Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 5

» Charging Behavior of Users Utilizing Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles Within the Scope of a Field Test
Abstract:
Electric vehicles (EVs) and their application raise new questions and demands. Accordingly, the charging process of EVs is a novelty in everyday life when using such vehicles. This paper presents results of user charging behavior within a field test. In the field test, 500 people with above average yearly mileage took part in integrating the vehicles into their everyday lives. For the results of this paper, the charging behavior of 200 test people is taken into account. The differences in user behavior between battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) are discussed. The results indicate that there are various opportunities for grid services based on EVs, as the vehicles are connected or parked close to a charging station the majority of the time. Moreover, the results also show deviating user behavior for the BEVs and EREVs.
Autors: Philip Karl-Heinz Dost;Philipp Spichartz;Constantinos Sourkounis;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 580 - 590
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chessboard AMC Surface Based on Quasi-Fractal Structure for Wideband RCS Reduction
Abstract:
A chessboard artificial magnetic conductor surface based on the quasi-fractal structure is proposed for wideband radar cross-section (RCS) reduction. The chessboard configuration is formed by two different cells with 180° ± 37° phase difference over more than 90% frequency bandwidth. The quasi-fractal structure is utilized to achieve the wideband and compact characteristics. Monostatic and bistatic RCS of the proposed chessboard surface are analyzed, and the results are compared with those of equal-sized perfect electric conductor ground plane. Because the scattered fields of the chessboard surface are redirected toward four quadrants, a remarkable RCS reduction of 10 dB can be realized from 5.4 to 14.2 GHz. Measured results of the fabricated prototype satisfactorily agree with the simulated ones.
Autors: Jingjing Xue;Wen Jiang;Shuxi Gong;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 201 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CHIMERA: A Field-Programmable Mixed-Signal IC With Time-Domain Configurable Analog Blocks
Abstract:
This paper presents a field-programmable mixed-signal IC named CHIMERA, for low-cost and rapid prototyping of mixed-signal systems. The proposed IC implements field-programmable analog functions with time-domain configurable analog blocks (TCABs). A single TCAB can be programmed to various analog circuits, including a time-to-digital converter, digitally-controlled oscillator, digitally-controlled delay cell, digital pulse-width modulator, and phase interpolator. The TCABs convey and process analog information using the frequency, pulse width, delay, or phase of digital pulses or pulse sequences, rather than using analog voltage or current signals for reduced susceptibility to attenuation and noise. The overall CHIMERA chip also includes arrays of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) and programmable arithmetic logic units (ALUs) for programmable digital functions. By programming the functionality of the TCAB, CLB, and ALU arrays and configuring the interconnects, the chip can implement various mixed-signal systems. A prototype IC fabricated with 65-nm CMOS technology demonstrates the versatile programmability of CHIMERA by being successfully operated as a 1-GHz phase-locked loop with a 12.3-psrms integrated jitter, as a 50-MS/s analog-to-digital converter with a 32.5-dB SNDR, and as a 1.2-to-0.7 V DC–DC converter with 95.5% efficiency.
Autors: Yunju Choi;Yoontaek Lee;Seung-Heon Baek;Sung-Joon Lee;Jaeha Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 431 - 444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Chromatic Dispersion, Nonlinear Parameter, and Modulation Format Monitoring Based on Godard's Error for Coherent Optical Transmission Systems
Abstract:
This paper considers Godard's error as signal quality metric to monitor chromatic dispersion (CD), nonlinear parameter, and modulation format in the DSP module of the coherent receivers. We first review a CD monitoring based on Godard's error that can be able to accurately monitor arbitrarily large dispersion values in uncompensated transmission links in combination with frequency domain equalizer, then extend the previous nonlinear parameter monitoring method based on Godard's error by blindly obtaining the optimized value γξp to significantly improve the adaptive capability, and present a simple and effective modulation format monitoring based on Godard's error. Meanwhile, the effectiveness has been experimentally verified in 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK, 192-Gb/s PDM-8QAM, and 256-Gb/s PDM-16QAM systems.
Autors: Lin Jiang;Lianshan Yan;Anlin Yi;Yan Pan;Ming Hao;Wei Pan;Bin Luo;Yves Jaouën;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 12
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circuit Model Extraction of Parallel-Connected Dual-Passband Coupled-Resonator Filters
Abstract:
In this paper, an analytical coupling matrix extraction scheme is proposed for parallel-connected dual-passband coupled-resonator filters for the first time. Model-based vector fitting technique is adopted to fit the measured responses of the dual-passband filter (DPBF) with a set of rational functions, from which a transversal coupling matrix can be constructed. A novel coupling matrix transformation strategy is developed to transform the transversal coupling matrix to the one corresponding to the topology of a parallel-connected DPBF. A practical filter is used as a test example to demonstrate the extraction procedure. In diagnosing the coupling matrix of the test filter, two kinds of ambiguity problems are discussed in detail and are solved by a perturbation technique. This paper provides a general theoretic framework for computer-aided tuning of a parallel-connected dual-passband or multiple-passband filter.
Autors: Ping Zhao;Ke-Li Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 822 - 830
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circularly Polarized Antenna With Reconfigurable Broadside and Conical Beams Facilitated by a Mode Switchable Feed Network
Abstract:
A pattern-reconfigurable slot-augmented patch antenna is reported that radiates circularly polarized (CP) fields and is switchable between a broadside and a conical radiating mode. Two novel design strategies were adopted to realize these advantageous performance characteristics. First, a mode switchable feed network which includes a set of eight L-probes was developed that facilitates the proper excitation of either the patch’s TM11 or TM21 mode and yields symmetric radiation patterns. Second, their operating bands were made to overlap by augmenting this patch with an annular slot. Consequently, the radiation pattern is easily switched between the broadside and the conical modes within the overlapping operational bandwidths. A prototype was fabricated and tested. The measured results are in good agreement with their simulated values, verifying the design concepts. The measured operating bandwidth, 7.8% from 2.45 to 2.65 GHz, was determined from the overlap of the impedance and axial ratio bandwidths for both modes. The measured realized gain values are stable for both radiating states within this operational bandwidth, the broadside (conical) peak value being 8.5 dBic (5.8 dBic). The CP pattern reconfigurability of this antenna with its favorable performance characteristics makes it an ideal candidate for many RFID and satellite communication applications.
Autors: Wei Lin;Hang Wong;Richard W. Ziolkowski;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 996 - 1001
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Circulating Current Suppression in Modular Multilevel Converters With Even-Harmonic Repetitive Control
Abstract:
Due to voltage mismatch between phase legs and the dc bus in modular multilevel converters (MMCs), the differential current in MMCs is inherently subjected to circulating even-order harmonics. Repetitive control based active harmonic suppression methods can be adopted to eliminate such harmonics. Nevertheless, conventional repetitive controllers have a relatively slow dynamic response, because all the sampled errors in the past one cycle have to be stored, which causes a response delay for one fundamental period. This paper proposes an improved repetitive control scheme that exclusively copes with even-order harmonics based on the circulating current characteristics of MMC systems. The design details of the even harmonic repetitive control scheme according to the harmonics characteristics are provided. The proposed even-harmonic repetitive control scheme requires halved data memory to store error samplings and the delay introduced by the repetitive controller is also reduced. According to the frequency domain analysis, the even-harmonic repetitive control features faster convergence rate, greater low-frequency gains, higher crossover frequency, and higher tolerance against system frequency deviation, while possessing the same even-order harmonics suppression capability and stability as conventional ones. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the steady-state harmonics suppression capability, dynamic response, and disturbance tolerance of the proposed even-harmonic repetitive control scheme.
Autors: Shunfeng Yang;Peng Wang;Yi Tang;Michael Zagrodnik;Xiaolei Hu;King Jet Tseng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 298 - 309
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CIS Publication Spotlight [Publication Spotlight]
Abstract:
Presents reviews of recent articles from select IEEE publications.
Autors: Haibo He;Jon Garibaldi;Kay Chen Tan;Graham Kendall;Yaochu Jin;Yew Soon Ong;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 25 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cladding Light Stripper of High Average Stripped Power Density With High Attenuation of 39 dB and Low Temperature Rise
Abstract:
We demonstrate a 150-mm long cladding light stripper for kW-level operation with high attenuation and low temperature rising. The first 100 mm of the device was designed based on theoretical simulation to achieve uniform extraction of the high-power scattered cladding light and it was constructed by self-developed experimental device for continuous gradient chemical etching. While in the last 50 mm, we reduced the cladding diameter from 400 to 65 μm and then roughed the surface to extract the residual low NA cladding light more efficiently. The power handling capability of this design was tested up to 1.01 kW for an hour stably without causing any damage. The cladding light stripper achieved a high attenuation of 39 dB and a low temperature elevation of 0.05 °C/ input-Watt under the condition of air cooling. The maximum temperature on the surface of the device was only 78.5 °C with an average stripped power density of 7.156 × 106 W/m2. To the best of our knowledge, the cladding light stripper reported here has the highest average stripped power density and attenuation coefficient without compromising temperature performance. This cladding light stripper is well suitable for application in multikilowatts class fiber lasers.
Autors: Shuzhen Zou;Han Chen;Jingyuan Zhang;Haijuan Yu;Zhiyan Zhang;Jing Sun;Xuechun Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clarifying Trust in Social Internet of Things
Abstract:
A social approach can be exploited for the Internet of Things (IoT) to manage a large number of connected objects. These objects operate as autonomous agents to request and provide information and services to users. Establishing trustworthy relationships among the objects greatly improves the effectiveness of node interaction in the social IoT and helps nodes overcome perceptions of uncertainty and risk. However, there are limitations in the existing trust models. In this paper, a comprehensive model of trust is proposed that is tailored to the social IoT. The model includes ingredients such as trustor, trustee, goal, trustworthiness evaluation, decision, action, result, and context. Building on this trust model, we clarify the concepts of trust in the social IoT in five aspects such as: 1) mutuality of trustor and trustee; 2) inferential transfer of trust; 3) transitivity of trust; 4) trustworthiness update; and 5) trustworthiness affected by dynamic environment. With network connectivities that are from real-world social networks, a series of simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the social IoT operated with the proposed trust model. An experimental IoT network is used to further validate the proposed trust model.
Autors: Zhiting Lin;Liang Dong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 234 - 248
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification and Discrimination Among Winding Mechanical Defects, Internal and External Electrical Faults, and Inrush Current of Transformer
Abstract:
In this paper, the mechanical faults of transformers including the winding radial deformation and axial displacement on 1.6 MVA transformer winding are investigated. Then, by estimating the parameters of the detailed model of this transformer winding in MATLAB software and changing these parameters in a manner that is proportional to the mechanical defects in electro-magnetic transients program software, the sampled differential current of the transformer is extracted for each disturbance. Next, the internal and external electrical faults and inrush current of the transformer are simulated. Afterwards, these signals are analyzed using maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform with Daubechies4 wavelet function, and their features are extracted. These extracted features are considered for training the classifiers of Decision Tree and artificial neural network. According to the simulation results, the proposed procedure is capable of classifying and discriminating among winding mechanical defects, internal and external electrical faults, and inrush current with a good accuracy that is the main novelty of this paper in comparison to other published works, which are limited to classifying only some of the mentioned faults.
Autors: Sajad Bagheri;Zahra Moravej;Gevork B. Gharehpetian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 484 - 493
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of Hyperspectral Imagery Using a New Fully Convolutional Neural Network
Abstract:
With success of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in computer vision, the CNN has attracted great attention in hyperspectral classification. Many deep learning-based algorithms have been focused on deep feature extraction for classification improvement. In this letter, a novel deep learning framework for hyperspectral classification based on a fully CNN is proposed. Through convolution, deconvolution, and pooling layers, the deep features of hyperspectral data are enhanced. After feature enhancement, the optimized extreme learning machine (ELM) is utilized for classification. The proposed framework outperforms the existing CNN and other traditional classification algorithms by including deconvolution layers and an optimized ELM. Experimental results demonstrate that it can achieve outstanding hyperspectral classification performance.
Autors: Jiaojiao Li;Xi Zhao;Yunsong Li;Qian Du;Bobo Xi;Jing Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 292 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Classification of State Trajectories in Gene Regulatory Networks
Abstract:
Gene-expression-based phenotype classification is used for disease diagnosis and prognosis relating to treatment strategies. The present paper considers classification based on sequential measurements of multiple genes using gene regulatory network (GRN) modeling. There are two networks, original and mutated, and observations consist of trajectories of network states. The problem is to classify an observation trajectory as coming from either the original or mutated network. GRNs are modeled via probabilistic Boolean networks, which incorporate stochasticity at both the gene and network levels. Mutation affects the regulatory logic. Classification is based upon observing a trajectory of states of some given length. We characterize the Bayes classifier and find the Bayes error for a general PBN and the special case of a single Boolean network affected by random perturbations (BNp). The Bayes error is related to network sensitivity, meaning the extent of alteration in the steady-state distribution of the original network owing to mutation. Using standard methods to calculate steady-state distributions is cumbersome and sometimes impossible, so we provide an efficient algorithm and approximations. Extensive simulations are performed to study the effects of various factors, including approximation accuracy. We apply the classification procedure to a p53 BNp and a mammalian cell cycle PBN.
Autors: Alireza Karbalayghareh;Ulisses Braga-Neto;Jianping Hua;Edward Russell Dougherty;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 68 - 82
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clean and Green India: Is Solar Energy the Answer?
Abstract:
Approximately 78% of the world's electricity demand is fulfilled by fossil-fuelbased power plants. Electricity generated from such power plants is costly and often leads to environmental pollution and subsequent health hazards. For example, pollutants from coal combustion cause a variety of respiratory ailments and impact cardiovascular health and the nervous system.
Autors: Abhinav Aggarwal;Aman Singhal;Sumit J. Darak;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 40 - 46
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Form Design of Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Filters With Low or Middle Cutoff Frequencies
Abstract:
This paper aims to design variable fractional-delay (VFD) finite-impulse response (FIR) filters with controllable cutoff frequencies. Different with the existing designs, a particular ladder-shaped curve is selected as the desired transfer characteristic of the proposed design. Due to the fact that this particular transfer curve can be well approximated by the convolution windowed spectrum interpolation-based filter, the analytic formula of this filter can be further combined with the cubic spline interpolation and Taylor series expansion, thereby deriving a fast configuration procedure for all tap coefficients in the Farrow structure. Meanwhile, both the fractional delay and the cutoff frequency can be flexibly adjusted by this procedure. By means of theoretical analysis or numerical simulation, we proved that the proposed method is not only suitable to design those VFD FIR filters with low or middle cutoff frequencies, but also concurrently possesses high flexibility in performance adjustment and low complexity in coefficient configuration. Therefore, it is an appropriate supplement of the closed-form WLS design.
Autors: Xiangdong Huang;Bo Zhang;Haohua Qin;Wenxing An;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 628 - 637
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Closed-Loop Continuous Hand Control via Chronic Recording of Regenerative Peripheral Nerve Interfaces
Abstract:
Loss of the upper limb imposes a devastating interruption to everyday life. Full restoration of natural arm control requires the ability to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom of the prosthetic arm and maintain that control over an extended period of time. Current clinically available myoelectric prostheses do not provide simultaneous control or consistency for transradial amputees. To address this issue, we have implemented a standard Kalman filter for continuous hand control using intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from both regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces (RPNI) and an intact muscle within non-human primates. Seven RPNIs and one intact muscle were implanted with indwelling bipolar intramuscular electrodes in two rhesus macaques. Following recuperations, function-specific EMG signals were recorded and then fed through the Kalman filter during a hand-movement behavioral task to continuously predict the monkey’s finger position. We were able to reconstruct continuous finger movement offline with an average correlation of and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.12 between actual and predicted position from two macaques. This finger movement prediction was also performed in real time to enable closed-loop neural control of a virtual hand. Compared with physical hand control, neural control performance was slightly slower but maintained an average target hit success rate of 96.70%. Recalibration longevity measurements maintained consistent average correlation over time but had a significant change in RMSE (). Additionally, extracted single units varied in amplitude by a factor of +18.65% and −25.85% compared with its mean. This is the first demonst- ation of chronic indwelling electrodes being used for continuous position control via the Kalman filter. Combining these analyses with our novel peripheral nerve interface, we believe that this demonstrates an important step in providing patients with more naturalistic control of their prosthetic limbs.
Autors: Philip P. Vu;Zachary T. Irwin;Autumn J. Bullard;Shoshana W. Ambani;Ian C. Sando;Melanie G. Urbanchek;Paul S. Cederna;Cynthia A. Chestek;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 515 - 526
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cloud Computing-Based Non-Invasive Glucose Monitoring for Diabetic Care
Abstract:
Near infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy is utilized for the development of a continuous non-invasive glucose monitoring system for diabetics. A portable embedded system for taking photoacoustic measurements on tissues to estimate glucose concentration is implemented using field programmable gate array (FPGA). The back-end architecture for high-speed data acquisition and de-noising of photoacoustic measurements operates at 274.823 MHz on a Xilinx Virtex-II Pro FPGA. The glucose measurement technique is verified in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on tissues, with photoacoustic signal amplitude varying linearly with sample glucose concentration. A kernel-based regression algorithm using multiple features of the photoacoustic signal is used to estimate glucose concentration from photoacoustic measurements. The calibration algorithm provides a superior performance over previous efforts with a mean absolute relative difference of 8.84% and Clarke Error Grid distribution of 92.86% and 7.14% over Zones A and B of the grid. A cloud computing platform for automated monitoring of blood glucose levels is proposed to enable individuals with diabetes to connect with doctors and caretakers. The developed system is connected to the cloud service using a mobile device, which facilitates implementation of computationally intensive calibration tasks and the storage and analysis of measurement data for treatment and monitoring.
Autors: Praful P. Pai;Pradyut K. Sanki;Sudeep K. Sahoo;Arijit De;Sourangshu Bhattacharya;Swapna Banerjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 663 - 676
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cluster Consensus in Networks of Agents With Weighted Cooperative–Competitive Interactions
Abstract:
This brief concerns a general cooperative–competitive network with weighted interactions, based on which the cluster consensus problem is addressed. A directed network with the weighted cooperative–competitive interactions is classified into three categories: 1) interactively balanced; 2) sub-balanced; and 3) unbalanced digraphs. In interactively balanced or sub-balanced networks, cluster consensus can be achieved, while in interactively unbalanced networks, cluster consensus can be reached in need of additional control inputs exerted on specific pinned agents. Simulations are finally presented to verify the theoretical results.
Autors: Jingyuan Zhan;Xiang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 241 - 245
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cluster-Based Content Distribution Integrating LTE and IEEE 802.11p with Fuzzy Logic and Q-Learning
Abstract:
There is an increasing demand for distributing a large amount of content to vehicles on the road. However, the cellular network is not sufficient due to its limited bandwidth in a dense vehicle environment. In recent years, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been attracting great interests for improving communications between vehicles using infrastructure-less wireless technologies. In this paper, we discuss integrating LTE (Long Term Evolution) with IEEE 802.11p for the content distribution in VANETs. We propose a two-level clustering approach where cluster head nodes in the first level try to reduce the MAC layer contentions for vehicle-tovehicle (V2V) communications, and cluster head nodes in the second level are responsible for providing a gateway functionality between V2V and LTE. A fuzzy logic-based algorithm is employed in the first-level clustering, and a Q-learning algorithm is used in the second-level clustering to tune the number of gateway nodes. We conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol under various network conditions. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol can achieve 23% throughput improvement in highdensity scenarios compared to the existing approaches.
Autors: Celimuge Wu;Tsutomu Yoshinaga;Xianfu Chen;Lin Zhang;Yusheng Ji;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 41 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cluster-Seeking James–Stein Estimators
Abstract:
This paper considers the problem of estimating a high-dimensional vector of parameters from a noisy observation. The noise vector is independent identically distributed Gaussian with known variance. For a squared-error loss function, the James–Stein (JS) estimator is known to dominate the simple maximum-likelihood (ML) estimator when the dimension exceeds two. The JS-estimator shrinks the observed vector toward the origin, and the risk reduction over the ML-estimator is greatest for that lie close to the origin. JS-estimators can be generalized to shrink the data toward any target subspace. Such estimators also dominate the ML-estimator, but the risk reduction is significant only when lies close to the subspace. This leads to the question: in the absence of prior information about , how do we design estimators that give significant risk reduction over the ML-estimator for a wide range of ? In this paper, we propose shrinkage estimators that attempt to infer the structure of from the observed data in order to construct a good attracting subspace. In particular, the components of the observed vector are separated into clusters, and the elements in each cluster shrunk toward a common attractor. The number of clusters and the attractor for each cluster are determined from the observed vector. We provide concentration results for the squared-error loss and c- nvergence results for the risk of the proposed estimators. The results show that the estimators give significant risk reduction over the ML-estimator for a wide range of , particularly for large . Simulation results are provided to support the theoretical claims.
Autors: K. Pavan Srinath;Ramji Venkataramanan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 853 - 874
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clustering Millions of Faces by Identity
Abstract:
Given a large collection of unlabeled face images, we address the problem of clustering faces into an unknown number of identities. This problem is of interest in social media, law enforcement, and other applications, where the number of faces can be of the order of hundreds of million, while the number of identities (clusters) can range from a few thousand to millions. To address the challenges of run-time complexity and cluster quality, we present an approximate Rank-Order clustering algorithm that performs better than popular clustering algorithms (k-Means and Spectral). Our experiments include clustering up to 123 million face images into over 10 million clusters. Clustering results are analyzed in terms of external (known face labels) and internal (unknown face labels) quality measures, and run-time. Our algorithm achieves an F-measure of 0.87 on the LFW benchmark (13 K faces of 5,749 individuals), which drops to 0.27 on the largest dataset considered (13 K faces in LFW + 123M distractor images). Additionally, we show that frames in the YouTube benchmark can be clustered with an F-measure of 0.71. An internal per-cluster quality measure is developed to rank individual clusters for manual exploration of high quality clusters that are compact and isolated.
Autors: Charles Otto;Dayong Wang;Anil K. Jain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 289 - 303
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Clustering the Dominant Defective Patterns in Semiconductor Wafer Maps
Abstract:
Identifying defect patterns on wafers is crucial for understanding the root causes and for attributing such patterns to specific steps in the fabrication process. We propose in this paper a system called Dominant Defective Patterns Finder (DDPfinder) that clusters the patterns of defective chips on wafers based on their spatial dependence across wafer maps. Such clustering enables the identification of the dominant defect patterns. DDPfinder clusters chip defects based on how dominant are their spatial patterns across all wafer maps. A chip defect is considered dominant, if: 1) it has a systematic defect pattern arising from a specific assignable cause and 2) it displays spatial dependence across a larger number of wafer maps when compared with other defects. The spatial dependence of a chip defect is determined based on the contiguity ratio of the defect pattern across wafer maps. DDPfinder uses the dominant chip defects to serve as seeds for clustering the patterns of defective chips. This clustering procedure allows process engineers to prioritize their investigation of chip defects based on the dominance status of their clusters. It allows them to pay more attention to the ongoing manufacturing processes that caused the dominant defects. We evaluated the quality and performance of DDPfinder by comparing it experimentally with eight existing clustering models. Results showed marked improvement.
Autors: Kamal Taha;Khaled Salah;Paul D. Yoo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 156 - 165
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CNN-Based Joint Clustering and Representation Learning with Feature Drift Compensation for Large-Scale Image Data
Abstract:
Given a large unlabeled set of images how to efficiently and effectively group them into clusters based on extracted visual representations remains a challenging problem. To address this problem we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) to jointly solve clustering and representation learning in an iterative manner. In the proposed method given an input image set we first randomly pick k samples and extract their features as initial cluster centroids using the proposed CNN with an initial model pretrained from the ImageNet dataset. Mini-batch k-means is then performed to assign cluster labels to individual input samples for a mini-batch of images randomly sampled from the input image set until all images are processed. Subsequently the proposed CNN simultaneously updates the parameters of the proposed CNN and the centroids of image clusters iteratively based on stochastic gradient descent. We also propose a feature drift compensation scheme to mitigate the drift error caused by feature mismatch in representation learning. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed method outperforms start-of-the-art clustering schemes in terms of accuracy and storage complexity on large-scale image sets containing millions of images.
Autors: Chih-Chung Hsu;Chia-Wen Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 421 - 429
Publisher: IEEE
 
» COAST: A Cooperative Storage Framework for Mobile Transparent Computing Using Device-to-Device Data Sharing
Abstract:
TC is a promising network computing paradigm that offers an efficient way to make lightweight terminals more powerful, convenient, and secure. TC's execution model separates data storage and application execution, letting terminals load applications from TC servers on demand via the Internet. With this approach, the network's performance significantly affects the TC applications' performance. To enhance TC applications' performance, existing research typically deploys many cache servers on the Internet. However, such caching techniques are not ideal in a mobile environment, where the wireless networks that mobile terminals use for Internet access are expensive and have limited bandwidth. To address this problem, we propose COAST, a cooperative storage framework for MTC. Based on a deviceto- device data-sharing technique, COAST enables a mobile terminal to fetch applications from nearby terminals without accessing the Internet. In this article, we introduce COAST's design, explore the opportunities and challenges of cooperative storage in MTC environments, and identify future research directions.
Autors: Jiahui Jin;Junzhou Luo;Yunhao Li;Runqun Xiong;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 133 - 139
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cobalt could untangle chips' wiring problems
Abstract:
Today's computer chips contain tens of kilometers of copper wiring, built up in 15 or so layers. As the semiconductor industry has shrunk the size of transistors, it has also had to make these interconnects thinner. Today, some wiring layers are so fine that electrical current can actually damage them. And chipmakers are running out of new ways to deal with this problem.
Autors: Katherine Bourzac;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 12 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Codesigned High-Efficiency Single-Layered Substrate Integrated Waveguide Filtering Antenna With a Controllable Radiation Null
Abstract:
This letter proposes a codesigned substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filtering slot antenna with a controllable radiation null in gain response. The antenna is composed of a single-layered SIW cavity, four metalized posts, a transverse slot, and a vertical SMA connector. Four metalized posts are introduced to split the cavity into two TE 110-mode resonators. The transverse slot is utilized not only to generate radiation, but also to further split one TE110-mode resonator into two half-mode resonators. The bandpass filtering performance is achieved by the couplings between three resonators and the slot. One radiation null has been introduced for selectivity enhancement, and it will occur at the frequency where the slot is placed at about quarter-wavelength from the shorted wall of the cavity. So by changing the position of the slot, frequency of radiation null can be easily controlled, even from one side to another side of the passband. For demonstration, one antenna with a lower out-of-band radiation null and another one with an upper out-of-band radiation null have been designed, fabricated, and measured. Experimental results show that the antennas have the merits of high efficiency, high selectivity, and easily controllable radiation null.
Autors: Peng Kai Li;Chang Jiang You;Hong Fang Yu;Xiang Li;Yuan Wang Yang;Jian Hua Deng;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 295 - 298
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Collaborative Mobile Edge Computation Offloading for IoT over Fiber-Wireless Networks
Abstract:
Mobile edge computing is envisioned to be a promising paradigm to address the conflict between computationally intensive IoT applications and resource-constrained lightweight mobile devices. However, most existing research on mobile edge computation offloading has only taken the resource allocation between the mobile devices and the MEC servers into consideration, ignoring the huge computation resources in the centralized cloud computing center. To make full use of the centralized cloud and distributed MEC resources, designing a collaborative computation offloading mechanism becomes particularly important. Note that current MEC hosted networks, which mostly adopt the networking technology integrating cellular and core networks, face new challenges of single networking mode, long latency, poor reliability, high congestion, and high energy consumption. Hybrid fiber-wireless networks integrating both low-latency fiber optic and flexible wireless technologies should be a promising solution. Toward this end, we provide in this article a generic fiber-wireless architecture with coexistence of centralized cloud and distributed MEC for IoT connectivity. The problem of cloud-MEC collaborative computation offloading is defined, and a game-theoretic collaborative computation offloading scheme is proposed as our solution. Numerical results corroborate that our proposed scheme can achieve high energy efficiency and scales well as the number of mobile devices increases.
Autors: Hongzhi Guo;Jiajia Liu;Huiling Qin;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 66 - 71
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combination of MIMO Antennas for Handheld Devices [Wireless Corner]
Abstract:
With the development of the fourth-generation (4G) and fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems and the high-data transmission rate requirements, multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) antennas are becoming necessary in mobile terminals. Handheld mobile devices support various service standards, such as Wi-Fi, LTE, Wi-Max, personal communications service, and digital cellular systems.
Autors: Kumud Ranjan Jha;Satish K. Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 118 - 131
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combinatorics of Tandem Duplication Random Loss Mutations on Circular Genomes
Abstract:
The tandem duplication random loss operation (TDRL) is an important genome rearrangement operation in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. A TDRL consists of a duplication of a contiguous set of genes in tandem followed by a random loss of one copy of each duplicated gene. This paper presents an analysis of the combinatorics of TDRLs on circular genomes, e.g., the mitochondrial genome. In particular, results on TDRLs for circular genomes and their linear representatives are established. Moreover, the distance between gene orders with respect to linear TDRLs and circular TDRLs is studied. An analysis of the available animal mitochondrial gene orders shows the practical relevance of the theoretical results.
Autors: Tom Hartmann;An-Chiang Chu;Martin Middendorf;Matthias Bernt;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 83 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combined Effects of Light Illumination and Various Bottom Gate Length on the Instability of Via-Contact-Type Amorphous InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
This paper utilizes electrical analyses and a study of physical mechanisms to investigate metal gate structure-dependent performance in amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. The effects of different shielding areas between the IGZO layer and metal gate are investigated. In devices with shorter metal gate lengths, an abnormal rise in capacitance at the off-state in capacitance–voltage () characteristic curves can be observed. This can be attributed to the stronger electric field induced by the edge of the metal gate under bias sweep when the metal gate length is shorter than the IGZO layer length. Light illumination measurements indicate a negative shift in threshold voltage and an increase in subthreshold-leakage current regardless of relative metal gate length. Moreover, negative threshold voltage shift becomes more severe with a more obvious hump in characteristic curves under back-light illumination of a shorter width device, a phenomenon which has been verified by simulation.
Autors: Chung-I Yang;Ting-Chang Chang;Po-Yung Liao;Bo-Wei Chen;Wu-Ching Chou;Guan-Fu Chen;Shin-Ping Huang;Yu-Zhe Zheng;Yu-Xuan Wang;Hsi-Wen Liu;Chien-Yu Lin;Yu-Shan Lin;Ying-Hsin Lu;Shengdong Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 533 - 536
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Combining Static and Dynamic Storage Management for Data Intensive Scientific Workflows
Abstract:
Workflow management systems are widely used to express and execute highly parallel applications. For data-intensive workflows, storage can be the constraining resource: The number of tasks running at once must be artificially limited to not overflow the space available in the filesystem. It is all too easy for a user to dispatch a workflow which consumes all available storage and disrupts all system users. To address these issues, we present a three-tiered approach to workflow storage management: (1) A static analysis algorithm which analyzes the storage needs of a workflow before execution, giving a realistic prediction of success or failure. (2) An online storage management algorithm which accounts for the storage needed by future tasks to avoid deadlock at runtime. (3) A task containment system which limits storage consumption of individual tasks, enabling the strong guarantees of the static analysis and dynamic management algorithms. We demonstrate the application of these techniques on three complex workflows.
Autors: Nicholas Hazekamp;Nathaniel Kremer-Herman;Benjamin Tovar;Haiyan Meng;Olivia Choudhury;Scott Emrich;Douglas Thain;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 338 - 350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Common-Mode Overvoltage Mitigation in a Medium-Voltage Pump Motor Transformerless Drive in a Mining Plant
Abstract:
The mining process requires different types of pumps to transfer fluids from one point to another. In the majority of applications, those pumps are driven by variable speed motor drives in order to improve the energy efficiency of the overall system. Large pumps, ranging from hundreds of kW to a few MW, usually demand medium-voltage converters. Transformerless converters reduce the footprint required for the installation, but give rise to additional concerns related to the common-mode voltages applied to the system and motor. The absence of an isolation transformer along with the use of pulse-width modulated rectifiers are the root causes of this issue. This concern increases when long cables are needed to connect the converter to the motor. This paper presents an application where three-level neutral point clamped transformerless medium-voltage converters are applied to drive motor pumps in a mining plant. The passive filtering techniques used to address the common-mode voltage issues are analyzed through simulations. The proposed solutions are field tested with successful results.
Autors: Thiago Morais Parreiras;Brenno Marcus Pereira do Prado;Braz de J. Cardoso Filho;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 848 - 857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Communication Is Key: How to Discuss Energy and Environmental Issues with Consumers
Abstract:
Scientists are now more certain than ever that humans are responsible for climate change through the combustion of fossil fuels. A recent Global Energy Assessment report, compiled by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, indicates that, globally, domestic energy consumption accounts for about a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. A fundamental shift in energy consumption is needed, moving away from the use of fossil fuels to meet emission reduction targets.
Autors: Wokje Abrahamse;Sarah Darby;Katherine McComas;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 29 - 34
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Communication Modeling for Differential Protection in IEC-61850-Based Substations
Abstract:
Today's power utilities, around the world, own multiple substations that are connected together to form a complex energy network. The functions within and between these substations are being automated according to globally accepted power utility automation standard IEC 61850. This automation results in efficient operation and enhanced protection of power network with the aid of the communication system. Implementing the protection schemes modeled using communication configurations of standardized information exchange will lead to digital power grid. Designing an IEC-61850-based protection scheme to take care of the faults outside the substations is a challenge, as the typical local-area-network-based generic-object-oriented substation events and sampled-value messages need to be transmitted over a wide-area network. This paper presents communication configuration for line current differential protection schemes applied between two automated substations. It presents the simulation results of communication configuration network between two substations. Its performance is evaluated using a network simulator tool. This study intends to guide the development of a robust protection scheme with IEC-61850-based communication configuration.
Autors: Ikbal Ali;S. M. Suhail Hussain;Ashok Tak;Taha Selim Ustun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 135 - 142
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Analytical Model to Extract Write Static Noise Margin (WSNM) for SRAM Cell at 45-nm and 65-nm Nodes
Abstract:
The operation of static random access memory (SRAM) in the subthreshold region reduces both leakage power and access energy. Subthreshold operation is one of the proficient techniques to accomplish low-power and high performance system on chip. But the challenge, in subthreshold SRAM design, is the SRAM stability. The sensitivity to process variations increases with technology scaling resulting in reduced stability. In this paper, SRAM write stability is analyzed in the subthreshold region. The semi-analytical model of write static noise margin (WSNM) for 6T SRAM (subthreshold region) has been given in this paper. The results obtained from the analytical model are verified through simulations in Cadence using GPDK 45-nm, UMC 65-nm, and UMC 130-nm technology files. The model is based on the subthreshold current equations of the transistor. Further, the write stability of the SRAM is analyzed with the varying supply voltage and the sizing ratios. The process corner analyses is also accomplished to verify the write stability of the SRAM cell using the model at the worst process corners. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first model to analyze the WSNM based on the traditional butterfly static noise margin approach. It has been observed that the model is valid for all of the technology nodes, i.e., at 45 nm, 65 nm, as well as 130 nm. Also the model holds well for 8T and 10T SRAM configurations in addition to 6T SRAM cell.
Autors: Ruchi;Sudeb Dasgupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 136 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact and Wideband Millimeter-Wave Antenna-Coupled Detector
Abstract:
This paper presents a compact and wideband millimeter-wave antenna-coupled detector, with a Schottky diode directly integrated across the feeding terminals of a planar dipole. An integrated wideband dipole is proposed, as a radiator as well as a radio frequency choke. It contains a pair of folded strips for broadening the bandwidth and a pair of U-slot resonators for sidelobe reduction, both of which facilitate the compact design. To form unidirectional radiation with a low profile, a hybrid reactive impedance surface is presented, which can simultaneously enhance the gain and impedance bandwidths covering the full Ka-band. An equivalent circuit model is provided to illustrate the operating mechanism of this antenna-coupled detector, and the mounting effect caused by the diode is examined. A Ka-band prototype with dimensions of about is fabricated and characterized, exhibiting a responsivity between 1500 and 3800 V/W over the full Ka-band. The proposed design has the advantages of broad bandwidth, low profile, small footprint, and mechanically stable structure. It can be fabricated using low-cost printed circuit technology, and can easily be configured into a planar 2-D array, making it suitable for low-cost sensing and imaging applications based on small unmanned aerial vehicles.
Autors: Jinchao Mou;Zhongxiang Shen;Dalu Guo;Xin Lv;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1058 - 1069
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact and Wideband MMIC Phase Shifters Using Tunable Active Inductor-Loaded All-Pass Networks
Abstract:
To address the challenging needs of small size, wide bandwidth, and low-frequency applicability, a novel phase shifter implementation is introduced that utilizes tunable active differential inductors within all-pass networks. The inductor tuning is used to achieve phase shifts up to 180°. A switchable active balanced-to-unbalanced transition (balun) circuit is included in front of the all-pass network to complement its phase shift capability by another 180°. In addition, the all-pass network is followed by a variable-gain amplifier to correct for gain variations among the phase shifting states and act as an output buffer. Although active inductors have previously been used in the design of various components, to the best of our knowledge this is the first time that they have been used in an all-pass phase shifter. The approach is demonstrated with an on-chip design and implementation exhibiting wideband performance for S- and L-band applications by utilizing the 0.5- TriQuint pHEMT GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) process. Specifically, the presented phase shifter die area and operates within the 1.5–3-GHz band (i.e., 2:1 bandwidth) with 10-dB gain, less than 1.5-dB root-mean-square (rms) gain error and less than 9° rms phase error. Comparison with the state-of-the-art MMIC phase shifters operating in S- and L-bands demonstrates that the presented phase shifter exhibits a remarkable bandwidth performance from a very compact footprint with low-power consumption. Consequently, it presents an alternative for the implementation of wideband phase shifters where all-passive implementations will consume expensive die real estate.
Autors: David M. Zaiden;John E. Grandfield;Thomas M. Weller;Gokhan Mumcu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1047 - 1057
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Deep UV System at 222.5 nm Based on Frequency Doubling of GaN Laser Diode Emission
Abstract:
Laser light sources emitting in the deep ultraviolet wavelength range between 210 and 230 nm are of great interest for spectroscopic applications. Here, a compact DUV diode laser system emitting at a wavelength of 222.5 nm is presented. The system is based on frequency doubling of the laser radiation from a micro-integrated GaN external cavity diode laser module (ECDL) emitting at 445 nm. The ECDL has an optical pump power of 1.4 W with an emission bandwidth of 35 pm. Narrowband laser radiation in continouos wave operation with an output power of at 222.5 nm is generated in a single-pass frequency doubling stage with a -BaB2O4 crystal. The results are suitable to address applications such as spectroscopic investigations of biological samples. The presented concept of a compact and efficient deep ultraviolet laser light source enables the realization of portable systems for which a small footprint and a low power consumption is essential.
Autors: Norman Ruhnke;André Müller;Bernd Eppich;Martin Maiwald;Bernd Sumpf;Götz Erbert;Günther Tränkle;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 289 - 292
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Spintronic Muller C-Element With Near-Zero Standby Energy
Abstract:
The complementary roles of asynchronous architecture with nonvolatile spintronic devices are explored herein to realize a novel asynchronous logic element. By redesigning the Muller C-element to take advantage of spintronic device non-volatility and area efficiency, benefits such as reduced asynchronous handshaking area overhead, are achieved in addition to instant on/off capabilities for reduced static-power dissipation through power gating. We propose a novel eight transistor and one spintronic device Muller C-element design which is 20% faster and uses 68% of the power of previous non-volatile Muller C-element designs. This spintronic Muller C-element is demonstrated within a four-phase dual-rail asynchronous pipeline resulting in 48% fewer transistors in comparison with the previous designs. Additionally, bundled-data protocol overhead is shown to be reduced by using the spintronic Muller C-element proposed herein. Detailed analysis of the effects of driving transistor width and the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio on device performance characteristics is included.
Autors: Steven D. Pyle;Deliang Fan;Ronald F. Demara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Unilateral Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna
Abstract:
A compact circularly polarized (CP) unidirectional dielectric resonator (DR) antenna (DRA) with lateral radiation is investigated for the first time. It requires two sets of CP far fields that have complementary patterns. The first set is obtained using the DR and mode. For the second set, the CP DR-loaded slot antenna is used, which is realized by a cutting cross-slot in the ground plane. To demonstrate the idea, a CP unidirectional DRA is designed at 2.4 GHz for wireless local area network applications. A prototype was fabricated and tested, and reasonable agreement between the measured and simulation results is obtained. It was measured that its overlapping impedance and axial ratio bandwidth is 4.9% (2.39–2.51 GHz), with a front-to-back ratio of 15.5 dB at 2.44 GHz.
Autors: Lei Guo;Kwok Wa Leung;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 668 - 674
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compact Wideband Balanced Bandpass Filters With Very Broad Common-Mode and Differential-Mode Stopbands
Abstract:
Compact balanced bandpass filters based on a combination of multisection mirrored stepped-impedance resonators and interdigital capacitors are presented in this paper. The considered filter topology is useful to achieve wide bandwidths for the differential mode, with broad stop bands for that mode, as well as very efficient common-mode suppression. By conveniently adjusting the transmission zeros for both operation modes, the differential- and common-mode stopbands can be extended up to significantly high frequencies. Filter size and this differential- and common-mode stopband performance are the main relevant characteristics of the proposed balanced filters. The potential of the approach is illustrated by the design of a prototype order-5 balanced bandpass filter, with central frequency GHz, 48% fractional bandwidth (corresponding to 55.4% −3-dB bandwidth), and 0.04-dB ripple level. The filter is automatically synthesized by means of an aggressive space-mapping software tool, specifically developed, and two (pre- and post-) optimization algorithms, necessary to determine the transmission-zero frequencies. The designed filter is as small as , where is the guided wavelength at the central filter frequency, and the differential-mode stopband extends up to at least 6.5 GHz with more than 22-dB rejection. The common-mode suppression is better than 28 dB from dc up to at least 6.5 GHz.
Autors: Marc Sans;Jordi Selga;Paris Vélez;Jordi Bonache;Ana Rodríguez;Vicente E. Boria;Ferran Martín;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 737 - 750
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison Between a Thin Lens Antenna Made of Structured Dielectric Material and Conventional Lens Antennas, in Q-Band in a Compact Volume
Abstract:
In this letter, the performance of a diffractive gradient index lens antenna, constructed by using dielectric subwavelength structuration and manufactured by three-dimensional printing, is compared to the ones of conventional lens antennas in a small footprint configuration. It discusses the advantages and drawbacks of each configuration and compares the simulated and measured gain performances. It shows that structured lens antenna can achieve gain superior to conventional approaches, combined with a 1 dB bandwidth of 10.9%, thanks to the engineering of artificial gradient index. All these benefits are coming with a significant decrease in the antenna weight for the same footprint.
Autors: Alpha O. Diallo;Romain Czarny;Brigitte Loiseaux;Stéphane Holé;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 307 - 310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison Between High-Holding-Voltage SCR and Stacked Low-Voltage Devices for ESD Protection in High-Voltage Applications
Abstract:
The modified silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) fabricated in a 0.25- high-voltage (HV) bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) technology has been proposed to seek for both effective electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and latchup immunity. Experimental results show that one of the proposed SCRs has a high holding voltage of up to ~30 V in the 100-ns transmission line pulsing measurement results. However, through the experimental verification by using the transient latchup test, the holding voltage of such proposed device decreases to ~20 V. It is due to the increased bipolar junction transistor current gains of the SCR path induced by the Joule-heating effect in the long-term measurement. For 20-V circuit applications, the ESD robustness of the proposed SCR with a holding voltage of ~20 V is lower than that of stacked low-voltage p-type MOS in the previous studies. Developing special modification of such HV devices is inefficient to achieve both effective ESD protection and latchup-free design in this 0.25- HV BCD technology.
Autors: Chia-Tsen Dai;Ming-Dou Ker;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 798 - 802
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comparison With Nitride Interface Defects and Nanocrystals for Charge Trapping Layer Nanowire Gate-All-Around Nonvolatile Memory Performance
Abstract:
This paper demonstrates novel silicon–oxide–nitride–nitride–oxide–silicon (SONNOS) and silicon-oxide-nanocrystals-oxide-silicon (SOncOS) nonvolatile memory (NVM) that is based on nanowires gate-all-around (GAA) structure. SONNOS and SOncOS NVM exploit doubly stacked Si3N4 (NN) interface defects and silicon nanocrystals as charge trapping layers, respectively. Experimental results reveal that SONNOS NVM has superior memory characteristics than SOncOS NVM. With respect to memory reliability, the SONNOS NVM retains 86% memory window after 104 program/erase cycles, and the memory window retains 42% of the originally stored charge after ten years. Such doubly stacked Si3N4 layers provide additionally charge trapping sites in CTL, improving the memory performance of NVM. In the future, SONNOS GAA NVMs will be easily integrated in 3-D nand flash memory applications.
Autors: Yu-Ru Lin;Yi-Wei Chiang;Yu-Hsien Lin;Wei-Cheng Wang;Yung-Chun Wu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 493 - 498
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compensator-Free Mixed-Ripple Adaptive On-Time Controlled Boost Converter
Abstract:
A mixed-ripple adaptive on-time controlled boost converter is proposed. With the proposed control method, the compensator network is no longer required. Hence, the chip area and cost can be reduced, and a satisfied load regulation still can be achieved. Besides, a novel on-time generator is proposed to fix the switching frequency in continuous conduction mode (CCM). Moreover, a differential difference comparator is proposed to simplify the circuits and further reduce chip area. Furthermore, with the proposed control, the converter is capable of smoothly switching between discontinuous conduction mode and CCM, depending on the loading condition. The proposed boost converter was implemented by using a 0.18- 1P6M mixed-signal process, and the chip area is 0.88 mm2. The input voltage may range from 0.8 to 1.4 V, the output voltage is set to 1.8 V, and the measured peak efficiency is 92.4%.
Autors: Chi-Hsiang Huang;Hung-Hsien Wu;Chia-Ling Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 596 - 604
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Competitive Interplay of Production Decisions: Rivalry Between Established and Startup Firms
Abstract:
This paper's novelty is the modeling of competition in production quantity and product-launch timing, which has been silent regarding the impact of these interdependent decisions on firm survival. We rigorously address the competitive interplay between a startup and an established rival by developing a game-theoretic model that captures the startup's vulnerability to failure through maximizing its survival likelihood. We allow the established rival to behave strategically by anticipating the startup's timing and production decisions prior to making its own production decision. We propose that unless the market-entry investment is low, a survival-maximizing startup should wait to launch its product, and do so with a larger production output than the established rival, when delaying the product launch enables the startup to charge a high price. Insights on the established firm involve the benefit from behaving strategically, which is when competing with either a survival-maximizing or profit-maximizing startup. If the market-entry investment is large, comparing a survival-maximizing startup with a profit-maximizing startup suggests that the former produces at a larger scale than the latter when either startup competes with an established rival, which in turn is forced to reduce its production level.
Autors: Moren Lévesque;Xuan (Jen) Zhao;Junsong Bian;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:1, pages: 85 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Competitive Linearity for Envelope Tracking: Dual-Band Crest Factor Reduction and 2D-Vector-Switched Digital Predistortion
Abstract:
As wireless communication standards evolve to support ever-higher data rates, the required linearity and bandwidth must increase, which leads to higher energy consumption [1]. The problem of high energy consumption has become more serious due to the wide-spread adoption of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), which is used in long-term evolution (LTE) and Wi-Fi applications [2]. The low energy efficiency of OFDM-based systems results from the statistical distribution of OFDM signals, combined with the efficiency characteristics of power amplifiers (PAs).
Autors: Harald Enzinger;Karl Freiberger;Christian Vogel;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 69 - 77
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complementary Aspect-Based Opinion Mining
Abstract:
Aspect-based opinion mining is finding elaborate opinions towards a subject such as a product or an event. With explosive growth of opinionated texts on the Web, mining aspect-level opinions has become a promising means for online public opinion analysis. In particular, the boom of various types of online media provides diverse yet complementary information, bringing unprecedented opportunities for cross media aspect-opinion mining. Along this line, we propose CAMEL, a novel topic model for complementary aspect-based opinion mining across asymmetric collections. CAMEL gains information complementarity by modeling both common and specific aspects across collections, while keeping all the corresponding opinions for contrastive study. An auto-labeling scheme called AME is also proposed to help discriminate between aspect and opinion words without elaborative human labeling, which is further enhanced by adding word embedding-based similarity as a new feature. Moreover, CAMEL-DP, a nonparametric alternative to CAMEL is also proposed based on coupled Dirichlet Processes. Extensive experiments on real-world multi-collection reviews data demonstrate the superiority of our methods to competitive baselines. This is particularly true when the information shared by different collections becomes seriously fragmented. Finally, a case study on the public event “2014 Shanghai Stampede” demonstrates the practical value of CAMEL for real-world applications.
Autors: Yuan Zuo;Junjie Wu;Hui Zhang;Deqing Wang;Ke Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:2, pages: 249 - 262
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complementary Coded Scrambling Multiple Access and Its Performance in Downlink MIMO Channels
Abstract:
In a traditional complementary coded CDMA (CC-CDMA) system, signals are spread using the direct sequence (DS) technique to suppress multipath interference (MI) and multiple access interference (MAI). However, DS spreading suffers from very poor bandwidth efficiency. This paper proposes a scrambling-based CC-CDMA system, namely complementary coded scrambling multiple access (CCSMA). A CCSMA system offers a unified platform to integrate CC-CDMA, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), and scrambling technique seamlessly. Utilizing complementary codes in scrambling modulation, a CCSMA system is able to suppress MI and MAI effectively. With the help of space domain scrambling, the CCSMA system offers much higher bandwidth efficiency than a CC DS-CDMA system. Bit error rate and system capacity are evaluated explicitly in this paper, verifying that CCSMA is a viable multiple access technique for providing high capacity in downlink MIMO channels.
Autors: Xiqing Liu;Hong-Ming Syu;Hsiao-Hwa Chen;Weixiao Meng;Meng Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 835 - 847
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complementary Integrated Circuits Based on p-Type SnO and n-Type IGZO Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
Oxide semiconductors are highly attractive for the new-generation transparent/flexible electronics. In this letter, logic gates (inverter, NAND, and transmission gates) and three-stage ring oscillators based on n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and p-type tin monoxide (SnO) TFTs are presented. The IGZO TFTs show a mobility of 10.05 cm/() and a threshold voltage of 5.00 V. The SnO TFTs exhibit a mobility of 1.19 cm/() and a matched threshold voltage of −5.05 V. At a supply voltage of 10 V, the complementary inverters show an extremely high gain of 112 with a geometric aspect ratio of 5. The dynamic responses of the logic gates based on n-type IGZO and p-type SnO TFTs are also examined. The delay time of the inverter measured from dynamic response is 27.75 at a supply voltage of 10 V. The inverter, NAND, and transmission gates all exhibit ideal rail-to-rail output voltage behavior. At a supply voltage of 20 V, the three-stage ring oscillators are able to operate at 32.87 kHz, and the stage delay is .
Autors: Yunpeng Li;Jin Yang;Yiming Wang;Pengfei Ma;Yvzhuo Yuan;Jiawei Zhang;Zhaojun Lin;Li Zhou;Qian Xin;Aimin Song;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 208 - 211
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complete Targets Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks With Energy Transfer
Abstract:
This letter considers energy harvesting sensor nodes monitoring multiple fixed targets. The goal is to monitor these targets for the longest time period. A key challenge, however, is that sensor nodes have varying energy harvesting rates, meaning that the coverage lifetime of targets is limited by sensor nodes with low energy. To this end, we consider energy sharing between sensor nodes. We model the problem as a mixed integer linear program (MILP). Advantageously, our MILP models non-linear energy conversion rates. We also outline a heuristic for large-scale networks. Our results show energy sharing and non-linear energy conversion rates prolong coverage lifetime. Finally, our heuristic achieves 90% of the optimal coverage lifetime.
Autors: Changlin Yang;Kwan-Wu Chin;Ying Liu;Junbao Zhang;Jizhao Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 396 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complexity and Algorithms for Finding a Perfect Phylogeny from Mixed Tumor Samples
Abstract:
Hajirasouliha and Raphael (WABI 2014) proposed a model for deconvoluting mixed tumor samples measured from a collection of high-throughput sequencing reads. This is related to understanding tumor evolution and critical cancer mutations. In short, their formulation asks to split each row of a binary matrix so that the resulting matrix corresponds to a perfect phylogeny and has the minimum number of rows among all matrices with this property. In this paper, we disprove several claims about this problem, including an NP-hardness proof of it. However, we show that the problem is indeed NP-hard, by providing a different proof. We also prove NP-completeness of a variant of this problem proposed in the same paper. On the positive side, we propose an efficient (though not necessarily optimal) heuristic algorithm based on coloring co-comparability graphs, and a polynomial time algorithm for solving the problem optimally on matrix instances in which no column is contained in both columns of a pair of conflicting columns. Implementations of these algorithms are freely available at https://github.com/alexandrutomescu/MixedPerfectPhylogeny.
Autors: Ademir Hujdurović;Urša Kačar;Martin Milanič;Bernard Ries;Alexandru I. Tomescu;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 96 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complexity of Energy Efficient Localization With the Aid of a Mobile Beacon
Abstract:
Localization is an essential service in wireless sensor networks. Trilateration is a commonly used solution to range-based localization for providing such services. It might be, however, impossible to localize the entire network at once using trilateration due to low connectivity on sparse deployments. In such scenarios, a mobile beacon with a known position is used to move among and locate the nodes with low connectivity to aid trilateration. Given a network graph, finding a minimum energy route traveled by the mobile beacon is a key problem in many real-world applications. We prove in this letter that this problem called mobile assisted trilateration based energy optimum localization is NP-hard. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such result in an attempt to computationally classify this important problem. We also provide a compact integer linear programming formulation for the problem.
Autors: Hüseyin Akcan;Cem Evrendilek;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 392 - 395
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Complexity of Verifying Nonblockingness in Modular Supervisory Control
Abstract:
Complexity analysis becomes a common task in supervisory control. However, many results of interest are spread across different topics. The aim of this paper is to bring several interesting results from complexity theory and to illustrate their relevance to supervisory control by proving new nontrivial results concerning nonblockingness in modular supervisory control of discrete event systems modeled by finite automata.
Autors: Tomáš Masopust;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 602 - 607
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis of the stress grading system of a large hydro generator
Abstract:
In the slot portion of a generator core the installed stator bars are covered with a semi-conductive coating to prevent partial discharge (PD) activity between the main insulation surface and the grounded laminated sheets. Typically, this outer corona protection (OCP) layer ends a few centimeters outside the slot portion. To suppress PD-activity at the end of the OCP, a field grading is mandatory for machines with a rated voltage greater than approximately 6 kV. Figure 1 shows the effect of a stress grading layer on stator bars energized to high voltage. It suppresses potential creepage discharges at the OCP ends caused by field enhancement.
Autors: Christian Staubach;Thomas Hildinger;Axel Staubach;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 37 - 49
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Comprehensive Fault Type Discrimination Concept for Bipolar Full-Bridge-Based MMC HVDC Systems with Dedicated Metallic Return
Abstract:
Bipolar HVDC transmission systems typically offer up to 50% transmission redundancy in case of single pole-to-ground line faults. Continuous operation during permanent multiconductor faults, however, is not permitted, emphasizing the need for accurate fault type discrimination in such applications. For bipolar schemes with a dedicated metallic return (DMR) conductor, discrimination of pole–ground faults and pole–DMR faults represents a challenging task due to their similar electrical characteristics. In this paper, several approaches to detect DMR fault involvement are identified and analyzed, comprising both noninvasive methods based on measurement data and invasive methods based on DC current control strategies of full-bridge VSC-MMC stations (Modular Multilevel Converter based on Voltage Source Converter technology). An exemplified point-to-point HVDC system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC and extensive simulation studies are carried out. Based on the obtained results, a comprehensive fault type discrimination concept for permanent line faults is developed, which can be incorporated into fault handling schemes. Thus, successful fault type discrimination can be performed for all relevant fault types, even under exceptional fault conditions.
Autors: Philipp Tünnerhoff;Philipp Ruffing;Armin Schnettler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 330 - 339
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compressed-Sensing Assisted Spatial Multiplexing Aided Spatial Modulation
Abstract:
Spatial-multiplexing aided spatial modulation (SMx-SM) is proposed, which intrinsically amalgamates the concept of vertical bell labs space-time (V-BLAST) and SM to attain a high transmission rate, despite its low number of radio frequency (RF) chains at the transmitter. Specifically, in the SMx-SM scheme, the transmit antennas are partitioned into groups and the SM technique is applied individually to each group. Furthermore, low-complexity threshold-aided compressive sensing-based and message passing-based detectors are derived for our SMx-SM system. Our simulation results show that the proposed SMx-SM system exhibits a better performance despite its lower complexity than the conventional generalized spatial modulation system. More importantly, the proposed SMx-SM system is capable of providing considerable performance gains over the V-BLAST system at the same number of RF chains and throughput. Finally, an upper bound is derived for the average bit error probability, which is confirmed by our simulation results.
Autors: Lixia Xiao;Yue Xiao;Chao Xu;Xia Lei;Ping Yang;Shaoqian Li;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 794 - 807
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Compressive Representation for Device-Free Activity Recognition with Passive RFID Signal Strength
Abstract:
Understanding and recognizing human activities is a fundamental research topic for a wide range of important applications such as fall detection and remote health monitoring and intervention. Despite active research in human activity recognition over the past years, existing approaches based on computer vision or wearable sensor technologies present several significant issues such as privacy (e.g., using video camera to monitor the elderly at home) and practicality (e.g., not possible for an older person with dementia to remember wearing devices). In this paper, we present a low-cost, unobtrusive, and robust system that supports independent living of older people. The system interprets what a person is doing by deciphering signal fluctuations using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and machine learning algorithms. To deal with noisy, streaming, and unstable RFID signals, we develop a compressive sensing, dictionary-based approach that can learn a set of compact and informative dictionaries of activities using an unsupervised subspace decomposition. In particular, we devise a number of approaches to explore the properties of sparse coefficients of the learned dictionaries for fully utilizing the embodied discriminative information on the activity recognition task. Our approach achieves efficient and robust activity recognition via a more compact and robust representation of activities. Extensive experiments conducted in a real-life residential environment demonstrate that our proposed system offers a good overall performance and shows the promising practical potential to underpin the applications for the independent living of the elderly.
Autors: Lina Yao;Quan Z. Sheng;Xue Li;Tao Gu;Mingkui Tan;Xianzhi Wang;Sen Wang;Wenjie Ruan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 293 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computational Intelligence Techniques for Mobile Network Optimization [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
Modern society has become increasingly reliant on mobile networks for their communication needs. Such networks are characterized by their dynamic, heterogeneous, complex, and data intensive nature, which makes them more amenable to automated mobile network optimization performed using “computational intelligence’’ (CI) techniques rather than traditional optimization approaches. CI techniques—which subsume multidisciplinary techniques from machine learning (ML), optimization theory, game theory, control theory, and meta-heuristics— have a rich history in terms of being deployed in networking. CI techniques are highly suited to the mobile networking architectures and the dynamic environments they characterize. Looking ahead, it looks likely that CI will play a leading role in upcoming 5th generation (5G) wireless mobile networks for developing optimized solutions for vexing problems—such as traffic scheduling and routing, capacity, coverage, and power optimization—in the face of stringent requirements and highly dynamic conditions. The importance of our proposed theme of mobile network optimization (MNO) motivated us to propose this special issue in the IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine (CIM)—the premier IEEE magazine for professionals interested in CI techniques and their applications.
Autors: Junaid Qadir;Amir Hussain;Kok-Lim Alvin Yau;Muhammad Ali Imran;Adam Wolisz;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 28 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computationally Efficient Pitch and Roll Estimation Using a Unit Direction Vector
Abstract:
This paper introduces a new attitude estimation algorithm for pitch and roll angles. Pitch and roll angles are represented by a unit vector, and its estimation error is estimated in the Kalman filter. The main theoretical contribution is that the error covariance equations are simplified to scalar equations. Thus, the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient. The proposed algorithm is also applied to vertical movement estimation. Simulation and experiment results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Autors: Young Soo Suh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 459 - 465
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computationally Efficient TDOA/FDOA Estimation for Unknown Communication Signals in Electronic Warfare Systems
Abstract:
The cross ambiguity function (CAF) has been commonly used to find time difference of arrival (TDOA) and frequency difference of arrival (FDOA). In most cases, direct computation of the CAF by using a conventional method such as fast Fourier transform is too computationally intensive. Thus, a two-stage approach consisting of a coarse mode to find rough TDOA/FDOA estimates and a fine mode for precise estimation was introduced. However, there has been no methodology for selecting an interpolation factor determined by the sampling frequency and target precision which significantly affects the computational complexity. In addition, even if the computational complexity can be reduced by using the optimal interpolation factor, the huge transmission data through the datalink between sensors and the central station still remains to be an obstacle for an electronic warfare (EW) system. In this respect, we derive an optimal interpolation factor and then propose a new two-stage TDOA/FDOA estimation algorithm using a resampling block to reduce the computational complexity and the data size simultaneously in EW systems. In the proposed method, the optimal interpolation factor can be used irrespective of the sampling frequency and the target precision. Simulation results show that the optimal interpolation factor efficiently reduces the computational burden without the loss of estimation performance.
Autors: Dong-Gyu Kim;Geun-Ho Park;Hyoung-Nam Kim;Jin-Oh Park;Young-Mi Park;Wook-Hyeon Shin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 77 - 89
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Computing by slide rule
Abstract:
When does your computer need a slide rule? When it is the UNIVAC II. This 1950s circular slide rule from Remington Rand was used by programmers to optimize how the mainframe executed instructions. The computer had a drum memory that was constantly rotating, and the most efficient program would position the drum so that the next instruction would begin executing wherever the current instruction finished. Instructions were thus scattered across the drum and not physically adjacent to one another. To minimize rotational delays, a programmer had to figure out each instruction’s execution time in order to queue up the next command, an approach called minimum latency programming. Though the slide rule wasn’t strictly necessary to make those calculations, it probably helped
Autors: Allison Marsh;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 56 - 56
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Concept of a Magnetically Enhanced Vacuum Arc Thruster With Controlled Distribution of Ion Flux
Abstract:
In this paper, we present a concept of a magnetically enhanced vacuum arc thruster with an additional coil to control and shape the spatial distribution of the outlet ion flux. We introduce several operation modes by considering the operation of the original thruster and drawing an analogy with the technological setups equipped with vacuum arc plasma sources. To discuss the effect of the additional magnetic field, a plasma optic model is applied. Important regularity is deduced from the comparative analysis of the microthruster and macrosetup plasmas: quasi-neutrality of the plasmas is the same (about ), and the magnetic control is applied effectively when the plasma density n () and a spatial extent a (m) of the domain occupied by the plasma are connected by the dependence na3 .
Autors: Oleg O. Baranov;Uroš Cvelbar;Kateryna Bazaka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 304 - 310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Conference Calendar [Conference Calendar]
Abstract:
Presents the CIS committee calendar of upcoming events and meetings.
Autors: Bernadette Bouchon-Meunier;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 62 - 62
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Conference Report on 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (IEEE CIBCB 2017) [Conference Reports]
Abstract:
Presents information on the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence .
Autors: Richard Allmendinger;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 23 - 24
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Confluence: Speeding Up Iterative Distributed Operations by Key-Dependency-Aware Partitioning
Abstract:
A typical shuffle operation randomly partitions data on many computers, generating possibly a significant amount of network traffic which often dominates a job's completion time. This traffic is particularly pronounced in iterative distributed operations where each iteration invokes a shuffle operation. We observe that data of different iterations are related according to the transformation logic of distributed operations. If data generated by the current iteration are partitioned to the computers where they will be processed in the next iteration, unnecessary shuffle network traffic between the two iterations can be prevented. We model general iterative distributed operations as the transform-and-shuffle primitive and define a powerful notion named Confluence key dependency to precisely capture the data relations in the primitive. We further find that by binding key partitions between different iterations based on the Confluence key dependency, the shuffle network traffic can always be reduced by a predictable percentage. We implemented the Confluence system. Confluence provides a simple interface for programmers to express the Confluence key dependency, based on which Confluence automatically generates efficient key partitioning schemes. Evaluation results on diverse real-life applications show that Confluence greatly reduces the shuffle network traffic, resulting in as much as 23 percent job completion time reduction.
Autors: Feng Liang;Francis C. M. Lau;Heming Cui;Cho-Li Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 351 - 364
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Conformal Beam-Steering Antenna Controlled by a Raspberry Pi for Sustained High-Throughput Applications
Abstract:
A complete autonomous system consisting of a beam-steerable hemispherical square-loop antenna (HSLA) controlled by a Raspberry Pi is presented for optimizing the throughput in a scattered and a poor signal-to-noise ratio environment. Four different indoor communication configurations at various distances were analyzed in the presence of interferences. In three configurations, HSLA performance was also compared to that of a standard monopole antenna link. It was found that HSLA can offer up to 1450% higher throughput and can withstand much higher interference levels before the system breaks. In terms of quality, this means sustaining compressed high-definition communications. In effect, it improves the system throughput for the test 2.4 GHz (802.11b/g/n) WiFi band. The uniqueness about the system is that it only uses single antenna for both sensing and communication. The algorithm works at application layer that controls the RF switch and antenna patterns at physical layer. Thus, the entire middle protocol layers are untouched. The system can easily be retrofitted to the existing nonadaptive communication systems.
Autors: Arpan Pal;Amit Mehta;Hasanga Goonesinghe;Dariush Mirshekar-Syahkal;Hisamatsu Nakano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 918 - 926
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consensus of Discrete-Time Linear Multiagent Systems With Communication, Input and Output Delays
Abstract:
This note addresses the output consensus problem of discrete-time heterogeneous linear multiagent systems with switching topology and time delays. Three types of time delays are considered: communication delays, input delays, and output delays. A distributed predictor-based controller is proposed and it is shown that the output consensus problem can be solved via the proposed controller. A key to the proof of our main results is the establishment of a new property of graphs, that is, uniform sequential connectivity and uniform quasi-strong connectivity are equivalent. A simulation example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of our results.
Autors: Xiang Xu;Lu Liu;Gang Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 492 - 497
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consensus of Networked Euler–Lagrange Systems Under Time-Varying Sampled-Data Control
Abstract:
This paper is concerned with the consensus of multiple Euler–Lagrange systems with time-varying sampled-data control. Different from traditional sampled-data strategies, a time-varying sampled-data strategy is developed to realize the consensus of multiple Euler–lagrange systems, in which a function that can be distinct at different sampling instants is proposed to modulate the sampling interval. In addition, a new definition of average sampling interval, which is parallel to the average dwell time in switching control or average impulsive interval in impulsive control, is proposed to characterize the number of the updating of the sampling controller during some certain interval. The proposed average sampling interval makes our sampled-data strategy more suitable for a wide range of sampling signals. By utilizing the comparison principle, a sufficient criterion is obtained to guarantee the consensus of multiple Euler–Lagrange systems. The sufficient criterion is heavily dependent on the actual control duration time and the communication graph. Finally, a simulation example is presented to verify the applicability of the proposed results.
Autors: Wenbing Zhang;Yang Tang;Tingwen Huang;Athanasios V. Vasilakos;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 535 - 544
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Considering High-Performance Near-Field Reader Antennas: Comparisons of Proposed Antenna Layouts for Ultrahigh-Frequency Near-Field Radio-Frequency Identification
Abstract:
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is being widely used in supply chain and logistics applications for wireless identification and the tracking and tracing of goods, with excellent performance for the long-range interrogation of tagged pallets and cases (up to 4-6 m, with passive tags). Item-level tagging (ILT) has also received much attention, especially in the pharmaceutical and retail industries. Low-frequency (125-134 KHz) and high-frequency (HF) (13.56 MHz) RFID systems have traditionally been used for ILT applications, where the radio-frequency (RF) power from the reader is delivered to the passive tags by inductive coupling. Recently, ultra-HF (UHF) (840-960 MHz) near-field (NF) RFID systems [1] have attracted increasing attention because of the merits of the much higher reading speed and capability to detect a larger number of tags (bulk reading). A UHF NF RFID system is a valuable solution to implement a reliable short-range wireless link (up to a few tens of centimeters) for ILT applications. Because the tags can be made smaller, RFID-based applications can be extended to extremely minuscule items (e.g., retail apparel, jewelry, drugs, rented apparel) as well as the successful implementation of RFID-based storage spaces, smart conveyor belts, and shopping carts.
Autors: Andrea Michel;Paolo Nepa;Xianming Qing;Zhi Ning Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 60, issue:1, pages: 14 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consistency of Long-Term Subdural Electrocorticography in Humans
Abstract:
Objective: Subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) can provide a robust control signal for a brain–computer interface (BCI). However, the long-term recording properties of ECoG are poorly understood as most ECoG studies in the BCI field have only used signals recorded for less than 28 days. We assessed human ECoG recordings over durations of many months to investigate changes to recording quality that occur with long-term implantation. Methods: We examined changes in signal properties over time from 15 ambulatory humans who had continuous subdural ECoG monitoring for 184–766 days. Results: Individual electrodes demonstrated varying changes in frequency power characteristics over time within individual patients and between patients. Group level analyses demonstrated that there were only small changes in effective signal bandwidth and spectral band power across months. High-gamma signals could be recorded throughout the study, though there was a decline in signal power for some electrodes. Conclusion: ECoG-based BCI systems can robustly record high-frequency activity over multiple years, albeit with marked intersubject variability. Significance: Group level results demonstrated that ECoG is a promising modality for long-term BCI and neural prosthesis applications.
Autors: Ewan S. Nurse;Sam E. John;Dean R. Freestone;Thomas J. Oxley;Hoameng Ung;Samuel F. Berkovic;Terence J. O'Brien;Mark J. Cook;David B. Grayden;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 344 - 352
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consolidate IoT Edge Computing with Lightweight Virtualization
Abstract:
Lightweight virtualization (LV) technologies have refashioned the world of software development by introducing flexibility and new ways of managing and distributing software. Edge computing complements today's powerful centralized data centers with a large number of distributed nodes that provide virtualization close to the data source and end users. This emerging paradigm offers ubiquitous processing capabilities on a wide range of heterogeneous hardware characterized by different processing power and energy availability. The scope of this article is to present an in-depth analysis on the requirements of edge computing from the perspective of three selected use cases that are particularly interesting for harnessing the power of the Internet of Things. We discuss and compare the applicability of two LV technologies, containers and unikernels, as platforms for enabling the scalability, security, and manageability required by such pervasive applications that soon may be part of our everyday lives. To inspire further research, we identify open problems and highlight future directions to serve as a road map for both industry and academia.
Autors: Roberto Morabito;Vittorio Cozzolino;Aaron Yi Ding;Nicklas Beijar;Jorg Ott;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 102 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Consumer Behavior: Why Engineers Need to Read About It [Guest Editorial]
Abstract:
Energy involves everybody. Current changes in energy and power systems, including the distributed production of renewables, an increasing need for flexibility of operations, and energy storage and transmission, affect consumers in one way or another. Changes often require the active participation and support of consumers, who may become prosumers. All the new systems and technologies developed by electrical engineers may influence consumer behavior and trigger positive or negative responses. Hence, it is important for electrical engineers to understand how their work may affect consumers, which behavior changes their solutions involve, and which consumer needs and preferences must be considered when developing new technology. This issue encourages a conversation among electrical engineers and social scientists and facilitates the integration of their different expertise.
Autors: Geertje Schuitema;Linda Steg;Mark O'Malley;
Appeared in: IEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 16, issue:1, pages: 14 - 18
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Contactor Modeling Technology Based on an Artificial Neural Network
Abstract:
We propose a new contactor modeling method that incorporates the back propagation (BP) neural network to map the complex nonlinear electromechanical coupling relation of the contactor to build its model. First, the artificial neural network (ANN) model collects the actual operational data of the contactor, including the coil voltage, coil current and moving core displacement, and then uses the strong nonlinear fitting ability of the BP neural network to perform the model training. When the training is completed, the ANN model can output the precise displacement according to the input data of the coil voltage and the coil current. Through a simple training process, this method can complete the modeling of any electromagnetic contactor. This method avoids the need to solve the complex magnetic circuit equation of the contactor and thus provides a simple and universal method for calculating the displacement of the electromagnetic switch. The co-simulation system is used to model, train, and analyze the contactor ANN model. Finally, a relevant experiment is conducted to confirm the effectiveness of the ANN model.
Autors: Tang Longfei;Xu Zhihong;Bala Venkatesh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Context-Based Fractional Sample Refinement for HEVC Compliant Encoding
Abstract:
The H.265/MPEG-H High Efficiency Video Coding compliant encoding process faces the challenge of high computational complexity. Particularly, in the case of inter-picture prediction, most of the computational resources are allocated for the motion estimation (ME) process. In turn, ME and motion compensation enable improving coding efficiency by addressing the blocks of video frames as corresponding displacements from one or more reference blocks. These displacements do not necessarily have to be limited to integer sample positions, but may have an accuracy of half sample or quarter sample positions, which are identified during fractional sample refinement. In this paper, a context-based scheme for fractional sample refinement is proposed. The scheme takes the advantage of already obtained information in prior ME steps and provides significant flexibility in terms of parameterization. In this way, it adaptively achieves a desired tradeoff between computational complexity and coding efficiency. According to the experimental results obtained for an example algorithm utilizing the proposed framework, a significant decrease in the number of search points can be achieved. For instance, considering only 6 instead of 16 fractional sample positions results in a tradeoff of only 0.4% Bjøntegaard Delta-rate loss for high-definition video sequences compared with the conventional interpolation-and-search method.
Autors: Georg Maier;Benjamin Bross;Dan Grois;Detlev Marpe;Heiko Schwarz;Remco C. Veltkamp;Thomas Wiegand;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 528 - 539
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators With Time-Interleaved FIR Feedback
Abstract:
The use of a single-bit quantizer in a wideband CT is attractive, as the quantizer can be implemented in a power and area-efficient manner. Unfortunately, 1-bit CTMs are plagued by a host of difficulties. Clock jitter and quantizer metastability are particularly problematic, and the higher loop filter linearity needed to process the full-scale feedback waveform results in increased power dissipation. The use of a finite impulse response (FIR) feedback DAC is a power efficient way of addressing the challenges above. However, even this technique runs into difficulties at multi-GHz clock rates. This paper introduces the idea of time-interleaved (TI) FIR feedback to enhance the performance of a conventional FIR DAC. A single-bit CT that uses a TI-FIR DAC achieves 67.6/68.8/76 dB SNDR/SNR/DR in a 60 MHz bandwidth. Designed in a low leakage 65 nm CMOS process, the modulator operates at 6 GHz and occupies only 0.07 mm2. Its Walden Figure of Merit is 56.5 fJ/lvl.
Autors: Ankesh Jain;Shanthi Pavan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 434 - 443
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Controllable Thermal-Frequency Tuning of a Terahertz Gyrotron
Abstract:
Gyrotron performance is sensitive to cavity structure parameters, and the cavity shape is temperature dependent due to thermal deformation induced by temperature rise from ohmic loss power on finite-conductivity cavity wall. Accordingly, this paper studies a frequency-tuning scheme for terahertz gyrotron by properly controlling the cavity thermal deformation. By combining gyrotron nonlinear theory and finite-element method software, controllable thermal-frequency-tuning capability of a continuous-wave 263-GHz gyrotron is systematically investigated, toward maintaining gyrotron operating under gyromonotron condition in frequency-tuning band, and achieving high efficiency in broadband frequency-tuning range. After studying cavity thermal distribution, structure deformation, and electron beam–wave interaction, an optimized cavity structure with transition sections on both ends is proposed. Simulation predicts that with the two-transition-section cavity, via additional thermal tuning, the continuous-frequency-tuning band is capable of reaching 1.75 GHz, which is 5 times of the initial bandwidth. Furthermore, using the thermal-frequency-tuning technology, impressive high efficiency above 17% is obtainable in the whole frequency-tuning range.
Autors: Li Luo;Chao-Hai Du;Xiang-Bo Qi;Zheng-Di Li;Shi Pan;Ming-Guang Huang;Pu-Kun Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 695 - 703
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Convergence of Asynchronous Distributed Gradient Methods Over Stochastic Networks
Abstract:
We consider distributed optimization problems in which a number of agents are to seek the global optimum of a sum of cost functions through only local information sharing. In this paper, we are particularly interested in scenarios, where agents are operating asynchronously over stochastic networks subject to random failures. Most existing algorithms require coordinated and decaying stepsizes to ensure zero gap between the estimated value of each agent and the exact optimum, restricting it from asynchronous implementation and resulting in slower convergence results. To deal with this issue, we develop a new asynchronous distributed gradient method (AsynDGM) based on consensus theory. The proposed algorithm not only allows for asynchronous implementation in a completely distributed manner but also, most importantly, is able to seek the exact optimum even with constant stepsizes. We will show that the assumption of boundedness of gradients, which is widely used in the literature, can be dropped by instead imposing the standard Lipschitz continuity condition on gradients. Moreover, we derive an upper bound of stepsize within which the proposed AsynDGM can achieve a linear convergence rate for strongly convex functions with Lipschitz gradients. A canonical example of sensor fusion problems is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Autors: Jinming Xu;Shanying Zhu;Yeng Chai Soh;Lihua Xie;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 434 - 448
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Converse Bounds on Modulation-Estimation Performance for the Gaussian Multiple-Access Channel
Abstract:
This paper focuses on the problem of separately modulating and jointly estimating two independent continuous-valued parameters sent over a Gaussian multiple-access channel (MAC) under the mean square error (MSE) criterion without bandwidth constraints. To this end, we first improve an existing lower bound on the MSE that is obtained using the parameter modulation-estimation techniques for the single-user additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. As for the main contribution of this paper, this improved modulation-estimation analysis is generalized to the model of the two-user Gaussian MAC. We present outer bounds to the achievable region in the plane of the MSE’s of the two user parameters, which provides a trade-off between the MSE’s, where we used zero-rate lower bounds on the error probability of Gaussian channels by Shannon and Polyanskiy et al. Numerical results showed that, the multi-user adaptation of the zero-rate lower bound by Polyanskiy et al. provides a tighter overall lower bound on the MSE pairs than the classical Shannon bound. In addition, we introduced upper bounds on the MSE exponents, namely, the exponential decay rates of these MSE’s in the asymptotic regime of long blocks that could make use of any bound on the error exponent of a single-user AWGN channel. The obtained results are numerically evaluated for three different bounds on the reliability function of the Gaussian channel. It is shown that the adaptation of the reliability function by Ashikhmin et al. to the MAC provides a significantly tighter characterization than Shannon’s sphere-packing bound and the divergence bound.
Autors: Ayşe Ünsal;Raymond Knopp;Neri Merhav;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1217 - 1230
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Conversion of 230 kV Switchyard to Gas-Insulated Substation in a Gas Plant
Abstract:
Frequent failures and increased maintenance in a 30-year old 230 kV air-insulated switchyard (AIS) of a large gas plant caused the existing installation to be unreliable to provide uninterrupted power supply to critical plant operations. The replacement parts from original equipment manufacturers became scarce and expensive. The maintenance activities in severe and extremely hot middle-east weather conditions were cumbersome and time-consuming. A planned plant expansion with considerable incremental load to the facility provided an opportunity for a review of the complete electrical system. After a thorough review, it was decided to convert the main outdoor AIS to an indoor gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) substation to support the existing and new facilities. However, a total loss of power to the continuous operation of this critical gas facility was unacceptable. The existing switchyard with an energized 230 kV open bus system had limited space to safely perform the demolition and construction activities for the new GIS. Detailed analysis of the installation options, construction techniques, safety requirements, and logistical methods was performed to eliminate potential for any total loss of power. The construction activity involved interfacing with two separate redundant power supply sources, with separate transmission line protection systems and equipment. The parties involved worked together in reaching an agreement on engineering, procurement, installation, testing, and commissioning activities that would successfully implement this transition without any loss of power to the gas production facilities.
Autors: Merwyn D'Souza;Saud Al-Shammari;Mghwar Safwa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 895 - 904
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Convolutional Invasion and Expansion Networks for Tumor Growth Prediction
Abstract:
Tumor growth is associated with cell invasion and mass-effect, which are traditionally formulated by mathematical models, namely reaction-diffusion equations and biomechanics. Such models can be personalized based on clinical measurements to build the predictive models for tumor growth. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using deep convolutional neural networks to directly represent and learn the cell invasion and mass-effect, and to predict the subsequent involvement regions of a tumor. The invasion network learns the cell invasion from information related to metabolic rate, cell density, and tumor boundary derived from multimodal imaging data. The expansion network models the mass-effect from the growing motion of tumor mass. We also study different architectures that fuse the invasion and expansion networks, in order to exploit the inherent correlations among them. Our network can easily be trained on population data and personalized to a target patient, unlike most previous mathematical modeling methods that fail to incorporate population data. Quantitative experiments on a pancreatic tumor data set show that the proposed method substantially outperforms a state-of-the-art mathematical model-based approach in both accuracy and efficiency, and that the information captured by each of the two subnetworks is complementary.
Autors: Ling Zhang;Le Lu;Ronald M. Summers;Electron Kebebew;Jianhua Yao;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 638 - 648
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Convolutional Sparse Learning for Blind Deconvolution and Application on Impulsive Feature Detection
Abstract:
The mechanical structure or transmission path between fault source and sensor location always distorts the impulsive signatures of machine faults. It is thus an important task to estimate the desired impulsive feature and the influence of transmission path simultaneously from the noisy observation signals. Therefore, a convolutional sparse learning model (ConvSLM) is proposed to perform impulsive feature detection. The ConvSLM directly models the modulation process of the transmission path and is completely different from the indirect inverse filter design scheme as popular deconvolution techniques adopted. Meanwhile, to overcome the inherent drawbacks of the popular Kurtosis maximization strategy, the sparse structure of the impulsive feature is integrated into the objective function of the ConvSLM. Different from the recently developed two-stage solver, a new iterative algorithm with only one stage is also developed under a multiple-block nonconvex alternating direction method of multiplier framework to cope with the nonconvexity and nonsmoothness of the sparsity-regularized objective function, which not only reduces the algorithmic complexity but also has a convergence guarantee. Numerical experiments on synthetic data and test results corroborate the efficacy of the advocated approach. Compared with the state-of-the-art blind deconvolution techniques, the ConvSLM’s superiority is sufficiently verified through its application on the impulsive detection of the wind turbine gearbox gear.
Autors: Zhaohui Du;Xuefeng Chen;Han Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 338 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Low-Power Wideband Sensing Based on 1-bit Quantization
Abstract:
We propose a cooperative wideband sensing approach based on the fast Fourier transform-based 1-bit quantization sensing applied at the cognitive radio (CR) receiver. A hard combining approach is utilized to fuse the local binary decisions obtained from different CRs. The system parameters are optimized to maximize the aggregate throughput subjected to a constrained interference term. When compared with other methods, in addition to the significant saving in power and complexity, results indicate that the proposed method provides better performance even though an aggressive quantization has been applied.
Autors: Abdelmohsen Ali;Walaa Hamouda;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 368 - 371
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Output Regulation of Linear Multi-Agent Systems by Intermittent Communication: A Unified Framework of Time- and Event-Triggering Strategies
Abstract:
This paper addresses the cooperative output regulation problem of heterogeneous linear multi-agent systems with directed communication topologies, requiring only intermittent communication. First, we propose a unified framework of time- and event-triggering strategies. Then based on the unified triggering framework, a novel triggering mechanism utilizing the self-triggering strategy is developed. It is shown that with the proposed triggering mechanism, the cooperative output regulation problem can be solved by a distributed control law with only intermittent communication. It is further shown that with the unified framework of time- and event-triggering strategies for each agent, a positive minimum inter-event time can be explicitly given and Zeno behavior can be thus excluded. An example is finally provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller and the triggering mechanism.
Autors: Wenfeng Hu;Lu Liu;Gang Feng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 63, issue:2, pages: 548 - 555
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Under Ambient Malicious Interferences
Abstract:
The presence of malicious interferences in cognitive radio networks can severely degrade the performance of spectrum sensing. In this letter, we propose a cooperative spectrum sensing approach to tackle malicious interferences, where the local signal to interference plus noise power ratios at secondary users are transmitted to a fusion center for making decision. The theoretical performance of the proposed detector, in terms of false-alarm and detection probabilities, is analyzed, and simulation results are provided to validate the theoretical analyses and demonstrate the superior performance of the detector.
Autors: Mingyang Sun;Ming Jin;Qinghua Guo;Youming Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 432 - 435
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Coplanar-Electrodes-Based Differential Structure for Piezoresistive Sensor Made of Carbon Nanotube Filled Silicone Rubber Composite
Abstract:
To develop the differential piezoresistive sensor made of carbon nanotube filled silicone rubber composite with concise configuration, a coplanar-electrodes-based differential structure is designed. The structure includes two composite films with high carbon nanotube content (12 vol.%) and two composite films with low carbon nanotube content (4 vol.%). All the electrodes for the four composite films are located in the same encapsulation layer (i.e., all the electrodes are located on the same side of the composite films), which can simplify the configuration of the sensor probe. The electrical resistance of the composite film with high/low carbon nanotube content decreases/increases with the increase of the compressive pressure and increases with the increase of the temperature. The two composite films with high carbon nanotube contents are placed on the two diagonal arms of an electrical bridge, and the other two composite films with low carbon nanotube contents are placed on the other two diagonal arms of the bridge. The experimental results verify the feasibility of using the coplanar-electrodes-based differential structure to reduce the output drift induced by the temperature and improve the sensitivity.
Autors: Luheng Wang;Fei Wu;Yalin Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1403 - 1409
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corona Current Coupling in Bipolar HVDC and Hybrid HVAC/HVDC Overhead Lines
Abstract:
This paper investigates the corona generated ion-flow environment in bipolar HVdc and hybrid ac/dc transmission systems. The emphasis is on the dc ion current magnitude in the conductors. In dc conductors, this constitutes the corona power loss, while in ac conductors, this quantity is primarily of concern due to the risk of transformer saturation. Existing prediction methods are compared to full-scale test data from the literature and new laboratory measurements. It is shown that the bipolar HVdc and hybrid ac/dc ion-flow phenomena are similar in the sense that mutual space-charge-related surface field enhancements are a dominant factor in the determination of the total conductor ion currents. Furthermore, in a hybrid ac/dc environment, the existence of a net dc ion current stemming from the ac conductor is verified and explained. Limitations of existing prediction methods are demonstrated and recommendations for future work is given.
Autors: Martin Pfeiffer;Sören Hedtke;Christian M. Franck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 393 - 402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “TOPSIS-Based Nonlinear-Programming Methodology for Multi-attribute Decision Making With Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets”
Abstract:
There are some mistakes in the computation results of the real example in the article by Li, “TOPSIS-based nonlinear-programming methodology for multi-attribute decision making with interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets” [IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 299–311, 2010], and this article provides corrections to that paper.
Autors: Jia-Cai Liu;Deng-Feng Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 391 - 391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “In Situ Oxide, GaN Interlayer-Based Vertical Trench MOSFET (OG-FET) on Bulk GaN Substrates’
Abstract:
In the above paper [1], the fifth author’s name was printed incorrectly. The correct name is Junqian Liu.
Autors: Chirag Gupta;Cory Lund;Silvia H. Chan;Anchal Agarwal;Junqian Liu;Yuuki Enatsu;Stacia Keller;Umesh K. Mishra;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 316 - 316
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Compact Filtering Rat-Race Hybrid With Wide Stopband”
Abstract:
There are some typos in [1, eqs. (2), (3), (7), (10), (11), (15), (17), and (25)]. They should be corrected as follows:
Autors: Kai-Xu Wang;Xiu Yin Zhang;Shao Yong Zheng;Quan Xue;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1142 - 1143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Deep Recurrent Neural Networks for Hyperspectral Image Classification”
Abstract:
Here, we correct some errors caused by a programming bug (a data type error) in overall accuracies (OAs) reported in [1]. The corrected OAs are underlined and shown in bold in Tables IIII.
Autors: Lichao Mou;Pedram Ghamisi;Xiao Xiang Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1214 - 1215
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Gysel Power Divider With Arbitrary Power Ratios and Filtering Responses Using Coupling Structure”
Abstract:
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Autors: Kai-Xu Wang;Xiu Yin Zhang;Bin-Jie Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1144 - 1144
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Problematic Projection to the In-Sample Subspace for a Kernelized Anomaly Detector”
Abstract:
In the above paper [1], there are several errors, which we correct here.
Autors: James Theiler;Guen Grosklos;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 307 - 307
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Segment-Oriented Depiction and Analysis for Hyperspectral Image Data”
Abstract:
In [1], information regarding the corresponding author is missing. The information is updated here. The updated footnote below shows that Xiaoyan Luo is the corresponding author for this paper.
Autors: Jihao Yin;Hui Qv;Xiaoyan Luo;Xiuping Jia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1213 - 1213
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Corrections to “Toward Near-Ground Localization: Modeling and Applications for TOA Ranging Error”
Abstract:
The authors of [1] would like to make the following corrections.
Autors: Cheng Xu;Jie He;Xiaotong Zhang;Po-Hsuan Tseng;Shihong Duan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 1052 - 1052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Cost-Effective Gap Waveguide Technology Based on Glide-Symmetric Holey EBG Structures
Abstract:
We present a novel electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure, which can be used to manufacture low-cost waveguiding structures at high frequencies. The unit cell of the proposed EBG consists of glide-symmetric holes in parallel plate waveguide. Using this unit cell in groove gap waveguide technology has a number of advantages over pin-type EBG at high frequencies, such as acquiring higher accuracy because of larger periodicity as well as an easier and cheaper manufacturing process. The performance of the proposed waveguiding structure is demonstrated using both a straight and a double 90° bent lines through simulation and measurement.
Autors: Mahsa Ebrahimpouri;Eva Rajo-Iglesias;Zvonimir Sipus;Oscar Quevedo-Teruel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 927 - 934
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CR-SDVN: A Cognitive Routing Protocol for Software-Defined Vehicular Networks
Abstract:
Due to the highly dynamic nature of cognitive vehicular networks, several sporadic links induce a long delay in the network. The selection of a stable route is therefore one of the key design factors to improve overall network stability, thereby reducing the end-to-end delay. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a novel approach that improves network intelligence. To this end, we propose a novel SDN-based routing protocol for cognitive vehicular networks that finds a stable route between source and destination. As this is a cognitive routing protocol, spectrum sensing is therefore the primary task of this algorithm to improve network stability by keeping primary user activity safe. We apply a belief propagation algorithm for channel selection. This is an SDN-based vehicular communications scheme where two nodes can only communicate when they have consensus about a common idle channel. The protocol has two phases: the registering phase and the route prediction phase. The SDN main controller (MC) is responsible for a global view of the network, whereas several local controllers (LCs) are responsible for localized global views of the network. This layering of controllers into two kinds (MC and LCs) improves the network performance in terms of end-to-end delay, high delivery ratio, and low overhead. We prove this in our simulation results by comparing our proposed scheme with two existing schemes (one with, and another without, SDN).
Autors: Huma Ghafoor;Insoo Koo;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1761 - 1772
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Crack-Free Silicon-Nitride-on-Insulator Nonlinear Circuits for Continuum Generation in the ${C}$ -Band
Abstract:
We report on the fabrication and testing of silicon-nitride-on-insulator nonlinear photonic circuits for complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) compatible monolithic co-integration with silicon-based optoelectronics. In particular, a process has been developed to fabricate low-loss crack-free Si3N4 730-nm-thick films for Kerr-based nonlinear functions featuring full process compatibility with existing silicon photonics and front-end Si optoelectronics. Experimental evidence shows that 2.1-cm-long nanowires based on such crack-free silicon nitride films are capable of generating a frequency continuum spanning 1515–1575 nm via self-phase modulation. This work paves the way to time-stable power-efficient Kerr-based broadband sources featuring full process compatibility with Si photonic integrated circuits on CMOS lines.
Autors: Houssein El Dirani;Marco Casale;Sébastien Kerdiles;Carole Socquet-Clerc;Xavier Letartre;Christelle Monat;Corrado Sciancalepore;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 355 - 358
Publisher: IEEE
 
» CRITIC-Based Node Importance Evaluation in Skeleton-Network Reconfiguration of Power Grids
Abstract:
Seven centrality indexes are first presented for identifying important nodes with topological features of a complex network and electrical characteristics of a power system considered. Then, a criteria importance through intercriteria correlation-based multi-index decision-making method, in which entropy and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient are integrated for reflecting the differences and correlations among multiple indexes, respectively, is presented to comprehensively identify the importance degrees of nodes in a given power grid. Finally, the proposed indexes and method are applied to actual Guangdong power system in China, and the results are compared with those attained by single-attribute and multi-attribute evaluation methods.
Autors: Zhenzhi Lin;Fushuan Wen;Huifang Wang;Guanqiang Lin;Tianwen Mo;Xiaojun Ye;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 206 - 210
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Critical Link Analysis for Urban Transportation Systems
Abstract:
A fundamental and important step for safety analysis for an urban transportation system is to find its critical links. However, most approaches in the current literature focused on highway or intercity transportation systems. The key characteristics of urban transportation systems were not considered and the concept of criticality of links was mixed up with the concept of vulnerability. This paper defines the criticality of links from two perspectives, i.e., the vulnerability and potential, based on which a novel methodology for identifying critical links in an urban transportation network is proposed. This novel methodology includes a ranking method and a novel mesoscopic model to examine the urban transportation network performance. The mesoscopic model is a novel cell transmission model, which grasps key characteristics of an urban transportation network, such as dynamic demand generated on links, different link lengths, and intersection flow assignment. The method is validated by a real world case from Hong Kong. The simulation results indicate that the ranking of critical links depends on particular scenarios, available resources, and both supply and demand of the system; furthermore, two paradoxes are discovered and discussed.
Autors: Yaoming Zhou;Junwei Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 402 - 415
Publisher: IEEE
 

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