Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 2

» A Rationale for Acceleration Feedback in Force Control of Series Elastic Actuators
Abstract:
Series elastic actuators (SEAs) have become fundamental components in robots that physically interact with unstructured environments and humans. Force control of SEAs is indeed an active area of research. This paper proposes a theoretical foundation for acceleration feedback (AF) in SEA force control. Even if AF already appeared in early works on SEAs, its advantages have not been properly highlighted in the literature. In particular, this paper formally motivates improved performance robustness and transparency exactly as if using a softer and lighter actuator. Taking advantage of AF, we propose a generic control architecture characterized by impressive performance robustness in spite of even high environment uncertainties. A comparison with state-of-the-art force control solutions such as disturbance observers and adaptive controllers is reported using a comprehensive set of simulations and experiments. As a result, AF methods exhibit the higher performance robustness and accuracy. Beside this outcome, AF controllers are extremely easy to implement and the rise of low-cost miniaturized accelerometers based on micro electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) represents an additional motivations for their use.
Autors: Andrea Calanca;Paolo Fiorini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 48 - 61
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Real-Time Heterogeneous Emulator of a High-Fidelity Utility-Scale Variable-Speed Variable-Pitch Wind Turbine
Abstract:
Wind energy has the highest development rates of renewables. The increasing complexity of wind turbine (WT) systems requires careful analysis and design with thorough testing and certification procedures. Hardware emulators contribute to safe and cost-effective assessment and testing of WT in research and industry. Most of the available emulators concentrate on emulating electrical subsystems with simplified mechanical models. In this paper, a real-time (RT) heterogeneous emulator that combines RT discrete-time step simulation and a high-fidelity linear parameter-varying model of a utility-scale WT system is proposed and implemented on a heterogeneous CPU/GPU platform. The RT emulator is built on an embedded NVIDIA Jetson TK1 board for a National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5-MW WT as a case study. The proposed emulator is capable of further integration of electrical models and control systems of WT.
Autors: Mohammed Moness;Muhammad Osama Mahmoud;Ahmed Mahmoud Moustafa;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 437 - 447
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Regression-Based High-Pass Modulation Pansharpening Approach
Abstract:
Pansharpening usually refers to the fusion of a high spatial resolution panchromatic (PAN) image with a higher spectral resolution but coarser spatial resolution multispectral (MS) image. Owing to the wide applicability of related products, the literature has been populated by many papers proposing several approaches and studies about this issue. Many solutions require a preliminary spectral matching phase wherein the PAN image is matched with the MS bands. In this paper, we propose and properly justify a new approach for performing this step, demonstrating that it yields state-of-the-art performance. The comparison with existing spectral matching procedures is performed by employing four data sets, concerning different kinds of landscapes, acquired by the Pléiades, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1 sensors.
Autors: Gemine Vivone;Rocco Restaino;Jocelyn Chanussot;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 984 - 996
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Ring Oscillator-Based Identification Mechanism Immune to Aging and External Working Conditions
Abstract:
Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are one of the most important breakthrough for security of devices as they represent a low-cost means to provide authentication and secure storage. PUFs measure nano-scale mismatches that are inherently caused by the manufacturing process. However, the mechanisms exploited by PUF circuits depend on the working conditions, such as temperature, device aging, and current flow, making them unreliable and, hence preventing their wider employment. One of the most investigated PUF exploits pairs of ring oscillators (ROs): frequencies measured from each pair are compared for extracting one response bit. However, extracted bit-strings are not suitable for authentication purposes as they may change during time. In this paper, we propose a new identification mechanism, based on ROs, which is immune to aging and working conditions. Through a mathematical demonstration and an extensive experimental campaign, which involved real field programmable gate array devices, we demonstrate its ability to reliably accomplish identification of silicon devices.
Autors: Mario Barbareschi;Giorgio Di Natale;Lionel Torres;Antonino Mazzeo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 700 - 711
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Dynamic Edge Network Architecture for the Internet of Things
Abstract:
A massive number of devices are expected to fulfill the missions of sensing, processing and control in cyber-physical IoT systems with new applications and connectivity requirements. In this context, scarce spectrum resources must accommodate high traffic volume with stringent requirements of low latency, high reliability, and energy efficiency. Conventional centralized network architectures may not be able to fulfill these requirements due to congestion in backhaul links. This article presents a novel design of an RDNA for IoT that leverages the latest advances of mobile devices (e.g., their capability to act as access points, storing and computing capabilities) to dynamically harvest unused resources and mitigate network congestion. However, traffic dynamics may compromise the availability of terminal access points and channels, and thus network connectivity. The proposed design embraces solutions at the physical, access, networking, application, and business layers to improve network robustness. The high density of mobile devices provides alternatives for close connectivity, reducing interference and latency, and thus increasing reliability and energy efficiency. Moreover, the computing capabilities of mobile devices project smartness onto the edge, which is desirable for autonomous and intelligent decision making. A case study is included to illustrate the performance of RDNA. Potential applications of this architecture in the context of IoT are outlined. Finally, some challenges for future research are presented.
Autors: Beatriz Lorenzo;Juan Garcia-Rois;Xuanheng Li;Javier Gonzalez-Castano;Yuguang Fang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 8 - 15
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Robust Multibit Multiplicative Watermark Decoder Using a Vector-Based Hidden Markov Model in Wavelet Domain
Abstract:
The vector-based hidden Markov model (HMM) is a powerful statistical model for characterizing the distribution of the wavelet coefficients, since it is capable of capturing the subband marginal distribution as well as the inter-scale and cross-orientation dependencies of the wavelet coefficients. In this paper we propose a scheme for designing a blind multibit watermark decoder incorporating the vector-based HMM in wavelet domain. The decoder is designed based on the maximum likelihood criterion. A closed-form expression is derived for the bit error rate and validated experimentally with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the proposed watermark detector is evaluated using a set of standard test images and shown to outperform the decoders designed based on the Cauchy or generalized Gaussian distributions without or with attacks. It is also shown that the proposed decoder is more robust against various kinds of attacks compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Marzieh Amini;M. Omair Ahmad;M.N.S. Swamy;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 402 - 413
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Scalable In-Memory Logic Synthesis Approach Using Memristor Crossbar
Abstract:
Because of their resistive switching properties and ease of controlling the resistive states, memristors have been proposed in nonvolatile storage as well as logic design applications. Memristors can be fabricated in a crossbar and suitable voltages applied to the row and column nanowires to control their states. This makes it possible to move toward new non-von Neumann-type architectures, usually referred to as in-memory computing, where logic operations can be performed directly on the storage fabric. In this paper, a scalable design flow for in-memory computing has been proposed, where a given multioutput logic function is synthesized as a netlist of NOT/NOR gates and then mapped to the crossbar using the Memristor-Aided loGIC (MAGIC) design style. The memristors corresponding to the primary inputs are initialized a priori. Subsequently, the required gate operations are performed by applying suitable row and column voltages in sequence. Two alternate mapping schemes have been analyzed. The switching characteristics of MAGIC NOR gates have been evaluated using circuit simulation under the Cadence Virtuoso environment. Experimental evaluation on ISCAS’85 benchmarks reports the average improvements of 27.7%, 34.6%, and 26.2%, respectively over a recently published work with respect to the number of memristors, number of cycles, and total energy dissipation, respectively. It may be noted that the energy consumption of the gates used in the proposed approach (NOT and NOR) is significantly higher than that using CMOS technology.
Autors: Rahul Gharpinde;Phrangboklang Lynton Thangkhiew;Kamalika Datta;Indranil Sengupta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 355 - 366
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Scalable Multicore Architecture With Heterogeneous Memory Structures for Dynamic Neuromorphic Asynchronous Processors (DYNAPs)
Abstract:
Neuromorphic computing systems comprise networks of neurons that use asynchronous events for both computation and communication. This type of representation offers several advantages in terms of bandwidth and power consumption in neuromorphic electronic systems. However, managing the traffic of asynchronous events in large scale systems is a daunting task, both in terms of circuit complexity and memory requirements. Here, we present a novel routing methodology that employs both hierarchical and mesh routing strategies and combines heterogeneous memory structures for minimizing both memory requirements and latency, while maximizing programming flexibility to support a wide range of event-based neural network architectures, through parameter configuration. We validated the proposed scheme in a prototype multicore neuromorphic processor chip that employs hybrid analog/digital circuits for emulating synapse and neuron dynamics together with asynchronous digital circuits for managing the address-event traffic. We present a theoretical analysis of the proposed connectivity scheme, describe the methods and circuits used to implement such scheme, and characterize the prototype chip. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the neuromorphic processor with a convolutional neural network for the real-time classification of visual symbols being flashed to a dynamic vision sensor (DVS) at high speed.
Autors: Saber Moradi;Ning Qiao;Fabio Stefanini;Giacomo Indiveri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 106 - 122
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Self-Adaptive Online Brain–Machine Interface of a Humanoid Robot Through a General Type-2 Fuzzy Inference System
Abstract:
This paper presents a self-adaptive autonomous online learning through a general type-2 fuzzy system (GT2 FS) for the motor imagery (MI) decoding of a brain-machine interface (BMI) and navigation of a bipedal humanoid robot in a real experiment, using electroencephalography (EEG) brain recordings only. GT2 FSs are applied to BMI for the first time in this study. We also account for several constraints commonly associated with BMI in real practice: 1) the maximum number of EEG channels is limited and fixed; 2) no possibility of performing repeated user training sessions; and 3) desirable use of unsupervised and low-complexity feature extraction methods. The novel online learning method presented in this paper consists of a self-adaptive GT2 FS that can autonomously self-adapt both its parameters and structure via creation, fusion, and scaling of the fuzzy system rules in an online BMI experiment with a real robot. The structure identification is based on an online GT2 Gath–Geva algorithm where every MI decoding class can be represented by multiple fuzzy rules (models), which are learnt in a continous (trial-by-trial) non-iterative basis. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in a detailed BMI experiment, in which 15 untrained users were able to accurately interface with a humanoid robot, in a single session, using signals from six EEG electrodes only.
Autors: Javier Andreu-Perez;Fan Cao;Hani Hagras;Guang-Zhong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 101 - 116
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Semi-Anaytical Model for the Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Tubular Linear Generator
Abstract:
In this paper, the authors introduce a semianalytical model for the analysis and the design of a permanent magnet (PM) tubular linear generator intended for electrical energy generation from sea waves. The translator of the analyzed machine is constituted by axially magnetized ferrite PMs with alternating polarity and soft magnetic pole pieces in between; a two-pole, double-layer, three-phase winding is located in the slots of the stator. The presented model, based on the use of the Carter coefficient and of the Fourier transform in the direction of the motion, is able to take into account the end effects due to the finite length of the stator. The presence of slots and teeth is subsequently considered by some postprocessing calculation carried on the results of the semianalytical model. Comparison with a finite element analysis and measurements taken on a prototype has been performed to validate the presented model. The model can be easily extended to other translator typologies, e.g., to air core translator with Halbach array of NdFeB PMs.
Autors: Antonino Musolino;Marco Raugi;Rocco Rizzo;Luca Sani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 204 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Sensitive Dynamic and Active Pixel Vision Sensor for Color or Neural Imaging Applications
Abstract:
Applications requiring detection of small visual contrast require high sensitivity. Event cameras can provide higher dynamic range (DR) and reduce data rate and latency, but most existing event cameras have limited sensitivity. This paper presents the results of a 180-nm Towerjazz CIS process vision sensor called SDAVIS192. It outputs temporal contrast dynamic vision sensor (DVS) events and conventional active pixel sensor frames. The SDAVIS192 improves on previous DAVIS sensors with higher sensitivity for temporal contrast. The temporal contrast thresholds can be set down to 1% for negative changes in logarithmic intensity (OFF events) and down to 3.5% for positive changes (ON events). The achievement is possible through the adoption of an in-pixel preamplification stage. This preamplifier reduces the effective intrascene DR of the sensor (70 dB for OFF and 50 dB for ON), but an automated operating region control allows up to at least 110-dB DR for OFF events. A second contribution of this paper is the development of characterization methodology for measuring DVS event detection thresholds by incorporating a measure of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). At average SNR of 30 dB, the DVS temporal contrast threshold fixed pattern noise is measured to be 0.3%–0.8% temporal contrast. Results comparing monochrome and RGBW color filter array DVS events are presented. The higher sensitivity of SDAVIS192 make this sensor potentially useful for calcium imaging, as shown in a recording from cultured neurons expressing calcium sensitive green fluorescent protein GCaMP6f.
Autors: Diederik Paul Moeys;Federico Corradi;Chenghan Li;Simeon A. Bamford;Luca Longinotti;Fabian F. Voigt;Stewart Berry;Gemma Taverni;Fritjof Helmchen;Tobi Delbruck;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 12, issue:1, pages: 123 - 136
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Silicon-Based Low-Power Broadband Transimpedance Amplifier
Abstract:
The analysis, design, and implementation of a 50-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier (TIA) in a 0.13- SiGe BiCMOS process are presented. The proposed TIA, designed for use in a single-channel optical communication network, is comprised of three stages including: 1) a shunt-peaked, shunt-series feedback stage incorporating a transformer-based positive feedback; 2) an -degenerated common-emitter stage; and 3) an inductively degenerated emitter follower. The TIA chip integrates an on-chip 100-fF input capacitor to emulate the photo-detector junction capacitor, and achieves a measured transimpedance gain of 41 dB and an input-referred current-noise spectral density of 39.8 pA/ over a 50-GHz bandwidth. The TIA achieves an open eye at 50 Gbps with random jitter of 2.3-ps rms (including the jitter contribution of the test fixture). The prototype chip occupies 0.58 mm2 (including pads) of die area and dissipates 24 mW of dc power from a 2-V supply voltage (i.e., less than 0.5 pJ/bit).
Autors: Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi;Hossein Mohammadnezhad;Michael M. Green;Payam Heydari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 498 - 509
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simple Tri-Polarization Reconfigurable Magneto-Electric Dipole Antenna
Abstract:
A simple magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna with reconfigurable polarizations has been designed. The proposed ME dipole antenna mainly comprises three pairs of horizontal rectangular patches, a Γ-shaped feed, a metallic cavity, and four PIN diodes. By independently controlling the on/off state of the PIN diodes, the horizontal rectangular patches can be connected/disconnected, thus exhibiting linear polarization, right-hand circular polarization, and left-hand circular polarization. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ME dipole antenna has a wide effective bandwidth of 33.9% from 1.74 to 2.45 GHz for both S11 ≤ −10 dB and axial ratio ≤3 in all polarization states, and a stable gain of 8.2 ± 0.8 dBi. Good unidirectional radiation characteristic and low backlobe level are achieved over the whole operating frequency band. A prototype was fabricated, and good agreement between measured and simulated results validates polarization diversity of the proposed antenna.
Autors: Yan Shi;Yi Cai;Xiang-Fan Zhang;Kai Kang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 291 - 294
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simplified FRI Sampling System for Pulse Streams Based on Constraint Random Modulation
Abstract:
The recent finite rate of innovation (FRI) framework provides effective sub-Nyquist sampling of pulse streams, allowing recovery of such signals from a set of Fourier coefficients. In this brief, a multi-channel FRI sampling system is presented to sample distinct bands of Fourier coefficients. This is achieved through modulating the desired spectrum band to baseband and then filtering with a low-pass filter. However, the modulation process will lead to the spectrum aliasing and unavailability. A modulation frequency selection strategy is proposed to solve this problem, which allows obtaining reconfigurable Fourier coefficients from the aliasing spectrum. Combining with multi-channel structure, we present a simple and efficient way to sample distinct bands of the pulse streams’ spectrum. Finally, a design and implementation of the hardware prototype is presented. Simulation and hardware experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our system.
Autors: Guoxing Huang;Ning Fu;Liyan Qiao;Jie Cao;Chuanzhi Fan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 256 - 260
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Simplified Photonic Approach to Measuring the Microwave Doppler Frequency Shift
Abstract:
A novel approach for measuring the microwave Doppler frequency shift (DFS) based on a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM) is proposed and demonstrated. The value and direction of the DFS can be simultaneously measured with high precision by using a reference signal. In the DDMZM, the transmitted signal and reference signal are applied to one radio frequency (RF) port, while the echo signal is applied to the other RF port. Then, the generated optical signals are sent to a low-speed photodetecter, and the beat frequency between the transmitted and echo signals is equal to the value of DFS, while the direction of DFS can be distinguished by comparing the two beat frequencies generated by the transmitted signal with reference signal and the echo signal with reference signal, respectively. The DFS from -100 to +100 kHz at the carrier frequency of 10, 14, and 18 GHz is successfully measured, and the maximal error is less than 1.0 Hz.
Autors: Lu Xu;Yuan Yu;Haitao Tang;Xinliang Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 246 - 249
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single Color Camera Stereo Vision System
Abstract:
In this paper, a novel single color camera stereo vision system is proposed. Two planar mirrors are used to create double views (blue and red views). A dichroic filter (DF) is used to combine them and eliminate their interference. The double views can then be captured by a color camera through blue and red channels. When the DF transmits the red light, refraction would occur. During calibration, we separate the calibration process: calibrate the virtual red camera and the virtual blue camera in order, and then calibrate their pose relationship. The refraction is removed in this process. Moreover, when computing the 3-D position of a point, the measurement error caused by the refraction is also considered. In this experiment, the interference between the blue- and red-channels is shown to be negligible. We verified the proposed vision system on the standard spherical and cylindrical surfaces. It is shown that the measurement accuracy is improved when the effect of refraction is considered. In addition, the noise robustness of this proposed system is also tested. The measurement accuracy would not be affected severely, if the standard deviation of the uniformly distributed random noise is less than 0.035. Finally, the proposed system is employed to measure the profile of a flower model. The proposed system has potential industrial applications.
Autors: Fuqiang Zhong;Chenggen Quan;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1474 - 1482
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Single Layer 3-D Touch Sensing System for Mobile Devices Application
Abstract:
Touch sensing has been widely implemented as a main methodology to bridge human and machine interactions. The traditional touch sensing range is 2-D and therefore limits the user experience. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel 3-D contactless touch sensing called Airtouch system, which improves user experience by remotely detecting single/multi-finger position. A single layer touch panel with triangle-shaped electrodes is proposed to achieve multitouch detection capability as well as manufacturing cost reduction. Moreover, an oscillator-based-capacitive touch sensing circuit is implemented as the sensing hardware with the bootstrapping technique to eliminate the interchannel coupling effects. To further improve the system accuracy, a grouping algorithm is proposed to group the useful channels’ data and filter out hardware noise impact. Finally, improved algorithms are proposed to eliminate the fringing capacitance effect and achieve accurate finger position estimation. EM simulation proved that the proposed algorithm reduced the maximum systematic error by 11 dB in the horizontal position detection. The proposed system consumes 2.3 mW and is fully compatible with existing mobile device environments. A prototype is built to demonstrate that the system can successfully detect finger movement in a vertical direction up to 6 cm and achieve a horizontal resolution up to 0.6 cm at 1 cm finger-height. As a new interface for human and machine interactions, this system offers great potential in finger movement detection and gesture recognition for small-sized electronics and advanced human interactive games for mobile device.
Autors: Li Du;Chun-Chen Liu;Yan Zhang;Yilei Li;Yuan Du;Yen-Cheng Kuan;Mau-Chung Frank Chang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 286 - 296
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Smooth EKV-Based DC Model for Accurate Simulation of Printed Transistors and Their Process Variations
Abstract:
A printed electronics technology has the advantage of additive and extremely low-cost fabrication compared with the conventional silicon technology. Specifically, printed electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors (EGFETs) are attractive for low-cost applications in the Internet-of-Things domain as they can operate at low supply voltages. In this paper, we propose an empirical dc model for EGFETs, which can describe the behavior of the EGFETs smoothly and accurately over all regimes. The proposed model, built by extending the Enz–Krummenacher–Vittoz model, can also be used to model process variations, which was not possible previously due to fixed parameters for near threshold regime. It offers a single model for all the operating regions of the transistors with only one equation for the drain current. Additionally, it models the transistors with a less number of parameters but higher accuracy compared with existing techniques. Measurement results from several fabricated EGFETs confirm that the proposed model can predict the – more accurately compared with the state-of-the-art models in all operating regions. Additionally, the measurements on the frequency of a fabricated ring oscillator are only 4.7% different from the simulation results based on the proposed model using values for the switching capacitances extracted from measurement data, which shows more than improvement compared with the state-of-the-art model.
Autors: Farhan Rasheed;Mohammad Saber Golanbari;Gabriel Cadilha Marques;Mehdi B. Tahoori;Jasmin Aghassi-Hagmann;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 667 - 673
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Software-Defined Frequency-Reconfigurable Meandered Printed Monopole
Abstract:
In this letter, a frequency-reconfigurable printed meandered monopole structure is presented. The antenna structure is composed of three radiating parts that are connected through two integrated PIN diodes. Such integration allows the antenna to reconfigure its operation within four frequency bands that correspond to various LTE, UMTS, and GSM channels. A graphical user interface (GUI) using Java is employed to control the states of the switches. The interface allows the control of a microcontroller to supply appropriate current to each of the two diodes. The GUI also simulates a cognitive radio environment where the activation of the corresponding PIN diodes is determined by the users’ activities. A prototype is fabricated and tested as a proof of concept where measured results agree with simulated data.
Autors: Y. Tawk;A. El-Amine;S. Saab;J. Costantine;F. Ayoub;C. G. Christodoulou;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 327 - 330
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Spectroscopy and Microscopy Study of Parylene-C OFETs for Explosive Sensing
Abstract:
In this paper, we have explored Parylene-C (PC) as a sensing material for its unique signature and selectivity for explosive sensing. We have used a bi-layer deposition process to fabricate bottom-gate-top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) structures. Opening of dangling bonds on subjecting PC to plasma oxidation (POPC) renders these molecules to be employed as a receptor material in sensing vapors of both explosives and non-explosives, such as Trinitrotoulene (TNT), 1,3,5 trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane(RDX), PETN, Dinitrobenzene (DNB), Nitrobenzene (NB), Benzoquinone (BQ), and Benzophenone (BP). The change in: 1) the vibrational modes of the molecule by infrared spectroscopy; 2) surface potential of POPC by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM); and 3) electrical characterization by I–V measurements of PC-based OFET on exposing to vapors have been systematically studied. Different signatures for all the analytes have been observed while exact and perfect selectivity for TNT, RDX were found from I–V studies and for PETN by KPFM studies. Thus, the OFET device-based chemical sensors demonstrated here with improved sensitivity and excellent selectivity, stand as promising candidates for explosives detection.
Autors: Sandeep G. Surya;Sunil Kumar Samji;Pasam Dhamini;Bs Pavan Ganne;Prashant Sonar;V. Ramgopal Rao;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1364 - 1372
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stable FDTD Method With Embedded Reduced-Order Models
Abstract:
The computational efficiency of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method can be significantly reduced by the presence of complex objects with fine features. Small geometrical details impose a fine mesh and a reduced time step, significantly increasing computational cost. Model order reduction has been proposed as a systematic way to generate compact models for complex objects, by which one can then instantiate into a main FDTD mesh. However, the stability of FDTD with embedded reduced models remains an open problem. We propose a systematic method to generate reduced models for FDTD domains, and embed them into a main FDTD mesh with guaranteed stability up to the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) limit of the fine mesh. With a simple perturbation technique, the CFL of the whole scheme can be further extended beyond the fine grid’s CFL limit. Reduced models can be created for arbitrary domains containing inhomogeneous and lossy materials. Numerical tests confirm the stability of the proposed method and its potential to accelerate multiscale FDTD simulations.
Autors: Xinyue Zhang;Fadime Bekmambetova;Piero Triverio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 827 - 837
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Stochastic Home Energy Management System Considering Satisfaction Cost and Response Fatigue
Abstract:
Home energy management (HEM) systems enable residential consumers to participate in demand response programs (DRPs) more actively. However, HEM systems confront some practical difficulties due to the uncertainty related to renewable energies as well as the uncertainty of consumers’ behavior. Moreover, the consumers aim for the highest level of comfort and satisfaction in operating their electrical appliances. In addition, technical limits of the appliances must be considered. Furthermore, DR providers aim at keeping the participation of consumers in DRPs and minimize the “response fatigue” phenomenon in the long-term period. In this paper, a stochastic model of an HEM system is proposed by considering uncertainties of electric vehicles availability and small-scale renewable energy generation. The model optimizes the customer's cost in different DRPs, while guarantees the inhabitants’ satisfaction by introducing a response fatigue index. Different case studies indicate that the implementation of the proposed stochastic HEM system can considerably decrease both the customers’ cost and response fatigue.
Autors: Miadreza Shafie-Khah;Pierluigi Siano;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 629 - 638
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Switchable-Frequency Slot-Ring Antenna Element for Designing a Reconfigurable Array
Abstract:
A frequency-reconfigurable slot-ring antenna switching between L- and C-bands is presented. The aperture of an L-band slot-ring antenna can be reconfigured to a 2 × 2 C -band slot-ring antenna array by changing the states of 16 p-i-n diode switches. This antenna operates at 1.76/5.71 GHz with a fractional bandwidth of 8.6%/11.5% in the L/ C-band operating states, respectively. The measured realized gain and radiation efficiency are 0.1/4.2 dBi and 66.6%/80.7%, respectively. The antenna element spacing at 5.71 GHz is 0.36λ0, which enables beamsteering without grating lobes. This shared-aperture antenna is scalable to a larger array with element spacing of less than half-wavelength in both frequency bands.
Autors: Mahmoud Shirazi;Junyi Huang;Tianjiao Li;Xun Gong;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 229 - 233
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Switched Capacitor Energy Harvester Based on a Single-Cycle Criterion for MPPT to Eliminate Storage Capacitor
Abstract:
A single-cycle criterion maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is proposed to eliminate the need for bulky on-chip capacitors in the energy harvesting system for Internet of Everything (IoE). The conventional time-domain MPPT features ultra-low power consumption; however, it also requires a nanofarad-level capacitor for fine time resolution. The proposed maximum power monitoring does not rely on the time-domain, but on logic criterion that can be simply determined by a finite-state machine where the maximum photovoltaic (PV) power occurs at minimum conversion ratio and maximum switching frequency. Single-cycle is used as the criterion to determine the magnitude of the output power. Practical concerns, such as self-startup and self-sustaining capabilities are here addressed by proper design of the reconfigurable switched capacitor power converter. A hysteretic control not only regulates the output, but also avoids the loading condition in IoE applications. This harvester simultaneously addresses the challenges including self-startup, self-sustaining capability, and regulated output without using a storage capacitor. Compared with various PV cells, the power conversion efficiency has a peak value of 72%, which remains above 60% for a wide harvesting voltage and power range. The chip area is as small as 0.552 mm2.
Autors: Xiaosen Liu;Krishnan Ravichandran;Edgar Sánchez-Sinencio;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 793 - 803
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Systems Theoretic Approach to the Security Threats in Cyber Physical Systems Applied to Stuxnet
Abstract:
Cyber physical systems (CPSs) are increasingly being adopted in a wide range of industries such as smart power grids. Even though the rapid proliferation of CPSs brings huge benefits to our society, it also provides potential attackers with many new opportunities to affect the physical world such as disrupting the services controlled by CPSs. Stuxnet is an example of such an attack that was designed to interrupt the Iranian nuclear program. In this paper, we show how the vulnerabilities exploited by Stuxnet could have been addressed at the design level. We utilize a system theoretic approach, based on prior research on system safety, that takes both physical and cyber components into account to analyze the threats exploited by Stuxnet. We conclude that such an approach is capable of identifying cyber threats towards CPSs at the design level and provide practical recommendations that CPS designers can utilize to design a more secure CPS.
Autors: Arash Nourian;Stuart Madnick;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 2 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Technique for Designing Multilayer Multistopband Frequency Selective Surfaces
Abstract:
A systematic technique for designing and optimizing multilayer frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) with low overall profile is presented. Periodic scatterers in the shape of loaded dipoles (dogbones) are used on each layer to create a single-stopband response. Multiple such layers are cascaded together to create the desired multistopband response. An equivalent circuit model for a multilayer FSS that explicitly and intuitively accounts for electromagnetic coupling interactions between the layers is proposed and investigated. This model is used in a novel design method, which precompensates for the effect of coupling during circuit-based design stage rather than postcompensating through iterative full-wave (FW) optimization after the design stage, as in most traditional approaches. As a consequence, this approach has the potential to greatly speed up the design process by enabling considerable simplifications during FW simulations. The proposed method is used to design several ultralow-profile triple-layer, triple-stopband surfaces intended for Wi-Fi applications. The interlayer spacing is as low as at the highest operating band (5.2 GHz), making the overall thickness extremely small. The unit cell size for the designs is about at 5.2 GHz. The designs are fabricated and tested to validate the proposed methodology.
Autors: Gengyu Xu;Sean Victor Hum;George V. Eleftheriades;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 780 - 789
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Template-Based Design Methodology for Graph-Parallel Hardware Accelerators
Abstract:
Graph applications have been gaining importance in the last decade due to emerging big data analytics problems such as Web graphs, social networks, and biological networks. For these applications, traditional CPU and GPU architectures suffer in terms of performance and power consumption due to irregular communications, random memory accesses, and load balancing problems. It has been shown that specialized hardware accelerators can achieve much better power and energy efficiency compared to the general purpose CPUs and GPUs. In this paper, we present a template-based methodology specifically targeted for hardware accelerator design of big-data graph applications. Important architectural features that are key for energy efficient execution are implemented in a common template. The proposed template-based methodology is used to design hardware accelerators for different graph applications with little effort. Compared to an application-specific high-level synthesis methodology, we show that the proposed methodology can generate hardware accelerators with up to better energy efficiency and requires less design effort.
Autors: Andrey Ayupov;Serif Yesil;Muhammet Mustafa Ozdal;Taemin Kim;Steven Burns;Ozcan Ozturk;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 420 - 430
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Templating System to Generate Provenance
Abstract:
prov-templateis a declarative approach that enables designers and programmers to design and generate provenance compatible with the prov standard of the World Wide Web Consortium. Designers specify the topology of the provenance to be generated by composing templates, which are provenance graphs containing variables, acting as placeholders for values. Programmers write programs that log values and package them up in sets of bindings, a data structure associating variables and values. An expansion algorithm generates instantiated provenance from templates and sets of bindings in any of the serialisation formats supported by prov. A quantitative evaluation shows that sets of bindings have a size that is typically 40 percent of that of expanded provenance templates and that the expansion algorithm is suitably tractable, operating in fractions of milliseconds for the type of templates surveyed in the article. Furthermore, the approach shows four significant software engineering benefits: separation of responsibilities, provenance maintenance, potential runtime checks and static analysis, and provenance consumption. The article gathers quantitative data and qualitative benefits descriptions from four different applications making use of prov-template. The system is implemented and released in the open-source library ProvToolbox for provenance processing.
Autors: Luc Moreau;Belfrit Victor Batlajery;Trung Dong Huynh;Danius Michaelides;Heather Packer;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 44, issue:2, pages: 103 - 121
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tensor-Based Holistic Edge Computing Optimization Framework for Internet of Things
Abstract:
Balancing the costs of different objectives in EC requires comprehensive and global analysis. This article investigates the holistic EC optimization problem for IoT. First, a triple-plane EC architecture for IoT is proposed including the edge device plane, edge server plane, and cloud plane, respectively, which is conducive to collaboratively accomplishing the EC applications. Then five tensor-based representation models are constructed to represent the complex relationships and resolve the heterogeneity of different devices. Afterward, we construct a generalized and holistic EC optimization model based on the constructed tensors including energy consumption, execution time, system reliability, and quality of experience. Finally, a customized optimization framework is proposed in which the optimization objectives can be arbitrarily combined according to practical applications. A case study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme; results demonstrate that it significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art cloud-assisted mobile computing scheme and holistic mobile cloud computing scheme.
Autors: Huazhong Liu;Laurence T. Yang;Man Lin;Dexiang Yin;Yimu Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 88 - 95
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Theoretical Framework for Change Detection Based on a Compound Multiclass Statistical Model of the Difference Image
Abstract:
The change detection (CD) problem is very important in the remote sensing domain. The advent of a new generation of multispectral (MS) sensors has given rise to new challenges in the development of automatic CD techniques. In particular, typical approaches to CD are not able to well model and properly exploit the increased radiometric resolution characterizing new data as this results in a higher sensitivity to the number of natural classes that can be statistically modeled in the images. In this paper, we introduce a theoretical framework for the description of the statistical distribution of the difference image as a compound model where each class is determined by temporally correlated class transitions in the bitemporal images. The potential of the proposed framework is demonstrated on the very common problem of binary CD based on setting a threshold on the magnitude of the difference image. Here, under some simplifying assumptions, a multiclass distribution of the magnitude feature is derived and an unsupervised method based on the expectation–maximization algorithm and Bayes decision is proposed. Its effectiveness is demonstrated on a large variety of data sets from different MS sensors. In particular, experimental tests confirm that: 1) the fitting of the magnitude distribution significantly improves if compared with already existing models and 2) the overall CD error is close to the optimal value.
Autors: Massimo Zanetti;Lorenzo Bruzzone;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1129 - 1143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Three-Dimensional Arrayed Microfluidic Blood–Brain Barrier Model With Integrated Electrical Sensor Array
Abstract:
Objective: The blood–brain barrier (BBB) poses a unique challenge to the development of therapeutics against neurological disorders due to its impermeabi-lity to most of the chemical compounds. Most in vitro BBB models have limitations in mimicking in vivo conditions and functions. Here, we show a co-culture microfluidic BBB-on-a-chip that provides interactions between neurovascular endothelial cells and neuronal cells across a porous polycarbonate membrane, which better mimics the in vivo conditions, as well as allows in vivo level shear stress to be applied. Methods: A 4 × 4 intersecting microchannel array forms 16 BBB sites on a chip, with a multielectrode array integrated to measure the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) from all 16 different sites, which allows label-free real-time analysis of the barrier function. Primary mouse endothelial cells and primary astrocytes were co-cultured in the chip while applying in vivo level shear stress. The chip allows the barrier function to be analyzed through TEER measurement, dextran permeability, as well as immunostaining. Results: Co-culture between astrocytes and endothelial cells, as well as in vivo level shear stress applied, led to the formation of tighter junctions and significantly lower barrier permeability. Moreover, drug testing with histamine showed increased permeability when using only endothelial cells compared to almost no change when using co-culture. Conclusion: Results show that the developed BBB chip more closely mimics the in vivo BBB environment. Significance: The developed multisite BBB chip is expected to be used for screening drug by more accurately predicting their permeability through BBB as well as their toxicity.
Autors: Sehoon Jeong;Sunja Kim;John Buonocore;Jaewon Park;C. Jane Welsh;Jianrong Li;Arum Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 431 - 439
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Three-Dimensional Magnetic Tweezer System for Intraembryonic Navigation and Measurement
Abstract:
Magnetic micromanipulation has the advantage of untethered control, high precision, and biocompatibility and has recently undergone great advances. The magnetic micromanipulation task to tackle in this paper is to three dimensionally navigate a 5-m magnetic bead inside a mouse embryo and accurately apply forces to intraembryonic structures to perform mechanical measurements at multiple locations. Existing technologies are not able to achieve these navigation and measurement goals because of poor magnetic force scaling and/or lacking the capability of applying an accurately controlled force. This paper reports a three-dimensional magnetic tweezer system that enables, for the first time, intraembryonic magnetic navigation and force application. A single magnetic bead was introduced into a mouse embryo via robotic microinjection. The magnetic tweezer system accurately controlled the position of the magnetic bead via visually servoed magnetic control. By moving the magnetic bead with known forces inside the embryo, cytoplasm viscosity was measured, which is eight times the viscosity of water. For performing mechanical measurements on the cellular structures inside the mouse embryo, the system should be capable of applying forces up to 120 pN with a resolution of 4 pN. The results revealed that the middle region is significantly more deformable than the side regions of the inner cell mass.
Autors: Xian Wang;Mengxi Luo;Han Wu;Zhuoran Zhang;Jun Liu;Zhensong Xu;Wesley Johnson;Yu Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 240 - 247
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Tightly Integrated Multilayer Battery Antenna for RFID Epidermal Applications
Abstract:
For the acceptance of biointegrated devices in daily life, radio systems must be developed, which are minimally invasive to the skin, and they must have ultralow-profile local power sources to support data-logging functionality without compromising shape conformability. This contribution proposes a tightly integrated multilayer battery-antenna system ( mm2), that is, ultrathin (just ), flexible, and lighter than 1 , making it suitable for epidermal applications. The negative electrode (anode) current collector of the battery is a radio frequency identification tag antenna coated by a conductive polymer (Pedot:PSS) working as anode material. Since the battery is a dynamic device, subjected to discharging, the antenna design must include the variable dielectric properties of the conductive polymer which are here first characterized in the UHF band for real charge/discharge battery conditions. The communication performance of the prototype composite device is hence evaluated through the measurement of the realized gain of the tag antenna (−19.6 dBi at 870 MHz) when it is placed directly onto a volunteer’s forearm. The read range of 1.3–3 m is suitable for occasional data download from the epidermal data logger when the user comes close to a reader-equipped gate.
Autors: Maria Cristina Caccami;Matteo P. Hogan;Maria Alfredsson;Gaetano Marrocco;John C. Batchelor;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 609 - 617
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Transformerless High-Voltage DC–DC Converter for DC Grid Interconnection
Abstract:
This paper presents a transformerless high-voltage dc–dc converter based on cascaded sub-modules. It is intended for interconnecting high-voltage or medium-voltage dc grids. The proposed dc–dc converter consists of two phase legs, each of which consists of an upper arm and a lower arm with their middle nodes crossly connected through a branch of active sub-modules. By properly controlling the output voltage of the cross-connected branch, a trapezoidal ac current is induced to interact with the ac voltage components in the upper and lower arm for rebalancing the power amongst converter arms. The features of modular design, single-stage power conversion, and transformerless structure make the proposed dc–dc converter gain the outstanding merits of wide voltage ratio range, high system efficiency, and light converter weight. A control scheme is also elaborated for guaranteeing the normal operation of the proposed dc–dc converter. A 100-kV 100-MW simulation model performed in MATLAB/Simulink verifies the feasibility of the proposed dc–dc converter. Experimental results obtained from a 100-V 1-kW laboratory setup also confirm the validation of the proposal.
Autors: Sixing Du;Bin Wu;Navid R. Zargari;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 282 - 290
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Phase Fuzzy Clustering Algorithm Based on Neurodynamic Optimization With Its Application for PolSAR Image Segmentation
Abstract:
This paper presents a two-phase fuzzy clustering algorithm based on neurodynamic optimization with its application for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) remote sensing image segmentation. The two-phase clustering algorithm starts with the linear-assignment initialization phase with the least similar cluster representatives to remedy the inconsistency of clustering results from random initialization and is, then, followed with multiple-kernel fuzzy C-means clustering. By incorporating multiple kernels in the clustering framework, various features are incorporated cohesively. A winner-takes-all neural network is employed to acquire the highest kernel weights and associated cluster centers and membership matrices, which enables better characterization and adaptability in each individual cluster. Simulation results for UCI benchmark datasets and PolSAR remote sensing image segmentation are reported to substantiate the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed clustering algorithm.
Autors: Jianchao Fan;Jun Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 72 - 83
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Port Nonlinear Dynamic Behavioral Model of RF PAs Subject to Wideband Load Modulation
Abstract:
This work presents a full two-port, i.e., double input-double output, behavioral modeling approach suitable for radio frequency power amplifiers (PAs) in the presence of dynamic load modulation (DLM). The formulation of the model, based on a first-order approximation of a modified Volterra series, accounts for the nonlinear distortion determined by large-signal operation under mismatched conditions, and also for the memory effects stimulated by a modulated PA input signal, or by the dynamic variations of the PA load. By following an exhaustive procedure defined in the frequency domain, the model of a general purpose commercial PA is extracted over 160 MHz of modulation bandwidth (BW) with nonlinear vector network analyzer measurements. Validation results under 20-MHz BW multisine excitation and injected 80-MHz BW multisine load modulation show improved prediction capabilities with respect to quasi-static or single-input descriptions, allowing for reliable system-level simulations in the presence of DLM.
Autors: Gian Piero Gibiino;Konstanty Łukasik;Paweł Barmuta;Alberto Santarelli;Dominique M. M.-P. Schreurs;Fabio Filicori;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 831 - 844
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Two-Stage Quasi-Resonant Dual-Buck LED Driver With Digital Control Method
Abstract:
A two-stage quasi-resonant LED driver with a digital control method is proposed in this paper. The first stage of this converter is a boost circuit with a power factor correction function, and the second stage is a dual-buck circuit that works in a quasi-resonant zero voltage switching state. Because of the soft-switching characteristics of the converter, switching losses are reduced and efficiency is significantly improved. A digital control method is adopted to detect the peak value of inductor current and enhance system reliability. Moreover, because LEDs are always driven by a current source, a current loop is designed to maintain constant output current. IRS2104 is chosen as the drive chip and the microcontroller is AT90PWM216, which can improve the quality of the drive signals. The output of the converter is a square wave that drives two branches of antiparallel LEDs. A 60-W prototype was designed to demonstrate the theoretical analysis. The obtained power factor was as high as 0.987 and the efficiency reached 92.3%.
Autors: Yijie Wang;Shanshan Gao;Shu Zhang;Dianguo Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 787 - 795
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unified Optimal Control Approach for Maximum Endurance and Maximum Range
Abstract:
This paper proposes a unified optimal control framework that can be used to formulate and solve aircraft performance problems, such as maximum endurance and maximum range, for both propeller-driven airplanes and jet-propelled aircraft. It is proved in this paper that such problems have a common mathematical formulation and, under strict convexity assumptions, they have a unique feedback solution for the speed as a function of weight. The feedback solution yields an analytic expression for the optimal speed. For maximum endurance, the solution corresponds to the minimization of the rate of fuel consumption per unit time. For maximum range, the rate of fuel consumption per unit distance is minimized. Moreover, the optimal solution for maximum range will be interpreted geometrically using the concept of convex conjugate function and Legendre transformation. Although the optimal control framework is illustrated for maximum range and maximum endurance, it is a general approach that can be used for other aircraft performance problems.
Autors: Luis Rodrigues;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 385 - 391
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Unified Scalable Quasi-Ballistic Transport Model of GFET for Circuit Simulations
Abstract:
A unified quasi-ballistic transport model is developed for single- and double-gate graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs) using the McKelvey flux theory approach. The proposed model is compact, scalable, and compatible for the simulation of – characteristics of GFET for all regions of device operation. The drain current equation () incorporates the formulation of quasi-thermal velocity, quasi-ballistic mobility of charge carrier (describe the carrier transport of 2-D material like graphene), and source/drain backscattering coefficient. This model is also capable to describe the mobility of graphene material in degenerate and nondegenerate states. The GFET with different channel lengths, widths, and oxide thicknesses is simulated using this model for single- and double-gate devices. The proposed model synchronized with experimental results and explains the peculiar transport characteristics of GFET with normalized root-mean-square error less than 9%.
Autors: Abhishek Kumar Upadhyay;Ajay Kumar Kushwaha;Santosh Kumar Vishvakarma;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 739 - 746
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Uniplanar Left-Handed Metamaterial for Terrestrial Microwave Links
Abstract:
This letter reveals a mm2 metamaterial unit cell using coupled rectangular split-ring resonator (SRR), fabricated on only one side of the epoxy resin fiber substrate material. The proposed design consists of two separate SRRs outside and three split array rectangles with a small rectangle inside. It gives a wide magnetic repose throughout the C-band (4–8 GHz) microwave frequency spectrum. In the lower frequency band, the inclusion shows a negative epsilon, and in the upper frequency band, it shows double-negative characteristics (bandwidths of 0.72, 0.52, 0.2, and 0.71 GHz) with low losses in the C-band frequency range. The perceptible novelty of the proposed metastructure is achieved negative permeability throughout the whole C-band maintaining an effective medium ratio of 4.5.
Autors: Farhad Bin Ashraf;Touhidul Alam;Mohammad Tariqul Islam;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 108 - 110
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Universal Destriping Framework Combining 1-D and 2-D Variational Optimization Methods
Abstract:
Striping effects are a common phenomenon in remote-sensing imaging systems, and they can exhibit considerable differences between different sensors. Such artifacts can greatly degrade the quality of the measured data and further limit the subsequent applications in higher level remote-sensing products. Although a lot of destriping methods have been proposed to date, a few of them are robust to different types of stripes. In this paper, we conduct a thorough feature analysis of stripe noise from a novel perspective. With regard to the problem of striping diversity and complexity, we propose a universal destriping framework. In the proposed destriping procedure, a 1-D variational method is first designed and utilized to estimate the statistical feature-based guidance. The guidance information is then incorporated into 2-D optimization to control the image estimation for a reliable and clean output. The iteratively reweighted least-squares method and alternating direction method of multipliers are exploited in the proposed approach to solve the minimization problems. Experiments under various cases of simulated and real stripes confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model in terms of the qualitative and quantitative comparisons with other approaches.
Autors: Xinxin Liu;Huanfeng Shen;Qiangqiang Yuan;Xiliang Lu;Chunping Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 808 - 822
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Variable-Clock-Cycle-Path VLSI Design of Binary Arithmetic Decoder for H.265/HEVC
Abstract:
The next-generation 8K ultra-high-definition video format involves an extremely high bit rate, which imposes a high throughput requirement on the entropy decoder component of a video decoder. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is the entropy coding tool in the latest video coding standards including H.265/High Efficiency Video Coding and H.264/Advanced Video Coding. Due to critical data dependencies at the algorithm level, a CABAC decoder is difficult to be accelerated by simply leveraging parallelism and pipelining. This letter presents a new very-large-scale integration arithmetic decoder, which is the most critical bottleneck in CABAC decoding. Our design features a variable-clock-cycle-path architecture that exploits the differences in critical path delay and in probability of occurrence between various types of binary symbols (bins). The proposed design also incorporates a novel data-forwarding technique (rLPS forwarding) and a fast path-selection technique (coarse bin type decision), and is enhanced with the capability of processing additional bypass bins. As a result, its maximum throughput achieves 1010 Mbins/s in 90-nm CMOS, when decoding 0.96 bin per clock cycle at a maximum clock rate of 1053 MHz, which outperforms previous works by 19.1%.
Autors: Jinjia Zhou;Dajiang Zhou;Shuping Zhang;Shinji Kimura;Satoshi Goto;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 556 - 560
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wearable Multi-Site System for NMES-Based Hand Function Restoration
Abstract:
Reaching and grasping impairments significantly affect the quality of life for people who have experienced a stroke or spinal cord injury. The long-term well-being of patients varies greatly according to the restorable residual capabilities. Electrical stimulation could be a promising solution to restore motor functions in these conditions, but its use is not clinically widespread. Here, we introduce the HandNMES, an electrode array (EA) for neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) aimed at grasp training and assistance. The device was designed to deliver electrical stimulation to extrinsic and intrinsic hand muscles. Six independent EAs, positioned on the user forearm and hand, deliver NMES pulses originating from an external stimulator equipped with demultiplexers for interfacing with a large number of electrodes. The garment was designed to be adaptable to user needs and anthropometric characteristics; size, shape, and contact materials can be customized, and stimulation characteristics such as intensity of stimulation and virtual electrode location, and size can be adjusted. We performed extensive tests with nine healthy subjects showing the efficacy of the HandNMES in terms of stimulation performance and personalization. Because encouraging results were achieved, in the coming months, the HandNMES device will be tested in pilot clinical trials.
Autors: Andrea Crema;Nebojša Malešević;Ivan Furfaro;Flavio Raschellà;Alessandra Pedrocchi;Silvestro Micera;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 428 - 440
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wearable Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Rectified by a Dual-Gate Thin-Film Transistor
Abstract:
This paper addresses a wearable piezoelectric energy harvester that combines a PVDF piezoelectric charge generator with an a-Si:H dual-gate thin-film transistor as a rectifier. An analytical model and equivalent circuit elaborate their working principle and device physics. A preliminary experimental study proves the device concept and demonstrates that such a harvester is capable of generating microwatt-range power with a simple 90° finger bending action. Coupled with low-cost and large-area fabrication processes, a pixelated energy-harvesting array can be potentially achievable, making it a promising alternative to energy sources for wearable electronics.
Autors: Emad Iranmanesh;Ahmed Rasheed;Weiwei Li;Kai Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 542 - 546
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wide-Range Model for Metal-Oxide Surge Arrester
Abstract:
This paper presents an electric model of a metal-oxide surge arrester (MOSA). The proposed electric model accurately represents the MOSA in a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The model was developed and validated based on MOSA electrical behavior in each one of the three operating regions of the zinc-oxide (ZnO) surge arresters, and in a database composed of voltage and current waveforms measured from tests performed in 12 ZnO varistors having different physical dimensions and electrical characteristics—from five different manufacturers. These varistors were subjected to different voltage levels in the low current region, and multilevel amplitude of switching current impulses (30/60 s), lightning current impulses (8/20 s), high current impulses (4/10 s), and fast-front current impulses (1.5/26 s and 3/6 s) encompass the three regions of operation and a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The results provided by the MOSA wide-range (MWR) model were compared with those obtained in the laboratory. The MWR model has shown good agreement in terms of waveform, peak value, and absorbed energy for the evaluated cases.
Autors: Valdemir S. Brito;George R. S. Lira;Edson G. Costa;Marcelo J. A. Maia;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 102 - 109
Publisher: IEEE
 
» A Wideband Reconfigurable Antenna With 360° Beam Steering for 802.11ac WLAN Applications
Abstract:
A novel 360° beam steering patch antenna with parasitic elements is presented in this paper. The designed antenna consists of a radiating patch and six parasitic elements, each of which is connected through a group of shorting vias controlled by p-i-n diode switches. By switching on the desired groups of the shorting vias, the electric field distribution inside substrate cavity appears at the desired beam direction. Rotationally switching on the groups of the shorting vias, the performance of 360° beam scanning is realized. To further understand operating mechanism, the antenna is modeled with equivalent circuit in terms of the on and off status of a sector of the antenna, which can be used as a design guide for shorting-vias-controlled reconfigurable microstrip patch antennas. The fabricated antenna achieves a bandwidth of 14.5%, a peak gain of 10 dBi, and the efficiency of 80.5%. The achieved beamwidths are 42° and 97° in azimuth and elevation planes, respectively. With an ability of being steered around zenith axis at six directions, the scanned beam range covers the entire 360°. The physical dimension is only for the size and for the profile. This antenna operates from 5.1 to 5.9 GHz and has significant meaning in the IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network applications due to its capabilities of generating 360° steered beams.
Autors: Yang Yang;Xi Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 600 - 608
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Absorption Enhancement for Black Phosphorus Active Layer Based on Plasmonic Nanocavity
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose a strategy to enhance absorption in the black phosphorus absorber based on a nanocavity structure. By introducing a porous silver layer, an enhanced broadband light absorption can be obtained in the spectral range of 520–820 nm. The optical characteristics of the black phosphorus absorptive layer are thoroughly analyzed by absorption spectra, electric intensity distribution, and power flow distribution. Numerical and analytical analysis revealed that the optical absorption of the black phosphorus layer with a porous silver layer can be enhanced by 50% and 396% at the resonant wavelength of 690 nm for p-polarized and s-polarized incidences, respectively, when compared to that without a silver layer. Furthermore, the short-circuit current density () was calculated for the proposed architecture. The peak value of was more than 18 mA/cm2. It is demonstrated that this super absorption structure could find important applications on plasmonic-assisted photovoltaic devices or other opto-electronic devices, which will promote the development of ultrathin on-chip energy harvesting and new thin-film active devices.
Autors: Cizhe Fang;Yan Liu;Genquan Han;Yao Shao;Yan Huang;Jincheng Zhang;Yue Hao;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Academic FabLabs for industry 4.0: Experience at University of Naples Federico II
Abstract:
From FabLabs new and important business opportunities can emerge in the world of Adaptive Manufacturing and the Internet of Things (IoT), by leveraging the services provided by large information technology (IT) companies, such as cloud computing. FabLabs aim to foster the creation of small start-ups, able to survive in a global market with rising fierce competition. Therefore, governance action is needed to facilitate this migration to the market through regulatory measures (economic support for youth start-ups, business accelerators, co-working spaces, incubators, and so on). What is most important, and scarcely realized, is the specific training of young IT engineers intended to grow into makers. The experience gained at the University of Naples Federico II in Naples, Italy in this area is described in this paper. A new model of teaching for students pursuing the Master of Science Degrees in Electrical and Information Engineering was proposed, aimed at reproducing the aspects, the problems, and the interactions unique to small IT business, and later giving rise to a FabLAB.
Autors: Leopoldo Angrisani;Pasquale Arpaia;Francesco Bonavolonta;Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 6 - 13
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accelerated Parameter Mapping of Multiple-Echo Gradient-Echo Data Using Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction
Abstract:
A new reconstruction method, coined MIRAGE, is presented for accurate, fast, and robust parameter mapping of multiple-echo gradient-echo (MEGE) imaging, the basis sequence of novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques such as water content and susceptibility mapping. Assuming that the temporal signal can be modeled as a sum of damped complex exponentials, MIRAGE performs model-based reconstruction of undersampled data by minimizing the rank of local Hankel matrices. It further incorporates multi-channel information and spatial prior knowledge. Finally, the parameter maps are estimated using nonlinear regression. Simulations and retrospective undersampling of phantom and in vivo data affirm robustness, e.g., to strong inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field and partial volume effects. MIRAGE is compared with a state-of-the-art compressed sensing method, -ESPIRiT. Parameter maps estimated from reconstructed data using MIRAGE are shown to be accurate, with the mean absolute error reduced by up to 50% for in vivo results. The proposed method has the potential to improve the diagnostic utility of quantitative imaging techniques that rely on MEGE data.
Autors: Markus Zimmermann;Zaheer Abbas;Krzysztof Dzieciol;N. Jon Shah;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 626 - 637
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accumulated Angle Factor-Based Beamforming to Improve the Visualization of Spinal Structures in Ultrasound Images
Abstract:
In recent years, ultrasound has been increasingly used to guide needle insertion procedures for spinal anesthesia. The primary anatomical targets are facet joints and epidural spaces. For these procedures, accurate visualization of the spine anatomy is of critical importance. Challenges arising from the interactions between the ultrasound beam and spinal structures including tilt caused by specular reflections, off-axis interference, and reverberations often result in weakened and blurred vertebra surfaces. Previously, adaptive beamforming methods have been proposed to improve the resolution and contrast. However, most of these methods are not specialized for improving the contrast of specular targets like bones. In this paper, we propose an accumulated angle factor (AAF)-based beamforming method customized for bone surface enhancement. This approach applies a Hilbert transform on delay compensated channel data across the receive aperture. The accumulated phase change across the receive aperture is then calculated and utilized as the weight in the beamforming output. We compared our method with classical delay and sum (DAS) beamforming method and adaptive beamforming methods such as Wiener, phase coherence factor (PCF), CF, and generalized CF (GCF) beamforming. In 12 volunteer data sets, the mean contrast ratio between the vertebrae surface and the surrounding tissue for DAS, Wiener, PCF, CF, GCF, and the proposed AAF methods are 0.49, 0.64, 0.82, 0.77, 0.76, and 0.91, respectively. The contrast is significantly improved in the proposed method.
Autors: Bo Zhuang;Robert Rohling;Purang Abolmaesumi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 210 - 222
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accuracy of Angle Rate Measurements Using a Distributed Radar With a Correlation Receiver
Abstract:
Direct measurements of the angle rate of moving objects using a distributed radar have recently been demonstrated in theory and practice. In this letter, the theoretical accuracy of angle rate measurements using a simple correlation receiver is derived and compared to the theoretical accuracy of a more general but less intuitive root-multiplier receiver described in previous work. In particular, the correlation receiver bound on angle rate accuracy is shown to be dependent on the radiation intensity of the electric field rather than the field itself, as is the case for the root-multiplier receiver. The result is that the correlation receiver does not as closely represent the optimal form to achieve the theoretical bound on measurement accuracy. However, despite this, it is shown that there are clear operational regions where the correlation receiver nonetheless outperforms the more general root-multiplier receiver.
Autors: Matthew D. Sharp;Jeffrey A. Nanzer;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 209 - 212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Analysis of Crosstalk Between LP$_{11}$ Quasi-Degenerate Modes Due to Offset Connection Using True Eigenmodes
Abstract:
Linearly polarized (LP) modes in few-mode fibers are not true eigenmodes but approximated modes constituting of linear combinations of true eigenmodes. Therefore, the vector field profile in a few-mode fiber must be expressed in terms of the true eigenmodes with complex amplitudes involving a phase difference corresponding to the propagation distance. Owing to this property of LP mode propagation, the propagation characteristics of few-mode fibers cannot be accurately analyzed using conventional LP modes. In this study, the crosstalk between LP quasi-degenerate modes due to offset connection is accurately analyzed using matrix formalism expressing the linear combination of true eigenmodes. The difference in the analytical results between the LP modes and the eigenmodes revealed that the propagation of few-mode fibers should be analyzed using true eigenmodes.
Autors: Seiya Miura;Tatsuhiko Watanabe;Yasuo Kokubun;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Accurate Modeling of GaN HEMT RF Behavior Using an Effective Trapping Potential
Abstract:
This paper investigates the back-gating effects due to traps, and presents a new nonlinear trap modeling approach suitable for gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). It is shown that the traps have nonidentical influence on the channel compared with the gate. The potential due to trapped electrons in the buffer and the gate–source voltage need to be differentiated to model their respective influence on conductivity of the 2-D electron gas. Hence, the back-gating potential due to traps cannot be included in the transistor model by directly offsetting the gate–source voltage. A new modulation factor is therefore introduced to create an effective back-gating potential, and thereby improve the modeling of trapping effects. The proposed nonlinear trap model is shown to accurately predict the trapping behavior for a large voltage operating region. A detailed procedure is presented to derive the model parameters from basic device measurements. The model is experimentally validated and shown to accurately predict dc-, pulsed-IV, and large-signal waveform performance for a commercial GaN HEMT.
Autors: Ankur Prasad;Mattias Thorsell;Herbert Zirath;Christian Fager;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 845 - 857
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Achieving Full-Duplex Communication: Magnetless Parametric Circulators for Full-Duplex Communication Systems
Abstract:
In a crowded electromagnetic spectrum with ever-increasing demand for higher data rates to enable multimedia-rich applications and services, the efficient use of wireless resources becomes crucial. For this reason, full-duplex communication [1]-[4], which increases the capacity of transmission channels by operating the uplink and downlink simultaneously on the same frequency channel (see Figure 1), is returning to the spotlight after decades of being presumed impractical. This long-held assumption resulted mainly from the need for large isolation (IX) between the transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) nodes [also known as self-interference cancellation (SIC)], which typically needs to be greater than 100 dB, a challenging task that requires several innovations at the network and physical layer levels.
Autors: Ahmed Kord;Dimitrios L. Sounas;Andrea Alù;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 84 - 90
Publisher: IEEE
 
» ACID: Association Correction for Imbalanced Data in GWAS
Abstract:
Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has been widely witnessed as a powerful tool for revealing suspicious loci from various diseases. However, real world GWAS tasks always suffer from the data imbalance problem of sufficient control samples and limited case samples. This imbalance issue can cause serious biases to the result and thus leads to losses of significance for true causal markers. To tackle this problem, we proposed a computational framework to perform association correction for imbalanced data (ACID) that could potentially improve the performance of GWAS under the imbalance condition. ACID is inspired by the imbalance learning theory but is particularly modified to address the task of association discovery from sequential genomic data. Simulation studies demonstrate ACID can dramatically improve the power of traditional GWAS method on the dataset with severe imbalances. We further applied ACID to two imbalanced datasets (gastric cancer and bladder cancer) to conduct genome wide association analysis. Experimental results indicate that our method has better abilities in identifying suspicious loci than the regression approach and shows consistencies with existing discoveries.
Autors: Feng Bao;Yue Deng;Qionghai Dai;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 316 - 322
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Acoustic Tag Identification Based on Noncoherent FSK Detection With Portable Devices
Abstract:
This paper presents a tag identification system based on the detection of high-frequency acoustic signals by means of a portable device. A binary frequency shift keying-modulated code is used to tag the different locations. This code is preceded by a synchronizing chirp waveform that allows noncoherent detection even under strong Doppler frequency shifts. The proposed system is first characterized in terms of robustness against noise, coverage, Doppler tolerance, and intertag interference, making use of a modular simulator. This simulator is based on three basic stages that account for the frequency response of the emitter–receiver pair, the attenuation of acoustic signals in air, and the noncoherent demodulation. This system is then implemented in an Android-based platform and tested in a real scenario. The results of this experimental analysis show good agreement with the previous characterization, and they also confirm the feasibility of the proposed system to develop location-aware applications.
Autors: Fernando J. Álvarez;Teodoro Aguilera;José A. Paredes;José A. Moreno;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 270 - 278
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Across Substrate Lateral Dimensional Repeatability Using a Highly-Anisotropic Deep Etch Process on Fused Silica Material Layers
Abstract:
This letter reports the research performed on the measurement of the repeatability of the resultant lateral dimensions across fused silica substrates that were etched using an inductively-coupled plasma reactive-ion etch process. We have developed and previously reported a highly-anisotropic plasma etch process with the demonstrated etch depths of over 100 microns deep into fused silica substrates and aspect ratios greater than 10 to 1. The across substrate repeatability of the lateral dimensions of the etched features is an extremely important parameter for any plasma etch process. The measured etched feature lateral dimensional repeatability for an average etch depth of 100 microns was found to be approximately 2.41% across each wafer over a total of 120 measurements taken. The capability to etch highly-anisotropic deep features with repeatable dimensional control into fused silica has important implications for a number of important MEMS applications. [2017-0088]
Autors: Michael Pedersen;Michael Huff;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 31 - 33
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering
Abstract:
Although intensive research on software analytics has been going on for nearly a decade, a repeated complaint in software analytics is that industrial practitioners find it hard to apply the results generated from data science. This theme issue aims to reflect on actionable analytics for software engineering and to document a catalog of success stories in which analytics has been proven actionable and useful, in some significant way, in an organization. This issue features five articles covering promising analytical methods for improving change triage, strategic maintenance, and team robustness, as well as the success stories of applying analytical tools during an organizational transformation.
Autors: Ye Yang;Davide Falessi;Tim Menzies;Jairus Hihn;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 51 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Actionable Analytics for Strategic Maintenance of Critical Software: An Industry Experience Report
Abstract:
NASA has been successfully sustaining the continuous operation of its critical navigation software systems for over 12 years. To accomplish this, NASA scientists must continuously monitor their process, report on current system quality, forecast maintenance effort, and sustain required staffing levels. This report presents some examples of the use of a robust software metrics and analytics program that enables actionable strategic maintenance management of a critical system (Monte) in a timely, economical, and risk-controlled fashion. This article is part of a special issue on Actionable Analytics for Software Engineering.
Autors: Dan Port;Bill Taber;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 58 - 63
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Control of Dye Release for Neuronal Tracing Using PEDOT-PSS Coated Electrodes
Abstract:
Penetrating neural probes comprising arrays of microelectrodes are commonly used to monitor local field potentials and multi-unit activity in animal brain over time frames of weeks. To correlate these recorded signals to specific tissue areas, histological analysis is performed after the experimental endpoint. Even if the lesion of the penetrating probe shaft can be observed, a precise reconstruction of the exact electrode positions is still challenging. To overcome these experimental difficulties, we developed a new concept, whereupon recording electrodes are coated with a poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene/ polystyrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-based film. The conducting polymer acts as dye reservoir over several weeks and afterwards provides controlled delivery of neurotracers. This paper presents a recording electrode based on a PEDOT/PSS bilayer optimized for dye delivery and with reduced impedance. Controlled exchange of neurotracer dye is successfully demonstrated in vitro using spectrofluorometry and in neuroblastoma cell cultures. A second PEDOT/PSS capping layer on top of the dye reservoir lowers the passive leakage of dye by a factor of 6.4 and prevents a direct contact of the dye filled layer with the cells. Stability tests over four weeks demonstrate the electrochemical stability of the PEDOT coating, as well as retained functionality of the dye delivery system.
Autors: Stefanie Heizmann;Antje Kilias;Patrick Ruther;Ulrich Egert;Maria Asplund;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 299 - 306
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Control Transmission of Terahertz Metamaterials Based on Ion Implantation and Light Pumping
Abstract:
A method (ion-implantation) that can control surface carrier density of silicon wafer in silicon fabrication industry is combined with metamaterial to demonstrate a new way to control response of metamaterial transmission operating at terahertz frequency. Ion-implantation which is the most exact and easy way to control carriers of silicon wafer is used to fabricate a stable response of transmission metamaterial. Therefore, a split-ring resonators (SRRs) metamaterial is designed and fabricated to investigate the relationship between carrier density, power of pumping light, and transmission. Meanwhile, the numerical simulation was carried out to verify the experimental results. The relationship between the simulation results and experiments results was confirmed. This method could be a potential way to make stable response of metamaterial, which could be switcher, filter, and terahertz detectors.
Autors: Zhaoxin Geng;Xiong Zhang;Jian Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Active Stiffness Tuning of a Spring-Based Continuum Robot for MRI-Guided Neurosurgery
Abstract:
Deep intracranial tumor removal can be achieved if the neurosurgical robot has sufficient flexibility and stability. Toward achieving this goal, we have developed a spring-based continuum robot, namely a minimally invasive neurosurgical intracranial robot (MINIR-II) with novel tendon routing and tunable stiffness for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. The robot consists of a pair of springs in parallel, i.e., an inner interconnected spring that promotes flexibility with decoupled segment motion and an outer spring that maintains its smooth curved shape during its interaction with the tissue. We propose a shape memory alloy (SMA) spring backbone that provides local stiffness control and a tendon routing configuration that enables independent segment locking. In this paper, we also present a detailed local stiffness analysis of the SMA backbone and model the relationship between the resistive force at the robot tip and the tension in the tendon. We also demonstrate through experiments, the validity of our local stiffness model of the SMA backbone and the correlation between the tendon tension and the resistive force. We also performed MRI compatibility studies of the three-segment MINIR-II robot by attaching it to a robotic platform that consists of SMA spring actuators with integrated water cooling modules.
Autors: Yeongjin Kim;Shing Shin Cheng;Jaydev P. Desai;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 18 - 28
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Cancellation of Static and Dynamic Mismatch Error in Continuous-Time DACs
Abstract:
Inadvertent but inevitable mismatches among nominally identical unit element 1-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) within a multi-bit Nyquist-rate DAC cause both static and dynamic error in the DAC’s continuous-time output waveform. Prior calibration techniques are able to suppress static mismatch error, but have had limited success in suppressing dynamic mismatch error. This paper presents a digital calibration technique that adaptively measures and cancels both static and dynamic mismatch error over the DAC’s first Nyquist band. The technique is capable of either foreground or background operation, and is relatively insensitive to non-ideal circuit behavior. The paper presents a rigorous mathematical analysis of the technique, and demonstrates the results of the paper with both behavioral and transistor-level circuit simulations.
Autors: Derui Kong;Ian Galton;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 421 - 433
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Coding and Modulation for Large-Scale Antenna Array-Based Aeronautical Communications in the Presence of Co-Channel Interference
Abstract:
In order to meet the demands of “Internet above the clouds,” we propose a multiple-antenna aided adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) for aeronautical communications. The proposed ACM scheme switches its coding and modulation mode according to the distance between the communicating aircraft, which is readily available with the aid of the airborne radar or the global positioning system. We derive an asymptotic closed-form expression of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) as the number of transmitting antennas tends to infinity, in the presence of realistic co-channel interference and channel estimation errors. The achievable transmission rates and the corresponding mode-switching distance-thresholds are readily obtained based on this closed-form SINR formula. Monte-Carlo simulation results are used to validate our theoretical analysis. For the specific example of 32 transmit antennas and four receive antennas communicating at a 5-GHz carrier frequency and using 6-MHz bandwidth, which are reused by multiple other pairs of communicating aircraft, the proposed distance-based ACM is capable of providing as high as 65.928-Mb/s data rate when the communication distance is less than 25 km.
Autors: Jiankang Zhang;Sheng Chen;Robert G. Maunder;Rong Zhang;Lajos Hanzo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1343 - 1357
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Compensation of Multiple Actuator Faults for Two Physically Linked 2WD Robots
Abstract:
This short paper develops an adaptive compensation control scheme for two physically linked two-wheel-drive mobile robots with multiple actuator faults. Kinematic and dynamic models are first proposed. Then, an adaptive control scheme is designed, which ensures system stability and asymptotic tracking properties. Simulation results verify its effectiveness.
Autors: Yajie Ma;Vincent Cocquempot;Maan El Badaoui El Najjar;Bin Jiang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 248 - 255
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Dead Zones Based on Command Filtering
Abstract:
Adaptive fuzzy control via command filtering is proposed for uncertain strict-feedback nonlinear systems with unknown nonsymmetric dead-zone input signals in this paper. The command filtering is utilized to cope with the inherent explosion of the complexity problem of the classical backstepping method, and the error compensation mechanism is introduced to overcome the drawback of the dynamics surface approach. In addition, by utilizing the bound information of dead-zone slopes, a new adaptive fuzzy method that does not need to establish the inverse of the dead zone is presented for the unknown nonlinear systems. Compared with existing results, the advantages of the developed scheme are that the compensating signals are designed to eliminate the filtering errors and only one adaptive parameter is required, which will make the proposed control scheme more effective for practical systems. An example of position tracking control for the electromechanical system is given to demonstrate the usefulness and potential of the new design scheme.
Autors: Jinpeng Yu;Peng Shi;Wenjie Dong;Chong Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 46 - 55
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Leader–Follower Formation Control of Underactuated Surface Vessels Under Asymmetric Range and Bearing Constraints
Abstract:
This paper deals with the problem of leader–follower formation control for a group of underactuated surface vessels with partially known control input functions. In the proposed scheme, the problem is formulated as an adaptive feedback control problem for aLine-Of-Sight (LOS) based formation configuration of a leader and a follower. To account for LOS and bearing angle time-varying constraints, asymmetric barrier Lyapunov functions are incorporated with the control design. Furthermore, in order to alleviate required velocity information on the leader, a reconstruction module is designed to estimate the vector velocity of this leader. This reconstruction is accomplished in finite time with zero error, which allows the injection of accurate estimation into the formation controller. The controller is then developed within the framework of the backstepping technique, with the parametric uncertainties and the unknown gains being estimated by a novel structure identifier. The overall closed-loop system, is proved to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded by Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, we show under the proposed control scheme that the constraints requirement on the LOS range and bearing angle tracking errors are not violated during the formation process. Finally, the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed strategy are exhibited through simulations.
Autors: Jawhar Ghommam;Maarouf Saad;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 852 - 865
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Navigation Algorithm Under Abnormal Measurements in Libration-Point Mission
Abstract:
This paper investigates X-ray pulsar navigation for earth–moon libration-point mission. A comprehensive analysis shows that abnormal measurements are inevitable and bring quite adverse effects for navigation results. To approach this problem, a new algorithm called robust square-root cubature Kalman filter is proposed. An innovation-based adaptive scale factor is introduced to adjust measurement noise covariance so that the adverse effects of abnormal measurements can be suppressed. Effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated in simulation results.
Autors: Yang Zhou;Panlong Wu;Xingxiu Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 246 - 256
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Using a Double-Loop Self-Organizing Recurrent Wavelet Neural Network for a Two-Axis Motion Control System
Abstract:
This paper proposes an adaptive nonlinear disturbance observer (ANDO) for identification and control of a two-axis motion control system driven by two permanent-magnet linear synchronous motors servo drives. The proposed control scheme incorporates a feedback linearization controller (FLC), a new double-loop self-organizing recurrent wavelet neural network (DLSORWNN) controller, a robust controller, and an controller. First, an FLC is designed to stabilize the XY table system. Then, a nonlinear disturbance observer (NDO) is designed to estimate the nonlinear lumped parameter uncertainties that include the external disturbances, cross-coupled interference, and frictional force. However, the XY table performance is degraded by the NDO error due to parameter uncertainties. To improve the robustness, the ANDO is designed to attain this purpose. In addition, the robust controller is designed to recover the approximation error of the DLSORWNN, while the controller is specified such that the quadratic cost function is minimized and the worst-case effect of the NDO error must be attenuated below a desired attenuation level. The online adaptive control laws are derived using the Lyapunov stability analysis and control theory, so that the stability of the ANDO can be guaranteed. The experimental results show the improvements in disturbance suppression and parameter uncertainties, which illustrate the superiority of the ANDO control scheme.
Autors: Fayez F. M. El-Sousy;Khaled Ali Abuhasel;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 764 - 786
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Signal Selection of Wide-Area Damping Controllers Under Various Operating Conditions
Abstract:
Since operating conditions of power systems always change, the input and output signals of wide-area damping controller (WADC), which are selected at an operating point, may not be able to guarantee the damping effect at other operating points. This paper focuses on a new adaptive signal selection for WADC against several operating conditions, such as various load demands, control signal failure, line and generator outages, and effect of communication latency. The joint controllability and observability is used to determine the best input and output pairs of WADC at any operating points. Small-signal and transient stabilities study in the IEEE 50-machine system including renewable sources, i.e., wind and solar photovoltaic generators are conducted to evaluate the effect of the proposed method. Study result demonstrates that the WADC with the adaptive signal selection yields superior damping effect to the WADC with the fixed signal selection over wide range operations.
Autors: Tossaporn Surinkaew;Issarachai Ngamroo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 639 - 651
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Single-Pole Autoreclosing Concept with Advanced DC Fault Current Control for Full-Bridge MMC VSC Systems
Abstract:
This paper presents an adaptive autoreclosing concept for HVDC transmission systems with modular multilevel converters in full-bridge topology for single pole-to-ground faults. Since HVDC transmission will be used in the German energy transmission system to support the heavily loaded ac grid for energy transport over far distances, the interruption time has to be kept as short as possible to preserve system stability. Within the presented autoreclosing concept, the necessary interruption time is determined adaptively. After fault detection, the converter control drives the fault current to zero and injects a low-level ac current. The nonlinear interdependence between the fault arc resistance and the current is used to detect the final arc extinction and to start the voltage recovery, enabling a fast resumption of the power transmission. PSCAD|EMTDC is used to model the electric arc behavior and the dielectric recovery inside an exemplary point-to-point HVDC grid model as an evaluation of the concept. The minimum required ac current is identified related to the used fault detection method. Additionally, the influences of fault position, line length, and fault resistance on fault detection are investigated. The results show that the required interruption time can be determined adaptively for transmission line length up to 400 km.
Autors: Maximilian Stumpe;Philipp Ruffing;Patrick Wagner;Armin Schnettler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 321 - 329
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Sparse Multiple Canonical Correlation Analysis With Application to Imaging (Epi)Genomics Study of Schizophrenia
Abstract:
Finding correlations across multiple data sets in imaging and (epi)genomics is a common challenge. Sparse multiple canonical correlation analysis (SMCCA) is a multivariate model widely used to extract contributing features from each data while maximizing the cross-modality correlation. The model is achieved by using the combination of pairwise covariances between any two data sets. However, the scales of different pairwise covariances could be quite different and the direct combination of pairwise covariances in SMCCA is unfair. The problem of “unfair combination of pairwise covariances” restricts the power of SMCCA for feature selection. In this paper, we propose a novel formulation of SMCCA, called adaptive SMCCA, to overcome the problem by introducing adaptive weights when combining pairwise covariances. Both simulation and real-data analysis show the outperformance of adaptive SMCCA in terms of feature selection over conventional SMCCA and SMCCA with fixed weights. Large-scale numerical experiments show that adaptive SMCCA converges as fast as conventional SMCCA. When applying it to imaging (epi)genetics study of schizophrenia subjects, we can detect significant (epi)genetic variants and brain regions, which are consistent with other existing reports. In addition, several significant brain-development related pathways, e.g., neural tube development, are detected by our model, demonstrating imaging epigenetic association may be overlooked by conventional SMCCA. All these results demonstrate that adaptive SMCCA are well suited for detecting three-way or multiway correlations and thus can find widespread applications in multiple omics and imaging data integration.
Autors: Wenxing Hu;Dongdong Lin;Shaolong Cao;Jingyu Liu;Jiayu Chen;Vince D. Calhoun;Yu-Ping Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 390 - 399
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adaptive Transmitter Pre-Distortion Using Feedback From the Far-End Receiver
Abstract:
In recent years, digital pre-distortion has emerged as a powerful approach to compensate linear and non-linear imperfections of the transmitter. Previous solutions are either based on factory calibration or use a local auxiliary receiver. Here, we present a digital pre-distortion architecture to compensate transmitter frequency response and I/Q skew, which relies upon a feedback from the far-end receiver and uses the signal propagated over the optical link. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated over different transmission systems for dual-polarization 64 QAM net 400 Gb/s and 16 QAM net 200 Gb/s signals.
Autors: Ginni Khanna;Bernhard Spinnler;Stefano Calabrò;Erik de Man;Yingkan Chen;Norbert Hanik;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:3, pages: 223 - 226
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Adsorption of Small Molecules on Niobium Doped Graphene: A Study Based on Density Functional Theory
Abstract:
The letter presents the adsorption properties of CO, NH3, CH4, SO2, and H2S molecules over niobium doped graphene sheet (Nb/G). Using density functional theory, the optimum configuration and orientation of adsorbent molecules over the Nb/G surface are geometrically optimized, and adsorption energy, adsorption distance, Hirshfeld charge transfer, electron localization function, and the work function of Nb/G-molecule systems are calculated. CO and SO2 molecules over Nb/G show chemisorption, hence they have high reactivity towards Nb/G. Adsorption of NH3, CH4, and H2S on Nb/G shows physisorption as they are weakly adsorbed. The adsorption of these molecules indicates the suitability of Nb/G as a sensor. To understand the superiority of Nb/G over pristine graphene, comparison of adsorption properties was made between the two systems. The work function of Nb/G with adsorbed molecule suggests that the Fermi level of Nb/G surface may be controlled by the selection of appropriate adsorbent molecules. Therefore, Nb/G could be a good candidate for gas sensing application.
Autors: Jitendra Kumar;Harshal B. Nemade;P. K. Giri;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 296 - 299
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Compact Setups for Passive Intermodulation Measurements of Satellite Hardware
Abstract:
This paper provides the guidelines for the practical development of novel advanced test beds for passive intermodulation (PIM) measurements. The proposed test beds show high performance and are flexible, allowing for the measurement of several PIM signals of different orders, with two or more input carriers. In contrast to classic test beds for satellite hardware, based on the cascaded connection of several elements, an integrated solution involving the minimum number of hardware pieces is proposed. The result is a lower number of flanged interconnections, thus reducing residual PIM level and insertion losses. In addition, return loss degradation and harmful spurious generation in the interconnections are also avoided. Measurement test beds for conducted and radiated PIM, in both transmitted and reflected directions, are discussed, highlighting the benefits and drawbacks of each configuration. Design guidelines for the key components are fully discussed. Illustrative application examples are also reported. Finally, excellent experimental results obtained from low-PIM measurement setups, working from C-band to Ka-band, are shown, thus fully confirming the validity of the proposed configurations.
Autors: Davide Smacchia;Pablo Soto;Vicente E. Boria;Marco Guglielmi;Carlos Carceller;Jesús Ruiz Garnica;Jaione Galdeano;David Raboso;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 700 - 710
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Advanced Modeling Techniques [Book/Software Reviews]
Abstract:
The text covers both theoretical and practical aspects of behavioral modeling and DPD for RF PAs and wireless transmitters. It is authored by three highly respected researchers in the field. The book is organized into ten chapters. Each of the book's chapters is complemented with software tools available through the Wiley website (www.wiley.com/go/Ghannouchi/Behavioral). The simulation software allows users to apply the theories presented in the book to solve real problems. This book will be a very valuable resource for design engineers, industrial engineers, applications engineers, postgraduate students, and researchers working on PA modeling, linearization, and design.
Autors: Anding Zhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 112 - 114
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aerial Scene Classification via Multilevel Fusion Based on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
One of the challenging problems in understanding high-resolution remote sensing images is aerial scene classification. A well-designed feature extractor and classifier can improve classification accuracy. In this letter, we construct three different convolutional neural networks with different sizes of receptive field, respectively. More importantly, we further propose a multilevel fusion method, which can make judgment by incorporating different levels’ information. The aerial image and two patches extracted from the image are fed to these three different networks, and then, a probability fusion model is established for final classification. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested on a more challenging data set-AID that has 10000 high-resolution remote sensing images with 30 categories. Experimental results show that our multilevel fusion model gets a significant classification accuracy improvement over all state-of-the-art references.
Autors: Yunlong Yu;Fuxian Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 287 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aggregation of OWA Operators
Abstract:
Inspired by the real needs of group decision problems, aggregation of ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators is studied and discussed. Our results can be applied for data acting on any real interval, such as the standard scales and , bipolar scales and , etc. A direct aggregation is shown to be rather restrictive, allowing the convex combinations to be considered only, except the case of dimension n = 2. More general is the approach based on the aggregation of related cumulative weighting vectors. The piecewise linearity of OWA operators allows us to consider bilinear forms of aggregation of related weighting vectors. Several interesting examples yielding the link between the aggregation of OWA operators and the related ANDness and ORness measures are also included. Some possible applications and generalizations of our results are also discussed.
Autors: Radko Mesiar;Ladislav Šipeky;Pankaj Gupta;Jin LeSheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 284 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aggregation-Assisted Combining for MIMO Multiple ARQ Systems
Abstract:
This letter proposes an aggregation-assisted combining (AAC) for multiple-input multiple-output multiple automatic repeat request systems. The proposed AAC can be considered as a hybrid scheme of the symbol-level combining (SLC) and bit-level combining (BLC), which consists of the aggregation-assisted log-likelihood ratio (LLR) calculation and subsequent LLR combining stages. The aggregation-assisted LLR calculation stage is performed in a similar manner on the SLC except that the interference-to-noise reformulation is performed instead of the terminated-packet elimination; thus, the remaining interference from the terminated packets is regarded as additional noise. This additional noise can degrade the LLR quality from the aggregation-assisted LLR calculation stage. Therefore, the proposed AAC combines the currently calculated LLRs with the previously calculated LLRs similar to the BLC when the previously calculated LLRs have less LLR contaminations, i.e., they experience fewer numbers of terminated packets. The simulation results verify that the proposed AAC outperforms the BLC and even achieves a performance comparable with the SLC with simplified reception procedures.
Autors: Sangjoon Park;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 348 - 351
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AIF: An Artificial Intelligence Framework for Smart Wireless Network Management
Abstract:
To solve the policy optimizing problem in many scenarios of smart wireless network management using a single universal algorithm, this letter proposes a universal learning framework, which is called AI framework based on deep reinforcement learning (DRL). This framework can also solve the problem that the state is painful to design in traditional RL. This AI framework adopts convolutional neural network and recurrent neural network to model the potential spatial features (i.e., location information) and sequential features from the raw wireless signal automatically. These features can be taken as the state definition of DRL. Meanwhile, this framework is suitable for many scenarios, such as resource management and access control due to DRL. The mean value of throughput, the standard deviation of throughput, and handover counts are used to evaluate its performance on the mobility management problem in the wireless local area network on a practical testbed. The results show that the framework gets significant improvements and learns intuitive features automatically.
Autors: Gang Cao;Zhaoming Lu;Xiangming Wen;Tao Lei;Zhiqun Hu;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 400 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Air-Quality Monitoring in an Urban Area in the Tropical Andes
Abstract:
Manizales is a tropical Andean city in Colombia that has obtained outstanding achievements in the continuous and effective monitoring of the air quality. This article describes the air-quality monitoring system of Manizales and its corresponding data center, which is a system designed to perform a periodic vigilance of the concentration of the main air contaminants. The structure of one data warehouse is explained, along with the components of monitoring networks, equipments, and technological tools and processes that allow the acquisition, storage, processing, and analysis of the air-quality data.
Autors: Liliana Romo-Melo;Beatriz Aristizabal;Mauricio Orozco-Alzate;
Appeared in: IEEE Potentials
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:1, pages: 34 - 39
Publisher: IEEE
 
» AIRA: A Framework for Flexible Compute Kernel Execution in Heterogeneous Platforms
Abstract:
Heterogeneous-ISA computing platforms have become ubiquitous, and will be used for diverse workloads which render static mappings of computation to processors inadequate. Dynamic mappings which adjust an application's usage in consideration of platform workload can reduce application latency and increase throughput for heterogeneous platforms. We introduce AIRA, a compiler and runtime for flexible execution of applications in CPU-GPU platforms. Using AIRA, we demonstrate up to a 3.78x speedup in benchmarks from Rodinia and Parboil, run with various workloads on a server-class platform. Additionally, AIRA is able to extract up to an 87 percent increase in platform throughput over a static mapping.
Autors: Robert Lyerly;Alastair Murray;Antonio Barbalace;Binoy Ravindran;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 269 - 282
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Modeling Cosmic Radiation and Effective Dose in the Lower Atmosphere
Abstract:
In this paper, we present the results of an ~5-h airborne gamma-ray survey carried out over the Tyrrhenian Sea in which the height range (77–3066) m has been investigated. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements have been performed using the AGRS_16L detector, a module of four 4L NaI(Tl) crystals. The experimental setup was mounted on the Radgyro, a prototype aircraft designed for multisensorial acquisitions in the field of proximal remote sensing. By acquiring high-statistics spectra over the sea (i.e., in the absence of signals having geological origin) and by spanning a wide spectrum of altitudes, it has been possible to split the measured count rate into a constant aircraft component and a cosmic component exponentially increasing with increasing height. The monitoring of the count rate having pure cosmic origin in the >3-MeV energy region allowed to infer the background count rates in the 40K, 214Bi, and 208Tl photopeaks, which need to be subtracted in processing airborne gamma-ray data in order to estimate the potassium, uranium, and thorium abundances in the ground. Moreover, a calibration procedure has been carried out by implementing the CARI-6P and Excel-based program for calculating atmospheric cosmic ray spectrum dosimetry tools, according to which the annual cosmic effective dose to human population has been linearly related to the measured cosmic count rates.
Autors: Marica Baldoncini;Matteo Albéri;Carlo Bottardi;Brian Minty;Kassandra G. C. Raptis;Virginia Strati;Fabio Mantovani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 823 - 834
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Aircraft Type Recognition Based on Segmentation With Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Abstract:
Aircraft type recognition in remote sensing images is a meaningful task. It remains challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining appropriate representation of aircrafts for recognition. To solve this problem, we propose a novel aircraft type recognition framework based on deep convolutional neural networks. First, an aircraft segmentation network is designed to obtain refined aircraft segmentation results which provide significant details to distinguish different aircrafts. Then, a keypoints’ detection network is proposed to acquire aircrafts’ directions and bounding boxes, which are used to align the segmentation results. A new multirotation refinement method is carefully designed to further improve the keypoints’ precision. At last, we apply a template matching method to identify aircrafts, and the intersection over union is adopted to evaluate the similarity between segmentation results and templates. The proposed framework takes advantage of both shape and scale information of aircrafts for recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and can achieve 95.6% accuracy on the challenging data set.
Autors: Jiawei Zuo;Guangluan Xu;Kun Fu;Xian Sun;Hao Sun;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 282 - 286
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Al2O3-Interlayer-Enhanced Performance of All-Inorganic Silicon-Quantum-Dot Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diodes
Abstract:
Efficient all-inorganic silicon-quantum-dot (Si-QD) near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated by using nickel oxide (NiO) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as the transport layers of holes and electrons, respectively. It is found that the LED performance may be significantly improved by the atomic layer deposition of an Al2O3 interlayer between Si QDs and NiO. The improvement is due to the fact that the Al2O3 interlayer can not only suppress the exciton quenching induced by the traps at the NiO surface and the accumulated holes at the NiO/Si-QD interface, but also reduce the leakage of carriers. The optimum thickness of the Al2O3 interlayer is found to be ~5.7 nm, which leads to the increase of the optical power density by a factor of ~7 (from ~2 to /cm2) and that of the external quantum efficiency by a factor of ~10 (from ~0.01% to 0.1%) for the all-inorganic Si-QD near-infrared LED on glass. In addition, it is shown that the Al2O3 interlayer may also improve the performance of flexible all-inorganic Si-QD near-infrared LEDs on poly(ethylene terephthalate).
Autors: Shuangyi Zhao;Xiangkai Liu;Wei Gu;Xiaoyong Liang;Zhenyi Ni;Hua Tan;Kun Huang;Yucong Yan;Xuegong Yu;Mingsheng Xu;Xiaodong Pi;Deren Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 577 - 583
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Algebraic Clustering of Affine Subspaces
Abstract:
Subspace clustering is an important problem in machine learning with many applications in computer vision and pattern recognition. Prior work has studied this problem using algebraic, iterative, statistical, low-rank and sparse representation techniques. While these methods have been applied to both linear and affine subspaces, theoretical results have only been established in the case of linear subspaces. For example, algebraic subspace clustering (ASC) is guaranteed to provide the correct clustering when the data points are in general position and the union of subspaces is transversal. In this paper we study in a rigorous fashion the properties of ASC in the case of affine subspaces. Using notions from algebraic geometry, we prove that the homogenization trick , which embeds points in a union of affine subspaces into points in a union of linear subspaces, preserves the general position of the points and the transversality of the union of subspaces in the embedded space, thus establishing the correctness of ASC for affine subspaces.
Autors: Manolis C. Tsakiris;René Vidal;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 40, issue:2, pages: 482 - 489
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Algebraic Decoding of Cyclic Codes Using Partial Syndrome Matrices
Abstract:
Cyclic codes have been widely used in many applications of communication systems and data storage systems. This paper proposes a new procedure for decoding cyclic codes up to actual minimum distance. The decoding procedure consists of two steps: 1) computation of known syndromes and 2) computation of error positions and error values simultaneously. To do so, a matrix whose all entries are syndromes is called syndrome matrix. A matrix whose entries are either syndromes or the elements of a finite field is said to be partial syndrome matrix. In this paper, two novel methods are presented to determine error positions and error values simultaneously and directly. The first method uses a new partial syndrome matrix along with Gaussian elimination. The partial syndrome matrices for binary (respectively, ternary) cyclic codes of lengths from 69 to 99 (respectively, 16 to 37) are tabulated. For some cyclic codes, the partial syndrome matrices contain unknown syndromes; the second method constructs a matrix from a system of equations, which is generated by the determinants of different partial syndrome matrices and makes use of Gaussian elimination to determine its row rank. Many more cyclic codes beyond the Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem bound can be decoded with these methods.
Autors: Chong-Dao Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 952 - 971
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Algorithmic Aspects of Optimal Channel Coding
Abstract:
A central question in information theory is to determine the maximum success probability that can be achieved in sending a fixed number of messages over a noisy channel. This was first studied in the pioneering work of Shannon, who established a simple expression characterizing this quantity in the limit of multiple independent uses of the channel. Here, we consider the general setting with only one use of the channel. We observe that the maximum success probability can be expressed as the maximum value of a submodular function. Using this connection, we establish the following results: 1) There is a simple greedy polynomial-time algorithm that computes a code achieving a -approximation of the maximum success probability. The factor can be improved arbitrarily close to 1 at the cost of slightly reducing the number of messages to be sent. Moreover, it is NP-hard to obtain an approximation ratio strictly better than for the problem of computing the maximum success probability. 2) Shared quantum entanglement between the sender and the receiver can increase the success probability by a factor of at most . In addition, this factor is tight if one allows an arbitrary non-signaling box between the sender and the receiver. 3) We give tight bounds on the one-shot performance of the meta-converse of Polyanskiy-Poor-Verdú.
Autors: Siddharth Barman;Omar Fawzi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1038 - 1045
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Algorithms for the Majority Rule (+) Consensus Tree and the Frequency Difference Consensus Tree
Abstract:
This article presents two new deterministic algorithms for constructing consensus trees. Given an input of  phylogenetic trees with identical leaf label sets and  leaves each, the first algorithm constructs the majority rule (+) consensus tree in time, which is optimal since the input size is , and the second one constructs the frequency difference consensus tree in time.
Autors: Jesper Jansson;Ramesh Rajaby;Chuanqi Shen;Wing-Kin Sung;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 15 - 26
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All-Fiber OAM Generation/Conversion Using Helically Patterned Photonic Crystal Fiber
Abstract:
We propose an all-fiber orbital angular momentum (OAM) generator/converter based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The PCF is designed to introduce a helical effective refractive index profile in order to achieve the OAM matching condition that is required to excite the OAM modes of an OAM-supporting fiber. The proposed design is compact, presents wideband operation, low loss and high OAM purity. It is of great interest to OAM-based telecommunication, and other OAM applications that use optical fibers.
Autors: Mohamed Seghilani;José Azaña;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 347 - 350
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All-Fiber Raman Biosensor by Combining Reflection and Transmission Mode
Abstract:
A novel all-fiber on-line Raman cell based on metal (silver)-lined capillary is proposed, which could collect reflection and transmission Raman signal simultaneously. In our configuration, two optical fiber tips are inserted into both sides of the hollow-core metal-lined capillary to form a Raman cell. The other ends of fiber tips are closely bound together as a Sagnac loop and coupled with a Raman probe. Each fiber tip not only works in reflection mode, but also acts as the collection lens for the transmission mode of the other side’s excitation. The hollow-core all-fiber structure could extend the interaction length between the samples and pump laser. Moreover, the Raman signal collection mechanism was significantly improved. With the combination of both Raman excitation modes, a Raman signal with two times of magnitude enhancement is observed in experiment and it agrees well with the theoretical analysis. We have also detected different concentrations (0.5–8 mg/mL) of antibiotic (Cefotaxime sodium, CTX), which proves that our proposed all-fiber and well-encapsulated Raman cell has tremendous potential for portable on-line rapid Raman biosensor.
Autors: Zhiqiang Jin;Qian Chu;Wenhao Xu;Hao Cai;Wenbin Ji;Guanghui Wang;Bo Lin;Xuping Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 387 - 390
Publisher: IEEE
 
» All-In-Focus Synthetic Aperture Imaging Using Image Matting
Abstract:
“Seeing through” occluders is one of the most important effects that can be achieved with synthetic aperture imaging. As well, the occlusion problem, a challenging task for many computer vision applications, can be easily handled. Synthetic aperture imaging takes advantage of the property that only objects on the focal plane are sharp. The resulting image that is obtained by averaging images from different views consists of blurry objects away from the focal plane and sharp objects on the focal plane. Removing the blurriness caused by defocusing in synthetic aperture images to achieve an all-in-focus “seeing through” image is a challenging research problem. In this paper, we propose a novel method to improve the image quality of synthetic aperture imaging using image matting via energy minimization by estimating the foreground and the background. In particular, we first estimate the out-of-focus region by focusing on the background objects in each camera view using energy minimization. Next, we utilize a labeling method to create a sharp “see through” synthetic aperture image of the hidden objects. Then, image matting is used to extract the alpha matte of the hidden objects. Finally, by compositing the hidden objects with the estimated background regions, a sharp “see through” synthetic aperture image is created. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional synthetic aperture imaging method [1] as well as its improved versions [2][4], which simply dim and blur the area in the image that is out of focus, and a recent all-in-focus method [5]. We show that both the occlud- d objects and the background can be combined using our method to create a sharp synthetic aperture image.
Autors: Zhao Pei;Xida Chen;Yee-Hong Yang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 288 - 301
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Ambika Methods for Solving Matrix Games With Atanassov's Intuitionistic Fuzzy Payoffs
Abstract:
In the last few years, a lot of researchers have proposed different methods, to solve the mathematical programming problem of matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs. In this paper, the flaws of the existing methods for solving matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs (matrix games in which payoffs are represented by Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy numbers) are pointed out. Also, to resolve these flaws, new methods (named as Ambika methods) are proposed to obtain the optimal strategies as well as minimum expected gain of Player I and maximum expected loss of Player II for matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs. To illustrate proposed Ambika methods, some existing numerical problems of matrix games with Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy payoffs are solved by proposed Ambika methods.
Autors: Tina Verma;Amit Kumar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 270 - 283
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Amplifier Innovations for Improvement of Rotary Traveling Wave Oscillators
Abstract:
Rotary traveling wave oscillators use a transmission line connected as a closed loop as their resonant element. This allows the use of spatial degrees of freedom, not available in typical L–C oscillator topologies, in the design of the amplifier needed to sustain the oscillating mode. Here, we present a novel amplifier design that takes advantage of this extra degree of freedom to improve performance of RTWOs in two ways. If no precautions are taken then the oscillation can start in either a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. The Phased amplifier, introduced here, forces one direction of oscillation with a measured probability of reverse oscillation of less than 0.43 ppm with a confidence level of 99%. No reverse oscillations were observed in 107 trials. This is accomplished by adding additional phase-dependent degeneration transistors and phase shifting the various amplifier inputs by taking them from different locations on the transmission line. Additionally, this amplifier design reduces the phase noise by reducing the amplifier noise during the time that the oscillator is most sensitive to phase perturbation, resulting in a 1.2-dB reduction in phase noise measured 1 MHz from the peak and a 2.9-dB improvement in the figure of merit.
Autors: Andrey Martchovsky;Kenneth D. Pedrotti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 522 - 530
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An 8.5-ps Two-Stage Vernier Delay-Line Loop Shrinking Time-to-Digital Converter in 130-nm Flash FPGA
Abstract:
A new time-to-digital converter (TDC) with high resolution and high precision is designed and tested in this paper. The converter is realized by combining coarse clock counter with a two-stage delay-line loop shrinking interpolator (DLLSI) based on Vernier configuration, and its prototype has been implemented in a low-cost flash field-programmable gate array device SmartFusion A2F200M3F (Actel). Delay-line loops are used to achieve differential Vernier delay unit and directly shrink the time interval. In order to improve the resolution, decrease measurement time, and diminish the jitter of the cyclic pulse, a two-stage DLLSI method is proposed. The first-stage interpolator rapidly shrinks the measured time interval with low resolution, and the second-stage interpolator determines the final fine resolution. The resolutions are dependent on the entire delay time differences between two delay-line loops of each interpolator. The optimal resolutions are theoretically calculated, and statistic code density test is used to estimate the resolution of the implemented TDC. The implemented two-stage DLLSI has achieved 8.5-ps resolution with 42.4-ps standard deviation and 10-ns dynamic range. The maximum integral and differential nonlinearity errors are less than 7.8 and 3.1 ps.
Autors: Jie Zhang;Dongming Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 406 - 414
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An 84.6-dB-SNDR and 98.2-dB-SFDR Residue-Integrated SAR ADC for Low-Power Sensor Applications
Abstract:
This paper presents an asynchronous-clocking successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) suitable for ultralow-power fine-precision sensor applications whose signal bandwidth is in the kilohertz range. The performance-limiting issues of comparator noise and capacitor mismatch in SAR ADC are resolved by a residue integration scheme combined with a dynamic element matching (DEM), achieving a high resolution without imposing extra burden on the design of residue amplifier and comparator. The prototype 16-bit 2 kS/s SAR ADC is fabricated using 180-nm CMOS process in an area of 0.68 mm2. Measurements show 84.6-dB signal to noise and distortion ratio and 98.2-dB spurious-free dynamic range at the Nyquist input frequency. The ADC dissipates 7.93 from supply voltage of 1.8 V and achieves a Schreier figure of merit of 165.6 dB.
Autors: Seungnam Choi;Hwan-Seok Ku;Hyunwoo Son;Byungsub Kim;Hong-June Park;Jae-Yoon Sim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 404 - 417
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Active-Matrix OLED Driver CMOS IC With Compensation of Non-Uniform Routing-Line Resistances in Ultra-Thin Panel Bezel
Abstract:
This paper presents a source-driver IC that actively compensates for inter-channel charging rate mismatch in an active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display with ultra-thin bezel panel. Due to the limitation of the physical design, the resistances of the driver-to-column routing lines in the panel bezel differ across channels. To solve the luminance non-uniformity caused by resistance mismatch, a digitally controlled -degeneration technique embedded in the output buffer amplifier is proposed. Each driver channel independently compensates for different routing-line resistances, resulting in a charging rate with excellent uniformity. In addition, the bezel area can be desirably minimized without a zigzag wiring pattern. The prototype 240-channel source-driver IC was fabricated using 0.18- CMOS technology, and offers a 16.8M-color depth with 13-mW power consumption. With a real OLED display, the measured luminance uniformity under condition of 240-Hz frame rate was improved from % to % by the proposed scheme. The inter-channel output deviation was measured to be ±2.7 mV. The video play on 2.4-in OLED panel using a frame rate of 240 Hz was also successfully demonstrated with high display quality.
Autors: Hyun-Sik Kim;Dong-Kyu Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 484 - 500
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Advanced SOI Pixel Sensor With Anti-Punch-Through Implantation
Abstract:
An advanced silicon-on-insulator (SOI) pixel sensor with an anti-punch-through structure is proposed to suppress the effect of total ionizing dose (TID) and crosstalk between the electronics and the sensor. A buried p-well (BPW) and a buried n-well (BNW) are both connected to their respective voltages to shield SOI circuits from the sensor. BNW is used as an electrode with controllable potential, which provides similar functionality as middle silicon in double SOI (DSOI). The biased BPW and anti-punch-through implant are adopted to form a potential barrier to holes in BPW. The lateral electric fields induced by the sidewalls of the pixel accelerate electrons to the N+ charge collector. 2-D and 3-D physical-level simulations are presented to compare this structure with DSOI. The simulation results show that an appropriate operating biasing voltage under a fully depleted condition can be secured by adjusting the anti-punch-through doping. The TID effects, the parasitic capacitance between the electronics and the charge collector, and the charge collection efficiency have been studied.
Autors: Lan Hao;Wang Ying;Chen Jie;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1562 - 1567
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Algorithm for an Accurate Detection of Anomalies in Hyperspectral Images With a Low Computational Complexity
Abstract:
Anomaly detection (AD) is an important technique in hyperspectral data analysis that permits to distinguish rare objects with unknown spectral signatures that are particularly not abundant in a scene. In this paper, a novel algorithm for an accurate detection of anomalies in hyperspectral images with a low computational complexity, named ADALOC2, is proposed. It is based on two main processing stages. First, a set of characteristic pixels that best represent both anomaly and background classes are extracted applying orthogonal projection techniques. Second, the abundance maps associated to these pixels are estimated. Under the assumption that the anomaly class is composed of a scarce group of image pixels, rare targets can be identified from abundance maps characterized by a representation coefficient matrix with a large amount of almost zero elements. Unlike the other algorithms of the state of the art, the ADALOC2 algorithm has been specially designed for being efficiently implemented into parallel hardware devices for applications under real-time constraints. To achieve this, the ADALOC2 algorithm uses simple and highly parallelized operations, avoiding to perform complex matrix operations such as the computation of an inverse matrix or the extraction of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. An extensive set of simulations using the most representative state-of-the-art AD algorithms and both real and synthetic hyperspectral data sets have been conducted. Moreover, extra assessment metrics apart from classical receiver operating characteristic curves have been defined in order to make deeper comparisons. The obtained results clearly support the benefits of our proposal, both in terms of the accuracy of the detection results and the processing power demanded.
Autors: María Díaz;Raúl Guerra;Sebastián López;Roberto Sarmiento;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1159 - 1176
Publisher: IEEE
 
» An Analytical Model of Gate-All-Around Heterojunction Tunneling FET
Abstract:
A compact analytical drain current model considering the inversion layer and source depletion is developed for the gate-all-around (GAA) heterojunction tunneling FET (H-TFET) with staggered-gap alignment. Poisson’s equations are solved to obtain the continuous surface potential profile for the GAA H-TFET first, then the drain current is derived based on Kane’s model by using the tangent line approximation method, and finally, the model is verified by TCAD simulation using GaAs0.5Sb0.5/In0.53Ga0.47As GAA H-TFET and published data. The impacts of bias, gate oxide dielectric constant, and interface fixed charge on the surface potential, electric field, and – can be well predicted by the proposed model. The super-linear onset and saturation characteristics of – curves are also obtained.
Autors: Yunhe Guan;Zunchao Li;Wenhao Zhang;Yefei Zhang;Feng Liang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 776 - 782
Publisher: IEEE
 

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