: Zhiqiang Zhang;Fei Li;Ruimin Chen;Tianfu Zhang;Xiaodong Cao;Shujun Zhang;Thomas R. Shrout;Hairong Zheng;K. Kirk Shung;Mark S. Humayun;Weibao Qiu;Qifa Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 223 - 230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Purity Sine Wave Generation Using Nonlinear DAC With Predistortion Based on Low-Cost Accurate DAC–ADC Co-Testing
Abstract:
Data converters are among the most widely used components in modern integrated devices and systems. A major challenge is to characterize their performances accurately and cost effectively. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) standard test requires the input sinusoidal signal to be 3–4 b better than that of the ADC under test. Such high-quality sine waves are extremely difficult to generate and challenging to implement cost effectively. This paper presents a novel method that is capable of generating a high-purity sine wave using a nonlinear digital-to-analog converter (DAC), whose purity is significantly better than the original DAC output. In addition, with the aid of the low-cost DAC–ADC co-testing method, both DAC and ADC linearity information are accurately obtained with only 1 hit per code. Therefore, it is possible to add DAC linearity information to the DAC input codes, which cancels the nonlinearity of the DAC at output to achieve high purity. The proposed method has been validated by extensive simulation and measurement results, which demonstrated its accuracy and robustness against different resolutions, structures, or performance of the ADCs/DACs. With its low cost and easy test setup, such high-purity sine wave can be widely used for various applications where precision testing is required. In addition, the ADC and DAC linearity information is accurately obtained at the same time without any precision instrumentation, which is suitable for accurate DAC–ADC co-testing.
Autors: Yuming Zhuang;Benjamin Magstadt;Tao Chen;Degang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 279 - 287
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Q Tuneable 10-GHz Bragg Resonator for Oscillator Applications
Abstract:
This paper describes the design, simulation, and measurement of a tuneable 9.365-GHz aperiodic Bragg resonator. The resonator utilizes an aperiodic arrangement of non (/4) low-loss alumina plates (, loss tangent of to ) mounted in a cylindrical metal waveguide. Tuning is achieved by varying the length of the center section of the cavity. A multi-element bellows/probe assembly is presented. A tuning range of 130 MHz (1.39%) is demonstrated. The insertion loss varies from −2.84 to −12.03 dB while the unloaded Q varies from 43 788 to 122 550 over this tuning range. At 10 of the 13 measurement points, the unloaded Q exceeds 1 00 000, and the insertion loss is above −7 dB. Two modeling techniques are discussed; these include a simple ABCD circuit model for rapid simulation and optimization and a 2.5-D field solver, which is used to plot the field distribution inside the cavity.
Autors: Simon J. Bale;Pratik D. Deshpande;Mark Hough;Stuart J. Porter;Jeremy K. A. Everard;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 281 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Quality Soft Video Delivery With GMRF-Based Overhead Reduction
Abstract:
Soft video delivery i.e. analog video transmission has been proposed to provide high video quality in unstable wireless channels. However existing analog schemes need to transmit a significant amount of metadata to a receiver for power allocation and decoding operations causing large overhead and quality degradation due to rate and power losses. To reduce the overhead while keeping the video quality high we propose a new analog transmission scheme. Our scheme exploits a Gaussian Markov random field for modeling video sequences to significantly reduce the required amount of metadata which are obtained by fitting into the Lorentzian function. Our scheme achieves not only reduced overhead but also improved video quality by using the fitting function and parameters for metadata. Evaluations using several test video sequences demonstrate that the proposed scheme reduces overhead by 99.7% with -dB improvement of video quality (in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio) compared to the existing analog video transmission scheme. We also investigate the impact of bandwidth limitation showing a significant gain up to  dB for narrow-band systems.
Autors: Takuya Fujihashi;Toshiaki Koike-Akino;Takashi Watanabe;Philip V. Orlik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 473 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Resolution RFI Localization Using Covariance Matrix Augmentation in Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometry
Abstract:
Radio frequency interference (RFI) is a significant limiting factor in the retrieval of geophysical parameters measured by microwave radiometers. RFI localization is crucial to mitigate or remove the RFI impacts. In this paper, a novel RFI localization approach using covariance matrix augmentation in synthetic aperture interferometric radiometry (SAIR) is proposed. It utilizes the property of the sparse array configuration, which is commonly used in SAIR, where the sparse array can be viewed as a virtual filled array with much larger number of antenna elements. The approach can be applied in SAIR with a sparse array configuration, such as the European Space Agency Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Results on real SMOS data show that, compared with the previous approach, the presented approach has an improved performance of RFI localization with comparable accuracy of localization, such as improved spatial resolution, lower sidelobes, and larger identifiable number of RFIs.
Autors: Jun Li;Fei Hu;Feng He;Liang Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1186 - 1198
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Responsivity Si Photodiodes at 1060 nm in Standard CMOS Technology
Abstract:
Photodetection with high responsivity at the wavelength of 1060 nm is highly desirable for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) as well as the recent emergence of swept-source optical coherent tomography (SS-OCT) applications. However, the absorption coefficient of Si material at 1060 nm under the bias of 0 V is very low due to its approach to the absorption bandgap edge of Si material. In this letter, the carrier-collection-enhanced structure is proposed, which functions as multiple carrier collection paths, which enhances the external quantum efficiency of photodiodes. An efficient Si photodiode with responsivity of 0.49 A/W at 1060 nm at 0 V is demonstrated, which is 2.5 times of that of commercial products. The cost-effective fabrication of Si photodiodes greatly enhances the system performance of LiDAR and OCT.
Autors: Xia Guo;Qiaoli Liu;Hongyi Zhou;Xinxin Luan;Chong Li;Zonghai Hu;Anqi Hu;Xiaoying He;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 228 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed InP-Based p-i-n Photodiodes With InGaAs/GaAsSb Type-II Quantum Wells
Abstract:
We present and discuss the performance characteristics of InP-based p-i-n photodiodes (PDs) with InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II multiple quantum wells absorption regions designed to absorb light at mid-infrared wavelengths. Top-illuminated and waveguide-integrated PDs are fabricated with dark currents as low as 100 nA at −2 V, an external responsivity as high as 0.27 A/W at 2 and 0.3 A/W at 1.55 , and a 3-dB bandwidth of 3.5 GHz at 2 .
Autors: Bassem Tossoun;Robert Stephens;Ye Wang;Sadhvikas Addamane;Ganesh Balakrishnan;Archie Holmes;Andreas Beling;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 399 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Speed Low-Complexity Guided Image Filtering-Based Disparity Estimation
Abstract:
Stereo vision is a methodology to obtain depth in a scene based on the stereo image pair. In this paper, we introduce a discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based methodology for a state-of-the-art disparity estimation algorithm that resulted in significant performance improvement in terms of speed and computational complexity. In the initial stage of the proposed algorithm, we apply DWT to the input images, reducing the number of samples to be processed in subsequent stages by 50%, thereby decreasing computational complexity and improving processing speed. Subsequently, the architecture has been designed based on this proposed methodology and prototyped on a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA. The performance of the proposed methodology has been evaluated against four standard Middlebury Benchmark image pairs viz. Tsukuba, Venus, Teddy, and Cones. The proposed methodology results in the improvement of about 44.4% cycles per frame, 52% frames/s, and 61.5% and 59.6% LUT and register utilization, respectively, compared with state-of-the-art designs.
Autors: Charan Kumar Vala;Koushik Immadisetty;Amit Acharyya;Charles Leech;Vibishna Balagopal;Geoff V. Merrett;Bashir M. Al-Hashimi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 606 - 617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» High-Time Resolved Two-Dimensional Tetra-Lateral Position-Sensitive Silicon Photomultiplier
Abstract:
A 2D tetra-lateral position-sensitive silicon photomultiplier (PS-SiPM) has the advantages of high position and photon-number resolutions and only four readout channels for imaging application. However, its time resolution is limited by the position-dependent transmission time-delay effect. In this letter, we report a method to deduct the time jitter caused by transmission time delay and to significantly improve the time resolution of PS-SiPM. Instrument response function of as low as 177.6 ps (full width at half maximum) and position measured error of were obtained at a mean photoelectron number (MPEN) of approximately 14 for the device with active area of and micro-APD cell number of . The single photon position resolution was . The position resolution was improved from 214.9 to when the MPEN increased from 2.3 to 42. Thus, a PS-SiPM with simultaneous high time, position, and photon-number resolutions is realized.
Autors: Tianqi Zhao;Yu Peng;Baicheng Li;Ran He;Kun Liang;Ru Yang;Dejun Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 232 - 235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Biased Linear Condition Method for Separately Extracting Source and Drain Resistance in MOSFETs
Abstract:
A highly biased linear current method (HBLCM) for separately extracting source and drain resistance ( and ) in MOSFETs is proposed. The technique can be applied to a single device by using simple modeling. Compared to other methods, it provides accurate values of and because it considers carrier mobility degradation. The method basically uses linear current versus gate voltage ( and ) characteristics before and after the source/drain interchange ( and ). Afterward, by using the traditional Y-function and subsequent resistance modeling in a highly biased linear condition, and can be separately extracted. In order to evaluate and verify the accuracy of HBLCM, an external resistor was intentionally connected to a source electrode of a device, and the resulting change in source resistance was detected using the proposed method. Moreover, to demonstrate an application of the proposed method, internal resistance deliberately created by hot-carrier injection (HCI) was linked to a drain electrode, thereby changing drain resistance. The changed drain resistance was also sensed by the HBLCM. Af- erward, the HCI-stressed device was cured by electrothermal annealing driven by Joule heating, and the recovery was again clearly observed using the proposed method.
Autors: Gun-Hee Kim;Hagyoul Bae;Jae Hur;Choong-Ki Kim;Geon-Beom Lee;Tewook Bang;Yoon-Ik Son;Seong-Wan Ryu;Yang-Kyu Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 419 - 423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Optical Detector for Precision Measurement of Coulomb Coupling Strength Based on a Double-Oscillator Optomechanical System
Abstract:
An optomechanical system combining a Coulomb interaction degree of freedom provides a unique platform for precision measurement of electrical charges via the optomechanically induced transparency. A new property of a second-order sideband in a double-oscillator optomechanical system is investigated beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interaction. The results show that the single-second-order sideband will split into the double-second-order sideband under a weak driving field, and the separation of the split second-order sideband shows a strong dependence on the Coulomb coupling strength. Based on the current experimental conditions, such a Coulomb-interaction-induced split of the second-order sideband may enable an all-optical sensor for precision measurement of the Coulomb coupling strength with lower power.
Autors: Zeng-Xing Liu;Bao Wang;Cui Kong;Hao Xiong;Ying Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Terahertz Gas Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance With Graphene
Abstract:
One of the most important applications of THz frequencies is biomedical sensing. However, in a THz range, surface plasmon waves on flat metals are not confined and therefore cannot be used for subwavelength sensing. But, it has been shown that graphene can support surface waves at THz frequencies, which has similar properties as plasmonic waves in an optical range. In this paper, a highly sensitive gas sensor in the terahertz frequencies by exciting surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of graphene is proposed. The results show that the proposed SPR gas sensor has high stability and high sensitivity (S), and the highest Smax (∼147°/RIU) has been obtained by optimizing the Fermi energy, the thickness of the dielectric layer, and the incident light frequency. Moreover, the S of the proposed THz sensor for different refractive index (RI) of gas sensing medium (n1) is also discussed.
Autors: Yuanjiang Xiang;Jiaqi Zhu;Leiming Wu;Qi You;Banxian Ruan;Xiaoyu Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Two-Axis Bending Sensor Based on Arc-Induced Long Period Fiber Grating in Dual Side-Hole Fiber
Abstract:
A highly sensitive two-axis bending sensor based on long period fiber grating (LPFG) in a dual side-hole fiber (DSHF) is presented and experimentally investigated. The LPFG is fabricated by periodically collapsing a piece of DSHF with automatic arc discharge technology. The existence of the two air holes in the DSHF makes the cladding modes, regardless of the polarization state, concentrate in the area perpendicular to the connection of the two holes. Such a feature leads to quite different bending responses at the directions perpendicular and parallel to the connection of the air holes, which makes the DSHF-based LPFG suitable for two-axis bending measurement. The bending sensitivity of the LPFG are 21.03 nm/m-1 and 15.77 dB/m-1 at the orthogonal directions, respectively. Besides, compared with the general arc-induced LPFGs in solid fibers, the size of the DSHF-based LPFG is effectively reduced because the periodic air hole collapse in the DSHF causes a large geometric deformation of the fiber core and increases coupling coefficient between the core and cladding modes. The sensing characteristics of strain, polarization, surrounding refractive index, and temperature are also investigated in our experiment.
Autors: Yang Ouyang;Huiyong Guo;Xiaowei Ouyang;Xiaofeng Xu;Ciming Zhou;Ai Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Highly Sensitive Two-Dimensional Bending Vector Sensor Using an Elliptic Two-Core PCF
Abstract:
A highly sensitive and simple all-fiber interferometric two-dimensional (2D) bending vector sensor is demonstrated. Fiber interferometer works in reflection mode and formed by manually splicing a small section of elliptic two-core photonic crystal fiber at the end of a single-mode fiber. Due to the birefringence nature of the two cores, the fiber device exhibits orientation-dependent bend sensitivity which is different for different polarization states. A high sensitivity of 6.49 nm/mm is achieved for bending along the -direction, and the rms deviations for bending in the - and -directions are estimated to be 0.015 and 0.098 mm, respectively, by using the matrix method. The device is immune to bend-induced power fluctuation.
Autors: Khurram Naeem;Youngjoo Chung;Il-Bum Kwon;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 273 - 276
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hollow Core Antiresonant Fiber With Radially Asymmetric Nodeless Claddings
Abstract:
We propose and numerically study a novel type of hollow core antiresonant fiber with a single layer of nodeless radially asymmetric cladding tubes, i.e., the cladding tube presents a bulb-like shape, that the local cladding curvature radius at the core/cladding boundary is larger than the other side. Compared with counterparts with conventionally used radially symmetric nodeless claddings, e.g., circular and elliptical tubes, numerical analysis shows that such structure can provide excellent broadband low-loss property and robust single-mode guidance. By tuning the local cladding tube curvature radius, the confinement loss characteristic can be less sensitive but the phase matching between core high-order modes (HOMs) and resonant cladding modes can be significantly enhanced than that of the elliptical structure. Since the cladding modal fields are moved closer to those of the core HOMs, the HOM extinction ratio can reach above 104 and maintain over an octave of bandwidth.
Autors: Tao-Ying Yu;Xuesong Liu;Zhong-Wei Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Holographic Data Coding: Benchmarking and Extending HEVC With Adapted Transforms
Abstract:
Holography is an emerging technology to represent and display visual information with high expectations in terms of user experience. A hologram is a reproduction of a light field represented through the interference pattern between two wavefields the reference and the object wavefields. Whatever their creation process holograms may have a digital representation using some appropriate format. Moreover considering the huge amounts of data involved digital holographic data have to be compressed using appropriate coding solutions for example available image coding standard solutions or efficient extensions of them. In this context this paper contributes to advance the state-of-the-art on holographic data coding by: 1) benchmarking the most relevant available image coding standard solutions when using the most relevant holographic data representation formats; 2) proposing a novel mode depend directional transform-based HEVC coding solution trained with holographic data. Experimental results obtained under meaningful test conditions show that the proposed coding solution outperforms the state-of-the-art HEVC coding standard for specific formats and conditions. Altogether these two contributions are critical to understand the current status quo and advance the state-of-the-art on holographic data coding.
Autors: José Pedro Peixeiro;Catarina Brites;João Ascenso;Fernando Pereira;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 282 - 297
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Homeostatic Fault Tolerance in Spiking Neural Networks: A Dynamic Hardware Perspective
Abstract:
Fault tolerance is a remarkable feature of biological systems and their self-repair capability influence modern electronic systems. In this paper, we propose a novel plastic neural network model, which establishes homeostasis in a spiking neural network. Combined with this plasticity and the inspiration from inhibitory interneurons, we develop a fault-resilient robotic controller implemented on an FPGA establishing obstacle avoidance task. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on a spiking neural network implemented on Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA. The system is able to maintain stable firing (tolerance ±10%) with a loss of up to 75% of the original synaptic inputs to a neuron. Our repair mechanism has minimal hardware overhead with a tuning circuit (repair unit) which consumes only three slices/neuron for implementing a threshold voltage-based homeostatic fault-tolerant unit. The overall architecture has a minimal impact on power consumption and, therefore, supports scalable implementations. This paper opens a novel way of implementing the behavior of natural fault tolerant system in hardware establishing homeostatic self-repair behavior.
Autors: Anju P. Johnson;Junxiu Liu;Alan G. Millard;Shvan Karim;Andy M. Tyrrell;Jim Harkin;Jon Timmis;Liam J. McDaid;David M. Halliday;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 687 - 699
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How Robust Is Your Development Team?
Abstract:
Given the collaborative nature of software development, a robust team is a necessity for project success in both commercial and open source environments. That is, in the event of developers’ absence due to various reasons, how could it potentially disrupt a team’s routine operations? This article offers an automatic approach to intuitively visualize development team hierarchy, quantify overall team robustness, and identify the point (developers) of risk for team robustness. An investigation of six Apache open source projects has shown its effectiveness. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Lu Xiao;Zhongyuan Yu;Bohong Chen;Xiao Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 64 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» How to Build PIC-MCC Models for Hall Microthrusters
Abstract:
This paper gives instructions on how to build a 3-D particle-based model of a Hall microthruster. Due to nonequilibrium character induced by low electron thermalization and isotropization rates, presence of different microinstabilities and strong plasma-surface interaction, a multidimensional and kinetic description is necessary. The different modules characterizing the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision cycle are described presenting the last algorithms developed. The model is applied to the study of an SPT20 configuration. Results confirm the importance of a 3-D structure of the discharge with self-organized azimuthal structures. Important deviations from Maxwellian behavior have been detected.
Autors: Pierpaolo Minelli;Francesco Taccogna;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 219 - 224
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Humanitarian Activities Make a Difference [President's Message]
Abstract:
Presents the President’s message for this issue of the publication.
Autors: Tomy Sebastian;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 4 - 5
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid AC/DC Post-Contingency Power-Flow Algorithm Considering Control Interaction of Asynchronous Area
Abstract:
This paper presents an approach for the calculation and estimation of control interactions between asynchronous power systems coupled via multi-terminal high-voltage direct current grids using static analysis methods. This aims at possible application within online security assessment where, as of today, static analysis methods are still a common practice. Therefore, the postcontingency power flow is evaluated using an integrated approach for the solution of AC and DC systems in the power-flow algorithm. Thereby, equations for DC voltage control and AC frequency control of converter stations, generators, loads as well as wind turbines with frequency support are embedded into the extended system Jacobian. The results show that by using the proposed approach, the post-contingency power-flow situation can be accurately determined and the frequency changes in each subsystem can be sufficiently tracked. Using an application example of an offshore power system with frequency support by offshore wind turbines, all results have been validated against dynamic simulation, while simulation models and controllers are provided. It is shown that active power balancing controls of AC and DC systems could have a high impact on line loadings and need to be respected for security analyses.
Autors: Tobias Hennig;Lutz Hofmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 340 - 348
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Labels Are the New Measure!
Abstract:
Developing minimum viable products (MVPs) is critical for start-up companies to hit the market fast with an accepted level of performance. The US Food and Drug Administration mandates additional nonfunctional requirements in healthcare systems, meaning that the MVP should provide the best availability, privacy, and security. This critical demand is motivating companies to further rely on analytics to optimize the development process. In a collaborative project with Brightsquid, the authors provided a decision-support system based on analogical reasoning to assist in effort estimation, scoping, and assignment of change requests. This experience report proposes a new metric, change request labels, for better prediction. Using different methods for textual-similarity analysis, the authors found that the combination of machine-learning techniques with experts’ manually added labels has the highest prediction accuracy. Better prediction of change impacts allows a company to optimize its resources and provide proper timing of releases to target MVPs. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Maleknaz Nayebi;Shaikh Jeeshan Kabeer;Guenther Ruhe;Chris Carlson;Francis Chew;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 54 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid LISA Precoding for Multiuser Millimeter-Wave Communications
Abstract:
Millimeter-wave (mm-wave) communications plays an important role in future cellular networks because of the vast amount of spectrum available in the underutilized mm-wave frequency bands. To overcome the huge free space omnidirectional path loss in those frequency bands, the deployment of a very large number of antenna elements at the base station is crucial. The complexity, power consumption, and costs resulting from the large number of antenna elements can be reduced by limiting the number of RF chains. This leads to hybrid precoding and combining, which, in contrast to the traditional fully digital precoding and combining, moves a part of the signal processing from the digital to the analog domain. This paper proposes new algorithms for the design of hybrid precoders and combiners in a multiuser scenario. The algorithms are based on the previously proposed linear successive allocation method developed for the traditional fully digital version. It successively allocates data streams to users and suppresses the respective interstream interference in two stages, which perfectly matches the hybrid architecture. Furthermore, a low-complexity version is developed by exploiting the typical structure of mm-wave channels. The good performance of the proposed method and its low-complexity version is demonstrated by simulation results.
Autors: Wolfgang Utschick;Christoph Stöckle;Michael Joham;Jian Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 752 - 765
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery and Lithium Titanate Battery Systems for Electric Buses
Abstract:
Electric buses face problems of short driving range, slow charging, and high cost. To improve the performance of electric buses, a novel hybrid battery system (HBS) configuration consisting of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries and Li-ion batteries with a Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) material anode is proposed. The configuration and control of the HBS are first studied, and a LFP battery degradation model is built. Simulation result indicates that the HBS can help us to mitigate LFP battery degradation. Then, the HBS is optimally sized for electric buses to achieve minimum cost. The daily bus operation and charging patterns as well as LFP battery degradation are considered. The optimal HBS has 10.7% and 19.3% lower total cost than the single LTO-battery and LFP-battery configurations, and has higher range flexibility than the single LTO-battery configuration.
Autors: Xiaobin Zhang;Huei Peng;Hewu Wang;Minggao Ouyang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 956 - 965
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization Combined With Genetic Operators for Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Under Uncertain Processing Time for Semiconductor Manufacturing
Abstract:
Semiconductor manufacturing is a complicated flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP) of combinatorial complexity. Because of the adoption of advanced process control and advanced equipment control, the processing time in advanced wafer fabs become uncertain. Existing approaches considering constant processing time may not be appropriate to address the present problem in a real setting. In practice, processing times can be represented as intervals with the most probable completion time somewhere near the middle of the interval. A fuzzy number that is a generalized interval can represent this processing time interval exactly and naturally. This paper developed a hybrid approach integrating a particle swarm optimization algorithm with a Cauchy distribution and genetic operators (HPSO+GA) for solving an FJSP by finding a job sequence that minimizes the makespan with uncertain processing time. In particular, the proposed hybridized HPSO+GA approach employs PSO for creating operation sequences and assigning the time and resources for each operation, and then uses genetic operators to update the particles for improving the solution. To estimate the validity of the proposed approaches, experiments were conducted to compare the proposed approach with conventional approaches. The results show the practical viability of this approach. This paper concludes with discussions of contributions and recommends directions for future research.
Autors: Thitipong Jamrus;Chen-Fu Chien;Mitsuo Gen;Kanchana Sethanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 32 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Hyperconnected Network: A Decentralized Trusted Computing and Networking Paradigm
Abstract:
With the development of the Internet of Things, a complex CPS system has emerged and is becoming a promising information infrastructure. In the CPS system, the loss of control over user data has become a very serious challenge, making it difficult to protect privacy, boost innovation, and guarantee data sovereignty. In this article, we propose HyperNet, a novel decentralized trusted computing and networking paradigm, to meet the challenge of loss of control over data. HyperNet is composed of the intelligent PDC, which is considered as the digital clone of a human individual; the decentralized trusted connection between any entities based on blockchain as well as smart contract; and the UDI platform, enabling secure digital object management and an identifier-driven routing mechanism. HyperNet has the capability of protecting data sovereignty, and has the potential to transform the current communication-based information system to the future data-oriented information society.
Autors: Hao Yin;Dongchao Guo;Kai Wang;Zexun Jiang;Yongqiang Lyu;Ju Xing;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 112 - 117
Publisher: IEEE
 
» I&M in energy efficiency [Trends in Future I&M]
Abstract:
Energy is around us, either from natural origin or created by humankind, and has deeply transformed our lives on how we interact with the environment. We take for granted, mainly in the developed world, its obtainability and almost endless supply. Just an example: we get 325,000 times more light from artificial sources now than at the end of the 19th Century, as any night satellite photo can confirm.
Autors: Santiago Barcon;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 44 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identification of Flux Linkage Map of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines Under Uncertain Circuit Resistance and Inverter Nonlinearity
Abstract:
This paper proposes a novel scheme for the identification of the whole flux linkage map of permanent magnet synchronous machines, by which the map of dq-axis flux linkages at different load or saturation conditions can be identified by the minimization of a proposed estimation model. The proposed method works on a conventional three-phase inverter based vector control system and the immune clonal based quantum genetic algorithm is employed for the global searching of minimal point. Besides, it is also noteworthy that the influence of uncertain inverter nonlinearity and circuit resistance are cancelled during the modeling process. The proposed method is subsequently tested on two PMSMs and shows quite good performance compared with the finite element prediction results.
Autors: Kan Liu;Jianghua Feng;Shuying Guo;Lei Xiao;Zi-Qiang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 556 - 568
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying Core Concepts of Cybersecurity: Results of Two Delphi Processes
Abstract:
This paper presents and analyzes results of two Delphi processes that polled cybersecurity experts to rate cybersecurity topics based on importance, difficulty, and timelessness. These ratings can be used to identify core concepts–cross-cutting ideas that connect knowledge in the discipline. The first Delphi process identified core concepts that should be learned in any first course on cybersecurity. The second identified core concepts that any cybersecurity professional should know upon graduating from college. Despite the rapidly growing demand for cybersecurity professionals, it is not clear what defines foundational cybersecurity knowledge. Initial data from the Delphi processes lay a foundation for defining the core concepts of the field and, consequently, provide a common starting point to accelerate the development of rigorous cybersecurity education practices. These results provide a foundation for developing evidence-based educational cybersecurity assessment tools that will identify and measure effective methods for teaching cybersecurity. The Delphi results can also be used to inform the development of curricula, learning exercises, and other educational materials and policies.
Autors: Geet Parekh;David DeLatte;Geoffrey L. Herman;Linda Oliva;Dhananjay Phatak;Travis Scheponik;Alan T. Sherman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Education
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 61, issue:1, pages: 11 - 20
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Identifying the Requirements for Qualified, Unqualified, and Competent Persons Electrical Safety Training
Abstract:
This paper provides an understanding of what constitutes a qualified person, an unqualified person, and a competent person. Also included are the training requirements for each classification. The principles for performing a needs assessment, a job/task analysis, and job hazard analysis are addressed as they relate to the information gathering needed for the development of an effective training program. This gathered information applies to all personnel who are, or may be, exposed to electrical hazards, and who may work on, near, or interact with the electrical systems and equipment.
Autors: Dennis K. Neitzel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 5 - 9
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEC/IEEE 60079-30 Standard, Parts 1 and 2: An Introduction to the Joint Standard for Trace Heating in Explosive Atmospheres
Abstract:
In 2015, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the IEEE released the jointly developed standard IEC/IEEE 60079-30, Parts 1 and 2 [1]. The IEE sponsor was the IEE Industry Applications Society (IAS) Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference (PCIC), and the IEC sponsor was IEC Technical Committee (TC) 31, Equipment for Explosive Atmospheres. The joint development combined the requirements and recommendations of IEEE 515 [2] with IEC 60079-30-1, 2007-01 [3] and IEC 60079-30-2, 2007-01 [4]. This joint development represented the complete harmonization of the international, IEC , and North American certification and design requirements for trace heating in explosive atmospheres. In addition to type tests for product certification, this standard has extensive requirements so that certifying bodies can determine the manufacturer's ability to predict maximum sheath temperatures for trace heaters in explosive atmospheres. This article provides a background for understanding the joint development process and provides an overview of the key technical requirements found in the standards.
Autors: Ben C. Johnson;Richard H. Hulett;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 32 - 41
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE AP-S Chapter News and Activities Planned for 2018 [Chapter News]
Abstract:
Autors: Ajay K. Poddar;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 8 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» IEEE Student Branch Awards [The Way Ahead]
Abstract:
Presents the recipients of the IEEE Student Branch Awards.
Autors: J. Patrick Donohoe;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 4 - 4
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Autoregressive Interpolation Model Using GPU-Parallel Optimization
Abstract:
With the growth in the consumer electronics industry, it is vital to develop an algorithm for ultrahigh definition products that is more effective and has lower time complexity. Image interpolation, which is based on an autoregressive model, has achieved significant improvements compared with the traditional algorithm with respect to image reconstruction, including a better peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and improved subjective visual quality of the reconstructed image. However, the time-consuming computation involved has become a bottleneck in those autoregressive algorithms. Because of the high time cost, image autoregressive-based interpolation algorithms are rarely used in industry for actual production. In this study, in order to meet the requirements of real-time reconstruction, we use diverse compute unified device architecture (CUDA) optimization strategies to make full use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) (NVIDIA Tesla K80), including a shared memory and register and multi-GPU optimization. To be more suitable for the GPU-parallel optimization, we modify the training window to obtain a more concise matrix operation. Experimental results show that, while maintaining a high PSNR and subjective visual quality and taking into account the I/O transfer time, our algorithm achieves a high speedup of 147.3 times for a Lena image and 174.8 times for a 720p video, compared to the original single-threaded C CPU code with -O2 compiling optimization.
Autors: Jiaji Wu;Long Deng;Gwanggil Jeon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 426 - 436
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Class Prediction by Joint Object, Context, and Background Modeling
Abstract:
State-of-the-art image classification methods often use spatial pyramid matching or its variants to make use of the spatial layout of visual features. However, objects may appear at various places with different scales and orientations. Besides, traditionally object-centric-based methods only consider objects and the background without fully exploring the context information. To solve these problems, in this paper we propose a novel image classification method by jointly modeling the object, context, and background information (OCB). OCB consists of three components: 1) locate the positions of objects; 2) determine the context areas of objects; and 3) treat the other areas as the background. We use objectness proposal techniques to select candidate bounding boxes. Boxes with high confidence scores are combined to determine objects’ positions. To select the context areas, we use candidate boxes that have relatively lower confidence scores compared with boxes for object location selection. The other areas are viewed as the background. We jointly combine the object, context, and background for image representation and classification. Experiments on six data sets well demonstrate the superiority of the proposed OCB method over other spatial partition methods.
Autors: Chunjie Zhang;Guibo Zhu;Chao Liang;Yifan Zhang;Qingming Huang;Qi Tian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 428 - 438
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Classification With Tailored Fine-Grained Dictionaries
Abstract:
In this paper, we propose a novel fine-grained dictionary learning method for image classification. To learn a high-quality discriminative dictionary, three types of multispecific subdictionaries, i.e., class-specific dictionaries (CSDs), universal dictionary (UD), and family-specific dictionaries (FSDs), are simultaneously uncovered. Here, CSDs and UD, respectively, model the patterns for each class and the patterns irrespective of any class. FSDs can help reveal the shared patterns between multiple image classes, by filling the gap between the patterns in CSDs and UD. The dependence among image classes is revealed by the shared FSDs, and a common FSD can be assigned to several classes to represent their residual. Finally, the most discriminative FSD for each class is identified by minimizing the sparse reconstruction error. Extensive experiments are conducted on different widely used data sets for image classification. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method over some state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Xiangbo Shu;Jinhui Tang;Guo-Jun Qi;Zechao Li;Yu-Gang Jiang;Shuicheng Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 454 - 467
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image Encryption Based on Interleaved Computer-Generated Holograms
Abstract:
An encryption method based on interleaved computer-generated holograms (CGHs) displayed by a spatial light modulator (SLM) is demonstrated. Arbitrary decrypted complex optical wave fields are reconstructed in the rear focal plane of two phase-only holograms, generated from original image using a vector decomposition algorithm. Two CGHs are encoded into one hologram by interleaving the column of pixels, which optically combines the optical wave fields of two neighboring phase-only modulated pixels. The designed image encryption system may avoid the inherent silhouette problem and alleviate the precise alignment requirements of interference encryption. Video encryption and real-time dynamic decryption is demonstrated using one SLM.
Autors: Dezhao Kong;Liangcai Cao;Xueju Shen;Hao Zhang;Guofan Jin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 673 - 678
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Image-Based Characterization of Alternative Fuel Combustion With Multifuel Burners
Abstract:
Many industrial high-temperature processes such as cement production employ multifuel burners in order to achieve the required energy input with low-cost alternative fuel. So far, a constant operation of multifuel burners with high fractions of alternative fuel (>70%) is not possible due to inherent fluctuating fuel properties. Energy input and product quality are directly affected by varying points of combustion time, different scattering of fuel, and insertion of unburned fuel or chemical substances into the product. We propose an image-processing system based on infrared images that detects the alternative fuel streakline and derives parameters for the characterization of the flight and burning behavior. Using these parameters, an adjustment of the burner settings depending on the fluctuating fuel properties can be carried out. This automatic monitoring and control of the combustion process allows an increased use of alternative fuels in constant operation. Experimental data from a rotary kiln for cement clinker production are used to validate the image-processing system.
Autors: Markus Vogelbacher;Patrick Waibel;Jörg Matthes;Hubert B. Keller;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 588 - 597
Publisher: IEEE
 

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