Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 6

» Critical Links Identification for Selective Outages in Interdependent Power-Communication Networks
Abstract:
Critical infrastructure, such as the smart grid, is vulnerable to failures and attacks. The complex nature of these systems embeds hidden vulnerabilities that threaten their functionality when exploited. In this paper, we perform a vulnerability analysis of the smart grid based on the power flow dynamics and in the presence of the essential communication network. Our analysis identifies a small number of power lines and communication links that can trigger a cascading failure and result in a blackout when removed. We quantify the failure effect in the form of fractional loss in the served load. Moreover, we formulate a mathematical model to present both components of the smart grid and their interdependency. A scalable algorithm is introduced to analyze the output of the model. We evaluate the proposed model and algorithm on the IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 300 Bus systems and associated communication networks, and report on the collected results.
Autors: Bassam Moussa;Parisa Akaber;Mourad Debbabi;Chadi Assi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 472 - 483
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cross-Correlation-Based Algorithm for Monitoring Laser Cutting With High-Power Fiber Lasers
Abstract:
We report on an innovative algorithm for an InGaAs and Si photodiode-based sensor system to detect incomplete cuts during high-power near infrared fiber laser cutting. Using such dual-photodiode-based sensor, the thermal radiation from the process zone is measured with the diode current being digitalized with a sampling rate of 20 kHz. The algorithm encompasses a normalization of the measured current, digital filtering, and cross-correlation calculation of both filtered diode signals. This sensor approach allows us to successfully detect cut interruptions in a series of more than 100 cuts in stainless steel, mild steel, and aluminum of different thicknesses with a type I and type II error of 0%. The underlying physics of the detection scheme based on the changes of the dynamic melt flow in the cut kerf from a complete cut to an incomplete cut is discussed.
Autors: Max Schleier;Benedikt Adelmann;Cemal Esen;Ralf Hellmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1585 - 1590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crowdsourcing, Mixed Elastic Systems and Human-Enhanced Computing–A Survey
Abstract:
State-of-the-art practices have recognized the utility of leveraging human intervention as a crucial aspect of modern computing systems. The emerging crowdsourcing paradigm is based on harnessing human intelligence, effort and rational behaviors to augment computation and analysis. In addition to the crowdsourcing paradigm, new techniques have emerged that incorporate machine and human computational resources together forming a hybrid intelligence when addressing complex problems and tasks. This combined technique is particularly impactful if human and machine contributions can scale automatically in response to their respective efficiency and effectiveness when addressing subsets of a bigger problem – an approach that we have named mixed elastic systems. In this survey, we highlight state-of-the-art projects that investigate crowdsourcing, hybrid intelligence systems and mixed elastic systems. We also present a taxonomy and classification of the broader domain of human-enhanced computing systems as it assimilates crowdsourcing, hybrid intelligence, and mixed elastic systems.
Autors: Julian Jarrett;M. Brian Blake;Iman Saleh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 202 - 214
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cryogenic Preamplifiers for Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Abstract:
Pursuing the ultimate limit of detection in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires cryogenics to decrease the thermal noise of the electronic circuits. As cryogenic coils for MRI are slowly emerging cryogenic preamplifiers are required to fully exploit their potential. A cryogenic preamplifier operated at 77 K is designed and implemented for C imaging at 3 T (32.13 MHz), using off-the-shelves components. The design is based on a high electron mobility transistor (ATF54143) in a common source configuration. Required auxiliary circuitry for optimal cryogenic preamplifier performance is also presented consisting of a voltage regulator (noise free supply voltage and optimal power consumption), switch, and trigger (for active detuning during transmission to protect the preamplifier). A gain of 18 dB with a noise temperature of 13.7 K is achieved. Performing imaging experiments in a 3 T scanner showed an 8% increased signal-to-noise ratio from 365 to 399 when lowering the temperature of the preamplifier from 296 to 77 K while keeping the coil at room temperature. This paper thus enables the merger of cryogenic coils and preamplifiers in the hopes of reaching the ultimate limit of detection for MRI.
Autors: Daniel H. Johansen;Juan D. Sanchez-Heredia;Jan R. Petersen;Tom K. Johansen;Vitaliy Zhurbenko;Jan H. Ardenkjær-Larsen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 202 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cryptanalysis of a Public Key Encryption Scheme Based on QC-LDPC and QC-MDPC Codes
Abstract:
This letter presents a cryptanalysis of the modified McEliece cryptosystem recently proposed by Moufek et al.. The system is based on the juxtaposition of quasi-cyclic LDPC and quasi-cyclic MDPC codes. The idea of our attack is to find an alternative permutation matrix together with an equivalent LDPC code which allow the decoding of any cipher-text with a very high probability. We also apply a recent technique to determine weak keys for this scheme. The results show that the probability of weak keys is high enough that this variant can be ruled out as a possible secure encryption scheme.
Autors: Vlad Dragoi;Hervé Talé Kalachi;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 264 - 267
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CubeSat Lunar Positioning System Enabled by Novel On-Board Electric Propulsion
Abstract:
Due to the advances in miniaturization, CubeSats are becoming more versatile, with projected mission capabilities that are traditionally reserved for larger satellites. However, they are still limited by a lack of efficient propulsive means. A novel electric thruster based on electron cyclotron resonance heating and magnetic nozzle acceleration may provide a suitable yet simple solution. This device, while currently providing 1000 s and 1 mN of thrust at 30 W of power, may enable lunar CubeSat missions from geosynchronous earth orbit using on-board propulsion. An example mission to provide GPS on the lunar surface using 3-U CubeSats in a 60°:28/4/6 Walker constellation with a semimajor axis of 4000 km is proposed; a preliminary assessment of this mission, together with the satellite architecture and cost, is performed. Concurrent trajectory design for very-low-energy transfers is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the mission and its impact on the spacecraft design.
Autors: Mick Wijnen;Nereida Agüera-Lopez;Sara Correyero-Plaza;Daniel Perez-Grande;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 319 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current Ripple Recovery Modeling Technique for Voltage-Mode Control Converters
Abstract:
In this brief, a current ripple recovery (CRR) model is proposed for voltage-mode control converters. By adding a duty cycle sample-hold effect, the inductor current ripple can be recovered so that the high-frequency dynamical information in the inductor current compensates for a conventional averaged model. The CRR model can be used to judge the system stability and, more importantly, identify the subharmonic oscillation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental ones, which demonstrates the validity of the CRR model.
Autors: Hao Zhang;Chuanzhi Yi;Pengcheng Luo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 211 - 215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Current Waveform for Noise Reduction of a Switched Reluctance Motor Under Magnetically Saturated Condition
Abstract:
A novel method is proposed to derive the current waveform to reduce noise and vibration of a switched reluctance motor in a magnetically saturated region. Principle of noise and vibration reduction is based on reducing the variation of the radial force sum. To realize the minimum variation in the sum of the radial forces, radial force expression has been derived. In a magnetically saturated region, radial force expression is approximated with Fourier series with parameters as a function of current. With the proper approximation of radial force, the current waveform is derived to minimize the variation of the radial force sum. The proposed current waveform consists of dc, fundamental, second, and third harmonic components. Finite-element analysis and experiment result are included to show the validity of the proposed method.
Autors: Jihad Furqani;Masachika Kawa;Kyohei Kiyota;Akira Chiba;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 213 - 222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Curvilinear Structure Analysis by Ranking the Orientation Responses of Path Operators
Abstract:
The analysis of thin curvilinear objects in 3D images is a complex and challenging task. In this article, we introduce a new, non-linear operator, called RORPO (Ranking the Orientation Responses of Path Operators). Inspired by the multidirectional paradigm currently used in linear filtering for thin structure analysis, RORPO is built upon the notion of path operator from mathematical morphology. This operator, unlike most operators commonly used for 3D curvilinear structure analysis, is discrete, non-linear and non-local. From this new operator, two main curvilinear structure characteristics can be estimated: an intensity feature, that can be assimilated to a quantitative measure of curvilinearity; and a directional feature, providing a quantitative measure of the structure's orientation. We provide a full description of the structural and algorithmic details for computing these two features from RORPO, and we discuss computational issues. We experimentally assess RORPO by comparison with three of the most popular curvilinear structure analysis filters, namely Frangi Vesselness, Optimally Oriented Flux, and Hybrid Diffusion with Continuous Switch. In particular, we show that our method provides up to 8 percent more true positive and 50 percent less false positives than the next best method, on synthetic and real 3D images.
Autors: Odyssée Merveille;Hugues Talbot;Laurent Najman;Nicolas Passat;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 304 - 317
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cut-Set Bound is Loose for Gaussian Relay Networks
Abstract:
The cut-set bound developed by Cover and El Gamal in 1979 has since remained the best known upper bound on the capacity of the Gaussian relay channel. We develop a new upper bound on the capacity of the Gaussian primitive relay channel, which is tighter than the cut-set bound. Our proof uses Gaussian measure concentration to establish geometric relations, satisfied with high probability, between the -letter random variables associated with a reliable code for communicating over this channel. We then translate these geometric relations into new information inequalities that cannot be obtained with classical methods. Combined with a tensorization argument proposed by Courtade and Ozgur in 2015, our result also implies that the current capacity approximations for Gaussian relay networks, which have linear gap to the cut-set bound in the number of nodes, are order-optimal and lead to a lower bound on the pre-constant.
Autors: Xiugang Wu;Ayfer Özgür;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1023 - 1037
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cyclic Continuous Max-Flow: A Third Paradigm in Generating Local Phase Shift Maps in MRI
Abstract:
Sensitivity to phase deviations in MRI forms the basis of a variety of techniques, including magnetic susceptibility weighted imaging and chemical shift imaging. Current phase processing techniques fall into two families: those which process the complex image data with magnitude and phase coupled, and phase unwrapping-based techniques that first linearize the phase topology across the image. However, issues, such as low signal and the existence of phase poles, can lead both methods to experience error. Cyclic continuous max-flow (CCMF) phase processing uses primal-dual-variational optimization over a cylindrical manifold, which represent the inherent topology of phase images, increasing its robustness to these issues. CCMF represents a third distinct paradigm in phase processing, being the only technique equipped with the inherent topology of phase. CCMF is robust and efficient with at least comparable accuracy as the prior paradigms.
Autors: John S. H. Baxter;Zahra Hosseini;Terry M. Peters;Maria Drangova;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 568 - 579
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cylindrically Curved Checkerboard Surfaces for Radar Cross-Section Reduction
Abstract:
Checkerboard surfaces, for radar cross-section (RCS) reduction, utilizing artificial magnetic conductor structures on flexible cylindrically curved ground planes are introduced. The RCSs of cylindrical checkerboard surfaces are examined for two different radii of curvature. Wideband curved checkerboard surfaces are evaluated under normal incidence for HH and VV polarizations. Simulated bistatic RCS patterns of the cylindrical checkerboard surfaces are presented, discussed, and justified, and the backscattering is compared with measurements. A very good agreement is observed.
Autors: Wengang Chen;Constantine A. Balanis;Craig R. Birtcher;Anuj Y. Modi;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 343 - 346
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data Quality Guided Incentive Mechanism Design for Crowdsensing
Abstract:
In crowdsensing, appropriate rewards are always expected to compensate the participants for their consumptions of physical resources and involvements of manual efforts. While continuous low quality sensing data could do harm to the availability and preciseness of crowdsensing based services, few existing incentive mechanisms have ever addressed the issue of data quality. The design of quality based incentive mechanism is motivated by its potential to avoid inefficient sensing and unnecessary rewards. In this paper, we incorporate the consideration of data quality into the design of incentive mechanism for crowdsensing, and propose to pay the participants as how well they do, to motivate the rational participants to efficiently perform crowdsensing tasks. This mechanism estimates the quality of sensing data, and offers each participant a reward based on her effective contribution. We also implement the mechanism and evaluate its improvement in terms of quality of service and profit of service provider. The evaluation results show that our mechanism achieves superior performance when compared to general data collection model and uniform pricing scheme.
Autors: Dan Peng;Fan Wu;Guihai Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 307 - 319
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Dependent Clustering-CFAR Detector in Heterogeneous Environment
Abstract:
This paper devises a new constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection scheme to deal with the problem of radar target detection in heterogeneous environment. The proposed scheme, called “clustering-CFAR detector,” is data dependent and composed of three stages: an adaptive clustering procedure that, exploiting the recorded measurements of the clutter environment, divides the detection area into different classes to provide auxiliary information, a dynamic reference cell selector that chooses appropriate secondary data according to the classes, and a conventional CFAR processor to make the final decision about the target presence. The performance of “clustering-CFAR detector” is analyzed by computer simulation and public radar measured data (IPIX data and MSTAR data), and compared with existing CFAR detectors. The results show that the new detector achieves a better performance in the aspects of terrain classification, control of false alarm points, and probability of detection.
Autors: Shuping Lu;Wei Yi;Weijian Liu;Guolong Cui;Lingjiang Kong;Xiaobo Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 476 - 485
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Data-Driven Motion Compensation Techniques for Noncooperative ISAR Imaging
Abstract:
We consider the data-driven motion compensation problem in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. We present optimization-based ISAR techniques and propose improvements to the range alignment, time-window selection, autofocus, time–frequency-based image reconstruction, and cross-range scaling procedures. In experiments, the improvements reduced the computational burden and increased the image contrast by 50% at best and 28% on average in several test cases, including changing translational and rotational motion.
Autors: Risto Vehmas;Juha Jylhä;Minna Väilä;Juho Vihonen;Ari Visa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 295 - 314
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DC Interrupting With Self-Excited Oscillation Based on the Superconducting Current-Limiting Technology
Abstract:
A dc circuit breaker (DCCB), which combines a superconducting current-limiting technology and a self-excited oscillation interrupting technology, was proposed. The proposed DCCB includes a superconducting current-limiting module and an interrupter module. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of a transverse magnetic field (TMF) on dc interruption based on the self-excited oscillation principle. The dc interruption characteristics of CO2 and SF6 were investigated by applying a TMF of 0 and 200 mT with a puffer-type structure as a benchmark. The experimental results show that applying a TMF of 200 mT can significantly reduce the arcing time compared with a TMF of 0 mT and puffer-type structure. The dc interruption capacity for the SF6 insulation is higher than that for the CO2 insulation in the interrupter module under the same experimental condition. The simulation results of rated voltage of 10 kV show that the superconducting current-limit module limited the short current of 20 kA to less than 1 kA, and the arcing time was 4.5 ms. The results of rated voltage of 200 kV, short current of 30 kA, show that the DCCB only needed to interrupt the limited current of 3.5 kA and the overvoltage was less than 200 kV.
Autors: Bin Xiang;Zhiyuan Liu;Chuanchuan Wang;Zhenle Nan;Yingsan Geng;Jianhua Wang;Satoru Yanabu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 529 - 536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DCAP: Improving the Capacity of WiFi Networks with Distributed Cooperative Access Points
Abstract:
This paper presents the Distributed Cooperative Access Points (DCAP) system that can simultaneously serve multiple clients using cooperative beamforming to increase the capacity of WiFi-type wireless networks. The distributed APs are connected by Ethernet and driven by independent low-cost local oscillators. To facilitate cooperative beamforming, we address three major challenges: the phase synchronization, the channel state information (CSI) measurement, and the user selection. Specifically, we develop 1) a cooperative tracking scheme to track signal phase drifts at symbol level without adding extra hardware complexity; 2) an incremental CSI estimation mechanism that removes the per-frame CSI measurement overhead of previous approaches; and 3) a simple random user selection algorithm that scales the network capacity linearly and delivers over percent performance compared to the optimal but complex greedy algorithm. We implement DCAP on the Sora software radio platform and evaluate it in a wireless network with nine nodes. Experimental results show that the cooperative beamforming is feasible in practice, and our cooperative phase tracking can ensure strict phase alignment ( 0.03 radian) among APs during the entire beamforming period (1.2 ms). Otherwise, without tracking, phases may drift by 0.3 radian over merely 600 s, causing that the symbol SNR decreases as large as 20 dB.
Autors: Taotao Wang;Qing Yang;Kun Tan;Jiansong Zhang;Soung Chang Liew;Shengli Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 320 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» De-Correlated Improved Adaptive Exponential FLAF-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Feedback Cancellation for Hearing Aids
Abstract:
Modern-day digital hearing aids are prone to an unavoidable acoustic feedback phenomenon, degrading sound quality and speech intelligibility. The linear adaptive feedback cancellation (AFC) systems based on finite-impulse-response filters do not yield satisfactory performance under nonlinearity encountered in the feedback path. In an endeavor to overcome this, a de-correlated improved adaptive exponential functional link adaptive filter (DI-AEF)-based nonlinear AFC (NAFC) system is developed in this paper. It utilizes cross terms of the input samples and trigonometrical expansion with exponentially varying amplitude. To save computations, the delayed outputs of the feedback canceler are appended at the input layer, inspired by the IIR filtering technique. The adaptive de-correlation filter is updated by variable convergence and forgetting factor windowed recursive least square algorithm to address the biased estimation problem. The corresponding update rules, convergence, and bounded-input bounded-output stability conditions have been derived. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed NAFC system for real input signals in terms of perceptual evaluation of speech and audio quality and added stable gain (ASG). The DI-AEF-based system achieves nearly 4-dB improvement in ASG while consuming 53% and 37% less multiplications and additions than the existing nonlinear methods.
Autors: Vasundhara;N. B. Puhan;Ganapati Panda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 650 - 662
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decentralized Active and Reactive Power Control for an AC-Stacked PV Inverter With Single Member Phase Compensation
Abstract:
This paper proposes a decentralized control scheme for controlling active and reactive power of grid-tied ac-stacked photovoltaic (PV) inverter architecture using single member phase compensation. Reactive power control is required for the next generation of grid-tied smart PV inverter systems in power networks with high PV penetration. The decentralized control scheme proposed in this paper allows for a fully distributed architecture, both in terms of active and reactive power control and physical implementation of a PV system. This will result in higher reliability and potentially lower cost with minimum communications requirements. A decentralized controller enables higher switching frequencies that can shrink passive components. Therefore, string voltage variations due to voltage drop across passive components will be negligible and the system will be controlled with minimum communications requirement. The relative gain array approach has been used to study the feasibility of the decentralized control scheme. Detailed modeling and analysis are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed decentralized approach and the effect of this approach on control implementation. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed decentralized approach is verified using mathematical modeling, simulation, and a lab-scale experimental setup in different operation conditions.
Autors: Hamidreza Jafarian;Robert Cox;Johan H. Enslin;Shibashis Bhowmik;Babak Parkhideh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 345 - 355
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decentralized Event-Triggered Control for Large-Scale Networked Fuzzy Systems
Abstract:
This paper addresses event-triggered data transmission in a class of large-scale networked nonlinear systems with transmission delays and nonlinear interconnections. Each nonlinear subsystem in the considered large-scale system is represented by a Takagi–Sugeno model, and exchanges its information through a digital channel. We propose an event-triggering mechanism, which determines when the premise variables and system states should be transmitted to the controller. Our goal is to design a decentralized event-triggered state-feedback fuzzy controller, such that the resulting closed-loop fuzzy control system is asymptotically stable while the measured information is transmitted to the controller as little as possible. By using the input delay and perturbed system approaches, the closed-loop sampled-data fuzzy system with event-triggered control is first reformulated into a continuous-time system with time-varying delay and extra disturbance. Then, based on the new model, we introduce a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional with virtue of Wirtinger's inequality, where not all of the Lyapunov matrices are required to be positive definite. The codesign result is derived to obtain simultaneously the controller gains, sampled period, network delay, and event-triggered parameter in terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, two simulation examples are provided to validate the advantage of the proposed method.
Autors: Zhixiong Zhong;Chih-Min Lin;Zhenhua Shao;Min Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 29 - 45
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decoupled Current Control With Synchronous Frequency Damping for MMC Considering Sub-module Capacitor Voltage Ripple
Abstract:
Capacitor voltage ripple in the fundamental frequency is distinctive in the performance of modular multilevel converters (MMCs), unlike other voltage-source converters. First, in order to reveal the influence of capacitor voltage ripple, the coupling effect of conventional MMC double-loop control strategy is investigated to explain the unsatisfactory response. Then, decoupled current control with synchronous frequency damping is proposed, eliminating the coupling terms in the presented average value MMC model, which can improve the system dynamic behavior. Moreover, the damping index is defined and designed in the proposed control strategy to compromise between current decoupling and oscillation damping. Furthermore, the dynamic MMC characteristics with the decoupled current control and appropriate damping index are explored with detailed theoretical analysis. Finally, the simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
Autors: Heya Yang;Wuhua Li;Lei Lin;Xiangning He;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 419 - 428
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Decoupling Structures for Millimeter Wave Integrated Circuits in Digital CMOS Processes
Abstract:
This brief studies the effect of nonideal decoupling structures on the performance of single-ended circuits operating at the millimeter wave frequency range. Based on a first-order approximation, an upper limit on the impedance of decoupling structures is derived, given a prespecified accepted degradation in insertion loss. To verify the analysis, a 110-GHz single-ended amplifier with a compact decoupling structure based on distributed interdigitized metal-oxide-metal capacitor is implemented. The full-wave electromagnetic simulations of the decoupling structure show an input impedance of (0.47 – j0.12) at 110 GHz, and the magnitude is less than from 82 to 144 GHz. The degradation in the insertion loss of the matching network is simulated to be less than 0.5-dB compared with the use of ideal decoupling capacitors at 110 GHz. The area of the decoupling structure is when implemented in 65-nm digital CMOS process.
Autors: Kefei Wu;Sriram Muralidharan;Mona Mostafa Hella;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 788 - 792
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Convolutional Computation Model for Feature Learning on Big Data in Internet of Things
Abstract:
Currently, a large number of industrial data, usually referred to big data, are collected from Internet of Things (IoT). Big data are typically heterogeneous, i.e., each object in big datasets is multimodal, posing a challenging issue on the convolutional neural network (CNN) that is one of the most representative deep learning models. In this paper, a deep convolutional computation model (DCCM) is proposed to learn hierarchical features of big data by using the tensor representation model to extend the CNN from the vector space to the tensor space. To make full use of the local features and topologies contained in the big data, a tensor convolution operation is defined to prevent overfitting and improve the training efficiency. Furthermore, a high-order backpropagation algorithm is proposed to train the parameters of the deep convolutional computational model in the high-order space. Finally, experiments on three datasets, i.e., CUAVE, SNAE2, and STL-10 are carried out to verify the performance of the DCCM. Experimental results show that the deep convolutional computation model can give higher classification accuracy than the deep computation model or the multimodal model for big data in IoT.
Autors: Peng Li;Zhikui Chen;Laurence Tianruo Yang;Qingchen Zhang;M. Jamal Deen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 790 - 798
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Neural Networks for the Recognition and Classification of Heart Murmurs Using Neuromorphic Auditory Sensors
Abstract:
Auscultation is one of the most used techniques for detecting cardiovascular diseases, which is one of the main causes of death in the world. Heart murmurs are the most common abnormal finding when a patient visits the physician for auscultation. These heart sounds can either be innocent, which are harmless, or abnormal, which may be a sign of a more serious heart condition. However, the accuracy rate of primary care physicians and expert cardiologists when auscultating is not good enough to avoid most of both type-I (healthy patients are sent for echocardiogram) and type-II (pathological patients are sent home without medication or treatment) errors made. In this paper, the authors present a novel convolutional neural network based tool for classifying between healthy people and pathological patients using a neuromorphic auditory sensor for FPGA that is able to decompose the audio into frequency bands in real time. For this purpose, different networks have been trained with the heart murmur information contained in heart sound recordings obtained from nine different heart sound databases sourced from multiple research groups. These samples are segmented and preprocessed using the neuromorphic auditory sensor to decompose their audio information into frequency bands and, after that, sonogram images with the same size are generated. These images have been used to train and test different convolutional neural network architectures. The best results have been obtained with a modified version of the AlexNet model, achieving 97% accuracy (specificity: 95.12%, sensitivity: 93.20%, PhysioNet/CinC Challenge 2016 score: 0.9416). This tool could aid cardiologists and primary care physicians in the auscultation process, improving the decision making task and reducing type-I and type-II errors.
Autors: Juan P. Dominguez-Morales;Angel F. Jimenez-Fernandez;Manuel J. Dominguez-Morales;Gabriel Jimenez-Moreno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 24 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deep Unfolding for Topic Models
Abstract:
Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.
Autors: Jen-Tzung Chien;Chao-Hsi Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 318 - 331
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Defending from Stealthy Botnets Using Moving Target Defenses
Abstract:
In today’s IT landscape, organizations are increasingly exposed to an array of novel and sophisticated threats—including advanced persistent threats (APTs) and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks—which can bypass traditional defenses and persist in target systems indefinitely. Threat actors often rely on networks of compromised and remotely controlled hosts, known as botnets, to execute a number of different cyberattacks and engage in criminal or unauthorized activities. Protecting sensitive and mission-critical data from competitors, state actors, and organized crime has become increasingly critical for the well-being of many organizations. A promising approach to botnet detection and mitigation relies on moving target defense (MTD), a novel and game-changing approach to cyber defense. MTD creates asymmetric uncertainty, providing the defender with a tactical advantage over the attacker. MTD techniques are designed to continuously change or shift a system’s attack surface, thus increasing cost and complexity for the threat actors. We show how the botnet detection and mitigation problem can be decomposed in three related and relatively simpler challenges, and how these challenges can be effectively tackled adopting an MTD approach, ultimately limiting the ability of a botnet to persist within a target system.
Autors: Massimiliano Albanese;Sushil Jajodia;Sridhar Venkatesan;
Appeared in: IEEE Security & Privacy
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 92 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degradation Behavior of Lithium-Ion Batteries During Calendar Ageing—The Case of the Internal Resistance Increase
Abstract:
Lithium-ion batteries are regarded as the key energy storage technology for both e-mobility and stationary renewable energy storage applications. Nevertheless, Lithium-ion batteries are complex energy storage devices, which are characterized by a complex degradation behavior, which affects both their capacity and internal resistance. This paper investigates, based on extended laboratory calendar ageing tests, the degradation of the internal resistance of a lithium-ion battery. The dependence of the internal resistance increase on the temperature and state-of-charge level has been extensive studied and quantified. Based on the obtained laboratory results, an accurate semiempirical lifetime model, which is able to predict with high accuracy the internal resistance increase of the lithium-ion battery over a wide temperature range and for all state-of-charge levels, was proposed and validated.
Autors: Daniel-Ioan Stroe;Maciej Swierczynski;Søren Knudsen Kær;Remus Teodorescu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 517 - 525
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Degrees of Freedom of Full-Duplex Multiantenna Cellular Networks
Abstract:
We study Please be advised that per instructions from the Communications Society this proof was formatted in Times Roman font and therefore some of the fonts will appear different from the fonts in your originally submitted manuscript. For instance, the math calligraphy font may appear different due to usage of the usepackage[mathcal]euscript. The Communications Society has decided not to use Computer Modern fonts in their publications. the degrees of freedom (DoF) of cellular networks in which a full duplex (FD) base station (BS) equipped with multiple transmit and receive antennas communicates with multiple mobile users. We consider two different scenarios. In the first scenario, we study the case when half duplex (HD) users, partitioned to either the uplink (UL) set or the downlink (DL) set, simultaneously communicate with the FD BS. In the second scenario, we study the case when FD users simultaneously communicate UL and DL data with the FD BS. Unlike conventional HD only systems, inter-user interference (within the cell) may severely limit the DoF, and must be carefully taken into account. With the goal of providing theoretical guidelines for designing such FD systems, we completely characterize the sum DoFs for both FD cellular networks. The key idea of the proposed scheme is to carefully allocate UL and DL streams using interference alignment and beam forming techniques. By comparing the DoFs of the FD systems with those of the conventional HD systems, we show that the DoF can approach the two-fold gain over the HD systems, when the number of users becomes large enough compared with the number of antennas at the BS.
Autors: Sung Ho Chae;Sung Hoon Lim;Sang-Woon Jeon;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 982 - 995
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demodulation Approach for Slowly Sampled Sensorless Field-Oriented Control Systems Enabling Multiple-Frequency Injections
Abstract:
This paper describes a demodulation approach based on the least squares method for a saliency-based position estimation in slowly sampled field-oriented control systems. The proposed approach focuses on the sensorless control of electrical drives in which the sample rate of the control task chosen is slower than both the maximum possible update rate of the phase voltages and the maximum possible sample rate of the phase current measurement by a multiple. Under those conditions, it is possible to inject multiple-frequency carrier signals between two successive control sampling instances without affecting the control. Furthermore, a combined demodulation of these signals is enabled by exploiting the constant manipulated variables of the field-oriented control system during the injection sequence. With the proposed method, the signal-to-noise-ratio of the calculated rotor position as well as the acoustic noise produced by signal injections can be optimized. The approach is implemented in a field-oriented control for permanent magnet synchronous machines and is verified in experiments.
Autors: Marco Roetzer;Ulrich Vollmer;Ralph M. Kennel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 732 - 744
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demographic Analysis from Biometric Data: Achievements, Challenges, and New Frontiers
Abstract:
Biometrics is the technique of automatically recognizing individuals based on their biological or behavioral characteristics. Various biometric traits have been introduced and widely investigated, including fingerprint, iris, face, voice, palmprint, gait and so forth. Apart from identity, biometric data may convey various other personal information, covering affect, age, gender, race, accent, handedness, height, weight, etc. Among these, analysis of demographics (age, gender, and race) has received tremendous attention owing to its wide real-world applications, with significant efforts devoted and great progress achieved. This survey first presents biometric demographic analysis from the standpoint of human perception, then provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art advances in automated estimation from both academia and industry. Despite these advances, a number of challenging issues continue to inhibit its full potential. We second discuss these open problems, and finally provide an outlook into the future of this very active field of research by sharing some promising opportunities.
Autors: Yunlian Sun;Man Zhang;Zhenan Sun;Tieniu Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 332 - 351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstrating the Ultrathin Metal–Insulator– Metal Diode Using TiN/ZrO2–Al2O3–ZrO2 Stack by Employing RuO2 Top Electrode
Abstract:
Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) diodes with ultrathin insulators are highly promising for a variety of applications, such as vertical integration technology. However, MIM diodes with thin enough structures have not been achieved in previous studies on diodes using Schottky emission or tunneling conduction asymmetry. In this paper, we demonstrate an MIM diode with an ultrathin, 5-nm ZrO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 insulator, using the work-function difference between the top and bottom electrodes. The rectifying properties of the diode were enhanced by employing RuO2 as an electrode, due to its high work function and the catalytic effect on oxygen decomposition, contributing to the suppression of trap-assisted tunneling. This paper presents an important development in understanding MIM structures with respect to the electrical and chemical properties.
Autors: Woojin Jeon;Youngjin Kim;Cheol Hyun An;Cheol Seong Hwang;Patrice Gonon;Christophe Vallée;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 660 - 666
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstration of a Curable Nanowire FinFET Using Punchthrough Current to Repair Hot-Carrier Damage
Abstract:
Device degradation caused by gate oxide damage in a FinFET on silicon-on-insulator is recovered using punchthrough current via a silicon fin. As the high level of drain current flows under a punchthrough mode, localized Joule heat driven by drain current, enough to anneal the gate oxide, is induced in the channel. This selectively cured localized damage in the FinFET. The dependence of recovery on the gate length, substrate material underneath the channel, and the proper range of annealing voltage are investigated.
Autors: Jun-Young Park;Jae Hur;Yang-Kyu Choi;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 180 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstration of a Microfiber-Based Add–Drop Filter Using One Tapered Fiber
Abstract:
We propose a novel approach to demonstrate an add–drop filter based on microfiber knot resonator (MFKR). The two coupled regions and four ports (including input port, through port, drop port, and add port) of this device are formed using the same one microfiber. By reconnecting the ends of the through and add ports with other two microfibers, this structure could serve as an add–drop filter, which is a key building block in the fields of optical networks and optical information processing system. The MFKR-based add–drop filter with the quality factor (Q-factor) of 21 000 and a diameter of 740 μm is demonstrated successfully. The intrinsic loss and extinction ratio are about –2 and 18.5 dB for the drop port, and –4.6 and 10.7 dB for the through port, respectively. The fabrication process also shows the feasibility and simplicity of this device.
Autors: Lin Deng;Xiaonan Guo;Yinghao Meng;Ting Zhao;Zilong Liu;Huifu Xiao;Guipeng Liu;Yonghui Tian;Jianhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Demonstration of GaN Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistors With Aperture Region Formed by Ion Implantation
Abstract:
In this paper, we report the successful demonstration of current aperture vertical electron transistors (CAVETs) obtained by using a novel implantation-based compensation method to achieve a conductive aperture. This innovation leads to the first demonstration of “regrowth-free” CAVETs. Two gallium nitride (GaN) CAVETs were fabricated using the ion-implantation-compensated aperture regions, both with Mg-doped p-GaN as current-blocking layers (CBLs). The aperture regions were formed by implanting Si into the p-GaN CBL. In one of the CAVET samples, the Si-implantation-based aperture was formed prior to the regrowth of AlGaN/GaN layers on top. The other CAVET sample was subjected to aperture formation via Si implantation after all the device layers were grown. An ion-implantation scheme using multiple-energy levels was designed to realize a 250-nm Si box profile with a total dose of cm−2, converting a 250-nm p-GaN (Mg: cm−2) to conductive (n-type) GaN successfully. This novel fabrication method enables the use of Mg-doped CBLs without conventional etch and regrowth steps. Moreover, the proposed scheme can ultimately lead to regrowth-free CAVETs.
Autors: Dong Ji;Anchal Agarwal;Wenwen Li;Stacia Keller;Srabanti Chowdhury;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 483 - 487
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dense Invariant Feature-Based Support Vector Ranking for Cross-Camera Person Reidentification
Abstract:
Recently, support vector ranking (SVR) has been adopted to address the challenging person reidentification problem. However, the ranking model based on ordinary global features cannot well represent the significant variation of pose and viewpoint across camera views. To address this issue, a novel ranking method that fuses the dense invariant features (DIFs) is proposed in this paper to model the variation of images across camera views. An optimal space for ranking is learned by simultaneously maximizing the margin and minimizing the error on the fused features. The proposed method significantly outperforms the original SVR algorithm due to the invariance of the DIFs, the fusion of the bidirectional features, and the adaptive adjustment of parameters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is competitive with state-of-the-art methods on two challenging data sets, showing its potential for real-world person reidentification.
Autors: Shoubiao Tan;Feng Zheng;Li Liu;Jungong Han;Ling Shao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 356 - 363
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Deploying Software Team Analytics in a Multinational Organization
Abstract:
Implementing a software engineering analytics solution poses challenges and offers significant value for the globally distributed software development organization at ABB. Because software development activities in agile methodologies revolve around the team, ABB decided to implement an analytics solution focused on team metrics as part of its Software Development Improvement Program. Using key indicators focused around team improvement, researchers found that teams could manage their activities with metrics such as cycle time. Key lessons learned include paying attention to visual design and navigation and providing drill-down capabilities for the user. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Vinay Augustine;John Hudepohl;Przemyslaw Marcinczak;Will Snipes;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 72 - 76
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Analysis of a Flux Reversal Machine With Evenly Distributed Permanent Magnets
Abstract:
In this paper, a flux reversal machine (FRM), which has a larger torque density and a smoother torque waveform than the conventional FRM, is introduced. The FRM has the same combinations of stator and rotor slots, winding pole pair, and permanent magnet (PM) usage as the conventional FRM, but has different PM arrangements, i.e., in the conventional FRM, a pair of PMs is mounted on the surface of each stator teeth while the PMs of the FRM introduced in this paper are evenly distributed along the inner surface of the stator. First, the origination from the conventional FRM to the proposed FRM is introduced. Then, the effects of the rotor slot number, split ratio, stator/rotor slot opening ratio, PM thickness, and pole arc on the average torque and cogging torque are investigated and analyzed, which give a reasonable prediction for maximum achievable power density and minimum possible cogging torque of the proposed FRM. Moreover, the proposed FRM is compared with a conventional FRM in terms of back electromotive force, rated torque, pulsating torque, power factor, and overload capabilities. Finally, a 12-stator-slot/17-rotor-slot FRM prototype is built to verify the theoretical analyses.
Autors: Dawei Li;Yuting Gao;Ronghai Qu;Jian Li;Yongsheng Huo;Han Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 172 - 183
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Evaluation of Nonlinear Verification Device for Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzers
Abstract:
A simple diode-based nonlinear verification device (NVD) design for nonlinear vector network analyzers is presented together with an improved figure of merit (FOM) parameter that is insensitive to impedance match and isolates variation of the device’s nonlinear parameters. The stability over 84 h and load–pull performance of this new design have been evaluated.
Autors: Mohammad Rajabi;David A. Humphreys;Gustavo Avolio;Paweł Barmuta;Konstanty R. Łukasik;Troels S. Nielsen;Dominique M. M.-P. Schreurs;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1121 - 1130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Fabrication of a Novel Force Sensor for Robot Grippers
Abstract:
Force sensors using strain gauge have been widely applied in mechanical systems. They usually possess a structure consisting of a simple cantilever beam and two strain gauges attached to two opposite beam surfaces. However, this structure shows severely distorted stress in the implementation of smart robot grippers with lateral offsets, which is usual in limited-space applications. In order to overcome the limitation and to reduce the nonlinearity of the gauge sensor, a novel hinged-joint cantilever beam sensor structure is proposed. An analytical model is derived to predict the force sensitivity and force linearity. The simple cantilever beam sensor and the hinged-joint sensor are analyzed and compared with the conducting finite-element-method simulation. Signal processing circuits are designed and implemented. A hinged-joint prototype force sensor is fabricated for calibration and testing. Experiments show that the proposed hinged-joint sensor possesses a high quality of linearity and excellent sensitivity, which can be applied to diverse fields including smart robot grippers.
Autors: Lisheng Kuang;Yunjiang Lou;Shuang Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1410 - 1418
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Implementation of Fourth Arm for Elimination of Bearing Current in NPC-MLI-Fed Induction Motor Drive
Abstract:
The exploration result of an increase in power electronics converter-based variable-speed drives for industrial applications reveals the impact of inverter-induced bearing current on the prevailing electric machine failure. The bearing current associated with drive systems is concerned about operating frequencies of the solid-state semiconductor switches, which may cause the electrostatic charge between stator and rotor, which eventually causes damage to windings and bearings. The various techniques comprised in the literature to suppress bearing currents are filter design, switching redundancy, common-mode circuitry, isolated grounding scheme, and grounding the motor shaft. From the literature, the pulse-width modulation inverter-injected common-mode voltage (CMV) is the main source of common-mode current, which causes the bearing current. Hence, the elimination of CMV paves the way for eliminating bearing current of the machine. This paper presents an innovative solution to suppress bearing currents by aiding a fourth arm circuitry to acquire near to zero potential (zero CMV) at machine neutral point. All the proposed circuitry and algorithm are simulated using MATLAB/Simulink and validation is done through a 2.5-kW neutral-point-clamped-multilevel inverter laboratory prototype using a Xilinx family SPARTAN-III-3A XC3SD1800A-FG676 digital signal processor-field programmable gate array board.
Autors: C. Bharatiraja;Raghu Selvaraj;Thanga Raj Chelliah;Josiah L. Munda;Mohd Tariq;Ali I. Maswood;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 745 - 754
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Implementation of Low Complexity 2-D Variable Digital FIR Filters Using Single-Parameter-Tunable 2-D Farrow Structure
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel single-parameter-tunable 2-D Farrow structure is proposed and used for implementing linear phase 2-D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable spectral characteristics. Real-time tunability in the spectral characteristics of the 2-D filter is achieved by varying a single tunable parameter in a fixed hardware structure. The proposed structure enables the realization of multiple 2-D filters from a single structure with minimum error and hardware complexity. The reduction in the hardware complexity becomes pronounced when the number of 2-D filters included in the 2-D VDF increases. The proposed structure is capable of efficiently realizing circularly symmetric and fan-type variable 2-D filters, which is demonstrated using different design examples. Results show that the proposed approach ensures up to 60% reduction in the hardware complexity when compared with the state-of-the-art approaches used for the design and implementation of 2-D VDFs. The proposed approach ensures a drastic reduction in the hardware complexity without sacrificing the accuracy with a normalized root mean square error less than 0.5%.
Autors: T. Bindima;Elizabeth Elias;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 618 - 627
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Performance Analysis of Three-Phase Solar PV Integrated UPQC
Abstract:
This paper deals with the design and performance analysis of a three-phase single stage solar photovoltaic integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-UPQC). The PV-UPQC consists of a shunt and series-connected voltage compensators connected back-to-back with common dc-link. The shunt compensator performs the dual function of extracting power from PV array apart from compensating for load current harmonics. An improved synchronous reference frame control based on moving average filter is used for extraction of load active current component for improved performance of the PV-UPQC. The series compensator compensates for the grid side power quality problems such as grid voltage sags/swells. The compensator injects voltage in-phase/out of phase with point of common coupling (PCC) voltage during sag and swell conditions, respectively. The proposed system combines both the benefits of clean energy generation along with improving power quality. The steady state and dynamic performance of the system are evaluated by simulating in MATLAB-Simulink under a nonlinear load. The system performance is then verified using a scaled down laboratory prototype under a number of disturbances such as load unbalancing, PCC voltage sags/swells, and irradiation variation.
Autors: Sachin Devassy;Bhim Singh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 73 - 81
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design and Tuning of Robust Fractional Order Controller for Autonomous Microgrid VSC System
Abstract:
A robust controller design for the voltage control of an autonomous three-phase voltage source converter (VSC) is proposed. As compared with the conventional proportional plus integral (PI) controllers, fractional order controllers make the VSC system robust due to their fractional characteristics. The fractional PI controller has an additional degree of freedom along with and gains of the conventional PI controller. Detailed modeling of a VSC is used in the controller design process so as it include inner current control and filter dynamics. The outer fractional voltage controller is designed such that the VSC system satisfies a required phase margin, with improved robustness in the system and capability to attenuate the noise. The overall system stability is analyzed using both bode plot and step response, and these responses are compared with a conventional PI controller. Further, the dynamic performance of the fractional controller is evaluated by simulating the nonlinear system. A hardware prototype is also developed to demonstrate the practical realization of the controller.
Autors: Deepak Pullaguram;Sukumar Mishra;Nilanjan Senroy;Monish Mukherjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 91 - 101
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Methodology for Constructing Multimaterial Origami Robots and Machines
Abstract:
Robotic origami allows rapid prototyping of intelligent robots and machines constructed from thin sheets of functional materials. Multimaterial-based design freedom of origami robots creates functional versatility; however, the design parameters pose challenges in their mechanical layout and fabrication. While the conventional robot design follows a coherent and well-established design process, the construction of origami robots requires close study of their three-dimensional (3-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) geometries, compliant mechanisms, functional material specific components, and 2-D fabrication methods. In this paper, we report a systematic design methodology for building origami-inspired machines and robots based on these four essential design features. We provide their comprehensive formulation, comparing them to conventional robots and highlighting design challenges as well as potentials. We demonstrate the applicability of our procedure to the majority of origami robots in the literature and also validate it by designing a centimeter-scale jumping and crawling origami robot, Tribot, as a showcase. The 6-g Tribot crawls with fixed steps in a closed loop, adjusts its vertical jumping height by power modulation, and overcomes obstacles of 45-mm height by side jumps. This paper advances the design and fabrication methodology of origami robots, with customizable functionality from the ground-up.
Autors: Zhenishbek Zhakypov;Jamie Paik;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 151 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of 600-W Low-Loss Ultra-Wideband Ferriteless Balun
Abstract:
We present the development of a low-loss, high-power, and ferriteless balun that operates over 0.1–1.6 GHz bandwidth. The proposed balun employs a novel compensated circuit, a single quarter-wave semirigid coaxial cable and an on-board inductor on a thermoset ceramic board to achieve high power and ultrawide bandwidth performance. The experimental results show that the balun achieves a measured average insertion loss of less than 0.5 dB and return loss of better than 10 dB from 100 MHz to more than 1.6 GHz. Within the measured bandwidth, the amplitude and phase imbalances are within ±1 dB and ±5°, respectively. Multiphysics analysis and high-power measurements demonstrate that the balun can handle more than 600 W and above at 1.6 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, the reported balun has the highest measured power handling capability per the largest 16:1 bandwidth ratio to date.
Autors: Chi Van Pham;Anh-Vu Pham;Robert E. Leoni;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 902 - 910
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of a Photo-Excited Switchable Broadband Reflective Linear Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Terahertz Waves
Abstract:
We present a photo-excited switchable broadband reflective linear polarization conversion metasurface for terahertz waves. The unit-cell structure of the switchable polarization conversion metasurface is composed of metallic disk and split-ring resonator (together named as DSRR) integrated with semiconductor photoconductive silicon (Si) placed over the continuous films. The electric response of the photoconductive Si filled in the gap of the DSRR can be tunable through a pump beam with different optical power. The simulation results indicate that the polarization conversion ratio (PCR) of the compound metasurface without pump beam is greater than 80% in the frequency range of 0.65–1.58 THz, and the PCR is up to 99% at resonances frequencies of 0.69 THz, 1.01 THz and 1.42 THz, respectively. The numerical simulation results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions based on the interference theory. Furthermore, the broadband PCR can be tunable continuously with the changes of Si conductivity by adjusting the pump optical power. Moreover, the surface current distributions of the unit-cell structure with different Si conductivity at the resonance frequency are discussed to illustrate its physics mechanism. Thus, our design can find potential applications in many areas, such as remote sensors, reflector antennas, and radiometers in terahertz region.
Autors: Jingcheng Zhao;Yongzhi Cheng;Zhengze Cheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Broadband High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers Based on the Hybrid Continuous Modes With Phase Shift Parameter
Abstract:
The hybrid continuous modes are constituted by a continuum of power amplifier (PA) modes between class-J and continuous class-F. In this letter, a phase shift parameter is introduced in the voltage waveform formula of the hybrid continuous modes to generate complex fundamental and harmonic load impedances, leading to a further extension on the operation bandwidth. Based on the proposed theory, a gallium nitride PA is designed and fabricated over the frequency band of 1.2–3.6 GHz. The measured results show a 60%–72% drain efficiency at a saturated power of 40–42.2 dBm. In addition, when driven by a 20-MHz long-term evolution signal with a peak-to-average power ratio of 7.4 dB, the proposed PA obtains an adjacent channel leakage ratio of −35 dBc at an average output power of 35 dBm at 2.3 GHz.
Autors: Chaoyi Huang;Songbai He;Weimin Shi;Bin Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 159 - 161
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Capacity-Approaching Constrained Codes for DNA-Based Storage Systems
Abstract:
We consider coding techniques that limit the lengths of homopolymer runs in strands of nucleotides used in DNA-based mass data storage systems. We compute the maximum number of user bits that can be stored per nucleotide when a maximum homopolymer runlength constraint is imposed. We describe simple and efficient implementations of coding techniques that avoid the occurrence of long homopolymers, and the rates of the constructed codes are close to the theoretical maximum. The proposed sequence replacement method for -constrained -ary data yields a significant improvement in coding redundancy than the prior art sequence replacement method for the -constrained binary data. Using a simple transformation, standard binary maximum runlength limited sequences can be transformed into maximum runlength limited -ary sequences which opens the door to applying the vast prior art binary code constructions to DNA-based storage.
Autors: Kees A. Schouhamer Immink;Kui Cai;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 224 - 227
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Chipless RFID Tag by Using Miniaturized Open-Loop Resonators
Abstract:
In this paper, an open-loop resonator with fragment-loading structure is used for the first time in the design of radar cross section-based chipless radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag. By optimizing the distribution of fragment patches in an open loop, a microstrip open-loop resonator can be miniaturized so that the data capacity of the chipless RFID tag designed using such a miniaturized loop resonator can be significantly increased. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the fragment-loaded resonator can be adjusted conveniently by removing or disconnecting some fragment patches, which provides great flexibility for data encoding of the chipless RFID tag. The proposed chipless RFID tag with miniaturized open-loop resonators is designed and tested and can acquire 3.56 bits per resonator and a coding density of approximately . Several experimental results validate the proposed design as well as its implementation in a realistic environment.
Autors: Lu Wang;Ting Liu;Johan Sidén;Gang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 618 - 626
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Dual-Band High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers Based on Compact Broadband Matching Networks
Abstract:
This letter reports a novel synthesis method to design an extended dual-band power amplifier (PA). The proposed matching networks exhibit dual-band impedance rotation, leading the transistor to yield flat gain at the two designed passbands and suppressed gain responses at frequencies outsides the passbands. The fabricated PA represents a competitive solution in multiband and multimode applications as compared with the conventional dual-band PA based on the multifrequency techniques. The transistor CGH40010F from Cree is employed for verification. At 1.4 and 2.4 GHz, the bandwidth has been extended over 150 MHz at each individual passband. The implemented PA can deliver the saturated output power of 10 W minimum, and power-added efficiency of 65% minimum has been measured.
Autors: Xiangyu Meng;Cuiping Yu;Yongle Wu;Yuanan Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 162 - 164
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Fragment-Type Antenna Structure Using an Improved BPSO
Abstract:
An improved binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) algorithm is proposed for the design of high-dimensional, multifunctional, and compact fragment-type antenna (FTA). First, orthogonal array-based initialization instead of randomized initialization is employed to uniformly sample the design space for better population diversity. Then, a new transfer function with a time-variant transfer factor is proposed to improve the problem of easily falling into local optimum in basic BPSO. Experimental results of the two miniaturized FTA designs show that the proposed BPSO exhibits better convergence performance than that of other published discrete optimization algorithms and can provide excellent candidates for the internal miniaturized antenna designs in wireless and portable applications.
Autors: Jian Dong;Qianqian Li;Lianwen Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 564 - 571
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Multioctave High-Efficiency Power Amplifiers Using Stochastic Reduced Order Models
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel general design method of frequency varying impedance matching. The method is applied to design of a broadband high-efficiency power amplifier (PA). The proposed method defines the optimal impedance regions of a PA at several frequency sections over the operational frequency band. These regions contain the impedances that can achieve a high output power and a high-power added efficiency (PAE) simultaneously. A low-pass -ladder circuit is selected as the matching network (MN). The element values of the MN can be obtained using a synthesizing method based on stochastic reduced order models and Voronoi partition. The MN provides desired impedance in the predefined optimal impedance region at each frequency section. Thus, optimal output power and PAE of the PA can be achieved. To validate the proposed method, two eighth-order low-pass -ladder networks are designed as the input and output MNs, respectively. A gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT from Cree is employed as the active device. Packaging parasitic of the transistor has been taken into account. A PA is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measurement results show that the PA can achieve P1 dB PAE of better than 60% over a fractional bandwidth of 160% (0.2–1.8 GHz). The output power is 42–45 dBm (16–32 W), and the gain is 12–15 dB. The performance of the PA outperforms existing broadband high-efficiency PAs in many aspects, which demonstrates the excellence of the proposed method.
Autors: Yuan Zhuang;Zhouxiang Fei;Anqi Chen;Yi Huang;Khondker Rabbi;Jiafeng Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1015 - 1023
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design of Planar High-Gain Antenna Using SIW Cavity Hybrid Mode
Abstract:
In this communication, a planar high-gain slot antenna backed by a rectangular substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity is presented. The proposed antenna uses a narrow rectangular SIW cavity with high length-to-width ratio. This modifies the conventional sinusoidal field distribution of the cavity modes to generate a hybrid mode field distribution with more field concentration at the center of the cavity. A closed form expression is presented which represents the proposed hybrid mode field distribution as a summation of multiple TEym10 cavity modes. A slot antenna placed at the top plate of the proposed cavity is excited by the hybrid mode. Calculation of far-field radiation pattern of the proposed antenna is presented, which exhibits its potential to produce narrower main beam along with high gain. To validate the concept, a prototype is fabricated in a thin substrate (). The experimental result shows antenna resonance at 9.5 GHz with high gain of 9.62 dBi.
Autors: Soumava Mukherjee;Animesh Biswas;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 972 - 977
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design Optimization of a High-Speed Synchronous Reluctance Machine
Abstract:
Synchronous reluctance machines, including the permanent-magnet-assisted variants, are competitive motor topologies if the application requires high efficiency and a cost-effective solution with a high flux-weakening capability. However, increasing operating speeds incur challenging design and development decisions, mainly in order to find design solutions that ensure the machine's structural integrity without compromising the overall performance. In this paper, a comprehensive design procedure for high-speed synchronous reluctance machines is presented. In order to validate the procedure, a 5-kW 80 000-r/min machine is considered. The proposed strategy consists of a two-step procedure in which the electromagnetic and structural designs have been properly decoupled, dividing the design space in two subsets. Each subset mainly affects the electromagnetic or the structural performances. Several structural design optimizations have been then performed with the aim of finding the optimal tradeoff between the rotor geometrical complexity (that defines the required computational resources) and the electromagnetic performance. The reported experimental tests of the prototyped machine validate the proposed design strategy, which can be used as general guidelines on the structural design of synchronous reluctance machines.
Autors: Mauro Di Nardo;Giovanni Lo Calzo;Michael Galea;Chris Gerada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 233 - 243
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Design-Phase Buffer Allocation for Post-Silicon Clock Binning by Iterative Learning
Abstract:
At submicrometer manufacturing technology nodes, process variations affect circuit performance significantly. To counter these variations, engineers are reserving more timing margin to maintain yield, leading to an unaffordable overdesign. Most of these margins, however, are wasted after manufacturing, because process variations cause only some chips to be really slow, while other chips can easily meet given timing specifications. To reduce this pessimism, we can reserve less timing margin and tune failed chips after manufacturing with clock buffers to make them meet timing specifications. With this post-silicon clock tuning, critical paths can be balanced with neighboring paths in each chip specifically to counter the effect of process variations. Consequently, chips with timing failures can be rescued and the yield can thus be improved. This is specially useful in high-performance designs, e.g., high-end CPUs, where clock binning makes chips with higher performance much more profitable. In this paper, we propose a method to determine where to insert post-silicon tuning buffers during the design phase to improve the overall profit with clock binning. This method learns the buffer locations with a Sobol sequence iteratively and reduces the buffer ranges afterward with tuning concentration and buffer grouping. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve a profit improvement of about 14% on average and up to 26%, with only a small number of tuning buffers inserted into the circuit.
Autors: Grace Li Zhang;Bing Li;Jinglan Liu;Yiyu Shi;Ulf Schlichtmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 392 - 405
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Designing Energy-Efficient Intermittently Powered Systems Using Spin-Hall-Effect-Based Nonvolatile SRAM
Abstract:
Intermittently powered systems represent a new class of batteryless devices that operate solely on energy harvested from their environment. Due to the unreliable nature of ambient energy sources, these devices experience frequent intervals of power loss, leading to sudden reboots. Tolerating such power supply disruptions require the ability to rapidly checkpoint/save system state when power loss is imminent and restore it at the start of the next power cycle to continue computations in a seamless manner. A typical microcontroller used in these systems consists of a fast nonvolatile SRAM and a nonvolatile Flash storage. Prior work has shown how emerging nonvolatile memory technologies such as STT-MRAM can improve the energy efficiency of these systems, either by using STT-MRAM as a drop-in replacement for Flash (henceforth referred to as the SRAM+STT-MRAM memory configuration) or using STT-MRAM as unified memory (henceforth referred to as the unified STT-MRAM memory configuration). However, both these configurations have significant drawbacks. Using the SRAM+STT−MRAM configuration leads to high checkpointing overhead due to the inefficient write operations of STT-MRAM whereas using the unified STT-MRAM configuration is inefficient due to executing every program instruction directly from STT-MRAM. This paper proposes a novel Spin Hall Effect-based nonvolatile-SRAM (SNVRAM) bit-cell that combines the nonvolatility of spin devices with the speed and energy efficiency of conventional 6T SRAM cells. We explore the use of the proposed SNVRAM to replace the SRAM in a transiently powered system to mitigate the drawbacks of the aforementioned memory configurations. Simulation results using a set of evaluation benchmarks demonstrate that the SNVRAM+STT−MRAM configuration leads to significant memory energy benefits of and on average, compared to the SRAM+STT−MRAM and unified STT-MRAM memory configurations, respectively.
Autors: Arnab Raha;Akhilesh Jaiswal;Syed Shakib Sarwar;Hrishikesh Jayakumar;Vijay Raghunathan;Kaushik Roy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 294 - 307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detecting Essential Proteins Based on Network Topology, Gene Expression Data, and Gene Ontology Information
Abstract:
The identification of essential proteins in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks is of great significance for understanding cellular processes. With the increasing availability of large-scale PPI data, numerous centrality measures based on network topology have been proposed to detect essential proteins from PPI networks. However, most of the current approaches focus mainly on the topological structure of PPI networks, and largely ignore the gene ontology annotation information. In this paper, we propose a novel centrality measure, called TEO, for identifying essential proteins by combining network topology, gene expression profiles, and GO information. To evaluate the performance of the TEO method, we compare it with five other methods (degree, betweenness, NC, Pec, and CowEWC) in detecting essential proteins from two different yeast PPI datasets. The simulation results show that adding GO information can effectively improve the predicted precision and that our method outperforms the others in predicting essential proteins.
Autors: Wei Zhang;Jia Xu;Yuanyuan Li;Xiufen Zou;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 109 - 116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Bond Pad Discolorations at Outgoing Wafer Inspections
Abstract:
Deployment of an automatic visual inspection system in semiconductor industry has become increasingly popular than ever not only due to its relatively high value as a yield analysis tool of outgoing products but more importantly for the prevention of defect escapee. A lot of studies are done on the application of in-line defect scan but the application of outgoing wafer inspection at post-fab environment has been very limited and rarely found in literature. With rapid growth of automotive application in worldwide industry, the importance of quality of the wafer at die level has never been so critical. This paper provides a method for detection of bond pad discolorations at outgoing quality check especially in semiconductor industry. An effective method for detection of the bond pad discolorations was proposed. The advantages and disadvantages of the detection method are discussed. Factors that are affecting the performances of the detection method are also described and analyzed.
Autors: S. N. David Chua;S. Mohamaddan;S. J. Tanjong;A. Yassin;S. F. Lim;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 144 - 148
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Multiple Movers Based on Single Channel Source Separation of Their Micro-Dopplers
Abstract:
Studies have demonstrated the usefulness of micro-Doppler signatures for classifying dynamic radar targets such as humans, helicopters, and wind turbines. However, these classification works are based on the assumption that the propagation channel consists of only a single moving target. When multiple targets move simultaneously in the channel, the micro-Dopplers, in their radar backscatter, superimpose thereby distorting the signatures. In this paper, we propose a method to detect multiple targets that move simultaneously in the propagation channel. We first model the micro-Doppler radar signatures of different movers using dictionary learning techniques. Then, we use a sparse coding algorithm to separate the aggregate radar backscatter signal from multiple targets into their individual components. We demonstrate that the disaggregated signals are useful for accurately detecting multiple targets.
Autors: Shelly Vishwakarma;Shobha Sundar Ram;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 159 - 169
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Range Migrating Targets in Compound-Gaussian Clutter
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of coherent radar detection of fast-moving targets in a high-range resolution mode. In particular, we are focusing on the spiky clutter modeled as a compound Gaussian process with rapidly varying power along range. Additionally, a fast-moving target of interest has a few range cells migration within the coherent processing interval. Two coherent CFAR detectors are proposed taking into account target migration and highly inhomogeneous clutter. Both detectors involve solution of a transcendental equation, carried out numerically in a few iterations. The performance evaluation is addressed by numerical simulations and it shows a significant improvement in detection of fast-moving targets in inhomogeneous heavy tailed radar clutter.
Autors: Nikita Petrov;François Le Chevalier;Alexander G. Yarovoy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 37 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Detection of Vessel Targets in Sea Clutter Using In Situ Sea State Measurements With HFSWR
Abstract:
The detection of vessel targets could be effectively resolved in a high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR). However, signals reflected from vessels are concealed by sea clutter in the Doppler spectrum, where such detections are performed. Consequently, differences between these features in the Doppler domain cannot be readily observed, which greatly increases the difficulty in detecting vessel targets. In this letter, in situ sea state information is utilized to facilitate the detection of targets within sea clutter. First, the sea clutter spectrum, which is absent of vessel, is constructed. Second, sensitive sea clutter features that are influenced by vessel targets are selected and analyzed. Third, anomalies in sensitive sea clutter features are detected by obtaining respective thresholds. Finally, vessel targets are identified by the synthesized anomaly detection. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the vessels detected using the HFSWR are further verified using synchronous automatic identification system information.
Autors: Yiming Wang;Xingpeng Mao;Jie Zhang;Yonggang Ji;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 302 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determination of Complex Permittivity of Low-Loss Samples From Position-Invariant Transmission and Shorted-Reflection Measurements
Abstract:
In this paper, we devise a position-invariant method for unique and accurate complex permittivity () determination of low-loss samples from transmission and shorted-reflection scattering (S-) parameter measurements while mitigating the effect around Fabry–Perot frequencies. For this goal, we derived a metric function in terms of propagation factor only and utilized a branch-index-independent expression for unique by eliminating multiple solutions problem. We measured S-parameters of two low-loss samples with substantial thickness, which both introduced a Fabry–Perot effect in the frequency range, and the measurements were conducted to validate our method and compare its accuracy with the accuracy of similar methods in the literature. We also performed an uncertainty analysis to evaluate and improve the accuracy of our method.
Autors: Ugur Cem Hasar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1090 - 1098
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determination of the oxidation induction time of mineral insulating oils using a modified EN 14112 method
Abstract:
The most common cause of chemical aging of insulating oils is oxidation. Inhibited oils are insulating oils to which an oxidation inhibitor such as 2,6 ditertiary-butyl phenol or 2,6 dietertiary-butyl cresol has been added in order to slow the rate of oxidation [1]-[3]. The oxidation induction time (OIT) is the time at which the oxidation inhibitor has been exhausted.
Autors: Helena M. Wilhelm;Paulo O. Fernandes;Leandro G. Feitosa;Geovana C. Dos Santos;Giorgi Dal Pont;Andreza Balielo;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 7 - 14
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Determining the Optimal Location of Terror Response Facilities Under the Risk of Disruption
Abstract:
The highly strategic nature of terrorist attacks has often frustrated attempts at locating emergency response facilities. To better determine the optimal location of such facilities, we present a leader–follower game between State and Terrorist by considering facility failures. The first stage of the game allows State to make a facility location decision and facility assignment to the attacked city, while the second stage allows Terrorist to select one city to attack after observing the State’s strategy. The game is translated into a minmaxmin problem, and a population-based heuristic algorithm is proposed to solve it. We evaluate the performance of both model and heuristic by using an emergency example. Our results indicate that the proposed algorithm is able to generate suitable facility location solutions, allowing us to deploy resources more efficiently during a terrorist attack to where they are needed.
Autors: LingPeng Meng;Qi Kang;ChuanFeng Han;MengChu Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 476 - 486
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Developing a Nonstationary Computational Framework With Application to Modeling Dynamic Modulations in Neural Spiking Responses
Abstract:
Objective: This paper aims to develop a computational model that incorporates the functional effects of modulatory covariates (such as context, task, or behavior), which dynamically alter the relationship between the stimulus and the neural response. Methods: We develop a general computational approach along with an efficient estimation procedure in the widely used generalized linear model (GLM) framework to characterize such nonstationary dynamics in spiking response and spatiotemporal characteristics of a neuron at the level of individual trials. The model employs a set of modulatory components, which nonlinearly interact with other stimulus-related signals to reproduce such nonstationary effects. Results: The model is tested for its ability to predict the responses of neurons in the middle temporal cortex of macaque monkeys during an eye movement task. The fitted model proves successful in capturing the fast temporal modulations in the response, reproducing the spike response temporal statistics, and accurately accounting for the neurons’ dynamic spatiotemporal sensitivities, during eye movements. Conclusion: The nonstationary GLM framework developed in this study can be used in cases where a time-varying behavioral or cognitive component makes GLM-based models insufficient to describe the dependencies of neural responses on the stimulus-related covariates. Significance: In addition to being quite powerful in encoding time-varying response modulations, this general framework also enables a readout of the neural code while dissociating the influence of other nonstimulus covariates. This framework will advance our ability to understand sensory processing in higher brain areas when modulated by several behavioral or cognitive variables.
Autors: Amir Akbarian;Kaiser Niknam;Moahammadbagher Parsa;Kelsey Clark;Behrad Noudoost;Neda Nategh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 241 - 253
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Application of ±500 kV DC Transmission Line Arrester in China Power Grid
Abstract:
In order to solve the frequently occurring lightning flashover problems on ±500 kV dc transmission lines in China, the authors have conducted the research on the dc line arrester since 2011. In this paper, the structure and installation, technical parameters, and protection performances, as well as their deterministic processes of the arrester are presented and analyzed in detail. In 2013, the authors successfully developed the arrester products, and the type tests show that they have excellent performance parameters and can act effectively against the lightning impulse and cutoff the dc follow current. By now more than 500 dc line arresters have been installed and used on seven ±500 kV dc transmission lines in eight provinces of China. About four years of operating experience shows that the arresters work safely and reliably over a long period of time, and have been effectively reducing the lightning flashover rate of the ±500 kV dc lines.
Autors: Shanqiang Gu;Shuai Wan;Jian Wang;Jiahong Chen;Tao Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 209 - 217
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Assessment of a Data Set Containing Frame Images and Dense Airborne Laser Scanning Point Clouds
Abstract:
This letter describes the main features of a data set that contains aerial images acquired with a medium format digital camera and point clouds collected using an airborne laser scanning unit, as well as ground control points and direct georeferencing data. The flights were performed in 2014 over an urban area in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil, using different flight heights. These flights covered several features of interest for research, including buildings of different sizes and roof materials, roads, and vegetation. Three point clouds with different densities, a block of digital aerial images, and auxiliary data are available. A geometric assessment was conducted to ensure the accuracy and consistency of the data, and an RMSE of 7 cm was achieved using bundle block adjustment. The data set is freely available for download, and it will be expanded with data collected over time.
Autors: Antonio Maria Garcia Tommaselli;Maurício Galo;Thiago Tiedtke dos Reis;Roberto da Silva Ruy;Marcus Vinicius Antunes de Moraes;Wander Vieira Matricardi;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 192 - 196
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Calibration of a Variable Range Stand for Testing Space Micropropulsion Thrusters
Abstract:
Microthrusters are used for microsatellites to provide precise motion control in space by applying very low thrust pulses, which must be properly calibrated on earth. The range of thrust levels required varies from one thruster to another, depending on its use. Thus, microthrusts that stand capable of reading thrusts of multiple ranges, depending on the configuration, are in demand. This paper discusses the features and the calibration method for a typical miniaturized thrust stand. This device is essentially a torsional pendulum whose sensitivity can be varied. As a source of torsion, a piece of wire is used. For the purpose of this paper, the thrust stand was configured to achieve a micro-Newton resolution.
Autors: M. W. A. B. Rohaizat;M. Lim;L. Xu;S. Huang;I. Levchenko;S. Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 289 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Evaluation of an Axial Gap Motor Using Neodymium Bonded Magnet
Abstract:
In general, radial gap motors employing neodymium sintered permanent magnet (Nd sintered PM) are used to achieve high torque density in many applications. However, the motors are not suited to a flat, disk-like shape because the dead space, such as the coil ends, occupies most of the motor volume. Therefore, axial gap motors are frequently used for flat shape instead of radial gap motors. Nd sintered PM is a well-known high-performance magnet that has high residual magnetic flux density, but eddy current loss easily occurs in the magnet because of its high conductivity. In axial gap motors for industrial applications, it is difficult to take measures against eddy current loss of Nd sintered PM in terms of cost. Therefore, general axial gap motors employing Nd sintered PM often have unsatisfactory characteristics, such as low efficiency, even though the motor produces high torque. On the other hand, radial gap motors can take measures to suppress eddy current in PMs easily if radial gap motors employ interior permanent magnet structure. Accordingly, this paper discusses an axial gap motor employing neodymium bonded permanent magnet (Nd bonded PM) for flat shape. Compared with Nd sintered PM, Nd bonded PM has lower residual magnetic flux density, but also lower cost. In addition, Nd bonded PM has extremely low eddy current loss due to its low conductivity. It is found from three-dimensional finite element analysis and experimental results that the axial gap motor employing Nd bonded PM can achieve higher torque and higher efficiency compared with the radial gap motor employing Nd sintered PM with the same PM weight and a flat shape.
Autors: Ren Tsunata;Masatsugu Takemoto;Satoshi Ogasawara;Asako Watanabe;Tomoyuki Ueno;Koji Yamada;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 254 - 262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development and Performance of a Photoelectric Salt Concentration Sensor
Abstract:
The lack of medical salt aerosssol concentration detection method and instability powder atomization result in poor aerosol inhalation treatment effects. Considering medical vaporizer specific requirements, physical and chemical characteristics of salt powder commonly used, this paper analyzes salt particle light scattering using T-matrix method based on discrete source, calculated scattering intensity of salt particle with diameter of 0.4 to , develops photoelectric salt aerosol concentration sensor with forward differential scattering light path and weak current signal conditioning circuits. Sensor salt aerosol concentration calibration experiments and performance tests was carried out, and the results show as follows: the maximum residuals of sensor is 0.262 mg/L in calibration experiments and relative error in performance tests was 12.9%, satisfied salt aerosol concentration detection requirements and could provide basis for on line stability control of aerosol concentration in medical salt powder atomization process.
Autors: Xiliang Zhang;Lin Zhao;Changyuan Ma;Gang Jiao;Kun Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1694 - 1702
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a Fluid Dynamic Model for Quantitative Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging
Abstract:
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a non-invasive imaging technique extensively used for blood perfusion imaging of various organs. This modality is based on the acoustic detection of gas-filled microbubble contrast agents used as intravascular flow tracers. Recent efforts aim at quantifying parameters related to the enhancement in the vascular compartment using time-intensity curve (TIC), and at using these latter as indicators for several pathological conditions. However, this quantification is mainly hampered by two reasons: first, the quantification intrinsically solely relies on temporal intensity variation, the explicit spatial transport of the contrast agent being left out. Second, the exact relationship between the acquired US-signal and the local microbubble concentration is hardly accessible. This paper introduces the use of a fluid dynamic model for the analysis of dynamic CEUS (DCEUS), in order to circumvent the two above-mentioned limitations. A new kinetic analysis is proposed in order to quantify the velocity amplitude of the bolus arrival. The efficiency of proposed methodology is evaluated both in-vitro, for the quantitative estimation of microbubble flow rates, and in-vivo, for the classification of placental insufficiency (control versus ligature) of pregnant rats from DCEUS. Besides, for the in-vivo experimental setup, we demonstrated that the proposed approach outperforms the performance of existing TIC-based methods.
Autors: Baudouin Denis de Senneville;Anthony Novell;Chloé Arthuis;Vanda Mendes;Paul-Armand Dujardin;Frédéric Patat;Ayache Bouakaz;Jean-Michel Escoffre;Franck Perrotin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 372 - 383
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a high-performance indirectly hydrogen-cooled turbine generator [News from Japan]
Abstract:
Global warming caused by CO2 emission, and continuously growing power demands world-wide, are of considerable concern. Among the various types of electric power generation systems, thermal power generation is the largest emitter of CO2. Thus reducing the CO2 emission from thermal power generation plants by increasing their efficiency is an important task for the manufacturers of such plants. Thermal power plants and turbine generators are therefore required to supply electric power more efficiently, where efficiency is defined as generator efficiency.
Autors: Y. Ohki;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 61 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a Low Radar Cross Section Antenna With Band-Notched Absorber
Abstract:
A low radar cross section (RCS) antenna designed with band-notched absorber is described. First, a dual-polarization absorber with relative bandwidth more than 80% is designed using loaded resistors. Pairs of circular slot resonators and metal strip array resonators are introduced in the absorber to realize a notch band with full reflectance in the vertical polarization, while a wide absorption band in the horizontal polarization is maintained. The proposed band-notched absorber is thus realized. Within the notch band, the absorber can be served as a metal ground for antenna; while a great RCS reduction is obtained out of the notch band and in the horizontal polarization band. Then, a dipole antenna rigorously designed is mounted above the band-notched absorber, whose operating frequency is exactly in accordance with that of the notch band. The proposed low RCS antenna is established based on assembling the dipole antenna and the band-notched absorber together. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna has fairly good radiation patterns. Added to that, more than 10 dB RCS reduction in two polarizations is realized simultaneously compared with that one of a conventional dipole antenna.
Autors: Peng Mei;Xian Qi Lin;Jia Wei Yu;Abdelheq Boukarkar;Peng Cheng Zhang;Zi Qiang Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 582 - 589
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of a TEM Compatible Nanowire Characterization Platform With Self-Forming Contacts
Abstract:
A nanowire characterization platform is designed and fabricated in MEMS-technology for the thermoelectric and structural characterization of single nanowires. The latter is achieved by making the chip compatible to TEM holder, by restricting its thickness to less than 160 μm and its diagonal dimensions to less than 3 mm. Two different fabrication technologies are presented for the realization of such platform, based on a design reproducing the functional requirements. Our first fabrication technique is based on ICP etching, using (100)-silicon wafers, and a subsequent rear grinding. However, as the design includes a vertical wall trench structures, ICP etching of such deep recesses is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a second fabrication process is developed, making use of wet-etched (110)-silicon. With these substrates a challenge arises from the intersection of inclined {111} facets. To solve this natural limitation, we introduce a novel fabrication process. Our technique relies on damaging the intersecting {111} planes, to make them etchable again and to produce deeper trenches with vertical walls in a wet-chemical etching process. Additionally, the electrical contacts at the platform are made from porous metal to increase the surface-to-volume ratio, to increase the possibility of a spontaneous electrical contact between the electrodes and nanowires.
Autors: S. Hoda Moosavi;Michael Kroener;Maxi Frei;Fabian Frick;Sven Kerzenmacher;Peter Woias;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 22 - 31
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of High-Density Radio Frequency Plasma Sources With Very Small Diameter for Propulsion
Abstract:
Radio frequency (RF) plasma sources, especially helicon ones, are very useful in many fields, because of the high-density (up to cm−3) and low electron temperature (from a few to several electronvolts) available, using an RF frequency range. Here, we develop and characterize very small-area (from 2-cm down to 0.1–0.3 cm in diameter) RF sources that are useful for a space propulsion system with an advanced concept of an electrodeless condition (no direct contact between the plasma and electrodes), leading to a longer operation lifetime. Measurements by using electrostatic probes as well as by a spectrometer based on the collisional radiative model in a small plasma region were employed to estimate the electron density and its temperature. Here, was measured as a function of the input RF power and RF excitation frequency, especially in a higher frequency range than the usual one of ~14 MHz, under the mirror magnetic-field configuration. The electron cyclotron resonance effect in the divergent field was examined under a weaker magnetic field with the RF frequency lower than those generally employed. The particle production efficiency, even in this small source, showed an excellent performance, based on classical diffusion discussions. In addition, applying these sources were applied to a space propulsion system with the concept of the m (azimuthal mode number) = 0 half-cycle acceleration, which was operated under all electrodeless conditions in both the plasma generation and electromagnetic acceleration phases.
Autors: Shunjiro Shinohara;Daisuke Kuwahara;Takamichi Ishii;Hiraku Iwaya;Shuichi Nishimura;Tomoya Yamase;Daisuke Arai;Hirotaka Horita;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 252 - 262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of Impact Indices for Performing Charging of a Large EV Population
Abstract:
Nodal voltages and feeder currents are acquired by running load flows for electric vehicle (EV) charging purposes. The impact of the charging is analyzed by either visually inspecting the voltages and currents or calculating appropriate impact indices. Optimal charging, on the other hand, is performed by incorporating the voltages and currents in charging strategies. Though the impact indices are frequently used for assessing the impact, their usage for optimizing charging has been minimal. Therefore, this paper develops probabilistic impact indices for nodal voltage violations and feeder overloading, which can be applied not only for investigating the impact but also for optimizing charging. Also, aggregated EV load demand of a large EV population is modeled by using a new combined state of charge (SOC)-based charging strategy in time series, for assessing the applicability of the developed impact indices for practical purposes. The combined SOC dynamically integrates arrival and departure of EV and delivered energy. The numerical results show that the proposed impact indices in conjunction with the SOC-based charging have numerous advantages over the conventional charging strategies aided by the load flows.
Autors: Md Shariful Islam;Nadarajah Mithulananthan;Kwang Y. Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 866 - 880
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Development of the Humanoid Disaster Response Platform DRC-HUBO+
Abstract:
This paper describes a humanoid robotics platform (DRC-HUBO+) developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Robotics Challenge (DRC) Finals. This paper also describes the design criteria, hardware, software framework, and experimental testing of the DRC-HUBO+ platform. The purpose of DRC-HUBO+ is to perform tasks by teleoperation in hazardous environments that are unsafe for humans, such as disaster zones. We identified specific design concepts for DRC-HUBO+ to achieve this goal. For a robot to be capable of performing human tasks, a human-like shape and size, autonomy, mobility, manipulability, and power are required, among other features. Furthermore, modularized joints and a user-friendly software framework were emphasized as design concepts to facilitate research on the robot tasks. The DRC-HUBO+ platform is based on DRC-HUBO-1 and HUBO-2. The torque of each joint is increased compared to that in DRC-HUBO-1 owing to its high reduction ratio and air-cooling system. DRC-HUBO+ is designed with an exoskeletal structure to provide it with sufficient stiffness relative to its mass. All wires are enclosed within the robot body using a hollow shaft and covers to protect the wires from external shock. Regarding the vision system, active cognition of the environment can be realized using a light-detection and ranging sensor and vision cameras on the head. To achieve stable mobility, the robot can transition from the bipedal walking mode to the wheel mode using wheels located on both knees. DRC-HUBO+ has 32 degrees of freedom (DOFs), including seven DOFs for each arm and six DOFs for each leg, and a solid and light body with a height of 170 cm and a mass of 80 kg. A software framework referred to as PODO, with a Linux kernel and the Xenomai patch, is used in DRC-HUBO+.
Autors: Taejin Jung;Jeongsoo Lim;Hyoin Bae;Kang Kyu Lee;Hyun-Min Joe;Jun-Ho Oh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 1 - 17
Publisher: IEEE
 
» DFB Laser Diodes Based on GaN Using 10th Order Laterally Coupled Surface Gratings
Abstract:
Single longitudinal mode emission of laterally coupled distributed-feedback (LC-DFB) laser diodes (LDs) based on InGaN/GaN multiquantum-well structures containing 10th-order surface Bragg gratings with V-shaped grooves is demonstrated. The gratings were fabricated alongside a 2-μm-wide contact stripe by i-line stepper lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching. A single peak emission at 404.6 nm with a fullwidth at half-maximum of 0.04 nm was achieved at an output power of about 46 mW under pulsed laser operation. The shift of the lasing wavelength of LC-DFB LDs in the temperature range from 22 °C to 45 °C was around three times smaller than that of comparable ridge waveguide Fabry-Pérot LDs.
Autors: Ji Hye Kang;Hans Wenzel;Veit Hoffmann;Erik Freier;Luca Sulmoni;Ralph-Stephan Unger;Sven Einfeldt;Tim Wernicke;Michael Kneissl;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 231 - 234
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Differential Bandpass Filters Based on Dumbbell-Shaped Defected Ground Resonators
Abstract:
This letter presents a dumbbell-shaped defected ground resonator and its application in the design of differential filters. The operation principle of the dumbbell-shaped resonator (DSR) coupled to differential microstrip lines is studied through a circuit model analysis. The proposed circuit model is validated through the comparison with the electromagnetic simulation results. It is shown that the bandpass configuration of microstrip-line-coupled DSR can be used to design higher order bandpass filters. The design procedure is explained by developing a third-order filter prototype. The designed filter shows more than 57-dB common-mode rejection within the differential passband.
Autors: Amir Ebrahimi;Thomas Baum;Kamran Ghorbani;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 129 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Differential Steering Based Yaw Stabilization Using ISMC for Independently Actuated Electric Vehicles
Abstract:
Differential drive assistance steering (DDAS) is an emerging assisted steering mechanism in in-wheel-motor driven (IWMD) electric vehicles, yielded by the differential moment of the front tires in the steering system. DDAS can steer the front wheels when there is no steering power from the steering motor, and thus can be used as a redundant steering mechanism. To realize the yaw control when the active front steering entirely breaks down and guarantee the transient control performance therein, this paper proposes an integral sliding mode control (ISMC) approach for IWMD electric vehicles steered by DDAS. Two contributions are made in this paper: 1) An improved disturbance observer based ISMC strategy is designed to cope with the unknown mismatched disturbances, and the composite nonlinear feedback technique is employed to design the nominal part of the controller to restrain overshoots and remove steady-state errors considering the tire force saturations; 2) An adaptive super-twisting control approach is proposed to deal with the disturbances with unknown boundaries using a continuous controller while eliminating the chattering effect. The system stability and robustness are proved via Lyapunov approach. CarSim-Simulink simulation has verified the effectiveness of the proposed control approach in the case of the steering fault.
Autors: Chuan Hu;Rongrong Wang;Fengjun Yan;Yanjun Huang;Hong Wang;Chongfeng Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 627 - 638
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diffraction Effects and Compensation in Passive Acoustic Mapping
Abstract:
Over the last decade, a variety of noninvasive techniques have been developed to monitor therapeutic ultrasound procedures in support of safety or efficacy assessments. One class of methods employs diagnostic ultrasound arrays to sense acoustic emissions, thereby providing a means to passively detect, localize, and quantify the strength of nonlinear sources, including cavitation. Real array element diffraction patterns may differ substantially from those presumed in existing beamforming algorithms. However, diffraction compensation has received limited treatment in passive and active imaging, and measured diffraction data have yet to be used for array response correction. The objectives of this paper were to identify differences between ideal and real element diffraction patterns, and to quantify the impact of diffraction correction on cavitation mapping beamformer performance. These objectives were addressed by performing calibration measurements on a diagnostic linear array, using the results to calculate diffraction correction terms, and applying the corrections to cavitation emission data collected from soft tissue phantom experiments. Measured diffraction patterns were found to differ significantly from those of ideal element forms, particularly at higher frequencies and shorter distances from the array. Diffraction compensation of array data resulted in cavitation energy estimates elevated by as much as a factor of 5, accompanied by the elimination of a substantial bias between two established beamforming algorithms. These results illustrate the importance of using measured array responses to validate analytical field models and to minimize observation biases in imaging applications where quantitative analyses are critical for assessment of therapeutic safety and efficacy.
Autors: Michael D. Gray;Erasmia Lyka;Constantin C. Coussios;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 258 - 268
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Implementation of the Two-Compartmental Pinsky–Rinzel Pyramidal Neuron Model
Abstract:
It is believed that brain-like computing system can be achieved by the fusion of electronics and neuroscience. In this way, the optimized digital hardware implementation of neurons, primary units of nervous system, play a vital role in neuromorphic applications. Moreover, one of the main features of pyramidal neurons in cortical areas is bursting activities that has a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The Pinsky–Rinzel model is a nonlinear two-compartmental model for CA3 pyramidal cell that is widely used in neuroscience. In this paper, a modified Pinsky–Rinzel pyramidal model is proposed by replacing its complex nonlinear equations with piecewise linear approximation. Next, a digital circuit is designed for the simplified model to be able to implement on a low-cost digital hardware, such as field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Both original and proposed models are simulated in MATLAB and next digital circuit simulated in Vivado is compared to show that obtained results are in good agreement. Finally, the results of physical implementation on FPGA are also illustrated. The presented circuit advances preceding designs with regards to the ability to replicate essential characteristics of different firing responses including bursting and spiking in the compartmental model. This new circuit has various applications in neuromorphic engineering, such as developing new neuroinspired chips.
Autors: Elahe Rahimian;Soheil Zabihi;Mahmood Amiri;Bernabé Linares-Barranco;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 47 - 57
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Digital Monopulse Beamforming for Achieving the CRLB for Angle Accuracy
Abstract:
The monopulse angle-estimation technique used in digital beamforming radars is investigated from the perspective of optimizing the angle accuracy. Specifically, a digital difference beamforming taper is proposed in this paper to optimize the monopulse angle accuracy. For a fully digitized array radar with an amplitude-tapered antenna aperture for sum beampattern with low sidelobes, the monopulse angle accuracy obtained using the proposed difference taper coincides with the Cramer–Rao lower bound. The derivation of the monopulse angle accuracy with the proposed difference taper is presented and an improvement of the accuracy over the conventional monopulse accuracy is proved theoretically. The results of computer simulations using a uniform linear array is included to highlight the accuracy improvement by a factor of 1.16 (over the conventional monopulse), which is equivalent to a 1.3 dB reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio for the requisite angle accuracy.
Autors: Ryuhei Takahashi;Takayuki Inaba;Toru Takahashi;Hirohisa Tasaki;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 315 - 323
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Dimensional Synthesis of Evanescent-Mode Ridge Waveguide Bandpass Filters
Abstract:
This paper introduces a method giving dimensions of inline evanescent-mode ridge waveguide bandpass filters. Evanescent mode couplings are evaluated individually, without optimization of the entire filter. This is obtained through an improved network model of the evanescent-mode coupling, together with novel analytical formulas to correct the resonators slope parameters. Unlike prior works based on full-wave optimization of the overall structure, this method is fast and leads to accurate bandwidth results. Several filter examples are included to support the design method. A prototype filter has been manufactured and the RF measurements are in good agreement with theory.
Autors: Vittorio Tornielli di Crestvolant;Fabrizio De Paolis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 954 - 961
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Diophantine Equations With Binomial Coefficients and Perturbations of Symmetric Boolean Functions
Abstract:
This paper presents a study of perturbations of symmetric Boolean functions. In particular, it establishes a connection between exponential sums of these perturbations and Diophantine equations of the form , where belongs to some fixed bounded subset of . The concepts of trivially balanced symmetric Boolean function and sporadic balanced Boolean function are extended to this type of perturbations. An observation made by Canteaut and Videau for symmetric Boolean functions of fixed degree is extended. To be specific, it is proved that, excluding the trivial cases, balanced perturbations of fixed degree do not exist when the number of variables grows. Some sporadic balanced perturbations are presented. Finally, a beautiful but unexpected identity between exponential sums for perturbations of two different symmetric Boolean functions is also included in this work.
Autors: Francis N. Castro;Oscar E. González;Luis A. Medina;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1347 - 1360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Direct Current Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines
Abstract:
The technology behind dc power transmissions shows an ever-increasing usage worldwide. Predominantly installed in remote areas, the use of overhead transmission lines is reasonable. Today, dc transmission technology is entering a new era, where rather densely populated areas are being firmly looked at with the desire of nonvisibility transmission lines. DC gas-insulated transmission lines (DC GIL) provide a powerful solution for underground installations. The acclaimed reliability of ac gas-insulated technology has, in turn, further initiated changes in the development of DC GIL. Driven by the German Energy Policy (“Energiewende”), additional north-south power transmission corridors are essential for power transmission of wind energy from the north and photovoltaic from the south, based on the required availability of energy. The DC GIL uses an aluminum conductor and enclosure pipes of high cross sections for rated currents of up to 5000 A and a voltage rating of ±550 kV. The assembly and installation technique of DC GIL is highly automated with the mobile factory and the friction stir welding process for fast and safe jointing of aluminum pipes. Development results and the state of the art are explained in this contribution.
Autors: Tomasz Magier;Michael Tenzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 440 - 446
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Direct Force-Reflecting Two-Layer Approach for Passive Bilateral Teleoperation With Time Delays
Abstract:
We propose a two-layer control architecture for bilateral teleoperation with communication delays. The controller is structured with an (inner) performance layer and an (outer) passivity layer. In the performance layer, any traditional controller for bilateral teleoperation can be implemented. The passivity layer guarantees that, from the operator and environment perspective, the overall teleoperator is passive: The amount of energy that can be extracted from the teleoperator is bounded from below and the rate of increase of the stored energy in the teleoperator is bounded by (twice) the environment and operator supplied power. Passivity is ensured by modulating the performance layer outputs and by injecting a variable amount of damping via an energy-based logic that follows the innovative principle of energy duplication and takes into account the detrimental effects of time delays. In contrast to the traditional teleoperation approach, in which the master and slave controllers implement an as-stiff-as-possible coupling between the master and slave devices, our scheme is specifically designed for direct force-reflecting bilateral teleoperation: The slave controller mimics the operator action, whereas the master controller reflects the slave-environment interaction. We illustrate the performance of the two-layer approach in a challenging experiment with a round-trip communication delay of 300 ms while making and breaking contact with a stiff aluminum environment. Finally, we also compare our controller with the state of the art.
Autors: Dennis Heck;Alessandro Saccon;Ruud Beerens;Henk Nijmeijer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 194 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Directional Bending Sensor Based on a Dual Side-Hole Fiber Mach–Zehnder Interferometer
Abstract:
A new directional bending sensor based on a dual side-hole fiber (DSHF) that can detect both the direction and magnitude of bending in a self-temperature compensated manner is described and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor is based on an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI), where a DSHF segment was spliced between two standard single-mode fibers (SMFs) as input and output. The sensor has two orthogonal axes which are formed by both the asymmetry in the side-hole location in DSHF and an offset in the fusion splice between the SMF and DSHF. The visibility in the MZI output intensity and the spectral shifts of MZI fringes show separate responses to the bending curvature and direction, which is a key feature of the directional curvature sensor. An inscribed fiber Bragg grating in the DSHF measure allows the temperature to be measured independently. The sensor can provide salient advantages in its unique capability to precisely quantify the direction and magnitude of bending along with its reproducibility, compactness, and suitability for mass production, which makes it suitable for many practical bending sensing applications.
Autors: Ye Tian;Quan Chai;Tao Tan;Boxin Mu;Qiang Liu;Yanlei Liu;Jing Ren;Jianzhong Zhang;Kyunghwan Oh;Elfed Lewis;Jun Yang;Zhihai Liu;Wenping Zhang;Libo Yuan;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 375 - 378
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discovering Triangles in Portraits for Supporting Photographic Creation
Abstract:
Incorporating the concept of triangles in photos is an effective composition technique used by professional photographers for making pictures more interesting or dynamic. Information on the locations of the embedded triangles is valuable for comparing the composition of portrait photos which can be further leveraged by a retrieval system or used by the photographers. This paper presents a system to automatically detect embedded triangles in portrait photos. The problem is challenging because the triangles used in portraits are often not clearly defined by straight lines. The system first extracts a set of filtered line segments as candidate triangle sides and then utilizes a modified random sample consensus algorithm to fit triangles onto the set of line segments. We propose two metrics Continuity Ratio and Total Ratio to evaluate the fitted triangles; those with high fitting scores are taken as detected triangles. Experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy in locating preeminent triangles in portraits without dependence on the camera or lens parameters. To demonstrate the benefits of our method to digital photography we have developed two novel applications that aim to help users compose high-quality photos. In the first application we develop a human position and pose recommendation system by retrieving and presenting compositionally similar photos taken by competent photographers. The second application is a novel sketch-based triangle retrieval system which searches for photos containing a specific triangular configuration. User studies have been conducted to validate the effectiveness of these approaches.
Autors: Siqiong He;Zihan Zhou;Farshid Farhat;James Z. Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 496 - 508
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discrete-Time Positive Edge-Consensus for Undirected and Directed Nodal Networks
Abstract:
This brief addresses the positive consensus of the edges with multi-input and multi-output positive dynamics for undirected and directed networks. The line graph is derived from the given nodal graph to represent the interaction of the edges, and the discrete-time positive systems are introduced to describe the edge dynamics. Based on the positive system theory and consensus analysis, a necessary and sufficient condition for positive edge-consensus is established, which reveals how the edge dynamics and the eigenvalues of the Perron matrix of line graph affect the consensus. Moreover, with further analysis, sufficient conditions for positive edge-consensus are derived without using the global interaction topology. It shows that the positive consensus can be achieved with the combined effect of edge dynamics, the number of edges, and the minimum diagonal element of the Perron matrix of line graph. The feedback matrix can be computed by solving linear programming problem. Finally, the simulations explicitly verify the proposed theoretical results.
Autors: Han Wu;Housheng Su;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 221 - 225
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Discrete-Time Predictor Feedback for Consensus of Multiagent Systems With Delays
Abstract:
This note develops a discrete-time predictor feedback control scheme for continuous-time multiagent systems with input and communication time delays. With measurement of locally available relative state signals among neighbored agents, the controller is able to achieve consensus for a large variety of linear open-loop agent dynamics, including exponentially unstable systems. Moreover, the new design can deal with arbitrarily large time delays in some special scenarios. The feature of discrete-time and relative state measurement substantially saves implementation cost compared with the existing methods in the literature. Numerical simulation demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical design.
Autors: Anton Ponomarev;Zhiyong Chen;Hai-Tao Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 498 - 504
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Disseminating Multilayer Multimedia Content Over Challenged Networks
Abstract:
Mobile devices are getting increasingly popular all over the world. Mobile users in developing countries however rarely have Internet access which puts them at economic and social disadvantages compared to their counterparts in developed countries. We propose mBridge: A distributed system to disseminate multimedia content to mobile users with intermittent Internet access and opportunistic ad hoc connectivity. By disseminating various multimedia content such as news reports notification messages targeted advertisements movie trailers and TV shows mBridge aims to eliminate the digital divide. We formulate an optimization problem to compute personalized distribution plans for individual mobile users to maximize the overall user experience under various resource constraints. Our formulation jointly considers the characteristics of multimedia content mobile users and intermittent networks. We present an efficient distribution planning algorithm to solve our problem and we develop several online heuristics to adapt to the system and network dynamics. We implement a prototype system and demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms by up to 206% 472% and 188% in terms of user experience disk efficiency and energy efficiency respectively. In addition we conduct trace-driven simulations to rigorously evaluate the proposed system in different environments and for large-scale deployments. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm substantially outperforms the closest ones in the literature in all performance measures. We believe that mBridge can allow multimedia content providers to reach out to more mobile users and mobile users to access multimedia content without always-on Internet access.
Autors: Hua-Jun Hong;Tarek El-Ganainy;Cheng-Hsin Hsu;Khaled A. Harras;Mohamed Hefeeda;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 345 - 360
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Active State Estimation With User-Specified Accuracy
Abstract:
In this paper, we address the problem of controlling a network of mobile sensors so that a set of hidden states are estimated up to a user-specified accuracy. The sensors take measurements and fuse them online using an information consensus filter (ICF). At the same time, the local estimates guide the sensors to their next best configuration. This leads to an LMI-constrained optimization problem that we solve by means of a new distributed random approximate projections method. The new method is robust to the state disagreement errors that exist among the robots as the ICF fuses the collected measurements. Assuming that the noise corrupting the measurements is zero-mean and Gaussian and that the robots are self-localized in the environment, the integrated system converges to the next best positions from where new observations will be taken. This process is repeated with the robots taking a sequence of observations until the hidden states are estimated up to the desired user-specified accuracy. We present simulations of sparse landmark localization, where the robotic team achieves the desired estimation tolerances while exhibiting interesting emergent behavior.
Autors: Charles Freundlich;Soomin Lee;Michael M. Zavlanos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 418 - 433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Caching Based on Matching Game in LEO Satellite Constellation Networks
Abstract:
With the rapid development of low Earth orbit (LEO) constellation satellite networks and on-board processing, in-network content caching becomes feasible, which can further improve the system performance. In order to minimize user terminals content access delay, a novel caching algorithm by optimizing content placement in LEO satellite constellation networks is proposed in this letter. The formulated problem is proved to be NP-complete (NPC) by reducing it to the 2-disjoint set cover problem, which is a known NPC problem. This letter considers the interactions among distributed satellites for making individual content decisions. Then, this letter adopts an exchange-stable matching (ESM) algorithm based on many-to-many matching game with externalities. Simulation results show that the ESM algorithm can improve the system performance in terms of content access delay.
Autors: Shuaijun Liu;Xin Hu;Yipeng Wang;Gaofeng Cui;Weidong Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 300 - 303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Clustering-Task Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Dynamic Hyper Round Policy
Abstract:
Prolonging the network life cycle is an essential requirement for many types of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. Dynamic clustering of sensors into groups is a popular strategy to maximize the network lifetime and increase scalability. In this strategy, to achieve the sensor nodes’ load balancing, with the aim of prolonging lifetime, network operations are split into rounds, i.e., fixed time intervals. Clusters are configured for the current round and reconfigured for the next round so that the costly role of the cluster head is rotated among the network nodes, i.e., Round-Based Policy (RBP). This load balancing approach potentially extends the network lifetime. However, the imposed overhead, due to the clustering in every round, wastes network energy resources. This paper proposes a distributed energy-efficient scheme to cluster a WSN, i.e., Dynamic Hyper Round Policy (DHRP), which schedules clustering-task to extend the network lifetime and reduce energy consumption. Although DHRP is applicable to any data gathering protocols that value energy efficiency, a Simple Energy-efficient Data Collecting (SEDC) protocol is also presented to evaluate the usefulness of DHRP and calculate the end-to-end energy consumption. Experimental results demonstrate that SEDC with DHRP is more effective than two well-known clustering protocols, HEED and M-LEACH, for prolonging the network lifetime and achieving energy conservation.
Autors: Peyman Neamatollahi;Mahmoud Naghibzadeh;Saeid Abrishami;Mohammad-Hossein Yaghmaee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 334 - 347
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Computation of Equilibria in Misspecified Convex Stochastic Nash Games
Abstract:
The distributed computation of Nash equilibria is assuming growing relevance in engineering where such problems emerge in the context of distributed control. Accordingly, we present schemes for computing equilibria of two classes of static stochastic convex games complicated by a parametric misspecification, a natural concern in the control of large-scale networked engineered system. In both schemes, players learn the equilibrium strategy while resolving the misspecification: 1) Monotone stochastic Nash games: We present a set of coupled stochastic approximation schemes distributed across agents in which the first scheme updates each agent's strategy via a projected (stochastic) gradient step, whereas the second scheme updates every agent's belief regarding its misspecified parameter using an independently specified learning problem. We proceed to show that the produced sequences converge in an almost sure sense to the true equilibrium strategy and the true parameter, respectively. Surprisingly, convergence in the equilibrium strategy achieves the optimal rate of convergence in a mean-squared sense with a quantifiable degradation in the rate constant; 2) Stochastic Nash–Cournot games with unobservable aggregate output: We refine 1) to a Cournot setting where we assume that the tuple of strategies is unobservable while payoff functions and strategy sets are public knowledge through a common knowledge assumption. By utilizing observations of noise-corrupted prices, iterative fixed-point schemes are developed, allowing for simultaneously learning the equilibrium strategies and the misspecified parameter in an almost sure sense.
Autors: Hao Jiang;Uday V. Shanbhag;Sean P. Meyn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 360 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Event Localization via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers
Abstract:
This paper addresses the problem of distributed event localization using noisy range measurements with respect to sensors with known positions. Event localization is fundamental in many wireless sensor network applications such as homeland security, law enforcement, and environmental studies. However, most existing distributed algorithms require the target event to be within the convex hull of the deployed sensors. Based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), we propose two scalable distributed algorithms named GS-ADMM and J-ADMM which do not require the target event to be within the convex hull of the deployed sensors. More specifically, the two algorithms can be implemented in a scenario in which the entire sensor network is divided into several clusters with cluster heads collecting measurements within each cluster and exchanging intermediate computation information to achieve localization consistency (consensus) across all clusters. This scenario is important in many applications such as homeland security and law enforcement. Simulation results confirm effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Autors: Chunlei Zhang;Yongqiang Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 348 - 361
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Privacy-Aware Fast Selection Algorithm for Large-Scale Data
Abstract:
Finding the smallest/largest element of a large array, i.e., -selection is a fundamental supporting algorithm in data analysis. Due to the fact that big data born in geo-distributed environments, it especially requires communication-efficient distributed -selection, besides typical computation and memory efficiency. Moreover, sensitive organizations make data privacy a rigorous precondition for their participation in such distributed statistical analysis for common profit. To this end, we propose a Distributed Privacy-Aware Median (DPAM) selection algorithm for median selection in distributed large-scale data while preserving local statistics privacy, and extend it to arbitrary -selection. DPAM utilizes mean to approximate median, via contraction of the standard deviation. It is the theoretical fastest with a worst computation complexity of , and also highly efficient in communication overhead (in logarithm of data range). To preserve -differential privacy of local statistics, DPAM randomly adds dummy eleme- ts (the number follows a rounded Laplacian distribution) to local data. The noise does not degrade the estimation precision or convergence rate. Performance of DPAM is compared with centralized/distributed quick select and optimization, in terms of complexity and privacy preserving ability. Extensive simulation and experiment results show the higher efficiency of DPAM.
Autors: Hao Liu;Jiming Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 365 - 376
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Resource Allocation for D2D Communications Underlaying Cellular Networks in Time-Varying Environment
Abstract:
In this letter, we address joint channel and power allocation in a device-to-device (D2D) network underlaying a cellular network in a time-varying environment. A fully distributed solution, which does not require information exchange, is proposed to allocate channel and power levels to D2D pairs while ensuring the quality of service (QoS) of the cellular user equipments (CUEs). The problem is modeled as a Stackelberg game with pricing. At the leader level, base station sets prices for the channels to ensure the QoS of the CUEs. At the follower level, D2D pairs use an uncoupled stochastic learning algorithm to learn the channel indices and power levels while minimizing the weighted aggregate interference and the price paid. The follower game is shown to be an ordinal potential game. We perform simulations to study the convergence of the algorithm.
Autors: Susan Dominic;Lillykutty Jacob;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 388 - 391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Distributed Resource Allocation in SDCN-Based Heterogeneous Networks Utilizing Licensed and Unlicensed Bands
Abstract:
The explosive growth of mobile data traffic and the scarcity of available licensed spectrum make resource allocation in heterogeneous networks a critical issue. A distributed resource allocation algorithm for software defined cellular networks for future 5G networks is proposed. The adoption of integrated femto-WiFi small cells is used to alleviate spectrum shortage, by permitting simultaneous access to both the licensed bands (via cellular interface) and unlicensed bands (via WiFi interface). A weighted utility maximization problem is formulated to optimize resource allocation, utilizing the software defined network controller’s global view. A fully distributed solution based on the weighted utility maximization optimizes resource allocation, keeping the interference from small cells to macrocells below predefined thresholds. The proposed algorithm considers the sDevices, which have both cellular and WiFi interfaces, and the wDevices which have WiFi-only interfaces. Numerical simulations substantiate the superiority of the proposed resource allocation algorithm, which increases significantly the average throughput and average utility of all devices, compared with the traditional and current methods. Throughput gains as large as 41.6% in spectral efficiency for the average of all sDevices and wDevices are achieved by the new designs.
Autors: Chunyu Pan;Changchuan Yin;Norman C. Beaulieu;Jian Yu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 711 - 721
Publisher: IEEE
 

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