Electrical and Electronics Engineering publications abstract of: 02-2018 sorted by title, page: 11

» Lessons Learned from Protection and Control Schemes Testing: The Results of Multiple Trials Using IEC 61850 Goose Messaging at an Oil Refinery
Abstract:
Several Trials for Protection and Control Schemes based on the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850 standard were recently implemented for the new electrical system at a U.S. oil refinery. IEC 61850, generic object-oriented substation event (GOOSE) messaging, was used for several schemes, including transfer tripping, breaker failure, islanding detection, remote synchronizing, automatic restoration, manual transfer, and load shedding. Site acceptance tests validated the operation of the protection and control schemes. Bench testing was also performed for the load-shedding scheme using a power-system simulator. All of the testing focused on verifying scheme operations during normal operation and failure modes. The experience gained during early project trials influenced the design and testing of subsequent schemes. This article describes the bench and site acceptance testing approaches used and presents example tests along with their relevant results and the lessons learned.
Autors: Jared Mraz;Aaron Cowan;Keith Gray;Kirti S. Shah;
Appeared in: IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 24, issue:1, pages: 60 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Leveraging Analysis of User Behavior to Identify Malicious Activities in Large-Scale Social Networks
Abstract:
With the enormous growth and volume of online social networks and their features, along with the vast number of socially connected users, it has become difficult to explain the true semantic value of published content for the detection of user behaviors. Without understanding the contextual background, it is impractical to differentiate among various groups in terms of their relevance and mutual relations, or to identify the most significant representatives from the community at large. In this paper, we propose an integrated social media content analysis platform that leverages three levels of features, i.e., user-generated content, social graph connections, and user profile activities, to analyze and detect anomalous behaviors that deviate significantly from the norm in large-scale social networks. Several types of analyses have been conducted for a better understanding of the different user behaviors in the detection of highly adaptive malicious users. We attempted a novel approach regarding the process of data extraction and classification to contextualize large-scale networks in a proper manner. We also collected a significant number of user profiles from Twitter and YouTube, along with around 13 million channel activities. Extensive evaluations were conducted on real-world datasets of user activities for both social networks. The evaluation results show the effectiveness and utility of the proposed approach.
Autors: Muhammad Al-Qurishi;M. Shamim Hossain;Majed Alrubaian;Sk Md Mizanur Rahman;Atif Alamri;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 14, issue:2, pages: 799 - 813
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Leveraging High Order Cumulants for Spectrum Sensing and Power Recognition in Cognitive Radio Networks
Abstract:
Hybrid interweave-underlay spectrum access in cognitive radio networks can explore spectrum opportunities when primary users (PUs) are either active or inactive, which significantly improves spectrum utilization. The practical wireless systems, such as long-term evolution-advanced, usually operate at multiple transmission power levels, leading to a multiple primary transmission power scenario. In such a case, the two fundamental issues in hybrid interweave-underlay spectrum access are to detect the “ON/OFF” status of PUs and to recognize the operating power level of PUs, which are challenging due to non-Gaussian transmitted signals. In this paper, we exploit high-order cumulants (HOCs) to efficiently perform spectrum sensing and power recognition. Specifically, for a given order and time lag, we first propose a single HOC-based spectrum sensing and power recognition scheme with low computational complexity, by leveraging minimum Bayes risk criterion. Moreover, we propose a hybrid multiple HOCs-based spectrum sensing and power recognition scheme with multiple orders and time lags, to further improve the detection performance. Both the proposed schemes can eliminate the adverse impact of the noise power uncertainty. Finally, simulation results are provided to evaluate the proposed schemes.
Autors: Danyang Wang;Ning Zhang;Zan Li;Feifei Gao;Xuemin Shen;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1298 - 1310
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Leveraging Software-Defined Networking for Incident Response in Industrial Control Systems
Abstract:
In the past decade, the security of industrial control systems has emerged as a research priority in order to safeguard our critical infrastructures. A large number of research efforts have focused on intrusion detection in industrial networks; however, few of them discuss what to do after an intrusion has been detected. Because the safety of most of these control systems is time sensitive, we need new research on automatic incident response. This article shows how software-defined networks and network function virtualization can facilitate automatic incident response to a variety of attacks against industrial networks. It also presents a prototype of an incident-response solution that detects and responds automatically to sensor attacks and controller attacks. This work shows the promise that cloud-enabled software-defined networks and virtual infrastructures hold as a way to provide novel defense-in-depth solutions for industrial systems. This article is part of a special issue on Software Safety and Security Risk Mitigation in Cyber-physical Systems.
Autors: Andrés F. Murillo Piedrahita;Vikram Gaur;Jairo Giraldo;Álvaro A. Cárdenas;Sandra Julieta Rueda;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 44 - 50
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lifetime Estimation of Discrete IGBT Devices Based on Gaussian Process
Abstract:
Discrete package insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) devices are a popular choice for low-power converters. Although IGBT power modules used in high-power applications have recently been studied in the literature, there are major knowledge gaps regarding reliability and lifetime estimation of discrete devices. In this paper, on-state collector–emitter voltage drop variations are characterized for discrete IGBT devices exposed to cyclic thermal stresses. Variations in are carefully identified and classified depending on different aging mechanisms, stress levels, and device structures. A probabilistic framework for remaining useful lifetime (RUL) estimation based on the knowledge obtained by accelerated aging experiments for real-time RUL estimation has been proposed. Specifically, the proposed model uses Gaussian process regression (GPR) for applying a Bayesian inference (BI) on RUL estimation of the device under test. Using BI reduces the uncertainty associated with RUL estimation and leads to more accurate results. This concept is also tested by comparing the classical maximum-likelihood estimation and GPR estimation results with the ones obtained by accelerated aging tests.
Autors: Syed Huzaif Ali;Mehrdad Heydarzadeh;Serkan Dusmez;Xiong Li;Anant S. Kamath;Bilal Akin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 395 - 403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Limiting Effects on the Design of Vertical Superjunction Collectors in SiGe HBTs
Abstract:
The implementation of a “superjunction” collector design in a silicon–germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is explored for enhancing breakdown performance. The superjunction collector is formed via the placement of a series of alternating the p/xn-doped layers in the collector-base space charge region and is used to reduce avalanche generation leading to breakdown. An overview of the physics underlying superjunction collector operation is presented, together with TCAD simulations, and a parameterization methodology is developed to explore the limits of the superjunction collector performance. Measured data demonstrate the limitations explored in simulation.
Autors: Brian R. Wier;Uppili S. Raghunathan;Zachary E. Fleetwood;Michael A. Oakley;Alvin J. Joseph;Vibhor Jain;John D. Cressler;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 793 - 797
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Line Balancing Strategy for Re-Entrant Manufacturing
Abstract:
Scheduling in a re-entrant manufacturing environment is a complex task that requires a scheduler to handle a larger number of uncertainties than in a traditional manufacturing environment. Many input control strategies and dispatching rules are applied to re-entrant processes to achieve fast and relatively effective solutions. However, due to the complexity of these processes, the dispatching rules currently employed in general flow shops do not guarantee the consistency of results despite the benefits of these rules. To address this issue, an extremely robust drum-buffer-rope-based releasing and holding scheduling method is proposed in this paper. An overview of the proposed method is presented, including the process by which the re-entrant process is reconfigured into independent flow shops and the balancing of the production loads among individual loops. Nine scheduling scenarios comprising different combinations of three loop load measurement parameters and three loop-balancing methods are employed to test the applicability and performance of the proposed method.
Autors: Sungwook Yoon;Sukjae Jeong;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 31, issue:1, pages: 42 - 51
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linear Size Constant-Composition Codes Meeting the Johnson Bound
Abstract:
The Johnson-type upper bound on the maximum size of a code of length , distance , and constant composition is , where is the total weight and is the largest component of . Recently, Chee et al. proved that this upper bound can be achieved for all constant-composition codes of sufficiently large lengths. Let be the smallest such length. The determination of is trivial for binary codes. This paper provides a lower bound on , which is shown to be tight for all ternary and quaternary codes by giving new combinatorial constructions. Consequently, by the refining method, we determine the values of , for all -ary constant-composition codes, provided that with finite possible exceptions.
Autors: Yeow Meng Chee;Xiande Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 909 - 917
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Linearized DC-MMC Models for Control Design Accounting for Multifrequency Power Transfer Mechanisms
Abstract:
The dc-modular multilevel converter (DC-MMC) is one of a new class of single-stage modular multilevel dc–dc converters that has recently emerged for high-voltage dc applications. This paper presents the first small-signal state-space model for the DC-MMC that is able to account for the multifrequency power transfer mechanisms within the converter. Derived from a dynamic phasor model representation of the DC-MMC, the developed model is linear time-invariant (LTI), allowing for the application of conventional LTI tools for both analysis and design. The small-signal dynamics are validated by simulation results from a full switched model demonstrating its accuracy. A simplified model derived from the full LTI system is presented that readers can utilize to develop dynamic controls for the DC-MMC. As a case study, this benchmark model is leveraged to propose a dynamic controller that regulates dc power transfer between networks and balances the capacitor voltages. Control block diagrams are also provided that enable systematic control design of the DC-MMC via standard linear methods. Case study simulations verify the efficacy of the developed controls for dc network applications. The presented small-signal modeling and control design methodology can be readily applied to any MMC-based topology.
Autors: Gregory J. Kish;Peter W. Lehn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 33, issue:1, pages: 271 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Liquid Sound Velocity and Density Decoupling on a Compact Lamb Wave Sensor by a Two-Port Local Resonating Method
Abstract:
A two-port local resonating (TPLR) method for thin-film Lamb wave sensor is proposed. Based on properties of multi-modes analyzed by numerical simulation and experimental measurement, the TPLR method is able to generate the second-order flexural mode (, ). Density and sound velocity of liquid solutions can be decoupled based on the first-order flexural mode (, ) and the mode, and solutions with the same density, such as CH3CH2OH and CH3OH, can be successfully distinguished on a single Lamb wave device. When the phase velocity of mode is close to the sound velocity of liquid, compared with the traditional delay-line configuration, smaller period of interdigital transducers and device miniaturization by the TPLR method can be realized. Generation of new modes with the TPLR method demonstrates an alternative for multi-parameters sensing of Lamb wave sensors.
Autors: Chuanyu Li;Hui Kong;Yuguo Tang;Jean-François Manceau;François Bastien;Lianqun Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1384 - 1389
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lithium Niobate Electro-Optic Racetrack Modulator Etched in Y-Cut LNOI Platform
Abstract:
An electro-optic modulator (EOM) based on a racetrack resonator coupled to a waveguide using butterfly multi-mode interference (MMI) coupler is fabricated on Y-cut lithium niobate (LN) thin film. This is the first demonstration of a LN EOM in which the thin film of LN is etched in a Y-cut substrate using chlorine-based inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, a process, which is readily compatible with semiconductor fabrication facility. The Y-cut LNOI platform is interesting for the integration of electro-optic and acousto-optic components, since differently from any other LN cut it facilitates taking advantage of the maximum electro-optic and piezoelectric coefficients of LN. Coupling to the racetrack was enabled using a butterfly MMI coupler, which offered operation near the critical coupling condition, hence increasing the extinction ratio (ER) of the modulator. An unloaded quality factor of 1.3 × 105 was extracted for this device, which is equivalent to a propagation loss of 2.3 dB/cm. Modulation bandwidth of 4 GHz, wavelength tuning rate of 0.32 pm/V, and an ER of more than 10 dB were experimentally measured for the EOM.
Autors: Mohamed Mahmoud;Lutong Cai;Christian Bottenfield;Gianluca Piazza;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LLR-Based SC Decoding of Polar Codes for Two-User Binary-Input MAC
Abstract:
This letter considers a hardware-friendly log-likelihood ratio (LLR)-based successive cancellation (SC) decoding of polar codes for two-user binary-input multiple access channels. Based on the known recursive equations in the likelihood domain, we obtain LLR-based recursive equations for the SC decoding. An approximate LLR-based decoding is also introduced, which shows small performance loss at high error rate, but has significantly low complexity compared with the previous likelihood-based decoding.
Autors: Jong-Hwan Kim;Yeon Joon Choi;Sang-Hyo Kim;Keunyoung Kim;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 256 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Loading the Third Harmonic: A Linear and Efficient Post-Matching Doherty PA
Abstract:
Among the most exciting parts of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium (IMS2017) was the "High-Efficiency Power Amplifier" Student Design Competition (SDC) sponsored by Technical Coordinating Committee MTT-5. This competition focuses on RF power amplifiers (PAs) having both high efficiency and linearity. Competitors are required to design, construct, and measure a high-efficiency PA with a specified linearity at a frequency of their choice between 1 and 10 GHz. The winner is determined by a figure of merit (FOM), with other requirements [1] that must also be satisfied.
Autors: Xin Yu Zhou;Wing Shing Chan;Derek Ho;Shao Yong Zheng;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 99 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Binary Pattern-Based Hyperspectral Image Classification With Superpixel Guidance
Abstract:
Since it is usually difficult and time-consuming to obtain sufficient training samples by manually labeling, feature extraction, which investigates the characteristics of hyperspectral images (HSIs), such as spectral continuity and spatial locality of surface objects, to achieve the most discriminative feature representation, is very important for HSI classification. Meanwhile, due to the spatial regularity of surface materials, it is desirable to improve the classification performance of HSIs from the superpixel viewpoint. In this paper, we propose a novel local binary pattern (LBP)-based superpixel-level decision fusion method for HSI classification. The proposed framework employs uniform LBP (ULBP) to extract local image features, and then, a support vector machine is utilized to formulate the probability description of each pixel belonging to every class. The composite image of the first three components extracted by a principal component analysis from the HSI data is oversegmented into many homogeneous regions by using the entropy rate segmentation method. Then, a region merging process is applied to make the superpixels obtained more homogeneous and agree with the spatial structure of materials more precisely. Finally, a probability-oriented classification strategy is applied to classify each pixel based on superpixel-level guidance. The proposed framework “ULBP-based superpixel-level decision fusion framework” is named ULBP-SPG. Experimental results on two real HSI data sets have demonstrated that the proposed ULBP-SPG framework is more effective and powerful than several state-of-the-art methods.
Autors: Sen Jia;Bin Deng;Jiasong Zhu;Xiuping Jia;Qingquan Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 749 - 759
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Deep Field for Electrocardiogram Beat Classification
Abstract:
To reduce the high mortality rate among heart patients, electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification plays an important role in computer aided diagnosis system, but this issue is challenging because of the complex variations of data. Since ECG beat data lie on high-dimension manifold, we propose a novel method, named “local deep field”, in purpose of capturing the devil in the details of such data manifold. This method learns different deep models within the local manifold charts. Local regionalization can help models focus on the particularity of local variations, while deep architecture can disentangle the hidden class information within local distributions. The advantage of the proposed method has been experimentally demonstrated in terms of MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.
Autors: Wei Li;Jianqing Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1656 - 1664
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Feature-Based Attribute Profiles for Optical Remote Sensing Image Classification
Abstract:
This paper introduces an extension of morphological attribute profiles (APs) by extracting their local features. The so-called local feature-based APs (LFAPs) are expected to provide a better characterization of each APs’ filtered pixel (i.e., APs’ sample) within its neighborhood, and hence better deal with local texture information from the image content. In this paper, LFAPs are constructed by extracting some simple first-order statistical features of the local patch around each APs’ sample such as mean, standard deviation, and range. Then, the final feature vector characterizing each image pixel is formed by combining all local features extracted from APs of that pixel. In addition, since the self-dual APs (SDAPs) have been proved to outperform the APs in recent years, a similar process will be applied to form the local feature-based SDAPs (LFSDAPs). In order to evaluate the effectiveness of LFAPs and LFSDAPs, supervised classification using both the random forest and the support vector machine classifiers is performed on the very high resolution Reykjavik image as well as the hyperspectral Pavia University data. Experimental results show that LFAPs (respectively, LFSDAPs) can considerably improve the classification accuracy of the standard APs (respectively, SDAPs) and the recently proposed histogram-based APs.
Autors: Minh-Tan Pham;Sébastien Lefèvre;Erchan Aptoula;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 1199 - 1212
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Inverse Tone Mapping for Scalable High Dynamic Range Image Coding
Abstract:
Tone mapping operators (TMOs) and inverse TMOs (iTMOs) are important for scalable coding of high dynamic range (HDR) images. Because of the high nonlinearity of local TMOs, it is very difficult to estimate the iTMO accurately for a local TMO. In this letter, we present a two-layer local iTMO estimation algorithm using an edge-preserving decomposition technique. The low dynamic range (LDR) image is first linearized and then decomposed into a base layer and a detail layer via a fast edge-preserving decomposition method. The base layer of the HDR image is generated by subtracting the LDR detail layer from the HDR image. An iTMO function is finally estimated by solving a novel quadratic optimization problem formulated on the pair of base layers rather than the pair of HDR and LDR images as in existing methods. Experimental results show that the proposed two-layer iTMO can recover the HDR accurately so that it is possible to use these local TMOs in scalable HDR image coding schemes.
Autors: Zhe Wei;Changyun Wen;Zhengguo Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 28, issue:2, pages: 550 - 555
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Local Stabilization for Continuous-time Takagi–Sugeno Fuzzy Systems With Time Delay
Abstract:
This brief paper investigates the local stabilization for continues-time Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy systems with constant time delay. In order to deal with the time delay, we design a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional that is dependent on the membership function. Based on the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional and the analysis of the time derivative of the membership function, less conservative results can be obtained; however, the Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional is designed so complicated that the Lyapunov level set is hard to be measured directly. Alternatively, two sets are obtained to estimate the local stabilization. One set is for the time-varying initial conditions and the other is for the time-invariant initial conditions. The relationship between the two sets are also discussed. In the end, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Autors: Likui Wang;Hak-Keung Lam;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:1, pages: 379 - 385
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Localization of Multiple Underwater Objects With Gravity Field and Gravity Gradient Tensor
Abstract:
We present a novel algorithm to locate multiple underwater objects in real time using gravity field vector and gravity gradient tensor signals. This algorithm formulates the task of localization of multiple underwater objects into a regularized nonlinear problem, which is solved with the standard Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. The regularization parameters are estimated by cross validation. The initial coordinates and masses of these underwater objects are automatically determined by solving a single-object localization problem. A synthetic navigation model with two underwater objects was adopted to validate the proposed algorithm. The results show that it has good stability and antinoise ability for multiple underwater objects localizations.
Autors: Jingtian Tang;Shuanggui Hu;Zhengyong Ren;Chaojian Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 247 - 251
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lorentz Force Electrical-Impedance Tomography Using Linearly Frequency-Modulated Ultrasound Pulse
Abstract:
Lorentz force electrical-impedance tomography (LFEIT) combines ultrasound stimulation and electromagnetic field detection with the goal of creating a high-contrast and high-resolution hybrid imaging modality. To reduce the peak stimulation power to the ultrasound transducer in LFEIT, linearly frequency-modulated (LFM) ultrasound pulse was investigated in this paper. First, the coherency between LFM ultrasound excitation and the resulting local current density was established theoretically. Then, experiments were done using different agar phantoms of conductivity ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 S/m. The results showed: 1) using electrical signal of peak instantaneous power of 39.54 dBm to the ultrasound transducer, which was 25.5 dB lower than the peak instantaneous power of the high-voltage narrow pulse adopted in traditional LFEIT (65.05 dBm), the LFM ultrasound pulse-based LFEIT can detect the electrical conductivity discontinuity positions precisely; 2) the reconstructed B-scan image of the electrical conductivity discontinuity distribution is comparable to that obtained through LFEIT with high-voltage narrow pulse; and 3) axial resolution of 1 mm was achieved with the experimental setup. The method of LFM ultrasound pulse stimulation and coherent detection initiates an alternative scheme toward the clinical application of LFEIT.
Autors: Zhishen Sun;Guoqiang Liu;Hui Xia;Stefan Catheline;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 168 - 177
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Lossless Compression of Color Filter Array Mosaic Images With Visualization via JPEG 2000
Abstract:
Digital cameras have become ubiquitous for amateur and professional applications. The raw images captured by digital sensors typically take the form of color filter array (CFA) mosaic images which must be “developed” (via digital signal processing) before they can be viewed. Photographers and scientists often repeat the “development process” using different parameters to obtain images suitable for different purposes. Since the development process is generally not invertible it is commonly desirable to store the raw (or undeveloped) mosaic images indefinitely. Uncompressed mosaic image file sizes can be more than 30 times larger than those of developed images stored in JPEG format. Thus data compression is of interest. Several compression methods for mosaic images have been proposed in the literature. However they all require a custom decompressor followed by development-specific software to generate a displayable image. In this paper a novel compression pipeline that removes these requirements is proposed. Specifically mosaic images can be losslessly recovered from the resulting compressed files and more significantly images can be directly viewed (decompressed and developed) using only a JPEG 2000 compliant image viewer. Experiments reveal that the proposed pipeline attains excellent visual quality while providing compression performance competitive to that of state-of-the-art compression algorithms for mosaic images.
Autors: Miguel Hernández-Cabronero;Michael W. Marcellin;Ian Blanes;Joan Serra-Sagristà;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 20, issue:2, pages: 257 - 270
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency Eddy-Current Testing for Detection of Subsurface Cracks in CF-188 Stub Flange
Abstract:
The vertical stub flanges on the CF-188 Hornet fighter aircraft are responsible for linking two vertical stabilizers to the fuselage. Repeated stresses due to dynamic loads on aircraft structure during flight may cause eyebrow cracks on the flange around fastener holes. Prevention of failure of the flange structure involves early detection before cracks grow to a critical length. Low-frequency eddy-current (LFEC) techniques have been applied to inspect thick conducting aircraft structures. However, in the case of the stub flange, LFEC is challenged by component geometry. In particular, the surface containing cracks is not parallel to the surface that is accessible for scanning. The bolts are perpendicular to the face with cracks but are almost at 85° to the scanning surface. A novel conical probe is designed to use the bolt as a core for the excitation (driver) coil, thereby increasing driving flux density, and to constrain probe positioning as it is swept around the bolt. Finite-element simulations are used to investigate influence of different parameters on LFEC impedance plane response. These include slope of the slanted surface, sample thickness, operating frequency, crack size, and edge effect for two different component edge shapes. Experimental measurements carried out at different frequencies on test samples, prepared with the same dimensions as actual flanges, were found to be in good agreement with computational models. Results indicate that LFEC is significantly affected by surrounding geometries, which therefore, need to be taken into account when inspecting for cracks.
Autors: Natheer Alatawneh;Peter Ross Underhill;Thomas W. Krause;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1568 - 1575
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency Noise in Hybrid-Phase- Microstructure ITO-Stabilized ZnO Thin-Film Transistors
Abstract:
Low-frequency noise (LFN) in hybrid-phase-microstructure ITO-stabilized ZnO thin-film transistors is investigated. The measured drain current noise power spectral densities obey the classical 1/ noise theory, with about 0.9. When - is low, the gate voltage dependent noise data closely follow the carrier number with correlated mobility fluctuation () model, and the average Hooge’s parameter in the channel is extracted to be about . Moreover, the contribution of contact resistance to LFN is further studied. Dominated by the channel and the contact, the normalized noise varies with two slopes (.x and 0) with an increase of the effective gate voltage. Finally, the normalized noise versus drain current results are simulated by considering contact resistance.
Autors: Yuan Liu;Sunbin Deng;Rongsheng Chen;Bin Li;Yun-Fei En;Yiqiang Chen;
Appeared in: IEEE Electron Device Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 39, issue:2, pages: 200 - 203
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Frequency SAR Radiometric Calibration and Antenna Pattern Estimation by Using Stable Point Targets
Abstract:
In this paper, the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) calibration for low-frequency missions by means of stable point targets is presented. Calibration at low frequency involves the absolute radiometric calibration, the antenna pattern and pointing characterization and validation, and the distortion system parameters’ estimation. The use of traditional instrumentation, such as a polarimetric active radar calibrator, a corner reflector, or an active transponder, may be costly and can reduce the time the instrument is used for operational acquisitions. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the potentiality in calibration of point targets for which the radar cross section and the time stability have been characterized. Given a calibration site, once that a set of the stable point targets have been detected by the analysis of an interferometric stack of SAR acquisitions, they may be used as passive calibrators for the validation of radiometry, elevation antenna pattern, and pointing estimation. We show that, although less targets are expected to be found in P- or L- band than in C- or X-band, a sufficient amount (about 250 targets per acquisition) can provide an accuracy in antenna pattern estimation of about 0.04 dB, if the target accuracy is 0.1 dB at .
Autors: Pietro Guccione;Michele Scagliola;Davide Giudici;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 635 - 646
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Low-Profile Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons Traveling-Wave Antenna for Near-Endfire Radiation
Abstract:
This letter proposes a low-profile and highly efficient endfire radiating traveling-wave antenna based on spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line. The aperture is approximately , where is the space wavelength at the operational frequency 8 GHz. This antenna generates near-endfire radiation beams within 7.5–8.5 GHz. The maximum gain and total efficiency reach 9.2 dBi and , respectively. Measurement results are finally given to validate the proposed SSPPs antenna.
Autors: Abhishek Kandwal;Qingfeng Zhang;Xiao-Lan Tang;Louis Wy Liu;Ge Zhang;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 184 - 187
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LRAGE: Learning Latent Relationships With Adaptive Graph Embedding for Aerial Scene Classification
Abstract:
The performance of scene classification relies heavily on the spatial and structural features that are extracted from high spatial resolution remote-sensing images. Existing approaches, however, are limited in adequately exploiting latent relationships between scene images. Aiming to decrease the distances between intraclass images and increase the distances between interclass images, we propose a latent relationship learning framework that integrates an adaptive graph with the constraints of the feature space and label propagation for high-resolution aerial image classification. To describe the latent relationships among scene images in the framework, we construct an adaptive graph that is embedded into the constrained joint space for features and labels. To remove redundant information and improve the computational efficiency, subspace learning is introduced to assist in the latent relationship learning. To address out-of-sample data, linear regression is adopted to project the semisupervised classification results onto a linear classifier. Learning efficiency is improved by minimizing the objective function via the linearized alternating direction method with an adaptive penalty. We test our method on three widely used aerial scene image data sets. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art algorithms in aerial scene image classification.
Autors: Yuebin Wang;Liqiang Zhang;Xiaohua Tong;Feiping Nie;Haiyang Huang;Jie Mei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 621 - 634
Publisher: IEEE
 
» LTE Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Provisioning Based on Robust Header Compression
Abstract:
One important issue that confronts network service providers is the need to provide reliable multimedia data service efficiently over cellular networks for a large number of subscribers under dynamic channel conditions. In long term evolution (LTE) networks, multimedia broadcast multicast service (MBMS) is a bandwidth efficient data service to simultaneously support multiple users at high bandwidth efficiency. In this paper, instead of considering spectrum resource allocation, we investigate MBMS provisioning for each mobile user based on the higher layer robust header compression (ROHC) consideration in response to user channel quality to reduce packet losses. We formulate a profit maximization problem for two different MBMS channel models and further propose a new MBMS assignment scheme for each user to be assigned a target MBMS with optimal ROHC parameters. We further develop a dynamic programming algorithm for user assignment and ROHC parameters optimization to achieve maximal profit with high spectrum resource utility. Our numerical results demonstrate substantial profit gain achieved by the proposed method in LTE systems.
Autors: Chen Jiang;Wenhao Wu;Zhi Ding;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1161 - 1172
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Luminous Flux and CCT Stabilization of White LED Device With a Bilevel Driver
Abstract:
The optical, color, electrical, and thermal properties of an LED devices are highly dependent on one another. The luminous flux variation and correlated color temperature (CCT) shifting of white LED sources is attributed to luminous efficacy and emission spectrum shifting with the electrical power and heat-dissipation power. An analysis model that includes the luminous flux, CCT, electrical power, and junction temperature of the white LED sources with bilevel driver is proposed in this paper. The proposed model can descript that the stablized luminous flux and CCT of the white LED system with bilevel driver is a result of the complex interactions among the given electrical power of bilevel, duty cycle, thermal resistances, junction temperature, and the physical parameters of the LED sources. Reduction variation of CCT and luminous flux of the white LED device with bilevel driver over a dimming range has been practically achieved. The proposed method can be easily adopted for improving the CCT and luminous flux stabilization of the white LED device with a bilevel driver.
Autors: Huanting Chen;Xiaofang Zhou;Shuo Lin;Jinhai Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Machine Learned Replacement of N-Labels for Basecalled Sequences in DNA Barcoding
Abstract:
This study presents a machine learning method that increases the number of identified bases in Sanger Sequencing. The system post-processes a KB basecalled chromatogram. It selects a recoverable subset of N-labels in the KB-called chromatogram to replace with basecalls (A,C,G,T). An N-label correction is defined given an additional read of the same sequence, and a human finished sequence. Corrections are added to the dataset when an alignment determines the additional read and human agree on the identity of the N-label. KB must also rate the replacement with quality value of in the additional read. Corrections are only available during system training. Developing the system, nearly 850,000 N-labels are obtained from Barcode of Life Datasystems, the premier database of genetic markers called DNA Barcodes. Increasing the number of correct bases improves reference sequence reliability, increases sequence identification accuracy, and assures analysis correctness. Keeping with barcoding standards, our system maintains an error rate of percent. Our system only applies corrections when it estimates low rate of error. Tested on this data, our automation selects and recovers: 79 percent of N-labels from COI (animal barcode); 80 percent from matK and rbcL (plant barcodes); and 58 percent from non-protein-coding sequences (across eukaryotes).
Autors: Eddie Y. T. Ma;Sujeevan Ratnasingham;Stefan C. Kremer;
Appeared in: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 191 - 204
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Machine Learning for Performance Prediction in Mobile Cellular Networks
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the application of machine learning techniques for performance prediction problems in wireless networks. These problems often involve using existing measurement data to predict network performance where direct measurements are not available. We explore the performance of existing machine learning algorithms for these problems and propose a simple taxonomy of main problem categories. As an example, we use an extensive real-world drive test data set to show that classical machine learning methods such as Gaussian process regression, exponential smoothing of time series, and random forests can yield excellent prediction results. Applying these methods to the management of wireless mobile networks has the potential to significantly reduce operational costs while simultaneously improving user experience. We also discuss key challenges for future work, especially with the focus on practical deployment of machine learning techniques for performance prediction in mobile wireless networks.
Autors: Janne Riihijarvi;Petri Mahonen;
Appeared in: IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 13, issue:1, pages: 51 - 60
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Machine Learning-Based Temperature Prediction for Runtime Thermal Management Across System Components
Abstract:
Elevated temperatures limit the peak performance of systems because of frequent interventions by thermal throttling. Non-uniform thermal states across system nodes also cause performance variation within seemingly equivalent nodes leading to significant degradation of overall performance. In this paper we present a framework for creating a lightweight thermal prediction system suitable for run-time management decisions. We pursue two avenues to explore optimized lightweight thermal predictors. First, we use feature selection algorithms to improve the performance of previously designed machine learning methods. Second, we develop alternative methods using neural network and linear regression-based methods to perform a comprehensive comparative study of prediction methods. We show that our optimized models achieve improved performance with better prediction accuracy and lower overhead as compared with the Gaussian process model proposed previously. Specifically we present a reduced version of the Gaussian process model, a neural network–based model, and a linear regression–based model. Using the optimization methods, we are able to reduce the average prediction errors in the Gaussian process from C to C. We also show that the newly developed models using neural network and Lasso linear regression have average prediction errors of C and C respectively. The prediction overheads are 0.22, 0.097, and 0.026 ms per prediction for reduced Gaussian process, neural network, and Lasso linear regression models, respectively, compared with 0.57 ms per prediction for the previous Gaussian process model. We have implemented our proposed thermal prediction models on a two-node system configuration to help identify the optimal task placement. The task placement identified by the models reduces the average system temperature by up to C without any performance degradation. Furthermore, these models respectively achieve 75, 82.5, and 74.17 percent success rates in correctly pointing to those task placements with better thermal response, compared with 72.5 percent success for the original model in achieving the same objective. Finally, we extended our analysis to a 16-node system and we were able to train models and execute them in real time to guide task migration and achieve on average 17 percent reduction in the overall system cooling power.
Autors: Kaicheng Zhang;Akhil Guliani;Seda Ogrenci-Memik;Gokhan Memik;Kazutomo Yoshii;Rajesh Sankaran;Pete Beckman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 29, issue:2, pages: 405 - 419
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Macrodiversity in Cellular Networks With Random Blockages
Abstract:
Blocking objects (blockages) between a transmitter and receiver cause wireless communication links to transition from line-of-sight (LOS) to non-LOS propagation, which can greatly reduce the received power, particularly at the higher frequencies such as millimeter wave. We consider a cellular network in which a mobile user attempts to connect to two or more base stations (BSs) simultaneously, to increase the probability of at least one LOS link, which is a form of macrodiversity. We develop a framework for determining the LOS probability as a function of the number of BSs, when taking into account the correlation between blockages: for example, a single blockage close to the device—including the user’s own body—could block multiple BSs. We consider the impact of the size of blocking objects on the system’s th order LOS probability and show that macrodiversity gains are higher when the blocking objects are small. We also show that the BS density must scale as the square of the blockage density to maintain a given level of LOS probability.
Autors: Abhishek K. Gupta;Jeffrey G. Andrews;Robert W. Heath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 996 - 1010
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MADAM: Effective and Efficient Behavior-based Android Malware Detection and Prevention
Abstract:
Android users are constantly threatened by an increasing number of malicious applications (apps), generically called malware. Malware constitutes a serious threat to user privacy, money, device and file integrity. In this paper we note that, by studying their actions, we can classify malware into a small number of behavioral classes, each of which performs a limited set of misbehaviors that characterize them. These misbehaviors can be defined by monitoring features belonging to different Android levels. In this paper we present MADAM, a novel host-based malware detection system for Android devices which simultaneously analyzes and correlates features at four levels: kernel, application, user and package, to detect and stop malicious behaviors. MADAM has been specifically designed to take into account those behaviors that are characteristics of almost every real malware which can be found in the wild. MADAM detects and effectively blocks more than 96 percent of malicious apps, which come from three large datasets with about 2,800 apps, by exploiting the cooperation of two parallel classifiers and a behavioral signature-based detector. Extensive experiments, which also includes the analysis of a testbed of 9,804 genuine apps, have been conducted to show the low false alarm rate, the negligible performance overhead and limited battery consumption.
Autors: Andrea Saracino;Daniele Sgandurra;Gianluca Dini;Fabio Martinelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 83 - 97
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magic Train: Design of Measurement Methods against Bandwidth Inflation Attacks
Abstract:
Bandwidth measurement is important for many network applications and services, such as peer-to-peer networks, video caching and anonymity services. To win a bandwidth-based competition for some malicious purpose, adversarial Internet hosts may falsely announce a larger network bandwidth. Some preliminary solutions have been proposed to this problem. They can either evade the bandwidth inflation by a consensus view (i.e., opportunistic bandwidth measurements) or detect bandwidth frauds via forgeable tricks (i.e., detection through bandwidth's CDF symmetry). However, smart adversaries can easily remove the forgeable tricks and report an equally larger bandwidth to avoid the consensus analyses. To defend against the smart bandwidth inflation frauds, we design magic train, a new measurement method which combines an unpredictable packet train with estimated round-trip time (RTT) for detection. The inflation behaviors can be detected through highly contradictory bandwidth results calculated using different magic trains or a train's different segments, or large deviation between the estimated RTT and the RTT reported by the train's first packet. Being an uncooperative measurement method, magic train can be easily deployed on the Internet. We have implemented the magic train using RAW socket and LibPcap, and evaluated the implementation in a controlled testbed and the Internet. The results have successfully confirmed the effectiveness of magic train in detecting and preventing smart bandwidth inflation attacks.
Autors: Peng Zhou;Rocky K. C. Chang;Xiaojing Gu;Minrui Fei;Jianying Zhou;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:1, pages: 98 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnet-Less Circulators Based on Spatiotemporal Modulation of Bandstop Filters in a Delta Topology
Abstract:
In this paper, we discuss the design rationale and guidelines to build magnet-less circulators based on spatiotemporal modulation of resonant junctions consisting of first-order bandstop filters connected in a delta topology. Without modulation, the junction does not allow transmission between its ports; however, when the natural oscillation frequencies of the constituent filters are modulated in time with a suitable phase pattern, a synthetic angular-momentum bias can be effectively imparted to the junction and a transmission window opens at one of the output ports, thus realizing a circulator. We develop a rigorous small-signal linear model and find analytical expressions for the harmonic -parameters of the proposed circuit, which significantly facilitate the design process. We validate the theory with simulations and further discuss the large-signal response, including power handling, nonlinearity, and noise performance. Finally, we present measured results with unprecedented performance in all metrics for a printed circuit board prototype using off-the-shelf discrete components.
Autors: Ahmed Kord;Dimitrios L. Sounas;Andrea Alù;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 911 - 926
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Field-Assisted Radiation Enhancement From a Large Aperture Photoconductive Antenna
Abstract:
The generation of terahertz radiation using photoconductive antennas is becoming very popular. Several experimental and simulation studies have been performed to study the characteristics of the photoconductive antenna (PCA). Although various methods have been proposed to increase the radiated power from it, the radiated power remains very low. In this paper, we present an analytical study of improving the radiated power from a large aperture PCA using an external magnetic field source. The transit time behavior of the carriers is computed using the basic semiconductor carrier dynamics model, including the transient mobilities with the dependencies on the electric field and carrier’s concentration. Analytical studies show that substantial enhancement in the radiated field can be achieved when such external magnetic field is applied. Furthermore, the polarity of the radiated field depends on the orientation of the applied magnetic field. The results obtained from analytical calculations exhibit similar behavior as reported in some experimental results.
Autors: Jitendra Prajapati;Mrinmoy Bharadwaj;Amitabh Chatterjee;Ratnajit Bhattacharjee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 678 - 687
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic hammer propels tiny medical bot
Abstract:
A tiny robot that jackhammers its way through the body sounds like the stuff of science fiction nightmares. But such a robot exists, and it could play an important role in the future of medicine.
Autors: Jeremy Hsu;
Appeared in: IEEE Spectrum
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 55, issue:2, pages: 10 - 11
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Nano-Grating Guided-Mode Resonance Biosensors
Abstract:
Biomolecular detection systems based on monitoring changes in the refractive indices of functionalized surfaces are promising for applications as chemical and biological sensors. Here, we describe the design and figures of merit of our refractive index-based guided-mode resonance (GR) biosensor consisting of thin film silicon nitride sub-wavelength nano-gratings. The sensitivity of our nano-grating GR sensor was experimentally determined to be 59.3 nm per refractive index unit. We describe how the wavelength for maximum intensity of diffraction (peak wavelength) of nano-gratings was affected when functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were attached onto GR sensor surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate with avidin-biotin model experiments that attaching MNPs to sensor surfaces enhances the dynamic range of detection of the GR system detection. The peak wavelength value (PWV) shifted by 0.35 nm in the case of avidin with a concentration of avidin 400 nmol/L immobilized on the sensor surface. In contrast, we achieved a 1.41 nm PWV shift after adding 5% MNPs to the solution of avidin. Not only did the MNPs enhance the dynamic range of detection, but also magnetically induced interaction of avidin-biotin significantly reduced the detection time.
Autors: Ryoji Yukino;Jaiyam Sharma;Tsukasa Takamura;Joby Joseph;Adarsh Sandhu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:2, pages: 1 - 6
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Resonance Mediated Radiofrequency Ablation
Abstract:
To introduce magnetic resonance mediated radiofrequency ablation (MR-RFA), in which the MRI scanner uniquely serves both diagnostic and therapeutic roles. In MR-RFA scanner-induced RF heating is channeled to the ablation site via a Larmor frequency RF pickup device and needle system, and controlled via the pulse sequence. MR-RFA was evaluated with simulation of electric and magnetic fields to predict the increase in local specific-absorption-rate (SAR). Temperature-time profiles were measured for different configurations of the device in agar phantoms and ex vivo bovine liver in a 1.5 T scanner. Temperature rise in MR-RFA was imaged using the proton resonance frequency method validated with fiber-optic thermometry. MR-RFA was performed on the livers of two healthy live pigs. Simulations indicated a near tenfold increase in SAR at the RFA needle tip. Temperature-time profiles depended significantly on the physical parameters of the device although both configurations tested yielded temperature increases sufficient for ablation. Resected livers from live ablations exhibited clear thermal lesions. MR-RFA holds potential for integrating RF ablation tumor therapy with MRI scanning. MR-RFA may add value to MRI with the addition of a potentially disposable ablation device, while retaining MRI’s ability to provide real time procedure guidance and measurement of tissue temperature, perfusion, and coagulation.
Autors: Yik-Kiong Hue;Alexander R. Guimaraes;Ouri Cohen;Erez Nevo;Abraham Roth;Jerome L. Ackerman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 417 - 427
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic Resonance RF Pulse Design by Optimal Control With Physical Constraints
Abstract:
Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this paper, we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient, and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter, a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed. Here, a penalization method is introduced that corresponds to a higher order tracking instead of the common quadratic tracking. The order is driven to infinity in the course of the optimization. We jointly optimize for the RF and slice-selective gradient waveform. The amplitude constraints on these control variables are treated efficiently by semismooth Newton or quasi-Newton methods. The method is flexible, adapting to many optimization goals. As an application, we reduce the power of refocusing pulses, which is important for spin echo-based applications with a short echo spacing. Here, the optimization method is tested in numerical experiments for reducing the pulse power of simultaneous multislice refocusing pulses. The results are validated by phantom and in-vivo experiments.
Autors: Armin Rund;Christoph Stefan Aigner;Karl Kunisch;Rudolf Stollberger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 461 - 472
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetic-Ionic-Liquid-Functionalized Photonic Crystal Fiber for Magnetic Field Detection
Abstract:
A compact optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on a magnetic-ionic-liquid-functionalized photonic crystal fiber (PCF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The magnetic field sensor was fabricated by splicing an index-guiding PCF having one magnetic-ionic-liquid-infiltrated (MIL-infiltrated) air hole in the innermost layer infiltrated with conventional single-mode fibers. The transmission spectral magnetic response of the proposed sensor have been measured and theoretically analyzed. Owing to the effective interaction between the MIL and transmission light as well as the controllable attenuation property of MIL, the magnetic field sensitivity reaches up to −0.01991 dB/Oe for a relatively linear magnetic intensity range of 0 to 440 Oe.
Autors: Hu Liang;Yange Liu;Hongye Li;Simeng Han;Hongwei Zhang;Yonghua Wu;Zhi Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Technology Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 30, issue:4, pages: 359 - 362
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Magnetodynamic Study of Spin Resonances in Cylindrical and Spherical YIG Samples
Abstract:
Rigorous magnetodynamic (MD) study presented in this paper reveals what seems to be the real nature of ferromagnetic resonances occurring in gyromagnetic samples situated in larger resonant cavities. Experiments were performed with cylindrical and spherical YIG samples inserted into either cylindrical dielectric resonator or typical rectangular cavity. It is shown that the dominant mode present in the YIG sample, which was identified as the mode, satisfies the magnetic plasmon resonance condition defined by the effective permeability for cylindrical samples or for spherical samples. Experiments confirmed the existence of surface resonances, identified as magnetic plasmons, and volume resonances. Comparison between the MD model, the quasi-magnetostatic model, and the perturbation theory was performed and limitations of the approximate approaches are shown.
Autors: Jerzy Krupka;Pavlo Aleshkevych;Bartlomiej Salski;Pawel Kopyt;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 803 - 812
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Maintenance of Libration Point Orbit in Elliptic Sun–Mercury Model
Abstract:
The maintenance of the nominal multirevolution elliptic halo orbit, whose special features can benefit mercurial explorations, is first investigated through Monte–Carlo simulations in the elliptic Sun–Mercury model, and then validated in the high-fidelity ephemeris model. The receding horizon control strategy solved by the indirect Radau pseudospectral method demonstrates that the orbit can be maintained robustly with respect to very large initial deviations. Moreover, the result proves that the elliptic Sun–Mercury model is an accurate approximation.
Autors: Hao Peng;Yuxin Liao;Xiaoli Bai;Shijie Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 144 - 158
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Making sleep study instrumentation more unobtrusive
Abstract:
Quality sleep is important for sustenance of good health. With changing life style and work cultures, it is increasingly becoming a prized thing. No wonder, sleep related problems are among the most widely reported health concerns. This is bringing sleep labs, their instrumentation and related matters into the spotlight. The gold standard instrumentation for sleep studies is polysomnography (PSG). It entails recording a multitude of physiological signals, including electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), respiration, pulse oxygen and limb movement. Apart from system complexity, cost and the operational issues of PSG, patient inconvenience is also a cause of concern and therefore, a fertile avenue for research. Research and developments in various other technologies are being applied to instrumentation for sleep studies. Insights into the complex behavior of physiological systems, applications of advanced computational techniques, shrinking electronics and advanced wireless technologies are being applied to sleep study instrumentation. After a short review of standard polysomnography, this article takes a look at the research directions that promise a new era of patient-friendly sleep study instrumentation.
Autors: Jaspal Singh;R. K. Sharma;
Appeared in: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 21, issue:1, pages: 50 - 53
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Managing Programmers, with Ron Lichty
Abstract:
Veteran software manager Ron Lichty joins Nate Black to share his insights on managing software engineers. Nate and Ron delve into what about this is hard, how to grow as a manager, and what makes highly performing teams.
Autors: Nate Black;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 117 - 120
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mapping the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Europe’s Land Surface Temperatures
Abstract:
The land surface temperature (LST) drives many terrestrial biophysical processes and varies rapidly in space and time primarily due to the earth’s diurnal and annual cycles. Models of the diurnal and annual LST cycle retrieved from satellite data can be reduced to several gap-free parameters that represent the surface’s thermal characteristics and provide a generalized characterization of the LST temporal dynamics. In this letter, we use such an approach to map Europe’s annual and diurnal LST dynamics. In particular, we reduce a five-year time series (2009–2013) of diurnal LST from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) to 48 sets of half-hourly annual cycle parameters (ACPs), namely, the mean annual LST, the yearly amplitude of LST, and the LST phase shift from the spring equinox. The derived data provide a complete representation of how mainland Europe responds to the heating of the sun and the nighttime LST decay and reveal how Europe’s biogeographic regions differ in that respect. We further argue that the SEVIRI ACP can provide an observation-based spatially consistent background for studying and characterizing the thermal behavior of the surface and also a data set to support climate classification at a finer spatial resolution.
Autors: Panagiotis Sismanidis;Benjamin Bechtel;Iphigenia Keramitsoglou;Chris T. Kiranoudis;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 202 - 206
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Maritime Moving Target Indication Using Passive GNSS-Based Bistatic Radar
Abstract:
This paper is a first introduction to the concept of using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) as illuminators of opportunity in a passive bistatic real-time radar system for maritime target indication applications. An overview of the system concept and the signal processing algorithms for moving target indication is provided. To verify the feasibility of the system implementation as well as test the developed signal processing algorithms, an experimental test bed was developed and the appropriate experimental campaign with the new Galileo satellites and a ferry as the target was carried out. The results confirm the system concept and its potential for multistatic operation, with the ferry being detected simultaneously by two satellites.
Autors: Hui Ma;Michail Antoniou;Debora Pastina;Fabrizio Santi;Federica Pieralice;Marta Bucciarelli;Mikhail Cherniakov;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 115 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Max–Min Fair Transmit Precoding for Multi-Group Multicasting in Massive MIMO
Abstract:
This paper considers the downlink precoding for physical layer multicasting in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We study the max–min fairness (MMF) problem, where channel state information at the transmitter is used to design precoding vectors that maximize the minimum spectral efficiency (SE) of the system, given fixed power budgets for uplink training and downlink transmission. Our system model accounts for channel estimation, pilot contamination, arbitrary path-losses, and multi-group multicasting. We consider six scenarios with different transmission technologies (unicast and multicast), different pilot assignment strategies (dedicated or shared pilot assignments), and different precoding schemes (maximum ratio transmission and zero forcing), and derive achievable spectral efficiencies for all possible combinations. Then, we solve the MMF problem for each of these scenarios, and for any given pilot length, we find the SE maximizing uplink pilot and downlink data transmission policies, all in closed forms. We use these results to draw a general guideline for massive MIMO multicasting design, where for a given number of base station antennas, number of users, and coherence interval length, we determine the multicasting scheme that shall be used.
Autors: Meysam Sadeghi;Emil Björnson;Erik G. Larsson;Chau Yuen;Thomas L. Marzetta;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1358 - 1373
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MDP-Based Model for Interest Scheduling in IoT-NDN Environment
Abstract:
Named data networking (NDN) is a novel paradigm that can acknowledge the unprecedented increase in the volume of global IoT traffic which initiates a new network forwarding plane. We propose and evaluate a Markov decision process (MDP)-based scheduler to forward diverse IoT Interests to fitting interfaces in an NDN router to fetch Data with less round trip time (RTT), to meet latency requisites. Simulation results of our MDP model show scheduling Interests to right interfaces reduce the RTT value by 25–30% than existing forwarding strategies. The delay is around 30 ms for higher density of traffic comparatively less than other existing work.
Autors: Shapna Muralidharan;Abhishek Roy;Navrati Saxena;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 232 - 235
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurement of Pressure Drop and Water Holdup in Vertical Upward Oil-in-Water Emulsions
Abstract:
This paper aims to experimentally investigate pressure drop and water holdup in vertical upward oil-in-water emulsions. As a key factor to extract water holdup with differential pressure method, friction factor is complicatedly associated with the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. However, due to the fact that oil and water phase cannot be easily separated in emulsions, the traditional quick-closing valve (QCV) method is incapable of determining water holdup, which is imperative to determine the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. In this paper, regarded as an auxiliary measurement method, an arc type conductivity probe (ATCP) is utilized to derive water holdup parameter. Combining water holdup and differential pressure information, we extract friction factor and analyze its relationship with the Reynolds number of mixed fluid. Besides, drag reduction phenomena in surfactant aqueous solution and oil-in-water emulsions are discussed as well. Finally, water holdup is predicted using differential pressure information and experimental expression of friction factor, the result of which proves the effectiveness of differential pressure method for the measurement of water holdup in oil-in-water emulsions.
Autors: Yunfeng Han;Ningde Jin;Yingyu Ren;Yuansheng He;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1703 - 1713
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measurements and Analysis of Angular Characteristics and Spatial Correlation for High-Speed Railway Channels
Abstract:
Spatial characteristics of the propagation channel have a vital impact on the application of multi-antenna techniques. This paper analyzes angular characteristics and the spatial correlation for high-speed railway (HSR) channels, based on a novel moving virtual antenna array (MVAA) measurement scheme. The principle of the MVAA scheme is deeply investigated and is further verified by a theoretical geometry-based stochastic model. Using the MVAA scheme, virtual single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channel impulse response data are derived from single-antenna measurements in typical HSR scenarios, involving viaduct, cutting, and station. Based on the SIMO channel data, angle of arrival is extracted according to the unitary estimation of signal parameters by the rotational invariance techniques algorithm, and is compared with the theoretical result. Moreover, power angular spectrum and root mean square (rms) angular spread (AS) are provided, and the rms AS results are statistically modeled and comprehensively compared. In addition, spatial correlation is calculated and analyzed, and a rms AS-dependent spatial correlation model is newly proposed to describe the relationship between the angular dispersion and the spatial correlation. The presented results could be used in multi-antenna channel modeling and will facilitate the assessment of multi-antenna technologies for future HSR mobile communication systems.
Autors: Tao Zhou;Cheng Tao;Sana Salous;Liu Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 357 - 367
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Measuring the Impact of Code Dependencies on Software Architecture Recovery Techniques
Abstract:
Many techniques have been proposed to automatically recover software architectures from software implementations. A thorough comparison among the recovery techniques is needed to understand their effectiveness and applicability. This study improves on previous studies in two ways. First, we study the impact of leveraging accurate symbol dependencies on the accuracy of architecture recovery techniques. In addition, we evaluate other factors of the input dependencies such as the level of granularity and the dynamic-bindings graph construction. Second, we recovered the architecture of a large system, Chromium, that was not available previously. Obtaining the ground-truth architecture of Chromium involved two years of collaboration with its developers. As part of this work, we developed a new submodule-based technique to recover preliminary versions of ground-truth architectures. The results of our evaluation of nine architecture recovery techniques and their variants suggest that (1) using accurate symbol dependencies has a major influence on recovery quality, and (2) more accurate recovery techniques are needed. Our results show that some of the studied architecture recovery techniques scale to very large systems, whereas others do not.
Autors: Thibaud Lutellier;Devin Chollak;Joshua Garcia;Lin Tan;Derek Rayside;Nenad Medvidović;Robert Kroeger;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 44, issue:2, pages: 159 - 181
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechanical Thermal Noise in Micro-Machined Levitated Two-Axis Rate Gyroscopes
Abstract:
In this paper, mechanical thermal noise in micro-machined levitated two-axis rate gyroscopes (MLG) is comprehensively studied. Taking into account the gyroscopic nature and a type of electromagnetic levitation employed in MLG, effective damping coefficients are obtained for two cases corresponding to positive and negative angular position stiffness. According to obtained coefficients, expressions for the spectral density of the gyroscope noise floor and its angular random walk are derived. Moreover, an investigation of the response of an ideal levitated gyroscope to the fluctuating torque within the entire frequency domain shows a restriction of the detection of the measuring rate in order to preserve the same angular position stiffness. This response, a form of Johnson noise, provides an explanation of the mechanism of constraints in gyroscope resolution, which in turn limits the current performance of levitated gyroscopes. Also, using the Ising criterion, an alternative qualitative means to estimate the resolution is obtained. By joining the Johnson noise and Ising criterion techniques, a confidence range for the gyroscope resolution is proposed.
Autors: Kirill V. Poletkin;Jan G. Korvink;Vlad Badilita;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1390 - 1402
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mechatronic System to Help Visually Impaired Users During Walking and Running
Abstract:
Ambient assisted living and intelligent transportation systems are becoming strongly coupled. There is the necessity of improving the quality of life by developing inclusive mobility solutions for impaired people. In this paper, we focus on a monocular vision-based system to assist people during walking, jogging, and running in outdoor environments. The impaired user is guided along a path represented by a lane or line on a dedicated runway. We developed a set of image processing algorithms to extract lines/lanes to follow. The embedded system is based on a small camera and a board that is responsible for processing the images and communicating with the developed haptic device. The haptic device is formed by a set of two gloves equipped with vibration motors that drive the user to the right direction. The vibration sequences are generated according to a robotic-like controller, considering the user as a two wheel steering robot, where the rotational and translation velocity can be controlled. The results obtained show that the overall system is able to detect the right path and to provide the right stimuli to the user, by means of the gloves, up to a speed over 10 km/h.
Autors: Adriano Mancini;Emanuele Frontoni;Primo Zingaretti;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:2, pages: 649 - 660
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MECPASS: Distributed Denial of Service Defense Architecture for Mobile Networks
Abstract:
Distributed denial of service is one of the most critical threats to the availability of Internet services. A botnet with only 0.01 percent of the 50 billion connected devices in the Internet of Things is sufficient to launch a massive DDoS flooding attack that could exhaust resources and interrupt any target. However, the mobility of user equipment and the distinctive characteristics of traffic behavior in mobile networks also limit the detection capabilities of traditional anti-DDoS techniques. In this article, we present a novel collaborative DDoS defense architecture called MECPASS to mitigate the attack traffic from mobile devices. Our design involves two filtering hierarchies. First, filters at edge computing servers (i.e., local nodes) seek to prevent spoofing attacks and anomalous traffic near sources as much as possible. Second, global analyzers located at cloud servers (i.e., central nodes) classify the traffic of the entire monitored network and unveil suspicious behaviors by periodically aggregating data from the local nodes. We have explored the effectiveness of our system on various types of application- layer DDoS attacks in the context of web servers. The simulation results show that MECPASS can effectively defend and clean an Internet service provider core network from the junk traffic of compromised UEs, while maintaining the false-positive rate of its detection engine at less than 1 percent.
Autors: Van Linh Nguyen;Po-Ching Lin;Ren-Hung Hwang;
Appeared in: IEEE Network
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 32, issue:1, pages: 118 - 124
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Meetings calendar
Abstract:
Provides a listing of future meetings.
Autors: Davide Fabiani;
Appeared in: IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 34, issue:1, pages: 68 - 70
Publisher: IEEE
 
» meGautz: A High Capacity, Fault-Tolerant and Traffic Isolated Modular Datacenter Network
Abstract:
The modular datacenter networks (MDCN) comprise inter- and intra-container networks. Although it simplifies the construction and maintenance of mega-datacenters, interconnecting hundreds of containers and supporting online data-intensive services is still challenging. In this paper, we present meGautz, which is the first inter-container network that isolates inter- and intra-container traffic, and it has the following advantages. First, meGautz offers uniform high capacity among servers in the different containers, and balances loads at the container, switch, and server levels. Second, it achieves traffic isolation and allocates bandwidth evenly. Therefore, even under an all-to-all traffic pattern, the inter- and intra-container networks can deal with their own flows without interfering with each other, and both can gain high throughput. meGautz hence improves the performance of both the entire MDCN and individual servers, for there is no performance loss caused by resource competition. Third, meGautz is the first to achieve as graceful performance degradation as computation and storage do. Results from theoretical analysis and experiments demonstrate that meGautz is a high-capacity, fault-tolerant, and traffic isolated inter-container network.
Autors: Feng Huang;Yiming Zhang;Dongsheng Li;Jiaxin Li;Jie Wu;Kaijun Ren;Deke Guo;Xicheng Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 117 - 130
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Memory Partitioning for Parallel Multipattern Data Access in Multiple Data Arrays
Abstract:
Memory bandwidth bottlenecks severely restrict parallel access of data elements from data arrays. To realize high throughput out of a relatively low bandwidth, memory partitioning algorithms have been proposed to separate data arrays into multiple memory banks, from which multiple data can be accessed in parallel. However, previous partitioning schemes only considered the case of single-pattern and single-array. In the case of multipattern and multiarray, the previous partitioning schemes will use too much time to find a partition solution and cause excessively high storage overhead. In this paper, we propose an efficient two-step memory partitioning strategy for multipattern data access in multiple arrays. First, a fast, low complexity and low overhead difference-based data splitting algorithm provides a multibank solution for multiple patterns access. Then an area-efficient bank merging algorithm merges those partitioned banks from different arrays which satisfy conflict-free requirement in order to reduce the area overhead caused by partitioning. Experimental results show that our data splitting algorithm saves up to 83.0% in searching time and reduces 39.4% storage overhead compared to the state-of-the-art approaches. With the further optimization of area-efficient bank merging, the memory area overhead are saved up to 18.9% and the total partitioning time are saved up to 45.6%.
Autors: Shouyi Yin;Zhicong Xie;Chenyue Meng;Peng Ouyang;Leibo Liu;Shaojun Wei;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 431 - 444
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Memristor-Based Circuit Design for Multilayer Neural Networks
Abstract:
Memristors are promising components for applications in nonvolatile memory, logic circuits, and neuromorphic computing. In this paper, a novel circuit for memristor-based multilayer neural networks is presented, which can use a single memristor array to realize both the plus and minus weight of the neural synapses. In addition, memristor-based switches are utilized during the learning process to update the weight of the memristor-based synapses. Moreover, an adaptive back propagation algorithm suitable for the proposed memristor-based multilayer neural network is applied to train the neural networks and perform the XOR function and character recognition. Another highlight of this paper is that the robustness of the proposed memristor-based multilayer neural network exhibits higher recognition rates and fewer cycles as compared with other multilayer neural networks.
Autors: Yang Zhang;Xiaoping Wang;Eby G. Friedman;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 677 - 686
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Message Passing Algorithms for Scalable Multitarget Tracking
Abstract:
Situation-aware technologies enabled by multitarget tracking will lead to new services and applications in fields such as autonomous driving, indoor localization, robotic networks, and crowd counting. In this tutorial paper, we advocate a recently proposed paradigm for scalable multitarget tracking that is based on message passing or, more concretely, the loopy sum–product algorithm. This approach has advantages regarding estimation accuracy, computational complexity, and implementation flexibility. Most importantly, it provides a highly effective, efficient, and scalable solution to the probabilistic data association problem, a major challenge in multitarget tracking. This fact makes it attractive for emerging applications requiring real-time operation on resource-limited devices. In addition, the message passing approach is intuitively appealing and suited to nonlinear and non-Gaussian models. We present message-passing-based multitarget tracking methods for single-sensor and multiple-sensor scenarios, and for a known and unknown number of targets. The presented methods can cope with clutter, missed detections, and an unknown association between targets and measurements. We also discuss the integration of message-passing-based probabilistic data association into existing multitarget tracking methods. The superior performance, low complexity, and attractive scaling properties of the presented methods are verified numerically. In addition to simulated data, we use measured data captured by two radar stations with overlapping fields-of-view observing a large number of targets simultaneously.
Autors: Florian Meyer;Thomas Kropfreiter;Jason L. Williams;Roslyn Lau;Franz Hlawatsch;Paolo Braca;Moe Z. Win;
Appeared in: Proceedings of the IEEE
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 106, issue:2, pages: 221 - 259
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Message-Passing Strategy for Joint User Association and Resource Blanking in HetNets
Abstract:
This paper develops a self-organizing approach to joint user association and resource blanking between network-tiers in highly dense heterogeneous networks (HetNets). HetNets that populate many small cells within each macrocell have been studied extensively as a promising solution to exponentially increasing traffic demands. To benefit from small cells, traffic loads are efficiently spread over the network through user association, and strong interference from macrocells are carefully controlled. A simple but very effective solution is resource blanking that partitions time slots into two orthogonal groups and dedicates them to macrocells and small cells exclusively. The underlying challenge is the distributed management of joint user association and resource blanking because a centralized coordination becomes intractable for highly dense HetNets. Unlike existing approaches, this paper aims at developing a distributed solution for this joint optimization task without relaxing nonlinear constraints or decoupling the joint optimization. To this target, a novel message-passing algorithm is developed that enables a fully distributed solution for the joint optimization. The presented approach includes consensus mechanism that determines the optimal macrocell blanking via the negotiation among base stations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm provides very efficient solutions and outperforms existing techniques consistently.
Autors: Sang Hyun Lee;Illsoo Sohn;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1026 - 1037
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Metaheuristic Optimization for Long-term IaaS Service Composition
Abstract:
We propose a novel dynamic metaheuristic optimization approach to compose an optimal set of IaaS service requests to align with an IaaS provider’s long-term economic expectation. This approach is designed for the context that the IaaS provisioning subjects to resource and QoS constraints. In addition, the IaaS service requests have the features of dynamic resource and QoS requirements and variable arrival times. A new economic model is proposed to evaluate the similarity between the provider’s long-term economic expectation and a composition of service requests. The evaluation incorporates the factors of dynamic pricing and operation cost modeling of the service requests. An innovative hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed that incorporates the economic inter-dependency among the requests as a heuristic operator and performs repair operations in local solutions to meet the resource and QoS constraints. The proposed approach generates dynamic global solutions by updating the heuristic operator at regular intervals with the runtime behavior data of an existing service composition. Experimental results preliminarily prove the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Autors: Sajib Mistry;Athman Bouguettaya;Hai Dong;A. K. Qin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 131 - 143
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Methods for Estimating the Convergence of Inter-Chip Min-Entropy of SRAM PUFs
Abstract:
For cryptographic applications based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs), it is very important to estimate the entropy of PUF responses accurately. The upper bound of the entropy estimated by compression algorithms, such as context-tree weighting, is too loose, while the lower bound estimated by the min-entropy calculation is too conservative, especially when the sample size is small. The actual min-entropy is between these bounds but is difficult to estimate accurately. In this paper, two models are proposed to estimate the convergence of the inter-chip min-entropy of static random-access memory (SRAM) PUFs. The basic idea is to find the relation between the expectation of the estimation result and the tested sample size, and then predict the convergence of the min-entropy. Furthermore, an improved Von Neumann extractor is used to increase the entropy per bit while retaining as many responses as possible for error correction. The experimental results demonstrate that the prediction error of the proposed estimation methods is less than 0.01/bit for the tested SRAM chips, and the improved Von Neumann extractor can reduce the number of required responses by approximately 11/16, the amount of helper data by 2/3, and the number of masks by 3/8 compared with the original method.
Autors: Hailong Liu;Wenchao Liu;Zhaojun Lu;Qiaoling Tong;Zhenglin Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 593 - 605
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Micro-Doppler Mini-UAV Classification Using Empirical-Mode Decomposition Features
Abstract:
In this letter, we propose an empirical-mode decomposition (EMD)-based method for automatic multicategory mini-unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) classification. The radar echo signal is first decomposed into a set of oscillating waveforms by EMD. Then, eight statistical and geometrical features are extracted from the oscillating waveforms to capture the phenomenon of blade flashes. After feature normalization and fusion, a nonlinear support vector machine is trained for target class-label prediction. Our empirical results on real measurement of radar signals show encouraging mini-UAV classification accuracy performance.
Autors: Beom-Seok Oh;Xin Guo;Fangyuan Wan;Kar-Ann Toh;Zhiping Lin;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 227 - 231
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microfabricated Electrodynamic Synthetic Jet Actuators
Abstract:
This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a chip-scale electrodynamic synthetic jet actuator with batch-fabricated die components. The actuator is an assembly of two dies with a plastic spacer sandwiched in between. The top die consists of a copper micro-coil and an orifice through which the jet is synthesized. The bottom die consists of a poly-dimethyl-siloxane diaphragm with a wax-bonded NdFeB magnet. When assembled, an ac current applied to the micro-coil forces an oscillatory actuation of the magnet, and correspondingly ingestion and expulsion of fluid through the orifice. The dimensions of the assembled actuator are 7.5 mm mm mm. The peak jet velocity is measured to be 4.3 m/s at 160 Hz for an input of 200-mA current corresponding to 20 mW of input electrical power. [2017-0166]
Autors: Shashank G. Sawant;Benjamin George;Lawrence S. Ukeiley;David P. Arnold;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 95 - 105
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microplasma Generation of Iron Microparticles for 3-D Manufacturing
Abstract:
Three-D metal selective laser sintering is a relatively new but growing field of microfabrication. Iron used in alloys commonly starts as micropellet feedstock made with spray atomization; however, this process is power intensive and less economical than the microplasma generation. In this letter, iron nitrate is used to produce iron microparticles in an aqueous-based microplasma process to form metal microparticles that can be used in additive manufacturing. We show that it is possible to form particles on the order of micrometers. The plasma process was successfully used to make iron microparticles that would work in the selective laser sintering process and can be used for any metal solution. The fabricated particles are investigated for size, size distribution, shape, and composition. [2017-0201]
Autors: Alex Ulrich;William Clower;Chester G. Wilson;
Appeared in: Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 27, issue:1, pages: 25 - 27
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microw(h)att?! Ultralow-Power Six-Port Radar: Realizing Highly Integrated Portable Radar Systems with Good Motion Sensitivity at Relatively Low Cost
Abstract:
In this article, we have presented a lightweight, ultralow-power 24-GHz six-port radar system for remote vibration monitoring. Based on a detailed analysis of this year's competition scenario (featuring a slightly modified FOM), an optimized system concept and hardware implementation were proposed, with a strong focus on the ultralow-power system design. Using a purely passive six-port microwave interferometer, both a high phase resolution and an ultralow power consumption have been achieved. During the SDC, a sensitivity well below 100 nm was demonstrated, with the average power consumption of the whole system (not including USB data transmission) being approximately 30 nW (9 nA at 3.3 V). This is a significant improvement compared to previous years' SDCs [8], [9] and, to the best of our knowledge, currently the lowest reported power consumption for a short-range radar system. Table 3 compares the work presented here with all previous high-sensitivity radar SDC winners. With a standard CR2032 coin cell (3 V, 220 mAh), the proposed radar system (Figure 9) could be powered for more than two years, continuously performing six measurements each second. Furthermore, the number of measurements per second can easily be adjusted by software, depending on the application scenario. In this way, a higher measurement update rate or a higher sensitivity can be achieved when using additional filtering in the digital baseband, but at the cost of higher power consumption.
Autors: Fabian Lurz;Fabian Michler;Benedict Scheiner;Robert Weigel;Alexander Koelpin;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 91 - 98
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Heating Visualization for Carbon Fibers Composite Material: Development of Tunable Microstrip Structures
Abstract:
The visualization of carbon fibers polyether ether ketone (PEEK) composite material heating for a grounded coplanar waveguide and a stepped impedance low-pass filter by the thermal camera is performed. The purpose of such visualization is to characterize electromagnetic field influence on the diagonally anisotropic composite material and find out its application opportunity. COMSOL Multiphysics simulation has been done in order to understand heating principles and origin. Experimental results were in a good agreement with simulations and they showed that the characteristics of the microstrip structures can be modulated/tuned by simple rotation of the composite material. Finally, a tunable application by the carbon/PEEK composite material for the microstrip low-pass filter was developed due to the microwave absorption selectivity dependence on the composite material orientation.
Autors: Shant Arakelyan;Hanju Lee;Do-Suck Han;Arsen Babajanyan;Gerard Berthiau;Barry Friedman;Kiejin Lee;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 883 - 888
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Photonic Filter Based All-Optical Virtual Private Network Supporting Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in OFDMA-PON System
Abstract:
We propose an all-optical virtual private network (VPN) supporting dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based passive optical network. A microwave photonic bandpass filter (MP-BPF) is used to transmit the VPN signal without electrical conversion. The DBA is implemented by adjusting a free spectral range of the MP-BPF with corresponding subcarrier allocation. A RF clipping-tone (CT) is used to stabilize the optical channel suffered from phase induced-intensity noise and Rayleigh back-scattering noise. The DBA is experimentally verified at different two DBA scenarios in 20-km single-fiber loopback link in terms of channel error vector magnitude, spectral efficiency after adaptive modulation. Due to the CT-based channel stabilization, achievable spectral efficiency could be improved, and the feasibility of the proposed system is successfully demonstrated.
Autors: Chang-Hun Kim;Sun-Young Jung;Sang-Kook Han;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Microwave Photonic Harmonic Down-Conversion Based on Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing in a Semiconductor Optical Amplifier
Abstract:
A reconfigurable and wideband photonic method is proposed for microwave photonic harmonic down-conversion based on cascaded four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The cascaded four-wave mixing in SOA triggers high-order harmonics generation of local oscillator (LO) in the optical domain, and enables microwave down-conversion in the electrical domain with a low-frequency electrical LO. Compared with the conventional photonic method, ours allows microwave down-conversion operation for wide frequency range RF signal with a low-frequency electrical LO, and at the same time it avoids the requirement of complex phase control and heavy driving for the electrical LO. Moreover, it enables reconfigurable down-conversion with frequency tunability. In the demonstration, the 3∼40 GHz RF signals are experimentally down-converted to IF signals below 2 GHz with a low-frequency electrical LO within the range of 5 GHz.
Autors: Xinhai Zou;Shangjian Zhang;Heng Wang;Zhiyao Zhang;Jinjin Li;Yali Zhang;Shuang Liu;Yong Liu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 8
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter Wave Beam-Selection Using Out-of-Band Spatial Information
Abstract:
Millimeter wave (mmWave) communication is one feasible solution for high data-rate applications like vehicular-to-everything communication and next generation cellular communication. Configuring mmWave links, which can be done through channel estimation or beam-selection, however, is a source of significant overhead. In this paper, we propose using spatial information extracted at sub-6 GHz to help establish the mmWave link. Assuming a fully digital architecture at sub-6 GHz; and an analog architecture at mmWave, we outline a strategy to extract spatial information from sub-6 GHz and its use in mmWave compressed beam-selection. Specifically, we formulate compressed beam-selection as a weighted sparse signal recovery problem, and obtain the weighting information from sub-6 GHz channels. In addition, we outline a structured precoder/combiner design to tailor the training to out-of-band information. We also extend the proposed out-of-band aided compressed beam-selection approach to leverage information from all active subcarriers at mmWave. To simulate multi-band frequency dependent channels, we review the prior work on frequency dependent channel behavior and outline a multi-frequency channel model. The simulation results for achievable rate show that out-of-band aided beam-selection can considerably reduce the training overhead of in-band only beam-selection.
Autors: Anum Ali;Nuria González-Prelcic;Robert W. Heath;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1038 - 1052
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Millimeter Wave Channel Estimation via Exploiting Joint Sparse and Low-Rank Structures
Abstract:
We consider the problem of channel estimation for millimeter wave (mmWave) systems, where, to minimize the hardware complexity and power consumption, an analog transmit beamforming and receive combining structure with only one radio frequency chain at the base station and mobile station is employed. Most existing works for mmWave channel estimation exploit sparse scattering characteristics of the channel. In addition to sparsity, mmWave channels may exhibit angular spreads over the angle of arrival, angle of departure, and elevation domains. In this paper, we show that angular spreads give rise to a useful low-rank structure that, along with the sparsity, can be simultaneously utilized to reduce the sample complexity, i.e., the number of samples needed to successfully recover the mmWave channel. Specifically, to effectively leverage the joint sparse and low-rank structure, we develop a two-stage compressed sensing method for mmWave channel estimation, where the sparse and low-rank properties are respectively utilized in two consecutive stages, namely, a matrix completion stage and a sparse recovery stage. Our theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed two-stage scheme can achieve a lower sample complexity than a conventional compressed sensing method that exploits only the sparse structure of the mmWave channel. Simulation results are provided to corroborate our theoretical results and to show the superiority of the proposed two-stage method.
Autors: Xingjian Li;Jun Fang;Hongbin Li;Pu Wang;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 1123 - 1133
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MIMO Radar Calibration and Imagery for Near-Field Scattering Diagnosis
Abstract:
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is an enabling technique for high-resolution imaging, which is especially useful for near-field electromagnetic scattering diagnosis of complex targets. Among others, high sidelobes and radar cross section (RCS) calibration uncertainty are the major challenges for such applications, due to array nonuniformity, imperfect channels, and antenna pattern tapering. These shortcomings prevent a MIMO radar from obtaining high-quality images with enough dynamic range and RCS accuracy. In this paper, we develop a complete solution for these problems. A novel adaptive weighting technique is proposed, where the complex weights are optimized for exact amplitude and phase error calibration of a MIMO array and for azimuth sidelobe reduction. A MIMO filtered backprojection algorithm is developed for image formation with improved RCS calibration accuracy, where propagation path-loss, antenna pattern tapering, and phase distortion due to the near-field spherical wave front are compensated. Both indoor and outdoor field test results are presented to show the high-quality images obtained using the proposed techniques, demonstrating the applicability of a MIMO radar for diagnostic RCS imaging of complex targets.
Autors: Yongze Liu;Xiaojian Xu;Guangyao Xu;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 442 - 452
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Electrospray Thrusters
Abstract:
Electrospray thrusters are a promising micropropulsion technology for CubeSats, among others, because they have the potential to provide high specific impulse. They avoid moving parts and allow a high degree of miniaturization. In combination with fabrication technologies from microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), miniaturization of individual emitters to the range of tens of micrometers brings with it a new concept of constructing and scaling thrusters, namely, by numbering-up the microthrusters to a device of suitable thrust. The current state of the art is briefly reviewed with an emphasis on MEMS technology. Furthermore, preliminary results, which indicate the feasibility of fabricating electrospray emitters in nonsilicon MEMS technology, notably by 3-D microlithography (two-photon lithography) are presented.
Autors: Torsten Henning;Katharina Huhn;Leonard W. Isberner;Peter J. Klar;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 214 - 218
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Miniaturized Plasma Sources: Can Technological Solutions Help Electric Micropropulsion?
Abstract:
In this paper, we examine several different types of miniaturized plasma sources that have been developed for nonpropulsion applications, but could be useful for the advancement of electric propulsion. With the same or similar physical principles and often similar design solutions, such sources suggest useful pathways for modernization and integration of presently available well established as well as emerging miniaturized plasma sources into space thruster systems. Features related to miniaturization and optimization of the technological plasma sources will provide useful insights for consideration by the electric propulsion specialists. It is not the aim of this paper to show an entire spectrum of technological microplasma systems, but rather to outline possible future trends and perspectives for the miniaturized technological plasmas in relation to space micropropulsion systems.
Autors: Oleg O. Baranov;Shuyan Xu;Luxiang Xu;S. Huang;J. W. M. Lim;U. Cvelbar;Igor Levchenko;Kateryna Bazaka;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 46, issue:2, pages: 230 - 238
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimizing the Number of Spans for Terrestrial Fiber-Optic Systems Using Quasi-Single-Mode Transmission
Abstract:
We show that quasi-single-mode transmission in few-mode fibers (FMFs) can reduce the number of spans for a fixed transmission distance and, consequently, the cost per bit for terrestrial transmission systems by minimizing both the Capex and Opex. The Gaussian-noise model is employed to estimate the nonlinear noise power spectral density both, which depends on the effective area of the FMF and span length, for Er-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and hybrid Raman/EDFA systems. Together with amplified spontaneous emission noise, an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for a fixed transmission distance as a function of the effective area of the FMF and span length can be obtained. Given a target OSNR for a particular modulation format, we determine the maximum span length or the minimum number of spans as the effective area of the FMF varies both analytically and through numerical simulations. The effect of multipath interference in the FMF on the minimum number of span has also been investigated.
Autors: Jian Zhao;Inwoong Kim;Olga Vassilieva;Tadashi Ikeuchi;Wei Wang;He Wen;Guifang Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 10
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Minimum Rates of Approximate Sufficient Statistics
Abstract:
Given a sufficient statistic for a parametric family of distributions, one can estimate the parameter without access to the data. However, the memory or code size for storing the sufficient statistic may nonetheless still be prohibitive. Indeed, for independent samples drawn from a -nomial distribution with degrees of freedom, the length of the code scales as . In many applications, we may not have a useful notion of sufficient statistics (e.g., when the parametric family is not an exponential family), and we may also not need to reconstruct the generating distribution exactly. By adopting a Shannon-theoretic approach in which we allow a small error in estimating the generating distribution, we construct various approximate sufficient statistics and show that the code length can be reduced to . We consider errors measured according to the relative entropy and variational distance criteria. For the code constructions, we leverage Rissanen’s minimum description length principle, which yields a non-vanishing error measured according to the relative entropy. For the converse parts, we use Clarke and Barron’s formula for the relative entropy of a parameterized distribution and the corresponding mixture distribution. However, this method only yields a weak converse for the variational distance. We develop new techniques to achieve vanishing errors, and we also prove strong converses. The latter means that even if the code is allowed to have a non-vanishing error, its length must still be at least $({d}/{2})log n$ .
Autors: Masahito Hayashi;Vincent Y. F. Tan;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 875 - 888
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mitigation of the Background Radiation for Free-Space Optical IM/DD Systems
Abstract:
Atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors cause fluctuations in the signal intensity of the free-space optical intensity-modulation/direct-detection link. Additionally, background radiation brings a noisy photocurrent component into the received signal. Using the generalized likelihood ratio test principle, a Viterbi-type trellis-search sequence receiver is proposed, which estimates both the channel gain and the background component and detects the data sequence simultaneously. It has the advantage of a low search complexity that does not depend on the observation window length , and its error performance approaches that of detection with perfect channel state information and no background radiation, as becomes large.
Autors: Tianyu Song;Ming-Wei Wu;Pooi-Yuen Kam;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 292 - 295
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed Electric/Magnetic Fano Resonances in a Combined Square-Shaped Split Ring With an Internal Square Nanoantenna Nanocavities
Abstract:
Generally, the plasmonic Fano resonances can be divided into two types: the electric and the magnetic Fano resonance. Compared to pure electric or magnetic multiple Fano resonances, the mixed electric/magnetic multiple Fano resonances provide more flexibility for their application in multiwavelength surface enhanced Raman scattering and biosensing. Whereas, the dramatic difference between the two Fano resonances makes it difficult to realize magnetic and electric Fano resonances together in the same structure. In this paper, magnetic-octupole mode based Fano resonance and electric-quadrupole mode based Fano resonances in optical frequency were together achieved in a combined square-shaped split-ring resonator with an internal square nanoantenna nanocavities. The two Fano resonances are switchable by adjusting the polarization of the incident light. The lineshape modulated by the geometry and the environment of the two Fano resonances was investigated. Both the Fano resonances show high sensitivity to the environment. This study reveals a new multiple Fano resonance constitution and the proposed structure, which are expected with benefit application in multiwavelength polarization modulated chemistry and biological sensing.
Autors: Shan Huang;Cheng-Wu Zou;Feng Lin;Chen Lu;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 7
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixed Neural Network Approach for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification
Abstract:
This paper proposes a practical approach to addressing limitations posed by using of single-channel electroencephalography (EEG) for sleep stage classification. EEG-based characterizations of sleep stage progression contribute the diagnosis and monitoring of the many pathologies of sleep. Several prior reports explored ways of automating the analysis of sleep EEG and of reducing the complexity of the data needed for reliable discrimination of sleep stages at lower cost in the home. However, these reports have involved recordings from electrodes placed on the cranial vertex or occiput, which are both uncomfortable and difficult to position. Previous studies of sleep stage scoring that used only frontal electrodes with a hierarchical decision tree motivated this paper, in which we have taken advantage of rectifier neural network for detecting hierarchical features and long short-term memory network for sequential data learning to optimize classification performance with single-channel recordings. After exploring alternative electrode placements, we found a comfortable configuration of a single-channel EEG on the forehead and have shown that it can be integrated with additional electrodes for simultaneous recording of the electro-oculogram. Evaluation of data from 62 people (with 494 hours sleep) demonstrated better performance of our analytical algorithm than is available from existing approaches with vertex or occipital electrode placements. Use of this recording configuration with neural network deconvolution promises to make clinically indicated home sleep studies practical.
Autors: Hao Dong;Akara Supratak;Wei Pan;Chao Wu;Paul M. Matthews;Yike Guo;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 26, issue:2, pages: 324 - 333
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixing It Up: A Double-Balanced Mixer with Wide RF and IF Bandwidth
Abstract:
This article presents the design details of a wide-band, high-dynamic-range passive gallium arsenide (GaAs) mixer submitted for the Student Design Competition (SDC) held during the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S) 2017 International Microwave Symposium in Honolulu, Hawaii, this past May. The target of our research was to achieve a wide-band mixer with high dynamic range and zero power consumption. The "High-Dynamic-Range Mixer" SDC was sponsored by Technical Coordination Committee MTT-22.
Autors: Tiedi Zhang;Xiansuo Liu;Yuehang Xu;Lei Wang;Ruimin Xu;Bo Yan;
Appeared in: IEEE Microwave Magazine
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 19, issue:1, pages: 106 - 111
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mixture WG $Gamma$ -MRF Model for PolSAR Image Classification
Abstract:
The WG model has been validated as an effective model for the characteristic of polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data statistics. However, due to the complexity of natural scene and the influence of coherent wave, the WG model still needs to be improved to fully consider the polarimetric information. Then, we propose the WG mixture model (WGMM) for PolSAR data to maintain the correlations among statistics in PolSAR data. To further consider the spatial-contextual information in PolSAR image classification, we propose a novel mixture model, named mixture WG-Markov random field (MWG-MRF) model, by introducing the MRF to improve the WGMM model for classification. In each law of the MWG-MRF model, the interaction term based on the edge penalty function is constructed by the edge-based multilevel-logistic model, while the likelihood term being constructed by the WG model, so that each law of the MWG-MRF model can achieve an energy function and has its contribution to the inference of attributive class. Then, the mixture energy function of the MWG-MRF model has the fusion of the weig- ted component, given the energy functions of every law. The mixture coefficient and the corresponding mean covariance matrix of the MWG-MRF model are estimated by the expectation-maximization algorithm, while the parameters of the WG model being estimated by the method of matrix log-cumulants. Experiments on simulated data and real PolSAR images demonstrate the effectiveness of the MWG-MRF model and illustrate that it can provide strong noise immunity, get smoother homogeneous areas, and obtain more accurate edge locations.
Autors: Wanying Song;Ming Li;Peng Zhang;Yan Wu;Xiaofeng Tan;Lin An;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 905 - 920
Publisher: IEEE
 
» MobiCoRE: Mobile Device Based Cloudlet Resource Enhancement for Optimal Task Response
Abstract:
Cloudlets are small self maintained clouds, with hotspot like deployment, to enhance the computational capabilities of the mobile devices. The limited resources of cloudlets can become heavily loaded during peak utilization. Consequently, per user available computational capacity decreases and at times mobile devices find no execution time benefit for using the cloudlet. Researchers have proposed augmenting the cloudlet resources using mobile devices; however, the proposed approaches do not consider the offered service to load ratio while using mobile device resources. In this paper, we propose easy to implement Mobile Device based Cloudlet Resource Enhancement (MobiCoRE) while ensuring that: (i) mobile device always have time benefit for its tasks submitted to the cloudlet and (ii) cloudlet induced mobile device load is a fraction of its own service requirement from the cloudlet. We map MobiCoRE on M/M/c/K queue and model the system using birth death markov chain. Given the arrival rate of , cpu cores in cloudlet, maximum tasks in the cloudlet to be and be probability of having no user in cloudlet, we derive the condition for optimal average service time of cloudlet such that the mobile applications have maximum benefit for using cloudlet services. We show that the optimal average service time is independent of the applications service requirement. Evaluation shows that MobiCoRE can accommodate upto 50 percent extra users when operating at optimal service time and sharing mobile resources for remaining task, compared to completing the entire user applications in cloudlet. Similarly, up to 47 percent time benefit can be achieved for mobile devices by sharing only 16 percent computational resources with the cloudlet.
Autors: Md Whaiduzzaman;Anjum Naveed;Abdullah Gani;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 11, issue:1, pages: 144 - 154
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Mobility and Popularity-Aware Coded Small-Cell Caching
Abstract:
In heterogeneous cellular networks with caching capability, due to mobility of users and storage constraints of small-cell base stations (SBSs), users may not be able to download all of their requested content from the SBSs within the delay deadline of the content. In that case, the users are directed to the macro-cell base station (MBS) in order to satisfy the service quality requirement. Coded caching is exploited here to minimize the amount of data downloaded from the MBS, taking into account the mobility of the users as well as the popularity of the contents. An optimal distributed caching policy is presented when the delay deadline is below a certain threshold, and a distributed greedy caching policy is proposed when the delay deadline is relaxed.
Autors: Emre Ozfatura;Deniz Gündüz;
Appeared in: IEEE Communications Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 22, issue:2, pages: 288 - 291
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Predictive Control for the Flow Field in an Intermittent Transonic Wind Tunnel
Abstract:
To accurately test aircraft models, the flow field featured by the stagnation pressure and the Mach number must be kept constant at the predefined state during wind tunnel tests. The objective of this study is to design a multivariable controller to quickly reject various disturbances for the varying angle of attack (AoA) tests in a large-scale Intermittent Transonic Wind Tunnel (ITWT). First, the flow field control structure is specially designed to simplify the controller design. Next, a novel AoA model (i.e., Hammerstein model) with corresponding modeling approach is developed to characterize the influence of varying AoA on the static pressure. Finally, the flow field controller is designed in the offset-free model predictive control (MPC) framework, which uses the feedforward strategy to compensate for the varying AoA disturbance and copes with other unknown disturbances and model mismatch using the augmented model method. Simulation results and practical wind tunnel tests prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling and control methods.
Autors: Jian Zhang;Ping Yuan;Kwai-Sang Chin;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 324 - 338
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Reference Adaptive Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicle With Dual Clutch Transmission Configurations
Abstract:
This paper proposes the use of an adaptive control of a hybrid electric vehicle with dual clutch transmission (HDCT). First, this paper shows mathematical equations for the nonlinear system. Then it presents the linearized model for the proposed system. The control objective of the model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) considered in this paper is to minimize fuel consumption and reduce torque interruption in a hybrid electric vehicle. The MRAC can be used to control the electric motor during changes in speed and gear, and the system can adapt to a model that simulates different driver patterns. The effects of using different model responses as input combinations are analyzed in an effort to exploit the over-actuation feature of the system, as is the sensitivity of the performance to various design factors. The simulation results for an HDCT demonstrate that the MRAC achieves reduced torque interruption and less vehicle jerk compared to the conventional method of operation.
Autors: Walid Elzaghir;Yi Zhang;Narasimhamurthi Natarajan;Frank Massey;Chunting Chris Mi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 67, issue:2, pages: 991 - 999
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model Reference Adaptive Sliding Surface Design for Nonlinear Systems
Abstract:
The paper introduces a new model reference adaptive sliding surface design algorithm in order to determine possible nonlinear time-varying “sliding surface” for a general class of nonlinear systems. A model reference sliding surface is first designed for a reference nonlinear system by using the state-dependent Riccati equation techniques. Then, the sliding surfaces for nonlinear systems are obtained from the reference sliding surface by using an adaptation rule. The adaptation rule to satisfy the convergence of sliding surface for the nonlinear system to that of reference one is derived. The sliding mode controller for the nonlinear plant is then designed by using the adaptive sliding surfaces. The proposed method is illustrated with an autopilot design for different missile models.
Autors: Fatma Kara;Metin U. Salamci;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 611 - 624
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Model-Based Target Scattering Decomposition of Polarimetric SAR Tomography
Abstract:
When dealing with forest scenario, target scattering separation using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) tomography is a challenging task for the application of biophysical parameter retrieval approaches. One important and widely popular solution used to investigate the scattering mechanism separation based on multipolarimetric multibaseline (MPMB) SAR data is the sum of Kronecker products (SKPs), which provides the basis for decomposition of the data into ground-only and canopy-only contributions. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of characterizing multiple scattering mechanisms using the SKPs of covariance matrix. In particular, we present a method for characterization of forest structure using MPMB data that adapt SKP with the generalized volume description and the physical model of interferometric cross correlation as the sum of scattering contributions. According to the Freeman–Durden model, the method expresses the estimated covariance matrix in terms of the Kronecker product of polarimetric and interferometric coherence matrices corresponding to direct, double-bounce, and random-volume scattering mechanisms. The proposed method is tested with simulated and P-band MB data acquired by ONERA over a tropical forest in French Guiana in the frame of the European Space Agency’s campaign TROPISAR. Comparison of the retrieved height of trees with a LiDAR-based canopy model as a reference showed that the proposed method has the potential to decrease root-mean-square error of forest height by up to 3.9 m with respect to SKP.
Autors: Hossein Aghababaee;Mahmod Reza Sahebi;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 56, issue:2, pages: 972 - 983
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Analysis of Magnetic Field Induced Coupling on Embedded STT-MRAM Arrays
Abstract:
Spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is an emerging memory technology which exhibits nonvolatility, high density, high endurance, and nano-second read and write times. These characteristics make STT-MRAM suitable for last-level cache and other embedded applications. The STT-MRAM bit-cell consists of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) which is composed of two ferromagnetic layers (free and fixed layers) and one insulating layer in between. As STT-MRAM arrays become denser to meet cost and requirements of high performance computing, the distance between adjacent MTJ bits reduces. This aggravates the magnetic coupling from free and fixed layer of one MTJ bit to its neighbors. Even though magnetic coupling is expected to become stronger as MTJ scales down, its impacts on static and dynamic properties on MTJ is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we present a model of the magnetic field coupling in high-density MTJ arrays for three different types of MTJ stacks and evaluate the effect of magnetic field induced coupling on static and dynamic properties. Lastly, we show how process induced variations in MTJ characteristics affect the magnitude of magnetic coupling and their effect on the electrical characteristics of the STT-RAM arrays.
Autors: Insik Yoon;Arijit Raychowdhuryarijit;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 37, issue:2, pages: 337 - 349
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling and Parameter Extraction for the Metal Surface Roughness Loss Effect on Substrate Integrated Waveguides From S-Parameters
Abstract:
This paper presents a new simple model for representing and characterizing the loss effect introduced by the roughness of the metal-to-dielectric interface on the conductor attenuation of substrate integrated waveguides. The proposal allows for the parameter determination using simple linear regressions which can be implemented directly from S-parameter data and avoids the use of data corresponding to structures with perfectly smooth conductors. In fact, no previous knowledge of the metal surface profile is required to obtain the model parameters. Excellent agreement between full-wave simulations and experimental data at several tens of gigahertz is achieved.
Autors: Gabriela Méndez-Jerónimo;Svetlana C. Sejas-García;Reydezel Torres-Torres;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 875 - 882
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of an Uncooled CMOS THz Thermal Detector With Frequency-Selective Dipole Antenna and PTAT Temperature Sensor
Abstract:
A thermal THz detector based on commercial CMOS technology working in room temperature is proposed. The THz electromagnetic wave is first selectively absorbed by an on-chip dipole antenna realized in the metallization layer. The absorbed wave energy is then converted to Joule heat energy via a polysilicon resistor. The heat-generated temperature rise is finally detected by a proportional to absolute temperature sensor. The theoretical analysis and physical modeling of the detector including the mechanism of the electromagnetic energy absorption, the thermal conversion, and the electrical circuit response, are presented. The detectors at three typical THz frequencies of 1, 2.9, and 28.3 THz are designed in standard 0.18- CMOS technology and post-simulated to illustrate the detector’s frequency-selective capability in the whole THz range. The simulated detector’s voltage responsivity is 18.0 V/W at 1 THz, 18.9 V/W at 2.9 THz, and 18.6 V/W at 28.3 THz, respectively. The noise equivalent power is Hz at the three frequencies.
Autors: Fei Chen;Jiao Yang;Zimeng Li;
Appeared in: IEEE Sensors Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 18, issue:4, pages: 1483 - 1492
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Electroporation Induced by Pulsed Electric Fields in Irregularly Shaped Cells
Abstract:
During the past decades, the poration of cell membrane induced by pulsed electric fields has been widely investigated. Since the basic mechanisms of this process have not yet been fully clarified, many research activities are focused on the development of suitable theoretical and numerical models. To this end, a nonlinear, nonlocal, dispersive, and space-time numerical algorithm has been developed and adopted to evaluate the transmembrane voltage and pore density along the perimeter of realistic irregularly shaped cells. The presented model is based on the Maxwell's equations and the asymptotic Smoluchowski's equation describing the pore dynamics. The dielectric dispersion of the media forming the cell has been modeled by using a general multirelaxation Debye-based formulation. The irregular shape of the cell is described by using the Gielis’ superformula. Different test cases pertaining to red blood cells, muscular cells, cell in mitosis phase, and cancer-like cell have been investigated. For each type of cell, the influence of the relevant shape, the dielectric properties, and the external electric pulse characteristics on the electroporation process has been analyzed. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model is an efficient numerical tool to study the electroporation problem in arbitrary-shaped cells.
Autors: Luciano Mescia;Michele A. Chiapperino;Pietro Bia;Johan Gielis;Diego Caratelli;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 65, issue:2, pages: 414 - 423
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of Inhomogeneous and Lossy Waveguide Components by the Segmentation Technique Combined With the Calculation of Green’s Function by Ewald’s Method
Abstract:
This paper presents a novel algorithm for the analysis of piecewise homogeneous, possibly lossy, waveguide circuits. The algorithm is based on the segmentation technique to split the circuit into homogeneous building blocks, combined with the representation of the generalized admittance matrix (GAM) of each block by the boundary integral-resonant mode expansion (BI-RME) method. The GAMs are then recombined by a circuital cascading procedure. The core of the method is the calculation of the quasi-static Green’s function of a rectangular box, which is required to determine the terms of the BI-RME pole-expansion of the GAM. The expressions of the quasi-static Green’s function, manipulated by Ewald’s technique to improve the convergence, are fully described, and numerical considerations for their efficient and accurate calculation are provided, with a particular focus on the proper selection of the splitting parameter. To demonstrate the correctness of the given formulas, the algorithm is developed and applied in the limited case of circuits segmentable into boxed building blocks. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed technique.
Autors: Marco Bressan;Simone Battistutta;Maurizio Bozzi;Luca Perregrini;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 66, issue:2, pages: 633 - 642
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling of mmW and THz Imaging Systems Using Conjugate Field Coupling
Abstract:
We propose a novel technique for efficient and robust modeling of multistatic, multidimensional, large-format millimeter-wave/terahertz imaging systems. The proposed method significantly reduces the necessary computational resources for the design of electrically large systems of multiple sensors that acquire multifrequency images, such as imaging radars used in three-dimensional mapping. To alleviate the problem, the radiated and scattered fields are individually computed for the sensor and the target, respectively, using full-wave numerical solvers. Afterward, the fields are properly combined using conjugate field coupling, thus minimizing the necessary computational resources, without compromising solution accuracy. In this letter, the theoretical background of the technique is presented, along with numerical results for beam steering and raster scanning imaging systems.
Autors: Panagiotis C. Theofanopoulos;Georgios C. Trichopoulos;
Appeared in: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 17, issue:2, pages: 213 - 216
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modeling, Simulation, and Testing of Switching Surge Transients in Rapid Transit Vehicles DC Power Systems
Abstract:
During the operation of dc rapid transit systems, the rail passenger vehicles are subjected to surge transient events that can damage the on-board equipment and cause service interruption. During the testing phase, vehicle manufacturers must demonstrate the performance of the vehicles under the specified transients. However, system testing is generally not available during design. Engineering analysis must be performed to ensure that the design will meet the transient requirements, and that the overvoltage and overcurrent protective devices are coordinated on a system level. In response to these design challenges, detailed time-domain simulation models of a switching surge transient generator and the vehicle equipment have been developed and validated experimentally. These models are used to evaluate vehicle system parameters sensitivity, as well as to provide design guidelines for increased vehicle power system safety, reliability, and availability.
Autors: Maxime Berger;Jean-Pierre Magalhaes Grave;Carl Lavertu;Ilhan Kocar;Jean Mahseredjian;Daniele Ferrara;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 54, issue:1, pages: 822 - 831
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical-Quantum Channels and Quantum Hypothesis Testing
Abstract:
In this paper, we study the tradeoffs between the error probabilities of classical-quantum channels and the blocklength when the transmission rates approach the channel capacity at a rate lower than , a research topic known as moderate deviation analysis. We show that the optimal error probability vanishes under this rate convergence. Our main technical contributions are a tight quantum sphere-packing bound, obtained via Chaganty and Sethuraman’s concentration inequality in strong large deviation theory, and asymptotic expansions of error-exponent functions. Moderate deviation analysis for quantum hypothesis testing is also established. The converse directly follows from our channel coding result, while the achievability relies on a martingale inequality.
Autors: Hao-Chung Cheng;Min-Hsiu Hsieh;
Appeared in: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 64, issue:2, pages: 1385 - 1403
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modification of Level Dependent ASE-Signal Beat Noise by Optical and Electrical Filtering in Optically Preamplified Direct Detection Receivers
Abstract:
We derive compact equations describing the modification of amplified spontaneous emission signal beat noise arising from optical and electrical filtering in optically preamplified direct detection receivers. In particular, we show that this modification typically results in a further decrease of the signal quality factor. This is particularly pronounced in the presence of electrical filters with steep transfer functions such as, e.g., occurring when feeding the signal through an antialiasing filter prior to analog-to-digital conversion or in a real-time oscilloscope, in the latter case leading to counter-intuitive dependencies of the measured signal quality on the characteristics of the test setup. Predictions are exemplified in concrete system models and verified with experiments. While the modeling assumptions and the accuracy of the predictions are in line with models previously reported in the literature, derived expressions allow straightforwardly tying the modification of the level dependent noise to signal levels, baud rate, signal spectrum, and filter transfer functions.
Autors: J. Witzens;J. Müller;A. Moscoso-Mártir;
Appeared in: IEEE Photonics Journal
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 10, issue:1, pages: 1 - 16
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modified Tensor Locality Preserving Projection for Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Images
Abstract:
By considering the cubic nature of hyperspectral image (HSI) to address the issue of the curse of dimensionality, we have introduced a tensor locality preserving projection (TLPP) algorithm for HSI dimensionality reduction and classification. The TLPP algorithm reveals the local structure of the original data through constructing an adjacency graph. However, the hyperspectral data are often susceptible to noise, which may lead to inaccurate graph construction. To resolve this issue, we propose a modified TLPP (MTLPP) via building an adjacency graph on a dual feature space rather than the original space. To this end, the region covariance descriptor is exploited to characterize a region of interest around each hyperspectral pixel. The resulting covariances are the symmetric positive definite matrices lying on a Riemannian manifold such that the Log-Euclidean metric is utilized as the similarity measure for the search of the nearest neighbors. Since the defined covariance feature is more robust against noise, the constructed graph can preserve the intrinsic geometric structure of data and enhance the discriminative ability of features in the low-dimensional space. The experimental results on two real HSI data sets validate the effectiveness of our proposed MTLPP method.
Autors: Yang-Jun Deng;Heng-Chao Li;Lei Pan;Li-Yang Shao;Qian Du;William J. Emery;
Appeared in: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 15, issue:2, pages: 277 - 281
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular 128-Channel $Delta$ - $Delta Sigma$ Analog Front-End Architecture Using Spectrum Equalization Scheme for 1024-Channel 3-D Neural Recording Microsystems
Abstract:
We report an area- and energy-efficient integrated circuit architecture of a 128-channel -modulated analog front-end (- AFE) for 1024-channel 3-D massive-parallel neural recording microsystems. Our platform has adopted a modularity of 128 channels and consists of eight multi-shank neural probes connected to individual AFEs through interposers in a small form factor. In order to reduce both area and energy consumption in the recording circuits, we implemented a spectrum equalization scheme to take advantage of the inherent spectral characteristics of neural signals, where most of the energy is confined in low frequencies and follows a ~1/f curve in the spectrum. This allows us to implement the AFE with a relaxed dynamic range by ~30 dB, thereby contributing to the significant reduction of both energy and area without sacrificing signal integrity. The - AFE was fabricated using 0.18- CMOS processes. The single-channel AFE consumes 3.05 from 0.5 and 1.0 V supplies in an area of 0.05 mm2 with 63.8-dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio, 3.02 noise efficiency factor (NEF), and 4.56 NEF2VDD. We also have achieved an energy-area product, a figure-of-merit most critical for massive-parallel neural recording systems, of 6.34 fJ/ $text{C}cdot text{s}cdot$ mm2.
Autors: Sung-Yun Park;Jihyun Cho;Kyounghwan Na;Euisik Yoon;
Appeared in: IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 53, issue:2, pages: 501 - 514
Publisher: IEEE
 
» Modular Architectures Make You Agile in the Long Run
Abstract:
Researchers have developed ways to think about, visualize, and measure software modularity and its erosion objectively and quantifiably. Using these techniques, you'll be able to determine whether your software is modular and identify complexity hotspots in your code that warrant further investigation.
Autors: Dan Sturtevant;
Appeared in: IEEE Software
Publication date: Feb 2018, volume: 35, issue:1, pages: 104 - 108
Publisher: IEEE
 

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